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PSYC 208: September 6, 2013

Introduction Evolution
Evolution: change over time in organic structure or behavior ( change over time in gene frequency) o Structural similiarities: because we all shared the same common ancestor that look nothing like us, but we all branch off from it o Fossil record: even our fossils look different from a long time ago o Embryological development: the starting point is very similar to each other; all have a common starting point, which suggests a common ancestor o DNA: we all have the same similar basic ingredients, which suggests that life only evolved once and changed into all the different organisms we have now Evolution by Natural Selection (all evolutions theories have the explain the following): o Species are created o Species go extinct o Species are well adapted o Species share similarities

Charles Darwin Naturalist on The Beagle (1831 -1836) o Used as the ship mates to see whether they could exploit the animals found o Origin of species (1859) reluctant to publish his theory because he knew that it would cause controversy o Alfred Russel Wallace: co-discovered the theory Darwinian Evolution: very interested in this because it has great parsimony Principles of Evolution: o Variation o Inheritance o Selection: some are selected for, and other are selected against. Some individuals survive long enough to reproduce, and will be passed on in larger amounts. And some individuals will not survive long enough to reproduce, and their genes are not passed on as many in number or at all Artificial Selection: o Selection comes from humans: we decide what to reproduce. Does not happen naturally o Explains domestication of plants and animals: all modern breeds of dogs are originally from wolves. Select for specific trait you want and breed for it. Natural Selection: o Selection comes from environment o Explains speciation, extinction, adaptation Sexual Selection: Selection comes from own species: o Intrasexual selection: members of one sex compete to mate with members of opposite sex Usually males compete Which ever male wins, their genes will be passed down, so their traits will be passed down o Intersexual selection: members of one sex choose members of opposite sex based on preferred characteristics

Usually female choose; mating patterns. Shopping for the best genes possible for their child o Explains sexual dimorphism Human Evolution Mammals (200 million years ago): o Warm blooded o Mammary glands o Internal fertilization o Placenta: to provide nutrients and take away toxins Primates (85 mya): o Nails instead of claws o Opposable digits (thumbs) o Stereoscopic visions (two eyes on front of face instead of side) o Encephalization (larger brain for our bodies than you would expect) o Two mammary glands Bipedal locomotion (4.4 mya) o Travel long distances (more energy efficiency) o Greater visual angle o Carry objects (not using all four limbs for walking allows us to do other things) o Sun exposure Stone tools (2 mya) o Stone flaking Encephalization (1.2 mya) o Brain size: 1350 cubic centimeter o Biggest change in size in our brain: cerebrum/cerebellum/basal ganglia