TELEDETECCION Leccion 1

LA PERCEPCION REMOTA O TELEDETECCIÓN
La Percepción Remota (‘Remote Sensing’ o Teledetección (‘Teledetection’), en el dominio electromagnético consiste en medir la evolución en el transcurso del tiempo de las diversas características de la radiación electromagnética emitida por el planeta y que contiene información sobre la superficie, o mas exactamente, sobre la interfase suelo-atmosfera y el subsuelo. Una experiencia en percepción remota comprende en general tres fases: 1. Fase de adquisición de datos: a veces en tres niveles y de manera síncrona; insitu, a bordo de un avión, a bordo de un satélite. 2. Fase de tratamiento de datos: análisis numérico, deconvolución, modelización, clasificación, … 3. Fase de control in-situ y de investigación de modelos in-situ: estudio de la interacción de la radiación electromagnética y del medio natural.

• Teledetección activa: la escena es irradiada por un emisor. Un receptor registra la luminancia retrodifundida por la escena. En este tipo de medida la emisión es en la mayor parte del tiempo coherente, lo que representa una ventaja pues es posible realizar correlaciones entre emisor y receptor. • Teledetección pasiva: las únicas fuentes utilizadas son las naturales (Sol, Tierra, atmósfera). Tienen la ventaja de ser gratuitas pero el inconveniente de no ser coherentes.

Geomatics
• Term originally created in Canada • Geomatics is the science and technology of gathering, analyzing, interpreting, distributing and using geographic information. Geomatics encompasses a broad range of disciplines that can be brought together to create a detailed but understandable picture of the physical world and our place in it. These disciplines include:
– – – – Mapping and Surveying Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Global Positioning System (GPS) Remote Sensing

REMOTE SENSING
Wavelengths: * Visible Light & Reflectance Infrared * Radar Platforms: * Spaceborne * Airborne

Remote Sensing - A Definition
Indirect (remote) observations (sensing) Remote sensing is the science (and to some extent, art) of acquiring image data and deriving information about the Earth’s surface without actually being in contact with it. Remote sensing will give information about an object called a target

Who could give me two common sensors?

Our eyes

A camera

How does remote sensing work?
Far away from the target, on what we call a platform. Here are some types of platform

• Satellite

• Balloon

• Space shuttle • Ground base tower • Aircraft

Orbits
• Geostationary Near-polar sun-synchronous

Swath
• Total field of view • Width of the image in ground distance • For satellites, varies between 10s to 100s of kilometres

Electromagnetic Energy
• Electromagnetic energy is used to illuminate the target in remote sensing • Electromagnetic spectrum:
Shorter wavelength Longer wavelength

Gamma Ray

Ultra-Violet

Microwave

Infrared

Visible

X-ray

0.003nm 0.03nm

0.3nm

3nm

30nm

0.3

µm

3 µm

30

µm

300

µ m 0.3cm

3cm

30cm

Radio 3m

30m

Visible Spectrum
Visible Wavelegths • Violet: 0.4 - 0.446 µm • Blue: 0.446 - 0.500 µm • Green: 0.500 - 0.578 µm • Yellow: 0.578 - 0.592 µm • Orange: 0.592 - 0.620 µm • Red: 0.620 - 0.7 µm

IR and Microwaves
• Reflected IR: 0.72 µm to 3.0 µm • Thermal IR: 3.0 µm to 15 µm

• Microwaves: 1 mm to 1 m

Passive Sensor
• Passive sensors detect or “sense” reflected solar radiation
What does a passive sensor need to sense the earth?

Active Sensors
• Active sensors produce and receive their own electromagnetic energy
They produce their own illumination and they operate in the microwave region

REMOTE SENSING PROCESS

Absorption
• Some substances absorb certain wavelengths of energy • UV rays absorbed by ozone •LW IR and SW microwaves absorbed by water vapour •These wavelengths are not suitable for remote sensing

Scattering
•Occurs when molecules are larger or equal to wavelength •Rayleigh scattering - selective scattering (UV, Blue sky) •Non-selective - scatters all visible wavelengths (clouds)

Atmospheric Windows

Terrain Interactions
• Radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface can be: Absorbed (A); Transmitted (T); and Reflected (R). • This will vary with the type of object. The type of interaction will depend on the wavelength of the energy and the material and condition of the feature. • Look at different objects, for example an egg, a green apple and a tomato.

Diffuse and Specular Reflectors

Diffuse
rough surface

Specular
smooth surface

IR and Microwaves
• Reflected IR: 0.72 µm to 3.0 µm • Thermal IR: 3.0 µm to 15 µm

• Microwaves: 1 mm to 1 m

Spectral Response
• Different objects reflect, absorb and transmit energy in differing amounts • An object also transmits, reflects, and absorbs each wavelength differently • Spectral responses enable us to identify different objects on images • An object’s spectral response may change over time

Spectral Response - Leaves
• Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue • Reflects green • Greenest in summer • Internal leaf structure reflects near IR

Bands or Channels
• Each sensor has a purpose (vegetation, ocean, ice, weather) • Certain wavelengths provide more information about certain targets • To perform their tasks, sensors on satellites detect energy in very specific, narrow bands or channels of electromagnetic energy

Spectral Bands
• Band placement determines which “colors” are imaged • Bandwidth is the range of “colors” that are imaged for each layer (band) • The number of bands determines how many different colors are imaged • Multispectral = a few/several bands • Hyperspectral = several dozen or more bands • Get advice from others – experience is invaluable

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