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IntroducCon and General Anatomical Terminology
Why “Forensic” Anatomy of the Skeleton?
– in a legal context.
• Part of an invesCgaCon. • Detailed analysis necessary. • Fragmentary remains.
Other Studies of the Skeleton
• IdenCfying eminent dead. • Examining the context of found remains. • Remains not of recent forensic interest (>50 years).
• • • • • ComparaCve anatomy CladisCcs Environmental PopulaCon relaConships Structural variaCon
diet and populaCon relaCons: – Palaeopathology – PalaeonutriCon – Biological distance Clinical ApplicaCons • • • • Medical Sciences Diagnosis of diseases Treatment of paCents Understanding detailed anatomy for beneﬁts of treatment and communicaCon in the medical community Forensic InvesCgaCons • Coroner’s QuesCons: – Who died? – When did death occur? – Where did death occur? – Cause of death? – Manner of death? 3 .8/28/13 Archaeology • Studies of past populaCons. • Diseases.
e.8/28/13 Encountering Skeletal Remains • • • • • • Human or faunal? • IdenCfying characterisCcs Recent (i. <50 years)? • Pathology? – Trauma Age at death? • Antemortem Sex? • Perimortem Ancestry? • Postmortem – NutriConal Pathology Stature? – etc. Anatomical Terms and DeﬁniCons With Reference to the Human Skeleton Anatomical PosiCon • Standing erect. eyes forward.. arms at sides with palms forward. legs slightly apart. 4 .
median.8/28/13 Anatomical Planes • Divides the body into various secCons • Frame of reference for direcCons Coronal • Passes through bregma • Divides body into anterior and posterior halves (not exact) • Right angles to the other planes Sagical • Mid-‐sagical. or midline • Symmetrically divides the body into L & R halves • Parasagical planes are parallel 5 .
anomalies.8/28/13 Transverse • Horizontal or axial • Perpendicular to: – Frontal – Sagical • At any level Anatomical DirecCons • Based on standard anatomical posiCon • Provides a means to communicate the posiCons of structures. it is said to be “anterior” to the other 6 . and pathology Anterior (Ventral) • Toward the front of the body • One structure in front of the other.
it is said to be “posterior” Superior • Also.8/28/13 Posterior (Dorsal) • Toward the back of the body • One structure behind the other. cranial or cephalic • Toward the head end of the body • Does not apply to the limbs • Axial skeleton only Inferior (Caudal) • Toward the tail end of the body (away from head) • Does not apply to the limbs • Axial skeleton only 7 .
” • Always with reference to anatomical posiCon! 8 . Ulna is medial to the radius • Always in reference to anatomical posiCon! Lateral • Away from the midline (sagical plane) • Can pertain to axial and appendicular skeleton • e.g.g...8/28/13 Medial • Toward midline (sagical plane) • Can pertain to axial and appendicular skeleton • e. Radius is lateral to the ulna Proximal • Towards the axial (or acached end) of the limb • Applies to appendicular skeleton • “The humerus is proximal to the radius and ulna.
” • Always with reference to anatomical posiCon! Palmar • Refers to the palm side of the hand • Used only for the hands • Side of the hand that ﬂexes • Opposite to Dorsal Dorsal (Hand) • Refers to the back of the hand • Used only for the hands and feet • The extensor side of the hand • Opposite to Palmar 9 .8/28/13 Distal • Away from (farthest from ) the axial (or acached end) of the limb • Applies to appendicular skeleton • “The radius and ulna are distal to the humerus.
8/28/13 Dorsal (Foot) • Refers to the upper surface of the foot • Used only for the hands and feet • The extensor side of the foot • Opposite to Plantar Plantar (Foot) • Refers to the sole of the foot • Used only for the feet • The ﬂexor side of the foot • Opposite to Dorsal Specialized Terms Terms for ProjecCons and IndentaCons of Bone 10 .
8/28/13 3 General Categories • Bony ProjecCons • Depressions.g. mastoid process 11 . grooves and holes in bones • Places where bones connect (arCculate) Bony ProjecCons Most Commonly Encountered Process • A raised area or projecCon • e..
.. occipital condyle 12 ..g. adductor tubercle of femur Condyle • Rounded. external occipital protuberance Tubercle • Small rounded bump for muscle acachment • e.g.8/28/13 Protuberance • A bony projecCon that protrudes from an area of bone • e.g. convex projecCon that usually ﬁts into a fossa on the opposing bone • e.
g. separated from the sham by a narrow neck • e. ascending ramus of mandible Crest • A raised ridge for muscle acachment • e..g. head of rib Ramus • A curved branch of bone. extending from the body like a ram’s horm • e..8/28/13 Head • A round extension of the epiphysis. intertrochanteric crest 13 ..g.
.g. intertrochanteric line Eminence • A projecCon that is lower than a process • e. intercondylar eminence Epicondyle • A raised bump near or on a condyle.g. medial epicondyle 14 . for muscle acachment • e.8/28/13 Line • Small raised ridge for muscle acachment • e..g..
.. anterior nasal spine 15 .g. the greater trochanter of the femur Spine • A sharp.g.g. pointed projecCon for muscle acachment • e. irregular bump for muscle acachment • e. radial tuberosity Trochanter • A large.8/28/13 Tuberosity • A large rounded bump. usually for muscle acachment • e.
g.g. mandibular fossa Fovea • From LaCn.8/28/13 Depressions.. fovea capiCs on the head of the femur 16 . Grooves and Holes Fossa • A shallow depression in bone • Omen arCculates with another bone to form a joint • e.. meaning a ‘small pit’ • e.
foramen magnum Sinus • An irregular shaped cavity within a bone that is omen ﬁlled with air and lined with mucous Cssue • e.. meaning ‘hole’ • A rounded opening forming a passageway for blood vessels and nerves • e.8/28/13 Foramen • From LaCn. intertubercular sulcus or groove 17 .g. frontal sinus Sulcus or Groove • Elongated furrow • e..g..g.
.g.. auditory meatus ArCcular Surfaces ArCcular Facet • A small smooth area on a bone for connecCon to another bone • e. facet on the body and transverse process of a vertebra (T10) 18 .g.8/28/13 Meatus • A tunnel-‐like opening for the passage of blood vessels and nerves • e.
8/28/13 Demifacet • Half a facet • Found on thoracic vertebral bodies (centra) • e.. Superior and inferior demifacets on a thoracic vertebral ArCcular Process • Small ﬂat projecCon on the surface of the arch of vertebrae • e.g.g. inferior arCcular process Shape Categories of Bones 19 ..
radius Short Bones • A bone with dimensions that are approximately equal • e. consisCng of a tubular sham (diaphysis) and two ends (epiphyses) usually wider than the sham • e. ﬂacened shape.. scapula 20 . includes some cranial bones • e.g.g.g.8/28/13 Long Bones • Elongated bone of the extremiCes. carpal bones Flat Bones • Characterized by its thin...
g.8/28/13 Irregular Bones • Bones that have a peculiar or complex form such as vertebrae and various cranial bones • e. maxilla Adult Skeleton Inventory • Axial Skeleton – – – – Vetebral column (26) Skull (22) Hyoid (1) Ribs and sternum (25) Total = 206 • Appendicular Bones – Upper limb (64) – Lower limb (62) • Auditory Ossicles (3) QuesCons? 21 ..