Introduction to Android

- Ajay Babar

Contents
• Introduction • Brief History - Android • Android versions and API Levels 2 • Comparison of DVM and JVM • Android Features • Application Fundamentals

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Introduction
• A Linux based Operating System. • Initially developed by Android Inc. and later purchased by Google in 2005. 3 • The first Android powered device was sold in Oct 2008. • Android is Open Source and Google releases code under Apache2 license. • Google Play Store.
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Brief History – Android
• 2009 • 2010 • SDK 1.5 (Cupcake) • SDK 2.2(Froyo) • SDK 1.6 (Donut) • SDK 2.3(Gingerbread) • SDK 2.0/2.0.1/2.1(Eclair)

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• 2011 • SDK 3.0/3.1/3.2 (Honeycomb) for tablets only. • SDK 4.0/4.0.1/4.0.2/4.0.3/4.0.4 (Ice Cream Sandwich) • 2012-2013 • SDK 4.1/4.1.1/4.2/4.3(Jelly Bean)

Honeycomb
Android 3.0-3.2

Ice cream Sandwich
Android 4.0+

Jelly Bean 4.1+ 5 5

API Level
• Unique integer value that identifies Framework API. • Android API levels can be divided to three main groups :• Android 1.5 - 2.3 (API levels 3-10)  made specifically for smartphones. • Android 3.0 - 3.2 (API levels 11-13)  Honeycomb, only made for tablets. • Android 4 (API levels 14-18)  Ice Cream Sandwich, Jelly Bean-Current generation.
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API Levels
Platform Version
Android 4.3
API Level

Version Name
Jelly bean

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Android 4.2.x
Android 4.1, 4.1.1 Android 4.0.3, 4.0.4

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16 15

Jelly bean
Jelly bean Ice cream sandwich (Aakash)
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API Levels
Platform Version
Android 4.0, 4.0.1, 4.0.2 Android 3.2

API Level Version Name
14 13 Ice cream sandwich Honey Comb

Android 3.1.x
Android 3.0.x

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11

Honey Comb
Honey Comb

Android 2.3.4, 2.3.3

10

Gingerbread
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API Levels
Platform Version
Android 2.3.2, 2.3.1, 2.3 Android 2.2.x
Android 2.1.x API Level Version Name

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Gingerbread Froyo
Eclair

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API Levels
Platform Version
Android 2.0.1
Android 2.0 Android 1.6

API Level Version Name 6
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Eclair
Eclair Donut

Android 1.5

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Cupcake
10

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Choosing an API Level
• Depends on Device support. • Application forward compatibility • Application backward compatibility

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Version in Aakash Tablet ?
• Android 4.0.3+ - Ice Cream Sandwich(API Level 15+) • This can be found at : Main menu -> Settings -> About tablet

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Java and Android
• Java :• AWT/Swing, and many more APIs. • Java Byte Code and Java Virtual Machine. • Android :• Has its own library for UI. • Dalvik Byte Code and Dalvik Virtual Machine. • Android Java = (Java SE – AWT/Swing) + Android API
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Java Program Execution Process Java Source Code
Java Compiler

Android Program Execution Process Java Source Code
Java Compiler

Java Byte Code
Dex Compiler

Java Byte Code

Dalvik Byte Code Java Byte Code

JVM

Dalvik Executable

DVM
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Differences between DVM and JVM
Machine

Property

DVM
Register
fewer .dex

JVM
Stack
more .class
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Architecture base
No. of operations File format

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Stack
POP 20 POP 7 ADD 20, 7, result PUSH result

Register
Add R3,R1,R2

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Android Features
• Application framework enabling reuse and replacement of components. • Dalvik Virtual Machine optimized for mobile devices • SQLite for structured data storage.

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

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Continue…
• Multimedia support(MPEG4, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG, GIF) • GSM Telephony(hardware dependent). • Bluetooth, 3G, and Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi Direct, Wi-Fi hotspot(hardware dependent). • Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer(hardware dependent).
Wednesday, December 5, 2012

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Aakash Tablet Features
Android 4.0.x (Ice Cream Sandwich)  Optimized graphics support  Wi-Fi  Camera  Accelerometer  SQLite  Media Support
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Application Fundamentals

APK file: Application package file.  Zip package format based on JAR file format  Apk holds :

Code(.dex file)  Resources  Assets  Manifest file

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Thank You

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Demo Applications
Image and Video Application  Web browser Application

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References

Android Developer’s Website

http://developer.android.com/index.html http://developer.android.com/sdk/index.html https://github.com/development-on-aakashtab/Android-workshop-content-2013 http://www.it.iitb.ac.in/nmeict/eVideos/Aakhas_Students/ content/content.html
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Android SDK Download link :

More Reference Links :

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