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Sorin Paliga

Etymological Lexicon

of the Indigenous (Thracian)


Elements in Romanian
Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous
(Thracian) Elements in Romanian
Coperta / Cover: Sorin Paliga
Ilustra!ia copertei / Cover Picture: Marian Condruz, Peisaj în
B!r!gan / Landscape in B!r!gan (oil on canvas, collection
Mirela Buc"#, Bucharest, Romania)

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Sorin Paliga

Etymological Lexicon of the


Indigenous (Thracian) Elements
in Romanian

Lexicon etimologic
al elementelor autohtone
(traco-dace) ale limbii române

Bucharest Bucure!ti
2006
Multa renascentur quae iam cecidere, cadentque
! quae nunc sunt in honore uocabula, si uolet usus,
! quem penes arbitrium est et ius et norma loquendi.

! (Horatius, Epistula Ad Pisones. De Arte Poetica, vv. 70–72)

Rodicae uxori suaviter,


Rora Dainae Mariae filiae dulcissimae,
Atque filiis Michaeli Uaro et Bucuro Johanni
dedicatur
Argumentum Etymologicum
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Argumente pentru un dic!ionar etimologic


al elementelor autohtone (traco!dace) ale limbii române

Dic!ionarul de fa!" reflect" #i sintetizeaz" aproximativ 25 de ani de


cercetare în domeniul lingvisticii comparate, în special în domeniul limbilor
str"vechi vorbite cîndva în Europa. F"r" îndoial", cercet"rile în domeniul
mo#tenirii trace (#i ilire) în sud!estul european au avut sinuozit"!ile #i
meandrele lor, cu rezultate uneori neconvig"toare. Str"lucit ini!iat" de Hasdeu
în a doua jum"tate a secolului al XIX!lea, tracologia lingvistic" a avut o
îndelungat" pauz" pîn" prin anii ’50 ai secolului XX, cînd a fost reluat" atît în
România, cît #i în alte !"ri, mai ales în Bulgaria, cu rezultate remarcabile, dar #i
cu e#ecuri #i, nu rareori, cu rezultate mai degrab" confuze.
Se simte de mult nevoia unui dic!ionar etimologic al elementelor
autohtone (de substrat, altfel numite trace ori traco!dace), m"car pentru motivul
c" numeroasele elemente neexplicate ale limbii române ar trebui – teoretic
m"car – s" fie de origine autohton". Ajuns în acest punct, m" gr"besc s" adaug
detaliul c" dic!ionarele curente, între care DEX este probabil cel mai cunoscut
#i cel mai folosit, nu men!ioneaz" niciodat" în mod clar care sînt elementele
autohtone certe, probabile ori posibile. Ar fi simplist s" credem c" formula „et.
nec.” (etimon necunoscut), care apare în DEX de 1220 de ori, trebuie echivalat"
cu „origine autohton" (traco!dac")”. DEX folose#te confuz #i inconsecvent
formula „et. nec.” pentru cîteva cazuri de elemente într!adev"r autohtone, dar #i
pentru o varietate de alte cazuri: cuvinte obscure, realmente dificil de analizat,
pîn" la neologisme evidente, în cazul c"rora este vorba de dificultatea de a trasa

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Introducere / Introduction
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mai degrab" traseul împrumutului. De asemenea, nu sînt specificate formele
înrudite din alte limbi vechi sau moderne, exceptînd referin!ele la limba
albanez", chiar dac" s!ar insinua c" ar putea fi împrumuturi din albanez" în
român", ceea ce este, de plano, imposibil, a#a cum am argumentat în alte studii
ale noastre #i cum a argumentat Giuliano Bonfante în Studii Române.
Un dic!ionar etimologic este aproape exclusiv o list" de cuvinte, ca atare
nu poate lua în considerare alte tipuri ale influen!elor arhaice, cum ar fi
influen!a structurii limbii trace asupra limbii române, fonetica limbii trace; de
asemenea, nu poate analiza ansamblul structurilor economice, sociale #i
militare dintre secolele 4 #i 10, cînd putem aprecia c" se consolidase structura
proto!românei. Aceast" list" de cuvinte nu poate, de asemenea, analiza
interferen!ele seculare dintre trac" #i vorbitorii latinei postclasice (a#a!numita
latin! colocvial! sau latin! vulgar!), pe de o parte, nici interferen!ele dintre
trac", proto!român" #i vorbitorii altor idiomuri, în special slavi #i, ulterior,
maghiari. De!a lungul anilor, am publicat cîteva studii dedicate unor asemenea
situa!ii particulare; cititorii sînt îndruma!i s" se refere la acestea pentru analizele
speciale ale unor cazuri complexe.
Acest lexicon trebuie considerat un prim pas decisiv spre un dic!ionar
etimologic complet al limbii române, singurul idiom romanic f"r" un dic!ionar
complet #i elaborat pe bazele #tiin!ifice necesare. În ciuda unor încerc"ri
notabile, româna a r"mas – de mult timp – o limb" superb", enigmatic", dificil
de analizat. Cu acest pas, sper ca limba român" s"!#i deschid" larg por!ile spre
inefabila sa frumuse!e arhaic".
*
* *
Sînt dator s" prezint succint principiile care au stat la baza elabor"rii
acestui dic!ionar etimologic, pentru a evita – pe cît posibil – unele neclarit"!i ori
nedumeriri; nu ne putem face iluzia c" vor lipsi criticile.

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Argumentum Etymologicum
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A#a cum scriam mai sus, dic!ionarul reflect" aproximativ 25 de ani de
cercetare etimologic". Desigur, multe dintre cuvintele incluse aici au fost
anterior analizate în studii publicate în reviste de specialitate, majoritatea în
limba englez". Este principalul motiv pentru care explica!iile sînt #i aici în
limba englez", respectiv limba în care au fost anterior publicate aproape toate
studiile nostre lingvistice #i cele referitoare la civiliza!iile arhaice sud!est
europene. Al doilea argument în favoarea folosirii limbii engleze este faptul c"
numero#i lingvi#ti str"ini, nu neap"rat buni cunosc"tori ai limbii noastre, au fost
interesa!i de demersurile etimologice în general, de cele referitoare la
mo#tenirea arhaic" a limbii române în particular. În sfîr#it, tîn"ra genera!ie,
c"reia îi este – mai ales – dedicat" lucrarea, st"pîne#te suficient de bine limba
englez", încît lectura nu va fi, sper"m, dificil". Nici genera!iile mijlocii nu vor
avea, cred, dificult"!i în a urm"ri demersul nostru.
Dat fiind faptul c" analiza etimologic" a mo#tenirii autohtone
(traco!dace) a limbii române nu poate fi izolat" ci, din contra, privit" doar în
context comparativ, anexele (Addenda) vor fi, sper"m, relevante. Cititorul va
g"si acolo: un lexicon al elementelor pre!slave (trace, ilire, cîteva romanice)
din zona sud!slav" (Lexicon A #i B); un lexicon al antroponimelor arhaice
(trace, ilire) din aceea#i zon" (Lexicon C); un lexicon al toponimelor arhaice
din Cehia #i din Slovacia (Lexicon D); un lexicon al teonimelor #i al
cuvintelor sacre trace #i frigiene (Lexicon E). De asemenea, dou" liste ale
r"d"cinilor arhaice pre-indo-europene #i proto-boreale1 relevante demersului
din acest volum. Limba traco!dac" #i, prin aceasta, limba român" reflect"

1 Proto!boreal este un termen folosit de lingvistul rus N. D. Andreev pentru a defini


un stadiu arhaic, corespunz"tor mezoliticului est-european–uralic, reprezentînd un
idiom ipotetic din care ulterior s!au desprins limbile indo!europene, uralice #i
altaice. Exist" diverse variante ale acestei ipoteze, una dintre acestea fiind
cunoscut" sub numele de ipoteza nostratic!. Numero#i lingvi#ti, de!a lungul anilor,
au încercat s" argumenteze existen!a unui asemenea idiom str"vechi. Dintre toate
aceste ipoteze #i dintre toate aceste demersuri, studiile lui Andreev ni se par cele
mai conving"toare #i mai închegate.
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Introducere / Introduction
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elemente arhaice atît de origine pre!indo!european", cît #i „proto!boreal"”,
desigur dintr!un stadiu ulterior indo!european de tip satem.
În ansamblu, am putea numi lucrarea #i Introducere în studiul
tracologiei lingvistice. În acest fel, cititorul va putea observa cum multe
dintre formele analizate în prima parte, în lexiconul principal, î#i g"sesc
echivalen!e în zona sud!slav" (cu substrat trac #i ilir) ori chiar în zona
central!european" (ceh"–slovac").
Atît în prima parte, cît #i în Addenda, au fost incluse #i elemente
romanice. În unele cazuri, cîteva latinisme ale limbii române au fost
considerate – nejustificat, dup" p"rerea noastr" – drept tracisme; le-am
inclus #i pe acestea, cu comentariile de rigoare, apoi am reluat discutarea lor
în partea a doua a lucr"rii, dedicat" deriv"rii #i evolu!iei fonetice. Am
accentuat acolo detaliul c", cel mai adesea, multor cuvinte de substrat li s!a
refuzat caracterul autohton pornindu!se de la premisa (eronat") c" trebuie s"
urmeze, totdeauna, acelea#i legi de evolu!ie fonetic" asemeni elementelor
latine. O asemenea premis" este incorect" #i am argumentat de ce. Tipic este
cazul formelor cu b, v #i l în pozi!ie intervocalic". Nu exist" nici un
argument care s" sprijine premisa c", în elementele autohtone, b/v
intervocalic ar fi trebuit s" dispar", iar l intervocalic s" rotacizeze. Din
contra, acestea sînt p"strate totdeauna. De altfel, cîteva elemente autohtone
sînt de mult incluse în lista „elementelor autohtone certe”, de#i au b/v #i l
intervocalice (de exemplu abur, bal!, balaur, c!ciul! etc.).
A#a cum s!a observat, f"r" îndoial", din acest cuvînt introductiv, am
folosit grafia „tradi!ional"” cu î (exceptînd român #i derivatele acestei
r"d"cini). Ne!am exprimat, cîndva #i în public, p"rerea c" decizia de a
aborda aceast" grafie a fost pripit" #i f"r" consultarea majorit"!ii
speciali#tilor. Sîntem între cei care s!au opus, cu argumente, folosirii
grafemului â, în loc de î, în pozi!ie median" în cuvînt, dar a lui î în pozi!ie
ini!ial" #i final". Este o complicare inutil" #i, în orice caz, lipsit" de orice

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fundament #tiin!ific. De altfel, numeroase publica!ii #i numeroase edituri de
prestigiu au refuzat #i refuz" adoptarea acestor norme #i nu f"r" motiv.
Faptul c", statistic, â/î provin majoritar din latin a nu ar fi decît argumentul
ca grafemul î s" fie eliminat complet în favoarea grafemului â, nu în sensul
folosirii a dou" grafeme – â #i î – pentru acelea#i instan!e fonetice2.

*
* *
Cu aceste preciz"ri, înc" una, din urm": de#i reflect" rezultatul a 25 de
ani de cerecetare în domeniul mo#tenirii arhaice a limbii române #i a
sud!estului european, dic!ionarul etimologic prezentat nu este #i nici nu
poate fi o lucrare definitiv", cu atît mai pu!in una perfect". Cu siguran!",
cititorul va observa c" sînt prezentate mult mai multe forme decît în
lucr"rile uzuale dedicate mo#tenirii autohtone a limbii române. Va mai
observa c" sînt considerate autotohtone numeroase forme acceptate uzual
drept slavisme, maghiarisme ori chiar turcisme (cioban #i du"man ar fi
exemplele tipice). Am argumentat, în fiecare caz, de ce nu pot fi considerate
de aceste origini #i, ori de cîte ori a fost posibil, am f"cut referiri la forme
similare din alte limbi indo!europene unde, evident, nu pot fi decît arhaice
#i, în orice caz, nici slavisme, nici maghiarisme #i nici turcisme. F"r"
îndoial", vor fi destule opinii contrare. Nu am dorit o lucrare polemic", dar
nu avem iluzia c" va fi privit" ori catalogat" altfel; implicit, dac" nu explicit.
Dic!ionarul include circa 1420 de cuvinte!titlu, cîteva fiind variante
grafice #i/sau regionale ale aceleia#i forme; cîteva r"d"cini au cîteva

2 A se re!ine c" româna noteaz" prin î sau prin â cel pu!in dou" instan!e fonetice,
dac" nu trei sau chiar patru: â/î propriu!zis (gîde, rîde); â/î nazal (gînd) #i, poate,
instan!a â/î + semivocal" (pîine, cîine); iar în secven!a împ!rat, lîng!, cîmp avem
de-a face cu sonantele # #i $, respectiv a patra instan!" fonetic" a aceluia#i grafem,
indiferent dac" îl not"m â sau î. De fapt, aici grafemul î nu noteaz" un fonem, ci
secven!a îm!/în! noteaz" fonemele # #i $.
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Introducere / Introduction
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derivate, de#i – uneori – înrudirea arhaic" nu este evident" (#i, adesea,
aproape toate lucr"rile le!au analizat diferit, cum ar fi seria ora"/ura" –
uria"/oria" – toponimele cu radical or!/ur!, mai totdeauna fiind considerate
a reflectînd origine maghiar", lucru evident imposibil la o analiz"
comparativ" atent"). Fa!" de lista „uzual"” de circa 180–190 de elemente
autohtone (cu mici varia!ii de la autor la autor, de exemplu la I. I. Rusu, Gr.
Brâncu#, A. Vraciu, C. Poghirc etc.), lexiconul nostru este mult mai amplu,
înregistrînd cel pu!in 300 de r"d"cini arhaice primare, cu numeroase
derivate.
Este prea amplu acest dic!ionar? Este incomplet înc"? Nu putem oferi
un r"spuns tran#ant. Cu siguran!", criticii no#tri vor depista erorile, iar
cercet"rile viitoare vor aduce complet"ri. Fa!" de circa 2100 r"d"cini latine
„de baz"”, cu numeroase derivate, desigur, cele aproximativ 1420 de forme
considerate de noi traco!dace, reprezentînd cel pu!in 300 r"d"cini primare,
nu pot fi considerate – în principiu cel pu!in – a reflecta „un num"r prea
mare, un num"r exagerat”. Noi credem c" ne!am apropiat de o estimare
plauzibil" #i care reflect", f"r" îndoial", profunda influen!" a fondului
autohton asupra limbii #i culturii române.

Dr. Sorin Paliga


Bucure#ti, februarie 2006

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Arguments for an Etymological Dictionary


of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian

The present dictionary reflects, and sums up, 25 years of activity in the
field of comparative linguistics, mainly referring to the archaic languages
once spoken in Europe. Beyond any doubt, the investigation of the Thracian
(and Illyrian) heritage in southeast Europe has had its tortuous, meandering,
often difficult achievements. Brilliantly initiated by B. P. Hasdeu in the
second half of the 19th century, linguistic thracology had a long break until
the 1950’s, when it was resumed in both Romania and abroad, mainly in
Bulgaria, with remarkable results, but also with failures and – not rarely –
confuse conclusions.
An etymological dictionary of the indigenous (substratum or
Thracian) elements in Romanian has long become necessary, at least
because the numerous unexplained elements in Romanian should – at least
theoretically – have an indigenous origin. At this point, I hasten to note that
in all the current reference dictionaries of the Romanian language, out of
which DEX is probably most known and used, there is no reference to the
certain, probable or possible elements of Thracian origin. It would be also
simplistic to assume that the frequently used ‘et. nec.’ (unknown etymon) in
DEX, 1220 times, should be equalled to ‘Thracian (indigenous) origin’.
DEX confusely uses the formula ‘et. nec.’ in the case of some (few) forms
of indigenous origin indeed, but also for a variety of situations, from really
obscure, difficult to analyse forms, to neologic words for which there is no
clear source or intermediary. There is no reference to other parallel forms in
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Introducere / Introduction
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other ancient or modern languages, excepting for Albanian, even insinuating
the possiblity of Albanian borrowings in Romanian, which is de plano
impossible, as often argumented in my previous studies, also solidly
argumented by Giuliano Bonfante in his Studi Romeni.
An etymological dictionary is almost exclusively a list of words. It
cannot consider the numerous types of archaic influence, e.g. the influence
of the Thracian structure in Proto!Romanian, Thracian phonetics, and
cannot consider the complex post!classical economic, social and military
realities from the 4th to the 10th century A.D., when we may safely postulate
that the basic structure of Proto!Romanian was consolidated. This list of
words cannot either analyse the century!long interference between Thracian
and the speakers of Latin (the so!called Colloquial Latin or Vulgar Latin),
on the one hand, and the century!long linguistic and cultural interference
between Thracian, Proto!Romanian and speakers of other idioms,
predominantly Slavic, later Hungarian as well. Across time I analysed such
typical situations, for which see the references. It is understandable that
readers may always refer to these studies for detailed analyses of some
complex cases.
This lexicon should be considered a first step, and decisive, towards a
complete etymological dictionary of the Romanian language, the only
Romance language without a complete and scientifically worked-out
etymological dictionary. Despite some notable attempts, Romanian has long
remained a superb, enigmatic, difficult!to!analyse language at the gates of
the Orient. With this first step, I do hope Romanian will largely open its
archaic, ineffable beauty.
*
* *
I owe the reader some details regarding the principles in working out
and editing the present etymological dictionary. I may thus avoid, as far as
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Argumentum Etymologicum
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possible, some unclear or confuse points; of course, I cannot have the
illusion that I may thus also avoid criticism!
As stated above, the dictionary reflects some 25 years of research in
the field of etymology. Many of the forms hereby included were previously
analysed in various scientific papers, most of them in English. This is the
main reason I have preserved English as the explanation language.
Secondly, many foreign linguists, not necessarily with a good knowledge of
Romanian, seem interested in the origin of the archaic elements of
Romanian. Thirdly, the younger generation – to which it is mainly dedicated
– has no major problem, I hope, in reading the dictionary, and older
generations may also do it with fair dedication.
As the etymological analysis of the indigenous (Thracian) elements in
Romanian cannot be isolated, on the contrary, it makes sense only in a
comparative context, the Addenda may hopefully be relevant. The reader
will also find, therefore: a lexicon of the Pre!Slavic (Thracian, Illyrian,
Romance) elements in South Slavic (Lexicon A and B); a lexicon of the
archaic personal names in the same area (Lexicon C); a lexicon of archaic
place!names in the Czech Republic and Slovakia (Lexicon D); a lexicon of
Thracian and Phrygian god!names and other nomina sacra (Lexicon E).
Additionally and finally, two lists of archaic Pre!Indo!European and
Proto!Boreal3 roots relevant to this volume. Thracian, and hereby
Romanian, reflect archaic roots of both Pre!Indo!European and

3 Proto!Boreal is a term used by Russian linguist N. D. Andreev in order to define


an archaic linguistic stage, corresponding to East!European–Uralic Mezolithic era,
reflecting a hypothetical idiom out of which Indo!European, Uralic and Altaic
languages later emerged. There are many variants of this hypothesis, the best
known being perhaps the nostratic theory. Across years, numerous linguists tried to
argument the existence of such an archaic idiom. Out of all these theories and
hypotheses, Andreev’s approach is perhaps the most convincing and best
documented.
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Introducere / Introduction
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‘Proto!Boreal’ origin, in the latter case – of course – via a later
Indo!European satem stage.
This work may be also labelled Introduction to Linguistic Thracology.
In this way, the reader will surely note that many of the forms analysed in
the main lexicon have obvious counterparts in South Slavic or even Central
European (Czech and Slovak) area.
Several Romance (Neo!Latin) elements are recorded in both the main
dictionary and the Addenda. I assume that some innovative Romance
elements of Romanian were sometimes incorrectly held for indigenous
Thracian. These were discussed in the dictionary, and again in the second
part, dedicated to derivation and phonetic evolution. I repeatedly stressed
the idea that many indigenous elements were refused this status on the
erroneous ground that they should always follow the same phonetic
evolution like the Romance elements. We brought arguments in explaining
this view. The forms containing intervocalic b, v and l are typical examples.
There is indeed no argument and no example supporting the idea that forms
with intervocalic b/v may have lost it, and that intervocalic l may have
turned to r, as in the Latin elements. Thracian had a different phonetic
structure, and its elements preserved in Romanian sometimes followed other
rules of phonetic evolution.
On the contrary, these are regularly preserved in the indigenous
elements. In fact, some indigenous elements have been long included in some
‘traditional’ lists, even if these would contradict the phonetic laws and even if
they contain intervocalic b/v and l, e.g. abur, bal!, balaur, c!ciul! etc.
As noted in the Romanian version of the introductory part, I used the
‘traditional’ spelling î, not î and â (excepting for român and its derivatives).
I once publicly expressed the idea that reverting to the inconstant use of î in
initial and final position, and of â in internal position is a useless
complication, and was adopted without a large debate among specialists. In

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Argumentum Etymologicum
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fact, many prestigious publications and publishing houses have ignored
these norms, not without reason. Even if statistically Romanian â/î mostly
reflects Latin a, this would be an argument for eliminating î in spelling
rather than using both â and î for the same phonetic4 instances.

*
* *

And a final note too: even if reflecting 25 years in the field of the
archaic heritage of Romanian and Southeast Europe, this etymological
dictionary cannot be held for a final or perfect word. The reader will surely
note that the list of indigenous elements is considerably higher than in other
similar works, and will also note that many of them are held for indigenous
even if they have been often held for borrowings from Slavic, Hungarian or
even Turkish (cioban and du"man are such examples). We brought
arguments why they are analysed as such and, when possible, we referred to
similar, related forms in other languages where they are obviously archaic,
for sure not of Slavic, Hungarian or Turkish origin. We envisage a lot of
contrary opinions, even if not the polemical approach was the main purpose
of this work. Without illusion the approach may be also labelled as
polemical, if not explicitly, for sure implicitly.
There are some 1420 entries analysed in the main dictionary, with
some graphical and/or regional variants; several roots have a series of
derivatives, but sometimes their original relationship is not obvious, and in
most works were analysed as such. I would quote the outstanding situation

4 To note that spelling î or â indifferently refers to at least two, if not even three or
four phonetic instances: â/î proper (gîde, rîde); nasal â/î (gînd) and, perhaps, â/î +
semivowel (pîine, cîine); in împ!rat, lîng!, cîmp there are in fact sonants # and $,
the fourth phonetic instance of the same grapheme, disregarding if spelled â or î.
To note that not isolated î, but the sequence îm!/în! notes the phonemes # and $.
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Introducere / Introduction
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of forms like ora"/ura" – uria"/oria" – place!names in or!/ur!, almost
always held for Hungarian borrowings, an impossible hypothesis at a
forensic analysis. As the ‘usual’ lists of indigenous (Thracian) elements in
Romanian record around 180–190 forms (with slight variations from author
to author, e.g. I. I. Rusu, Gr. Brâncu#, A. Vraciu, C. Poghirc etc.), our
lexicon is considerably richer, recording at least 300 basic, archaic roots,
with numerous derivatives.
Is it a too rich dictionary? Or is it still incomplete? There is no clear-
cut answer to these questions. For sure, our critics will identify the errors,
and future research will complement present data. As there are around 2100
basic roots of Latin origin in Romanian, with their derivatives of course, the
1420 forms analysed here, reflecting at least 300 basic prehistorical roots,
cannot be held for overestimated. On the contrary, we assume that this
figure is closer to reality, and proves the profound influence of the
indigenous elements on the Romanian language and culture.

Sorin Paliga, PhD


Bucharest, February 2006

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16
Contents / Cuprins
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Contents" " Cuprins

Abbreviations …………………………………………………….. 19
I. Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in
$ Romanian .................................................................................... 23
II. Colloquial Latin and Pseudo!Latin in Romanian ..................... 217
Phonetical Evolution and Grammatical Means ....................……. 225
Some Basic Problems of Phonetic Evolution .........................…... 231
III. Addenda - a presentation .............................…………............ 259
Lexicon A. Pre!Slavic Place!Names in the Balkanic Peninsula … 261
Lexicon B. Pre!Slavic Elements in the Adriatic Islands .……….. 291
Lexicon C. Archaic Personal Names in Romanian and South Slavic 309
Lexicon D: Archaic Place!Names in Czech Republic and Slovakia 319
Lexicon E: Thracian and Phrygian God! and Sacral Names ….… 327
A Selective Lexicon of Pre-Indo-European Roots ....................… 339
A Selective Lexicon of Proto-Boreal Roots ............…………..… 347
References ................................................................……….....… 377
Charts …………………………………………………………… 399

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17
Abbreviations / Abrevieri
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Abbreviations

AHD$ $ American Heritage Dictionary


Alb.$ $ Albanian
Arm.$ $ Armenian
At.$ $ Attested (followed by year)
Bg.$ $ Bulgarian
Cz.$ $ Czech
Cr.$ $ Croatian
Dalm.$$ Dalmatian
DOR$ $ Dic!ionar Onomastic Românesc (= Constantinescu 1963)
Eng.$ $ English
Fin.$ $ Finnish
Frl.$ $ Friulan
G$ $ Germanic
Gm.$ $ German
Gr.$ $ Greek
Hu.$ $ Hungarian (Magyar)
IE$ $ Indo-European
IF$ $ Indogermanische Forschungen
Ill.$ $ Illyrian
It.$ $ Italian
Lat.$ $ Latin
Latv.$ $ Latvian
Lith.$ $ Lithuanian

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19
Abbreviations / Abrevieri
__________________________________________________________________
Log.$ $ Logudorese
Mac.$ $ Macedonian (modern Slavic Macedonian)
Mes.$ $ Messapic
MHD$$ Mittelhochdeutsch (Middle High German = MHG in
$ $ $ English)
Arom.$$ Aromanian, Macedo!Romanian
ND$ $ nomen dei; god!name
NFl$ $ nomen fluminis; river!name
NHD$ $ Neuhochdeutsch
Ngr.$ $ Neo!Greek, Modern Greek
NI$ $ nomen insulae; island name
NL$ $ nomen loci; place!name
NM$ $ nomen montis; mountain name
NP$ $ nomen personae; personal name (family or given name)
NPp$ $ nomen populi; name of an ethnic group
NR$ $ nomen regionis; name of a region
NSt$ $ nomen stagni; lake!name
PA$ $ Proto!Altaic
PES$ $ Pre!Expansion Slavic
PIE$ $ Proto-Indo-European
PU$ $ Proto!Uralic
Pers.$ $ Persian
Pol.$ $ Polish
Preie.$$ Pre-Indo-European
Protorom.$ Proto!Romanian

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20
Abbreviations / Abrevieri
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R.$ $ Russian
Rr.$ $ Rheto!Roman
REW$$ Meyer!Lübke 1935 (see References)
RIO$ $ Revue Internationale d’Onomastique
Rom.$ $ Romanian
S.$ $ Serbian
S.-Cr.$$ Serbian!Croatian
Skr.$ $ Sanskrit
Slk.$ $ Slovak
Slv.$ $ Slovene, Slovenian
Ukr.$ $ Ukrainian

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21
Part I

Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous


(Thracian) Elements in Romanian
Lexicon Etymologicum
__________________________________________________________________
!a Usually defined as ‘enclitical of the enclitical definite article in
emphatic particle’ for adverbs and Romanian, Albanian, Bulgarian,
demonstrative pronouns. It is, in Armenian, Basque and, perhaps,
fact, a definite article of adverbs and Etruscan may lead to the hypothesis
demonstrative pronouns, formally that it reflects a Pre!Indo!European
identical to !a, the definite feminine heritage. • Etymologically, Rom. a
article (which reflects Latin illa, cf. (with morphematic role) has various
Portuguese a, definite feminine arti- origins and meanings, and the
cle). Examples: acum/acuma ‘now’, analysis must consider all these as
gata ‘ready’, aici/aicea ‘here’, well as the inevitable interferences
acest/acesta ‘this (one)’, tuturor/ among these forms. It may reflect
tuturora ‘to/of all’ (genitive!dative) (1) Lat. ad; (2) Lat. illa (definite
etc., disregarding the grammatical article for the feminine gender); (3)
gender (in the case of demonstra- a substratum, Thracian, survival in
tiva). Albanian ‘particle’ !a seems to the case of the definite article of ad-
be related to the Romanian forms, verbs and demonstrative pronouns.
e.g. rralla ‘rarely’, fshehta ‘fur- This latter situation is reflected in
the forms above.
tively’ etc. The Romanian-Albanian
parallel forms, as well as the general abe! adv. ‘really’ (Banat). Seem-
enclitical position of the Romanian ingly related to Alb. besë ‘faith;
and Albanian definite article lead to creed’. If this parallel is accepted,
the basic hypothesis that the definite then Romanian form may be ex-
article of adverbs and demonstrative plained from a! (< Lat. ad, or an
pronouns reflects a Thracian (sub- indigenous form assimilated to it)
stratum) influence. We should add and indigenous be! < IE *bhend(s)!
that the Albanian definite article ‘to bind’. The evolution IE *d!s!y! >
does not preserve Romance forms, Thr. s/" is normal; see also Basarab.
and generally that, behind other Abrúd NFl, a tributary of river
forms too, like masculine (collo- Arie!; NL on this river; NL, jud.
quial) !u (Romanian) and Albanian Constan"a, where we may surmise a
!u one may identify the same sub- newer form, built up after the Tran-
stratum heritage. The general spread sylvanian original. At.: 1271 –

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Obruth. There is no clear reference lution is not clear. The verb is col-
to this river!name in the antiquity, loquial and seems archaic indeed.
but related forms are: NL Abrutus Abud NL (MS). At.: 1567 – Abod;
(Greek spelling !"#$%&', Abrutus, 1602 – Abud. A Thracian form
today Abtat in Bulgaria), NP Ab- *Abud should be accepted, related
ro!zelmes, Ebro!zelmes, NL Ab- to Aba, Abantes, Abro!lebas etc. Cf.
rou!polis etc.; other related forms in Rom. Abrud, abur etc. The ultimate
ab!, abr! are recorded in De#ev origin is probably Preie. *AB! ‘ele-
1957. Cf. NFl Aborna and Abrnca vated, prominent’.
in Slovenia, of Pre!Slavic origin. abur, !i; also abure. s.m. ‘va-
The ultimate origin may be either IE pour(s)’; related to Alb. avull ‘id.’
*ab!, *ap! ‘water’ or Preie. root Derivatives: a aburi, abureal% (also
*AB!, *AP! in forms referring to figuratively ‘a trick’), aburit (also
elevated locations or river!names. • figuratively ‘a drunk person’). One
Older hypotheses, assuming a Turk- of the largely accepted Thracian
ish!Persian origin, from abroud, form in Romanian, for which two
ebrud, Sl. Obrad, Iranic Aburud or basic explanations have been sug-
Old Romanian *auru ‘gold’ > avrud gested: (1) IE *we!, *awe! ‘to blow;
> abrud cannot explain the Roma- to exhale’ or (2) *ab! ‘water’. We are
nian form. Mediaeval spelling with rather inclined for a Preie. origin as
o reflects the Hungarian pronuncia- in other Romanian forms in ab!:
tion. See also Abud, Abu!, Ibru Abrud, Abud (see), root *AB!
(with a different radical vocalism). ‘prominence; elevation’. For abur,
ab"iguí Especially reflexive a se the archaic meaning would thus be
ab#igui ‘to get drunk; to beat some- ‘prominence of boiling water’. Alba-
one gently; fig. to forge or illegally nian avull, with v against b in Roma-
modify an original product’. Seems nian is newer (as suggested or im-
built with prefix ab! and root #ic!, plied by all those who suggested IE
#ig! ‘small’ as in NP $ic, $icu, NL, ab! ‘water’ as the origin of these
NM $ega etc.; also #ic, #înc ‘small; forms. Also Alb. ll, as in other cases,
a child’. This is formally satisfac- reflects a later evolution r > ll. This
tory, nevertheless the semantic evo- is also sustainable by comparing

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26
Lexicon Etymologicum
__________________________________________________________________
these forms to other related forms, numerous Greek forms in ath!, at!,
having initial r, not l. Cf. boare. e.g. ()*+,-, (./+-,, 0..1+,2234
abure See abur. and, of course, ND !"#$%, !"&$'
aburcá ‘to climb up’. Prefix ab (as seemingly related to 5..,+,, atha-
in ab#igui) and urca (see). The form nuvium, athanulus, attanulus ‘a hol-
supports the indigenous origin of low, a recipient’; archaic Pre!Hel-
prefix ab! as in ab#igui. lenic terms. The Romanian forms
Abu! NL At.: 1361: Obus!falva; listed below inherit this root via
1433: Abus!falva. Probably related Thracian.
to Abud, Abrud, abur(e); see also adaru Arom. 1. ‘I make’; 2. ‘I set
!e!, !i!. up, I set an ornament’. Presumably
!ac Also !(e)ac, !(e)ag, !ec, !ic, !c. IE *der !, dra! ‘to work’, hence Gr.
Suffix of nouns and adjectives. May *#+., Lith. daraù, Latvian darît ‘to
have various origins, it seems proba- make’. Maybe related to deretica, if
bly indigenous in some substratum we assume a substratum origin of
forms in !ac, e.g. Fel!eac, în!tun!ec!a this form, rather reflecting a collo-
(probably from a prototype *în- quial Latin development, see under
tumn!ec!a), mald!ac/m%ld!ac (cf. deretica.
Spart!ac!us, µ()*+,!-' etc.), ber!c, ad#mán# s.f., rare today ‘a gift;
mel!c, mel!eag, pel!eag!%/pel!eg (cf. bribery’. Related to ademeni.
Pel!e&), Per!eg, pis!c, plis!c, prun!c, Adea, NL Arad; 1202–1203 – villa
Semen!ic (cf. seme#), #ar!c, mi&!c!a, Adia; 1332 – Adya.
mu&!c!a. ademení vb. ‘to entice, to seduce’.
Regional also ad%m%ni, ad%mna;
ac#$á See ag%'a.
noun ad%man%. Hasdeu considered
acri! See agri!.
it indigenous by comparing Roma-
ad!, also at! Toponymical root of nian form with a glosse in Hesy-
Preie. origin spread over a large part chius, Phrygian adamnein ‘to be in
of Europe, e.g. NFl, NM and NL love with, to adore’, adamna ‘a be-
Adulas, Addiris, Atlas, Addua (today loved’. • A local derivation from
Adda, a tributary of Po), also the Latin ad + manus ‘hand’ is yet most

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27
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probable, as shown by the dialectal tum root !ulm!, which must be re-
forms: ad + manus or ad%/adu mîna lated to olm ‘smell’ (see); derivative
‘give (me) your hand’. The basic suffix !ec (also !ic, !c), also indige-
meaning is erotic and pre!nuptial, nous. A similar construction is in
and is connected to the various ademeni, ad%man% (a local con-
creeds related to hand. • Hungarian struction based on Latin elements).
adomány is borrowed from Roma- The Thracian root must be therefore
nian. The forms are colloquial, cre- *olm!, *ulm! ‘smell, to smell; to
ated in Romanian, be it in an early sniff; to track an animal for hunt’. •
period of evolution, rather than an On the other hand, the forms dul%u
indigenous heritage. See also the and dolc% would lead to a basic root
considerations on the derivatives of dul!, dol! ‘dog’, also with prefix
Lat. manus in Romanian, in the a(d). It is difficult to decide whether
chapter dedicated to debated hy- adulmeca was based on a construc-
potheses regarding the Latin or sub-
tion ad!ul!m! or a!dul!m!. Both are
stratum origin of some forms. possible and meaningful.
adiá vb. (about wind) ‘to blow afin The bushy plant Vaccinium
delicately, to breeze’. Der. adiere.
myrtilus; bilberry. Obscure, there-
Some linguists suggested a fore difficult to analyse. The indige-
post!classical Latin *adiliare, which nous origin is probable. Phoneme f
is rather improbable. The form is may reflect an original velar spirant
isolated, even enigmatic; cf. (laryngeal), alternating with h, v and
place!names Adea, Atea, Atea!, in sometimes with &. Assuming a pre-
which case we are rather inclined fix a! and root fin is no more com-
for a Preie. origin. fortable.
adulmecá (especially about dogs) ag! Root preserved in some
‘to sniff, to smell’, also used figura-
place!names and common names. In
tively. Obscure, archaic. The con-
the quoted examples, we assume the
struction is probably *ad!ul!m!ec!a,
forms preserve Preie. *AK!, *AG!,
in which ad! (sometimes also a!)
*AIK!, *AIG! ‘a prominence, a
reflects Latin ad, frequent as deriva-
peak; a thorn’; related (urverwandt)
tive means; the indigenous, substra-
to ig! (below). The root is well
__________________________________________________________________
28
Lexicon Etymologicum
__________________________________________________________________
documented in ancient writers refer- for the original " in Thracian. See
ring to Thracian names (De#ev also NL Egeria, Egirca, Egeta, Ae-
1957: 3, 9, 11, 164), e.g. Aga!thyr- geta. NL Ágasvár in Hungary seems
soi, Aig!issos, Aeg!issus (the mod- related, in which case a Pre!Magyar
ern town of Tulcea in the Danube origin is to be postulated.
Delta). The verb a ag%'a, also a ag#"á ‘to catch, to pick up’. See
ac%'a ‘to catch (at)’ is seemingly ag!.
derived from the same root; archaic Agnita NL (SB). At.: 1317/1320 –
meaning: ‘to get to a thorn’. See Vallis sancte Agnetis; 1329 – Vallis
also the root ig! below and Agnetis; a. 1376 – sancta Agatha.
place!names Ig, Iga, Igman (Lexi- Cf. ancient Thracian and Greek
con A). Cf. ag%n%u which seems forms Aegitna, Aigaios, also NL
derived from this root too. Agay (Provence); the modern form
Agaua NL (AR) Related to Agnita, seems the result of a metathesis
Ag%!, Agri!/agri! (see), cf. NL *Agitna > Agnita, see also Aegeta,
Agay, in Provence, and place!names today Brza, in Bulgaria. An original
Aigai, in Greece. See references un- form *Agnita is also possible. the
der ag!. Mediaeval spelling reflects a folk
association with St. Agnes or St.
ag#n%u A kind of folk dance. Ob-
Agatha. See also NL Agay, in
scure. Seems related with the other
Provence, of Preie. origin.
forms with root ag!. See, first of all,
ag%#á. Agrié! NFl, NL (BN). At.: 1562 –
Egreshely; 1576 – Egres. Closely
Ag#! NL, Bac$u district and an-
related to agri!, NL Agri! (see be-
other locality in Bihor, today ex-
low); cf. Anie! against anin %i Arie!
tinct. There is the hill Ac%'el near
against arin, presumably of Preie.
the Transylvanian village; this pre-
origin. See ag!.
cious detail would be sufficient to
reject the explanation from Hung. agrí! (also acri!), !e A bush with
ágas ‘crossroad, branched out’ thorny branches and eatable fruit,
which obviously is a fortuitous con- specific for the mountainous regions.
sonance. Cf. Thr. Aegissus; we may Ribes Grossularia, sometimes also
surmise that the spelling !ss! stands Ribes rubrum, the gooseberry. The

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29
Pars prima
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plant is agri&%. From the same root tion, *al!al!, as some other forms
ag! as NL Agri& and other forms like analysed here (see the appendix).
Agrie&. • DEX erroneously assumes ame"í vb. ‘to become/get dizzy,
a borrowing from Hung. egres; the confused’. Archaic, probably de-
sense of borrowing is reverse. rived from ma#, ma#e (see) ‘bowels’,
Agri! NL, several localities spread i.e. ‘intricate, maze, labyrinthine’.
over a large area, especially in Tran- The relationship ma# – ame#i seems
sylvania; obviously related to agri!% similar to Eng. maze – to amaze,
‘gooseberry’ or ‘barberry’; the tree is and the forms seem also related in
called agri!. The name is related to its the two languages, of course as an
thorny branches, the basic meaning of independent archaic heritage.
the Preie. root *A(I)K!, *A(I)G!. Ampói! (< *AN!p!) NFl in Transyl-
!aj, !a!, !e!, !i! Suffix in numerous vania whose course is parallel to the
indigenous Thracian place! and riv- Arie!, a tributary of the Mure%. Hu.
er!names: Arge!, Arie!, Asuaj, Dej, form is Ompoly. The region is fa-
Mure!, Cara!, Turda!, Some! etc. In mous for its gold ore since prehis-
ancient documents, it is usually tory. The Thracian township of the
spelled !ss!, which leads to the idea area was Ampelum, today Zlatna (<
that the original sound was !"!/!6!. Sl. zlato ‘gold’). See further refer-
aldán Autumn hemp; Cannabis ences under an!, in!.
sativa. Obscure, presumably indige- amúrg, !uri s.n. ‘sunset’. Deriva-
nous. The usual form is cînep%, held tives: a amurgi, amurgit etc. One of
for Latin, even if we are rather in- the commonly accepted Thracian
clined for an indigenous origin too, elements of Romanian, but the ety-
from a protype common in Thracian mon has been debated. Presumably
and Latin. Lat. cannabis does not related to NI Gr. Amorgós, deriva-
satisfy the phonetic evolution for tive amorgís, !ídos, name of an uni-
Rom. cînep% either. dentified textile plant (Chantraine).
aleléi" Exclamation of fury and re- We assume that in both Thracian
venge. Presumably indigenous, dif- (hence in Romanian) and Greek the
ficult to analyse. Built by reduplica- ultimate origin is Preie. *AM!,

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30
Lexicon Etymologicum
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*AN!, basically with chromatic Ana& NFl (Bra!ov) From Preie.
meaning, as in Ampoi and other re- root an!, in!.
lated forms (see above). Cf. murg, Anca NP The current hypothesis
even though the relation with this assumes that is derived from Anica,
form may be again debatable, but in its turn a hypochoristic of Ana,
the connection and similarity cannot Greek!Latin Christian name from
be avoided.
Heb. Hannah ‘grace’. We are rather
amú& ‘a pit with water and lime for inclined to explain it as related to
tanning’. The original meaning must NP Anescu and Anie!, Ar!anca, later
have been ‘hollowed location, a pit, associated with NP Ana by folk
an excavated place’, so the word etymology.
seems built with prefix a! and the
!and Suffix in several indigenous
same root mu&! as in mu&uroi.
place!names: Z%rand, Zarand, 9i-
an!, in! Toponymical root of Preie. mand, V%r!and etc. The ultimate
origin: *AN!, *AIN!, *IN!, chro- origin may be Preie.
matic meaning; ‘black, dark’ and andre!á See undrea, also îndrea.
‘white, to shine’ respectively. The Anie! NFl, a tributary of Some%ul
“classical” prototypes are: (1) Greek
Mare; cf. NFl Anio, a tributary of
anchysa, enchysa, a plant used for
Tiberis.
dying in dark!red, and a series of
aniná vb. ‘to hang, to fix some-
place! and river!names like Ainos, where’. Obscure, presumably indige-
Aineia, Ainios, Anchis7s, the father nous, without any clear etymological
of Aine(i)as etc.; (2) Greek goddess approach. The relation with tree anin
In8, translated in Greek as Leu- and arin seems fortuitous. The form
ko!thea ‘white goddess’, a divinity seems derived from *a(d)!nin!.
of the sea and her feast Inacheia in Anina NL, Cara%!Severin.
the island of Crete at Inachos.
Ant NL (BH). At.: 1353 – Ont;
Seemingly the same root in Nin and
1453 – Anth, possibly also Ant%!
Un, Una (Lexicon A). The root
NL Cluj.
*A(I)N! is preserved in numerous
forms derived from it (see below).
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31
Pars prima
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Ant#! NL (CJ). At.: 1437 – Anthus; apucá ‘to catch; to hold tight’. De-
1507 – Anthos. Cf. Ántissa, a town rivatives: apucat (1) ‘caught’; (2)
and island near Lesbos. ‘mad, crazy’ (cf. aprig); apuc%toare
Apa NL (SM) At. 1215 – villa ‘a handle’; apuc%tur% (1) ‘a catch’;
Apa; 1414 – Appafalwa. Does not (2) ‘custom; behaviour’. The word
seem derived from ap% < Lat. aqua, seems related to Lat. apiscor ‘id.’,
but rather related with the substra- Old Indian :pn8ti ‘(he) touches,
tum elements with root ap!, see catches’, gr. apt8 ‘id.’, Hitt. ep!, op!
Apa#a, and with b radical in Abrud, ‘id.’ etc. The Romanian prototype
Abud, Abu& etc. The relation with may be reconstructed as *ap!uk! (cf.
Hung. apa ‘father’ seems also for- also arunc), which cannot support
tuitous. the idea of a Latin word. Also the
Apa$a NL (BV). At.: 1460 – Apac- alternative Lat. aucupor ‘to set
zija; 1519 – Apacza (cz for ' in the traps’ does not seem a better solu-
Mediaeval text) and Apadia NL tion. • If apuca and arunca may be
held for indigenous, then a possible
(district of Cara%); At.: 1423 – Apa-
(not necessary) influence of aduc ‘I
dya. The relations with either Rom.
bring’ < Latin a!duco may be sur-
ap% ‘water’ or to Hung. apa ‘father’
mised. It seems clear that, disre-
must be fortuitous and may be held
garding the ultimate etymon, apuca
for folk!etymologies. The origin and aprig should be analysed to-
must be indigenous Thracian of ei- gether, not separately.
ther IE or Preie. origin; cf. Abrud,
Arád and Ard (latter form is obso-
Abud, Abu! also Ip. lete) NL At.: 1156: Urod; 1183:
áprig adj. ‘full of pathos’. Seems Orodium; 1197, 1206: Orod,
related to apucat ‘crazy, mad’ (< prepositus Orodiensis. Related to
apuca), see below, without a deci- NFl Arda in Bulgaria (see Lexicon
sive argument for or against. Both
A); both forms are based on similar
aprig and apuca seem archaic, in-
forms attested in Thracian, e.g. Ar-
digenous relics. The basic meaning
antas (De#ev 1957: 21), possibly
of root ap! may be reconstructed as
also related to Lithuanian forms like
‘to get, to hold’, hence ‘hold by pa-
NL Aranta;ius and NP Arant
thos, furious’.
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32
Lexicon Etymologicum
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(Rim!a in Actes II C Thr. 99–104); ar!k! and ar!g! as in forms analysed
cf. Illyrian Ardotion and NL below.
Provence Arda (Rostaing 1969: 16). Archi! NL (AR). At.: 1552 – Ar-
The Romanian forms are seemingly kos. Related to Arge!, dialectally
of Preie. origin via Thracian. Cf. also Arghi!; see also argea. The al-
Aar, Switzerland; Ar, Moselle, ternating k/g leads to Preie. *AR!
France. In Romania, see also Ar- ‘big; high; deep’. • There is NL Ar-
anca, Arge&, Arie&, also NL Araden, cu& which indeed may reflect the
in Minoan Crete. Hungarian influence of Arkos; simi-
Aranca NFl in Romanian Banat; larly NFl Chiuru& < Körös, in its
turn reflecting Cri&.
also attested as a water female di-
vinity in Romanian tales. Must be Ard See Arad.
related to other archaic forms like Ardán NL, Bihor. 1319: Iordanfa-
NFl Aran, a tributary of Gave lua; 1642: Ardány. It does not seem
d’Aspe near Sarranca, NM Ar- probable a Hungarian origin, as
suggested by earliest attestation,
an!Barranco and NL Aran near
which – in its turn – would suggest
Boltaña, Aragon. These forms are
a folk etymology in Hungarian. I am
considered Preie. by some linguists.
inclined for a close relationship with
Must be related to Arad, Ard, Arge&, forms like Ard, Arad, Aranca etc. •
Arie&. • The explanation from Hu. A deformation of name Iordan ‘Jor-
harang ‘a bell’ (as in Kiss 1980: 60) dan’ does not seem plausible.
should be definitely rejected. Ardeal NR; the Romanian name of
ar"riél The plant Cynoglossum of- Transylvania. Traditionally ex-
ficinale. As a name of plant, seems plained as a borrowing from Hu.
derived from the same root ar! as Erdély ‘Transylvania’, which is
ar#ar,by reduplication (*ar!ar!) and phonetically impossible: the ex-
diminutival suffix !el. For a similar pected form in Romanian would
reduplicatio see also Rar/u. have been *Erdei or *Ardei. • NR
arcáci ‘a fold for sheep, a pen’. Ardeal must be seen as a compound
Seems derived from the same root Ar!deal the first part of which had

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33
Pars prima
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the meaning ‘over, far away’ and velopment as in Abrud (see).
should be related to a arunca, dial. Ardusát NL (MM). At.: 1231 –
also a aruca ‘to cast (away), to Erdezad; 1394 – Erdewschada. A
throw’ (indigenous Thracian root) compound Ardu!sat, see Ardud,
and the second part is deal ‘a hill’ Arad, Ard and sat ‘a village’ < Lat.
also (obsolete and dial.) ‘forest’. fossatum.
Ar!deal is a contruction similar to Arduzél NL At. 1334 – sacerdos
NL Sub Deal ‘at the foothill’, Sub- de Ordo; 1405 – Ardo, Kysordo.
cetate (peculiar spelling for Sub Ce- Same root as Ardud and Ardu!sat.
tate ‘under the fortress’); see s.v. argeá, !ele s.f. (1) a covered pit; (2)
Deal, Deal(u). Med. Lat. Transyl- the vault of a building; (3) structure
vania (instead of Transilvania) is a of a house; (4) the margin of a roof.
calque after Romanian; Med. Lat. Archaic word, now with seemingly
spellings were also Ultrasilvania, diverging meanings. The basic
Ultra Silvas. Hu. Erdély is also a meaning seems ‘a pit, a hollow;
calque: erd< ‘forest’ and an old something dug out’. Usually con-
postposition !elu, !elv, hence elött, nected to ancient Macedonian
argella ‘subterrean dwelling’ also
el<re ‘in front of; ahead’. The Hun-
NFl Arge! (see) and its ample ety-
garian form was fortuitously similar
mological family. Cf. Alb. ragal ‘a
to Romanian, or this similarity sup-
hut’, which may be compared to the
ported the calque. Romanian form if a metathesis *ar-
Ardeova NL (CJ). At.: 1375 – pos- gal is postulated.
sessio Erdeufolua. Related to Ardud, Argel NL (SV) Related to, or de-
Ardusat (see) and Slavic suffix !ova. rived from, argea (see); surely re-
Ardúd NL (SM) At.: 1215 – Her- lated to Arge!/ Arghi!, Argestru.
deud; 1216 – Erdowd (seemingly Argestru NL (SV) A compound
graphic deformations, presumably Arg(e)!estru, the first part of which
by the association with Hung. erd< is related to Argel, Arge!, argea
‘a forest’; see also s.v. Ardeal). Re- (see), and the second part seems re-
lated to Arad, Ard etc. (see), from lated to ancient (H)istria, also at-
Preie. *AR! ‘big; high; deep’. De-

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34
Lexicon Etymologicum
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tested on the Thracian territory. The also Thracian NFl Arzos, Arsus,
ultimate origin seems Preie. Araros (see s.v. Rar%u) etc. • An
*IS!TR!. Cf. Ia!i, Ie!(u). explanation from arin, the plant Al-
Árge!, old Arghi! (1369, cf. Rosetti nus or anin are incorrect, but an ini-
tial relationship with arin is prob-
ILR 228) NFl An important river
able.
flowing in south Romania, a tribu-
tary of the Danube. Thracian, cf. arín, !i s.n. Plant Alnus, generic
name for trees or bushes which live
numerous roots in arg!, such as
in wet and cool locations, and hav-
()*+,', Arcidava, Arkénna, (as Pâr-
ing reddish wood. Must be related
van 1923:12–16 suggested a long
to Arie& and ar#ar.
time ago), also NP -)./$$' (see in
ar&ínic The ornamental plant
De#ev 1957: 22 and 25). The word
Lychnis chalcedonica. Difficult to
must be related to argea, archaic
analyse, but probably indigenous. If
indigenous word with two basic not related with other names of
meanings: (1) ‘a pit for preserving plants like arin and ar#ar, then pos-
food’; (2) ‘a beam for supporting sibly from IE *ar!=!, *ar!>! ‘to
the ceiling and roof’. The ultimate shine, to glitter’.
root cannot be IE *arg01, but Preie.
ar$ár, !i s.n. The tree acer pla-
*AR!g!, very well documented in tanoides, with white and hard wood.
place! and river!names all over The usual explanation from Lat.
Europe. Cf. Argestru, Arghi!. acer is impossible from phonetic
Arghi! NL, Cluj. See Arge!. reasons. Related with arin, Arie!
Arié! NFl, a river in the West Car- (see), Preie. root *AR!.
pathians; NL At.: (NL) 1256 – Ar- aruncá, Arom. arúc vb. ‘to throw, to
cast away; (fig.) to get rid of’. A pro-
anyos; 1292 – Oronos. Related to
Arge!; Thracian of Preie. origin. Cf. totype *ar!uk!, nasalised *ar!unk
must be accepted. The basic meaning
Anie!. See also Aar (Elve"ia), Ahr
(Coblenz), Arve, Arvan (Provence) of root ar! seems ‘far away, over’,
and is thus related to the first part of
etc., for which Preie. root *AR! ‘big;
high; deep’ may be accepted. See compound Ardeal (*Ar!deal). The
ultimate origin is rather Preie. For
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35
Pars prima
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the spcific forms, see also apuca/ toric; suffix !(u)#! as in other in-
apuc. digenous forms.
As%u! NFl and NL in the Tarc$u Asuaj NFl (MM), NL At.: 1391 –
Mts. At.: 1494 – Hozijwazo; 1854 – Azzywag; possessionis olachiales
Hossuasszó, Husus%u. Preie. *AS!, duo Azzywag in districtu de Erdeud.
chromatic meaning: ‘black, dark Unexplained so far, related to As%u;
colour’, as in Greek forms Asos, oldest form must have been *Asua!,
Astale, Ais8pos, Asai, Asaia, Asea as in Blaj < *Bla!, Cluj < *Clu! etc.
etc. Of the same origin is probably a!(i) ‘no’. Alb. as, same meaning.
Gr. 23+" ‘mud, marsh’ (< ‘black col- Archaic forms in both languages,
our’). • The current explanation without clear etymon, maybe Preie.
holds the form for a borrowing from !a& !aj, !a!, !e!, !i!.
Hung. aszú ‘dry’ derived from aszik at! See ad! above.
‘to get dry’ (thus in Dr$ganu Top.
!ate Suffix in some substratum forms.
ist. 69; Iordan 1963: 498; Petrovici,
Probably of Preie. origin as once sug-
Balcania 7: 483). The form seems
gested by Battisti 1959: 33.
to continue ancient Thracian forms
NL Asai, NL Assa, NL Aisa, NP Ai- Atéa NL Satu!Mare; 1334 – posses-
saios, NFl Ais!epos, Aes!opus, also sio Athya; 1343 – Atya, Atthya, At-
with close related forms in Greece: thye. See ad!, at!.
NFl Ais!epos, Asôpos, NL Asos, Atia NL, Hunedoara; 1567 – At-
Astale (Creta), NL Asai etc. The ul- tijha; 1576 – Athya. See ad!, at!.
timate origin must be Preie. *AS! au, #u interj. Old exclamation pre-
‘black; dark colour’, also in Greek
served in various languages, ex-
ásis ‘mud’. See also Asuaj. pressing pain or fear: Old Persian
asmu"í ‘to incent a dog to atttack; au, Avestan ao, 4u, Skr. o. An in-
fig. to instigate’. With prefix a! (< digenous origin is to be postulated.
Lat. ad, but sometimes perhaps also !"u, !eu Ending specific to some
reflecting a parallel indigenous
indigenous place!names: In%u/Ineu,
form) and the same root as in seme#,
As%u, Bîrg%u, Buz%u, Ilteu, Mineu,
verb (a se) seme#i; the alternating e/
Paleu, Rar%u, Tarc%u, T%rt%r%u,
zero grade may be archaic, prehis-
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36
Lexicon Etymologicum
__________________________________________________________________
Vi!eu, Zal%u. All these must have babán ‘very big’ (colloquial).
been masculina in !á or !é Seems related with name of fish
(stressed), assimilated to the first bibán, incorrectly held for a bor-
and third Latin declension and arti- rowing from Bulgarian. The form is
a result of reduplication, ba!ba!, and
cled with !u (definite article mascu-
the original meaning leads to a root
line singular). In no case do they
ba! ‘big; to swell, to inflate’, per-
reflect Hu. !ó, !< as many linguists
haps the same as in bub% and
hastened to postulate. In the quoted
îm!buibá. Alternatively, perhaps the
examples, and other forms in this
name of fish bibán is the oldest, and
lexicon, !%u, !eu reflect archaic, in- babán is an expressive derivative
digenous forms. Later on, some from the size of this big fish. Any-
Hungarian forms borrowed into way, the primitive root seems to be
Romanian were indeed adapted to as suggested.
this type.
Bac#u NFl, NL Iordan 1963 as-
avát The prey!fish Aspius Aspius, sumes a relation with b%can ‘gro-
Obscure, presumably indigenous. cer’, and ultimately a borrowing
Cf. Avrig. from Turkish bakan, which is pho-
Avrig NM; NSt (F$g$ra%) At.: netically impossible and does not
1364 – Affrica; 1370 – Ebrek; 1379 explain the river!name. Root bac!,
– Africa. The association with con- which develops a masculine form
tinent Africa is, for certain, a folk Baca, with !u as definite article,
etymology. Place!names in avr!, seems related with B%icoi and NP
awr! are largely spread, e.g. Aurent, Baicu. Ultimate etymon unclear,
Aurons, Aurel, in Provence, Preie. must be an archaic bak(h)!, possibly
*AWR!, a variant of *AR!, cf. Arge!, of Preie. origin. See also As%u,
Arie!, argea etc. Buz%u, Rar%u etc.
azvîrlí ‘to cast, to throw’. Prefix a! baci s.m., sg. and pl. ‘a head of
and zvîrli (see). • DEX incorrectly shepherds’; Arom. baciu, bagiu;
explains as a contamination be- Megl. baciu; Istrorom. ba#e; NP Ba-
tween arunca and zvîrli. ciu, Bacea etc.; der.: a b%ci, b%ci#%
etc. One of the words usually held

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37
Pars prima
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for indigenous, cf. NP Thr. Batsinis, leader’ (cf. Herodot 4. 155: Libyes
f. (Rom. b%ci#%). Related to bade gar basiléa bátton kaleousi ‘the
(see), with the alternance #/;/d as Libyans call the king a battos’); also
confirmed by extra!Thracian paral- Gr. basileus is derived from *bati-
lels. See also s.v. bade. The original leus, root *BaT(T)!, presumably of
meaning seems to have been ‘a lo- Preie. origin. In the Greek mythol-
cal leader’ hence ‘a leader of shep- ogy, Battos also appears as a shep-
herds’. • Hung. bács(i) is borrowed herd turned into stone by Apollo. •
from Romanian, also the whole se- We surmise that Preie. *BaT(T)!
ries of various forms in neighbour- was the term for denoting a local
ing Slavic languages (ba;, ba;a), leader, as preserved in Greek basi-
also in various Slavic place!names. leus < *batileus and Thracian,
bade s.m. (only singular, unused in hence inherited in Romanian.
the plural) A term for calling or ad- Baicu NP See Bac%u.
dressing an elder or older man, or a baier ‘a thread of variable thick-
term used by a girl in addressing the ness; a rope’. Origin debated; most
beloved man. NP Badea, B%descu, linguists hold it for a Romance ele-
B%dulescu, B%dicu# etc. The basic, ment, I. I. Russu includes the form
archaic meaning seems to have been in his list of Thracian elements. The
‘a leader, a head of a group of per- Latin origin seems indeed improb-
sons; a master (of)’. Seems related able, so an indigenous etymon is
(urverwandt) to baci (see). One of acceptable.
the words usually held for indige-
baláur(e), !i See bal%.
nous. Hung. bátya is borrowed from
Rom. bade or may reflect a Pan- bal#, !e s.f. and balaur(e), !i ‘a
nonian, Pre!Hungarian form, cf. dragon, a monster’. A ‘technical’
Thr. !bates in kapnó!batoi ‘priests term of the Romanian folk!tales.
of the Moesians’ (priest = ‘leader of Must be related to Alb. bollë ‘a
a community’) and ND Batal- (big) snake, a serpent’ and bullar ‘a
water snake’. NP Bal%, Bal%u,
de!ou7nós ‘an epithet of Dionysos’.
Balaur(e), possibly also Balcu, Bal-
Outside Thracian, we may identify
cea, B%lcescu (if not related with
other similar, presumably related,
forms, e.g. Libyan battos ‘a king, a root bal!/b%l! in b%lan). Cf. Thr.
__________________________________________________________________
38
Lexicon Etymologicum
__________________________________________________________________
Balas, Bales, Tri!balloi ‘three drag- bálig#, !i (!e); sometimes spelled
ons’ (name of a Thracian ethnic baleg% s.f. ‘cow excrement, dung’;
group), Baleos (epithet of Jupiter), Alb. bajgë, bagël. Currently held
Balis (epithet Dionysos) etc. Inter- for a Thracian element in Roma-
vocalic l is normal in an indigenous nian, and intervocalic l is indeed
Thracian element of Romanian. Ul- normal. It has seemingly been more
timate origin is IE *bhel! ‘to swell, difficult to identify a plausible ety-
to inflate; giant’, hence Lat. bal- mon, for which we suggest a Preie.
laena, etc. • Intervocalic l is normal origin, root *BaL!, *PaL! ‘an eleva-
in a Thracian element; as this is one tion’, and the basic meaning is still
of the indigenous forms included in preserved in many place! and moun-
all the lists of the Thracian elements tain names, e.g. Balica, Paliga,
of Romanian, it may be used as a Paligora, Paluga, peleag(%), Pele&
reference point that indeed intervo- (see all these). • As we may analyse
calic l (just like intervocalic b and v) the related forms and meanings, the
are preserved as such in Romanian. archaic sense had nothing pejora-
See also c%ciul%, abur(e) etc. tive: ‘elevation, elevated excre-
bale (only plural) ‘slobber; saliva’. Ob- ment’, indeed similar to a hillock.
scure; possibly related to bal%, balaur, We may surmise that the shift took
and imagined as beings with slobber. place maybe after Romanisation.
Alternatively, possibly from the same bálmo&, also bálmu& Typical shep-
root as balt%, in which case the basic herd’s food prepared of sweet cheese
meaning is ‘liquid’ = ‘slobber, saliva’. It and boiled in milk, with maize flour
is just a guess. Definitely archaic and (initially millet flour). The basic
closely related to traditional life. Inter- meaning seems ‘liquid food’, in
vocalic l is normal in a substratum form. which case must be the same root as
Balica NP Root bal! may be the in balt%. Alternatively, may be akin
same as in bal%, balaur, or peleag, to b%l, b%lan. • Hung. bálmos is bor-
Paliga, Paluga, Paligora (the last rowed from Romanian (not
form only with the Aromanians) or vice!versa as DEX would suggest).
indeed balig% (see all these). bálo& adj. rare, dial. See b%lan.
balmu& See balmo&.

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39
Pars prima
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Bal& NL (several locations, IS and Serbian or Hungarian origin, even
OT districts); also Bal&a (HD); NP though the form is not typical in any
The same root as in balt% and of these languages. In fact, ban
balmo&/balmu&, or perhaps akin to stands for the generic base of some
b%l, b%lan. A third similar root, in archaic compound forms, with ei-
bal%, balaur, does not seem prob- ther ban or pan: cio!ban [;oban],
able. Beside such hesitations, very ju!pîn (< ?u!pîn), st%!pîn. Out of
probably a substratum place! and these, only st%pîn was correctly as-
personal name. cribed to the Thracian heritage by
balt#, b%l#i s.f. ‘a pond; a lake’, Philippide. • The most problematic
related to Alb. baltë ‘mud’. Cf. NL of all has been cioban, but only on
Thr. Di!baltum, De!beltos ‘two the erroneous assumption that inter-
ponds, two lakes’, similarly in vocalic !b! could not be preserved
Di!mallum ‘two river!banks’ or ‘two in the indigenous elements of Ro-
cliffs’ (see s.v. mal). Also related to manian. As proved by many other
Lith. balà ‘a marsh, a moor’ and Sl. examples in this lexicon, this was a
false assumption. If the indigenous
blato ‘mud’. IE *bhal!, *bh0l! <
origin of cioban is to be rejected,
*bhel! ‘to shine, to glitter’. • The
then other arguments should be
Slavic form, sometimes held for the identified. Note also that Turkish
origin of the Romanian form, can-
çoban is a relatively new word, con-
not be accepted from reasons of sidered of Persian origin, and
phonetic evolution. Cf. dalt%.
should be also noted that cioban is
ban ‘a local leader in the Middle unknown in Aromanian, while a
Ages, specifically in Oltenia’; ‘a Turkish origin would have implied
coin, money, also the subdivision of the presence of this form first of all
the national Romanian currency’. in Aromanian. It is also interesting
Hasdeu convincingly explained that that dialectally (Transylvania), cio-
the basic meaning must have been ban also means ‘a recipient for liq-
‘leader’, whereas ‘money, coin’ was uids’, an ‘enigmatic’ meaning unex-
derived later, as sovereign in the plained so far, but it must be the
United Kingdom. Variously ex- same root as in Czech and Slovak
plained, often considered of either d6bán, for which we assume a Ro-
__________________________________________________________________
40
Lexicon Etymologicum
__________________________________________________________________
manian origin. • The form st%pîn urpaneus, Diupaneus, Diopanes etc.
and jupîn (< ?u!pîn) seem to have (see in De#ev 1957) are just at-
been accepted as indigenous by tempts to note in Greek and/or Latin
more and more linguists. They are the original form *?up0n, the recon-
obviously similar in their structure, structable Thracian form, the proto-
and with quite clear IE origin, as the type of Rom. ?upîn > jupîn. The
whole family. Therefore: (1) ban spread of modern forms mainly in
reflects IE *p:! ‘to protect, to feed’, Romanian and South Slavic cannot
also p8i! ‘to protect the cattle’ (Pok- be the result of hazard.
orny 1959: 782 and 839; in AHD bán# ‘a piece of wood used by fish-
1979: 1532 ans 1535, with the note ermen to mark the trawl’. The root
that both forms are probably re- bán! with this meaning seems the
lated). The sonorisation of p in ini- same as in bandul% and bandur%.
tial position took place, in certain bandúl# ‘a thick and heavy piece of
circumstances, as in the similar wood used for fixing or anchoring a
situation IE *p8! ‘to drink’, de- boat to the shore’. Obscure. Seems
pending on the laryngeal (or velar related with ban% and bandur%.
spirant). (2) We assume that both bandúr# ‘a thick and hard cloth;
cioban [;oban] and jupîn (formerly (fig.) a hore, a prostitute’. Seems
?upîn) are related, and built on the derived from bandul% ‘piece of
same structure from IE *(s) keu! ‘to wood’, first – applying to cloth –
cover, to protect’, Slavic 6upan1 is ‘thick and hard as wood’, then figu-
borrowed from Romanian, with the ratively to prostitutes.
adaptation ? > 6. (3) The form Bara NFl (Lotri&a Mts; flows into
st%pîn (st%!pîn) is built again on the Vidra lake). The same root in
same structure, the first part of Baraolt (Bara!Olt). The same root
which is – beyond any doubt – IE as in bar% (see below); probably the
*st:! ‘to stay, to be’. • The forms same root also in B%r%gan (<
ban, cioban, jupîn and st%pîn repre- *B%r!ag!an).
sent a compact etymological family
bar#, !e s.f. ‘a moorish land/
and should be analysed together. I
hypothesise that Thracian form Di- region’; rare in contemporary Ro-
manian. Seems related to Alb.
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41
Pars prima
__________________________________________________________________
bërrák ‘id.’. Also, similar forms in case maybe in zîn%.
Bulgarian and Serbian!Croatian, barz# See barz.
where they may be Romanian bor- Basaráb NP Variously explained
rowings. Czech ba@ina, Polish by linguists (see Ionescu MEO 61).
barzyna ‘moorish land’ are clearly Root bas!, bes! is well attested in
related; they are Pre!Slavic (Ma- Thracian (cf. Alb. besë ‘creed,
chek 47: ‘Psl. bara je slovo sub- faith’). Despite many opposite hy-
stratové’). The archaic meaning potheses, Basarab may be one of
seems to have been ‘moorish, wet the Thracian anthoponymical relics
region’, and perhaps of Preie. ori- in Romanian. Numerous deriva-
gin. NFl Bara; NP Bara, Bar%u. NR tives: NR Basarabia, NL Basara-
B%r%gan may be also derived from basa (HD), Basarabi (< NP, several
this root; formerly, the B%r%gan was locations in districts DJ, SV etc.).
a vast forested and moorish region.
basc# s.f. ‘fleece’ (singular only).
Cf. bîlc.
Related to Alb. Tosc bashkë, Geg
bárti"# ‘a thin film of mould on mashkë, baskë ‘id.’. Seem to reflect
bortsch or brine’. Seems related to IE *bhasko! ‘a bind, a link of’, per-
the meaning ‘wet, moorish’ as in haps also in ancient Mac. báskos
bar% (above). ‘timber bound together, wood’, Lat.
barz adj. (about birds) ‘whitish’; fascis ‘a package’. It may be as-
related to Alb. bardhë ‘white’. De- sumed that Alb. bashkë ‘together’,
rived: barz%, pl. berze (with alter- bashkonj ‘to unify’ belongs to the
nating a/e) ‘the bird Ciconia c.’. same root.
NP: Barz%, B%rzoi(u), Bîrzoiu, Bata NL (Arad). Seems derived
Berza, Berzeanu etc. IE root *bher4g0 from a personal name related with
‘to shine, to glitter’ > Thr. bher!z!. NP Baci, Bade < baci, bade; or per-
See also NFl Bîrzava. • The old haps from the same root as batál.
form may have been bardz(%), as in
batál ‘a pit for storing crude oil’.
Arom. bardzu, but this may also be
As crude oil was available at the
an innovation based on the parallel
surface of land until late in the 19th
forms of Latin origin where, in cer-
century, we may count on an archaic
tain circumstances, Lat. d turned to
dz then to z in Romanian. A similar
__________________________________________________________________
42
Lexicon Etymologicum
__________________________________________________________________
word, perhaps of Preie. origin, re- The relation with baie ‘a bath’, a
minding of Neolithic technology. îmb%ia ‘to wash, to take a bath’
The root *B!T! with a possible seems a mere hazard, though some
meaning ‘a hollow, a pit, a concav- linguists assume the forms are re-
ity’ may be identified in southeast lated. Seems rather derived from
European place naming. interj. b%, and suffix !at as in mînzat
b# interj. used for calling someone; < mînz etc.
considered vulgar in normal speech. B#icói" NL See Bac%u and Baicu.
Seems an archaic interjection, b#l adj. See b%lan.
which may be the root of b%iat. Cf.
b#lái" adj. See b%lan.
f%, the equivalent for calling girls or
women. If b% is indeed related to b#lán adj. ‘blond’ (about people);
b%iat, and f% is related to fat% (< ‘white’ (about animals). Also: b%l,
Lat. feta), then both b% and f% are b%la&, balo&, b%lai. Alb. balash, ba-
expressive creations built in Roma- losh ‘a horse (or another animal) with
nian, not inherited from the substra- a white sign on its forehead’, ballë
tum. If yet b% in relation with b%iat ‘forehead’; Eng. bald (< Germanic
may be accepted as archaic, then f% *bala ‘white sign’); sl. bAl! ‘white’;
– fat% may be a more recent build, Celtic belo! ‘white’. • Intervocalic l is
which follows the same derivation normal in an indigenous element.
or relation like b% – b%iat. b#lá& adj. rare, dial. See b%lan.
b#cuiá"# ‘a pillow case used as b#l#b#ní ‘to dangle, to swing’ (ex-
wallet’. Archaic, without a clear pressive and mainly colloquial). As
etymon; anyway, the root seems in other cases, a reduplication fol-
*b%cúi! followed by an expres- lowed by haplology and metathesis:
sive suffix. *b%l!b%l!%!n!. Presumably indige-
b#gá ‘to introduce, to insert, to nous, without etymon; or an expres-
thrust’. Obscure, but undoubtedly sive creation, which must be old
archaic, indigenous verb. A root anyway.
bag!/b%g! may be of Preie. origin. b#l#ríe ‘weed(s)’. For long of un-
b#iát ‘a boy, a (male) child’. Ety- known origin, presumably left as
mon debated and still debatable. such because of intervocalic !l!,

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43
Pars prima
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which is indeed normal in an in- b#r#gán ‘a vast plain region’. See
digenous element. The root bal!/ B%r%gan.
b%l! with this meaning seems re- B#r#gán NR covering an important
lated to the same root as in bal%, area in south Romania east of Bu-
balaur ‘dragon’, from an archaic charest. Unexplained so far. Proba-
root ‘big, huge’. If so, then the bly related to dialectal form bar% ‘a
original meaning was ‘big, malefic pond; marsh, moor’ (see above, un-
plant’, which – in this sphere – der bar/) and, if so, cf. Prov. brac,
counterparts the malefic meaning of
brasc ‘a marsh’, NL Brasque con-
bal% and balaur.
sidered of Preie. origin in Rostaing
b#l#&tio!ág# ‘a pond’. Obviously a
1950: 101, root *B!R!, *P!R!. See
compund, the first part of which is
also Bîrg%u, Parîng. • The older hy-
related with balt%, and an expres-
potheses, which assumed various
sive suffix !oac%, !oag%. See balt%.
Altaic (Turkish or Turkic) origins
b#lbís# The plant Stachys silvatica. canot be accepted, despite their
The root of this form must be re- once frequent occurrence in linguis-
lated with b%l, b%lan; suffix !is!, !i&! tic analyses.
as in other cases. b#r#ní ‘to insist, to tease by talking
b#níc# The plant Phyteuma orbicu- too long’. Obscure; does not seem a
lare. A diminutival form derived borrowing from Hungarian, as it
from either (1) root ban! ‘coin’ may possibly look. We assume it is
(from the shape of its flowers), or derived from bîr, an appelative for
(improbably) from root ban!/b%n! as the sheep, originally the name for
in bán%. The roots are archaic, but ‘sheep’ in Thracian. The meaning
the derivation may be newer, or may be derived from the stubborn
re!shaped based on an archaic root. behaviour of sheep.
B#rán, also Berán NP Related B#séscu NP The same root as in
with (or less probably derived from) B%seu and Basarab, with the com-
bîr ‘sheep’ (see); also related must mon suffix !escu.
be Berea, Berinde, Berindei.

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44
Lexicon Etymologicum
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B#séu" NFl (north Moldavia) Must berc1 ‘with short tail or without tail;
be from the same root bas! as Ba- a low cap’. Definitely archaic and
sarab or basc%. related to animal breeding. A root
b#&c#líe Colloquial, especially in bar!/ber! is frequent in place!names;
the phrase a lua în b%&c%lie ‘to if so, the archaic meaning may be
make fun of someone, to ridicule related to the resemblance with a low
someone’. Seems derived from hill. Suffix !c as in melc etc. See
basc% ‘fleece’, probably based on a berc2 below, also bîrcoace.
traditional habit of children to play berc2 ‘a small forest, a small group
with fleece. It is just a guess. of trees’. DEX assumes a borrowing
b#" ‘a stick, a rod’. If not a from Hung. berek, which is pho-
back!formation from a bate (< netically impossible, it rather seems
Latin), then possibly indigenous, of Romanian origin, with the regu-
related with Eng. bat ‘a heavy lar svarabhakti (i.e. epenthetic
stick’. Such a relation, which as- vowel between two consonants).
sumes a common etymon for a bate Both this meaning and berc1 seem
and b%#, would be normal as an in- derived from a prototype meaning
dependent IE heritage. ‘small, little’.
Berea NP Related with, or derived
Becheánu NP. Unclear, root bec!
from, bîr ‘sheep’.
(bek!). Perhaps related with Bichi&.
beregát# ‘neck’ (colloquial, ex-
Becheni NL Derived from NP .
pressive). Seems closely related
bedreág (1) A synonym of buturug% with Gr. #$%&'(, !&'')" ‘throat, tra-
(see); (2) A wooden stool. Must be
chee’, Lat. frBmen (< *frBg!smen),
from the same root, with a different
suffix, like butuc and buturug%, with IE *bherug! ‘neck, throat’. For suf-
alternating d/t as a result of phoneti- fix !at%, !ete see the grammatical
cal syntax. Suffix as in meleag. part of the volume.
Belci NSt (on the Tazl$u river). Berinde, Berindei NP Related
Probably related with bîlc and NP with, or derived from, bîr ‘sheep’.
Belcea (also Bercea, Berceanu, bibán A large prey!fish. See babán.
Bercescu). Bulg. biban is either from Roma-

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nian or, less probable, preserves the is currently held for a Turkish bor-
same Thracian element. rowing, from a supposed *buyur!,
Bichi& NL Unclear, perhaps related *bïyur!, bïyïr! ‘to command, to or-
with Becheanu. der’ (with ref. to Räsänen, Et. Wb.
Bihárea NL (BH) Beyond any Türkspr. 87; Clauson, Et. Dic.
doubt an old place!name, with an pre!13th c. Turkic 387–388). On the
important Mediaeval fortress, from other hand, V. Polák, Omagiu Iordan
which the whole region of Bihor 1958: 693, assumes that both Rom.
took its name; modern form Bihor and Alb. inherit a linguistic relic.
has a Hungarian influence, with o v. TESz 1: 304 also assumes an un-
a in Biharea. Etymon unclear, very known origin for the Hungarian par-
probably indigenous (despite the at- allel, even if does not accept – as
tempts to explain it from Hungarian). usual in the Hungarian linguistic
A reference to NM Vaih:ra < studies – a possible Romanian origin.
Vi!h:ra (India, Magadha); if such a • The form should be analysed to-
relation may be possible (which gether with verb a birui ‘to prevail
would support once more the satem upon, to be victorious’ (for which
character of Thracian), then bi! v. ending !ui seemed sufficient for pos-
tulating a Hungarian origin auto-
Old Indian vi!/vai! means ‘two’, and
matically). Discussions and debates
hárati ‘to take, to bear, to carry’;
will surely continue until a consen-
therefore, the meaning would be
sus may be possibly achieved.
‘two possessions, two locations’. If
indeed a substratum form, phoneme birui See bir.
h in Biharea would indicate an origi- bîiguí ‘to stammer, to mumble’.
nal velar spirant X > h. • If this rela- Skok reports a colloquial Latin form
tionship is not possible or confirmed, *bergolare in South Slavic (Croa-
then we must look for another basic tian) area, which seems an ‘in-
root to satisfy dependencies. truder’ from Illyrian and/or Thra-
Bihór NR With Hungarian phonetic cian into Late Latin. Rom. bîigui
influence (o v. a) from Biharea. may be from *bîrgui, though this is
bir ‘tax, tribute’. One of the most not certain. Anyway, Gr. "+2. (<
debated Romanian forms. The word *"(3!j.) ‘to say, to utter’ (Chain-

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Lexicon Etymologicum
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traine 155) seems closest to Rom. define the Albanian form as bor-
and Southeast European forms. A rowed from Romanian.
Greek borrowing into Late collo- bîr A call for the sheep to come;
quial Latin is also possible, even if Alb. berr ‘a sheep’. Beyond any
this cannot be clearly explained. • doubt, an archaic word well repre-
References in DA to Hung. sented in other languages too:
boly(o)gni ‘to lose one’s way, to Czech beran ‘ram’, also in Polish,
tramp about’ cannot be considered, Ukrainian and Russian baran ‘id.’,
also reference to dial. form a dial. Italian bero ‘ram’, bera
b%d%d%i ‘to tramp about’, Hung. ‘sheep’, dial. French berri ‘ram’,
bodologni, bodorogni ‘to tramp Basque barra ‘id.’, Lat. vervex and
about’, with a presumed shift to berbex. The Romanian form cannot
meaning ‘to speak nonsense’ cannot be borrowed, but its meaning
be accepted. gradually shrank, as in the case of
bîlc, !uri s.n. ‘a marsh; narrow and &o (see). The ultimate origin seems
marshy valley’. Seemingly related Preie. See also Bîrsa.
with Alb. pellk, pellgu ‘a marsh, a bîrco!áce The bushy plant Coto-
moor’. Gr. pélagos ‘sea’ was some- neaster integerrima. Seems derived
times suggested as the origin of from berc and an expressive suffix.
Albanian and Romanian forms, The modern form looks like a plu-
which seems improbable. On the ral, but this may be due to a uniform
other hand, the Romanian!Alba- treatment of the final part.
nian correspondences Rom. b – bîrdán ‘the stomach of rumiga-
Alb. p, Rom. c – Alb. g cannot be tors’. See burduhán, also burt% and
easily explained. The forms seem burdúf. The alternating h/f and zero
indigenous, maybe of Preie. origin, suggest the original existence of a
root *B!L!, *P!L! ‘earth’, related velar spirant (laryngeal) *X.
with *B!R!, *P!R! (see bar%, bî'rf# ‘gossip, slander’. See bîrfí.
B%r%gan). The Albanian form bîrfí ‘to gossip, to slander’. Seems
seems derived from a parallel root derived from bîr, an appelative for
*B!R!, *P!R!, with the evolution r sheep, initially the word for ‘sheep’
to ll, as in other examples. It is also in Thracian. If so, the pejorative
possible, for which we incline, to
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47
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meaning was derived from the basic root seems to be the same as in bîr
one ‘to utter sounds similar to those ‘sheep’, in modern Romanian used
of sheep’. Phoneme f reminds the as only appelative. See also bîrzoi,
archaic velar spirant (laryngeal) *X. also îm!bîrliga (ie. prefix în! and
Bîrg%u NM, NL (MM) Reflects bîrligá).
Preie. *B!R!, *P!R! in various hill! Bîrsa NFl, NM (Z$rne!ti area),
and place!names with the basic hence Bîrsa lui Bucur, Bîrsa
meaning ‘hill, mountain’. The rela- Gro&e#ului, Bîrsa Fierului, all refer-
tion with German Berg may be ring to brooks. Derived from bîr.
The construction oi#% bîrsan% ‘a
eventually considered as an
specific sheep with long and soft
Urverwandtschaft. Cf. B%r%gan,
fleece’ also reflects the archaic
Parîng. Seems etymologically re- meaning of bîr ‘sheep, ram’.
lated with NL Bergamo.
Bîrzava NFl (Semenic), NL (AR,
Bîrlád NFl, NL Philippide, OR, 2:
HR). At.: 1471 – Bozova; 1479 –
362 suggested a Cumanic origin:
Nagbozova. Cf. Thr. 56),'7', a cas-
beled, pl. belat, bClad ‘a market, a
tle in Dardania, NL Bersovia, Ber-
market place’. P$tru&, more ration-
ally, refers to ‘an onomastic root sobis, a township in southwest Da-
Bîrl!, Borl!, as in NP Borlea, Bîrlea. cia; the latter is seemingly the an-
The relation seems indeed with an cient form for modern Bîrzava. Re-
indigenous root bîr! as in Bîrg%u, lated to barz% ‘stork (Ciconia)’ and
Bîrsa, Bîrzava, being difficult to Alb. bardh, !i ‘white’ < IE *bher0g0!
identify closest relationship, as there ‘to shine; white, bright’. The pres-
are at least two different indigenous ervation of intervocalic !v! is nor-
roots in these examples. Anyway, mal in an indigenous Thracian
the relation NL Bîrlad – NP Bîrlea word. The association to Sl. *br1z1
seems certain, furthermore Bîrlad – ‘quick, fast’ is fortuitous, and !ava
Bîrsa/Bîrg%u most probable.
must not automatically lead to the
bîrligá (about cattle) ‘to raise the idea that the etymon is Slavic.
tail’. Obviously archaic. The origi-
bîrzói! Now in expression cu coada
nal meaning must have been related
to the mating period, or rut. The bîrzoi ‘with tail up’. Must be related

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48
Lexicon Etymologicum
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to bîrliga, which confirms the origi- our analysis, as they are anyway of
nal meaning of this verb too: the non!Slavic origin (Mediaeval Latin
mating period, or rut. • The similar- Blasius). NL Blaj (Bla&), as well as
ity with NFl Bîrzava and/or with Cluj (Clu&), were initially personal
Slavic forms derived from root brz! names, with the difference that Cluj
must be fortuitous. reminds of an emperor (see),
whereas Blaj reflects a local leader.
Blaj At. 1271 – terra seu villa Her- • NL Blaj should be related to Thra-
bordi vaivode; 1313 terra Blasii filii
cian names Blasa, Blasas, the latter
Herbordi; 1332 sacerdos de villa
one perhaps an Illyrian name
Blasii, sacerdos de villa Blasy; 1346
(De#ev 1957: 73; Russu 1969: 181).
Balasfalva, Balaschfalva (and other
The Mediaeval spelling for Bla&/
later forms); Bla& (a. 1900). It is in- Blaj (Blasius, gen. Blasii) also
deed difficult to analyse the spelling
clarifies the real Thracian sounds,
Herbord (= ?Arbore). A generation
which may be reconstructed as
later, the location was led by his
*Bla"(a), *Bla"!as. See also NL
son, recorded in the genitive Blasii
Blaja (near Carei), attested later: a.
(nom. *Blasius), with a recon-
1454 – Balashaza, 1733 – Blasa.
structed pronunciation Bla&, as in
1900 (cf. Cluj). Half a century later Blaja' See Blaj.
the name is Magyarised as Balas/ Blájova See Blaj. Suffix !ova is
Balasz (spelled Balas in the Medi- Slavic.
aeval documents), compound with bleg (about animals) ‘with years
falu ‘village’, therefore ‘the village down; flap-eared’; generically ‘in
of Bla!’. The Hungarian name bad mode, sick’. DEX refers to Ser-
Balázs is, we may surmise, of Ro- bian bleka (?), which cannot explain
manian origin, in its turn re!bor- anything, and may well be of Ro-
rowed in Romanian as B%laj. Iordan manian origin. Isolated form,
(1983: 66) assumes that NP Blaj is probably indigenous, as many forms
derived from Sl. Bla6 while Blaja referring to animal breeding.
would be the feminine [sic!] of Blaj.
Bléndea NP Seems constructed on
The existence of Slavic personal the same structure as Brendea; oth-
names Bla6 (!a, !o) cannot impede erwise, cf. Blaj (* < Bla&), ancient

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49
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Thracian names like Blasa(s), Ble- dated’ may be reconstructed for a
bois, Bleptes etc. Ending !ea reflects prehistoric form; this covers the
the archaic definite article super- modern meaning ‘rug, old clothes’
posed over the feminine definite ar- and ‘sour liquid’ for the forms in
ticle < Lat. illa. See above under !a. bor!&!.
bo!ámb# A variant of bumb, to bojdeúc# See bujd%.
which is related, with nasal infix. bolbo&á ‘to stare at (someone)’, lit.
bo"áre ‘a soft, cool wind, a breeze’. ‘to inflate (i.e. make big) eyes’. Re-
Russu assumes a certain relation lated with bulg%r. Modern form is a
with abur(e), i.e. possibly a com- result of reduplication and haplol-
mon root bor!/bur!, hence a!bur(e)! ogy: *bol!bol!&! > bolbo!&!.
and boare. Though the ultimate ori- bordéi" ‘a semi!subterrean hut, cov-
gin is obscure, or at least debatable, ered with mud or straw’ (this was
this may be possible. A reference to indeed a common dwelling down to
Latin boreas was also unconvinc- the 20 century in many rural, poor
ingly suggested (DEX, among oth- areas of Romania). The word be-
ers), even if a remote relationship is longs to the semantic sphere ‘ar-
also possible. • The form seems ar- chaic, primitive dwelling’ like co-
chaic, probably of Thracian origin cioab% and colib%; Lat. casa > Rom.
(just like abure), but a clear etymon cas% also meant ‘small, rural dwell-
is not available. If a Preie. origin is ing’. The etymon is unclear, but a
accepted or acceptable for abur(e), root B!R! ‘earth, stone cliff’ may be
the same origin may be possible for identifiable in the Preie. stratum.
boare. boreás#, borese s.f. ‘a wife,
bo!árf# ‘a rug; old clothes; a prosti- woman’ (today rare, dial.) Unclear,
tute’. Must be analysed in relation at common sense interferes with
with bor&í and borhot (see); alter- boiereas% (derived from boier).
nating f/& indicate the existence of Seems related with Alb. baréshë
an initial velar spirant (laryngeal), ‘woman shepherd’, derived from
and a good hint that the forms bari ‘shepherd’. • Root bor! with
should be indigenous. Etymon un- the basic meaning ‘woman’ may be
known; a basic *bor!X! ‘old, out- explained from root bort!, burt!
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50
Lexicon Etymologicum
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hence burt%, bor#os ‘with big belly etymological family is richer in
= pregnant’ etc. If the original Romanian, and reflects a compact
meaning was related to ‘sheep, etymological group, represented by
sheep breeding’, then the presumed boarf%, borhot and bor&i. See also
relationship is with bîr ‘sheep’, NM zbor&i.
Bîrsa. bort# ‘a round place, a round hol-
borhót ‘marc, husks’. A traditional low’. Seems closely related to
term used as referring to brewing of burt%. Also NP Borta. • A Ukrainian
various fruit. Seems related with origin, as suggested in DEX, is not
boarf% < *bor!X! ‘old, outdated’; acceptable.
also related bor& and zbor&i, with bor" Now rare, and dial. ‘a preg-
alternating h/f/& < velar spirant *X. nant woman’s belly’. Same root as
bor& ‘bortsch; sour soup’. Tradi- in bor#os, then both related to burt%
tional word. The basic meaning is and burduf. A back formation from
‘the basic liquid used for some bor#os is possible, but the reverse
types of soup, made of corn husk or (i.e. bor#os < bor#) is more prob-
bran in lukewarm water’. Most lin- able.
guists hold it for a Slavic borrow- bor"ós, fem. bor#oas% ‘fat’; about
ing, even if its etymological family women: ‘pregnant’. Derived from
seems related with bor&i (also the same root as burt% and burduf
zbor&i), boarf% and borhot, which (see).
are obviously non!Slavic. bosumflá ‘to be in the sulks, to
bor&í ‘to get sour; to get a bad pout’. The verb is used referring to
taste’. Traditionally assumed as de- upset, discontent people. Derived
rived from bor&, in its turn assumed from bot (see) and (a) umfla ‘to in-
of Slavic origin. It seems that bor&í flate’; the basic meaning is lit. ‘to
is rather related with boarf% and inflate his/her muzzle’, ironically
borhot (<(*bor!X!); further analysis used for upset, usually discontent
should also clarify whether bor& is people. The shift t/s is not usual, but
not again a derivative of this root expressive, non!etymological.
too, and not a Slavic element, but a bot ‘muzzle’; Ironically ‘mouth’. Also
Thracian element in Slavic, as its generically used for the front part of an

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51
Pars prima
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engine or machine. Enigmatic etymon, (see), in a larger context also de-
very probably of indigenous origin. Cf. rived from root br!, bre!, bri! spe-
NP Boto, BoDo in Lexicon C. cific for names of plants.
br!, bre!, bri! The first component, brei The plant Mercurialis peren-
or root, in several names of plants nis, frequent in forests and shadowy
and personal names derived from places. Sometimes also called
them. See brad, br%bin, breab%n, trep%d%toare. The same root as in
brei, briboi, brie, brioal%, brîn- brie; see also the references under
du&(%), brînc%, brustur(e), and NP br!, bre! as root of several names of
Brîndu&, Brîncu&, Brendea etc. plants. • A Bulgarian origin, as sug-
brad, brazi s.m. ‘a fir!tree’ NP gested in DEX, cannot be accept-
Brad, Br%dean, Br%descu etc. NL able; an indigenous, Thracian origin
Brad, Brazi etc. Also bread ‘a spe- in both languages is probable.
cific dance prior to a wedding, when Bréndea NP Seems the same con-
a fir!tree is used’; br%di&oar% ‘the struction as in Blendea, and proba-
bird Tetrao urogallus’; br%det, firs bly akin to either brîndu&% or
taken collectively. Related with Alb. brînz%.
bredh ‘id.’; also ‘to appear, to bribói" The plant Geranium silvati-
spring out’, Eng. brad ‘a nail with a cum. Related with other names of
blunt head’ < ie. *bhar! ‘a projec- plants derived from root br!, bre!.
tion, nail’. Cf. Thracian names NP bríe The plant Meum athamanti-
Brazaca, Brais f., Braiades m., cum. The same root as in brei; see
Brasais, Brasus etc. Cf. molid.
also the references under br!, bre!
br%bin, br#bín The plant Bunias as root of several names of plants.
orientalis. From the root br!, bre!, brio!ál# The plant Ligusticum
bri! specific for several names of mutellina. Related with other names
plants. See closest breab%n. of plants derived from root br!, bre!.
br#dét See brad.
brîn#, !e s.f. ‘a path’; see s.v. brîu.
br#di&oar# See brad.
brînc# The plant Salicornia herba-
bre!áb#n The plant Dentaria glan- cea; also a name of a disease of
dulosa. Closely related with br%bin pigs. Must be the same root, specific

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52
Lexicon Etymologicum
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for names of plants, as in brîndu&%; in its turn relatable with Rom. brîn%
NP Brîncu&(i), Brâncu&(i). See also ‘a path, „brîu“ = a path on an abrupt
the references under br!, bre! as hill side’. • The forms clearly refer
root of several names of plants. to the archaic, traditional vocabu-
brîndú&# A generic name for the lary. The phonetic evolution is simi-
plant Crocus: heuffelianus, aureus lar to frîu < lat. frenum and grîu <
or reticulatus. Formally related with lat. granum; if a Thracian origin is
NP Brîncu&, Brâncu&, also scoru& – assumed, then the etymon may be
scorbur%; brînz% ‘cheese’ seems IE *bhreu!, *bhr0u! ‘an arcade;
also derived from the same or simi- eye!brow’ and ‘a beam of a build-
lar root, etc. The root brî!n!c! / ing, a bridge’. The word is archaic,
brî!n!d! may be variously ex- probably Pre!Romance, therefore
plained, seemingly related to vege- Thracian.
tation. The plant is well consoli- bre"ád See brad.
dated in folklore and various other Broaga NFl, a tributary of Tîrnava.
folk creeds. See also the references
Also Broga. Derived from root br!,
under br!, bre! as root of several with numerous representatives in
names of plants. the substratum elements, possible
brînz# ‘cheese’. From Romanian, including different initial meanings.
spread over a large area in Cen- For a river!name, closest may be the
tral!East Europe. One of the little root br! in brînz% and/or brei. Fur-
debated forms of Thracian origin, ther development in !g!, quite fre-
without a clear etymon. If related to quent in the indigenous forms.
fermantation and/or other natural
broanc# s.f. reg. (Banat) An old
processes, may reflect the same root
string instrument. Cf. ancient bryn-
as in brîndu&%, Brîncu&, see under
chon ‘the Thracian guitar’, as a
bre!, bri!.
glosse in Hesychius. IE *br!,
brîu, brîne s.n. 1. ‘a belt’; 2. ‘a
*brenk!, *br0nk!, imitative for vari-
horizontal beam in a wall; an orna-
ous sounds.
mental strip’. Seems related to Alb.
mbrenj ‘to fasten a belt’ and, per- Broga See Broaga.
haps, with Alb. brinjë ‘a hill side’,

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53
Pars prima
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brudíu ‘immature male, a young digenous forms. • Note Rom. r –
boy’. Now rare and dialectal, it Alb. ll, also met in other cases,
must have been once more spread. which stresses our hypothesis that
Obviously related with Germ. Alb. ll is the evolution of an older r,
Bruder, Eng. brother. A German preserved in Romanian. • See also
origin is improbable, but not ex- the references under br!, bre! as
cluded, if further arguments may be root of several names of plants.
invoked. The indigenous character bub#, !e s.f. ‘a prominence on the
is supported by the adjective brúd- skin, a wound’. Thracian *bBba <
nic.
IE *beu!b!, root *b(h)eu! ‘to swell,
brúdnic ‘immatute, specific to a to inflate’, as Germanic *puk!, Old
young male or boy’. Related with
English pocc, Lat. bulla, bullire ‘to
brudíu. boil’ etc. Intervocalic b is normal in
brústur(e) s.m. Also: brustan, bro- a Thracian element. Alb. bubë and
stan, bruscan, brusc%lan, derived Serbian!Croatian buba are of the
with suffix !an from root brust!. The same origin, via Romanian.
plants Lappa or Petasites officinalis. buburúz# ‘lady bird’. From the
Related with Alb. brushtull(ë), the
same root as bu!b!%, with reduplica-
plant Calluna vulgaris; it is bru&tur
tion.
in Aromanian, maybe under the Al-
banian influence or, on the contrary, buc1 ‘immediately’. Only in the
the Albanian form may have been expression într!un buc. Obscure,
borrowed from Aromanian or ‘mod- presumably indigenous. The origi-
elled’ after it. The forms must be nal meaning may have been ‘fast,
related with ancient riborasta, ribo- speed’. Seems no etymological re-
basta, peribobasta, peripomasta. As lation with(buc2.
the spelling of Thracian forms was buc2 s.m. ‘chaff’. Akin to Alb. byk
usually deformed, an accurate ‘straw, chaff’. Possibly IE *b(h)eu!
analysis is difficult, but root bru!, ‘to swell’. Cf. bub%, bumb. Seems
br! is also met in other names of no relation with buc 1. See also
plants, cf. brad, brîndu&(%), and buc&i.
suffix !ur is specific to many in-

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54
Lexicon Etymologicum
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bucium ‘piece of wood; trunk’. A hypothesis of an archaic origin, IE
semantic equivalent of butuc and or even Preie., rather than a new,
bu&tean. Seems derived from the Hungarian stratum. See also bud%
same root as buc 2. below.
buc&í ‘to press (down), to pack, to Budác NL (Trans.) At. 1228 Bu-
dacul!de!Jos: Bodagd; 1292: Bu-
stuff’. Probably derived from buc 2.
da(k). Unclear, cf. bud% and other,
Búcur NP The same root (buc!) as presumably related forms based on
in bucura. root bud! as in Buda.
bucurá vb. ‘to be glad, euphoric’. bud#, !e s.f. Rare, dial. 1. (Mold.)
Many: bucurós ‘glad’ adj., bucuríe
‘a hut in a forest’; 2. (Mold.) ‘a
‘joy’, s.f., NP Bucur, Bucurescu,
small shop, a deplorable house’; 3.
Bucureanu etc. Akin to Alb. buku-
(Trans.) ‘a toilet’. A Russian and/or
ronj ‘to adorn, make beautiful’, bu-
Polish borrowing has been some-
kurí ‘beauty’, bukur, bukurosh times invoked, though the origin in
‘beautiful, pleasant’. The basic, ar-
these languages is not clear either.
chaic meaning should have been
The meaning ‘toilet’ seems a local,
‘beautiful’, e.g. NL Bucura akin to
pejorative innovation, starting from
Alb. Bukurisht (cf. Bucure&ti). • Be-
the seemingly basic meaning ‘small
yond any doubt an archaic word, building, a hut’. We assume that the
unclear etymon, perhaps of Preie.
oldest form must be analysed to-
origin, root *BuK!, *BuG! ‘beauti-
gether with the place!names like
ful, bright’.
Buda, Budva, well documented in
Buda NFl, NL (several locations, in the area. If so, the archaic meaning
Romania and elsewhere in Central must have been ‘a small building/
and Southeast Europe). Seemingly house’, also as place!name. • Simi-
related to Budva (Lexicon A) and lar forms are spread in Hungarian
Buda!Pest. Kiss (1980) assumes and German (Bude); in all cases, we
that Buda (Budapest) is a ‘simple must assume a substratum heritage.
Hungarian personal name’. The Cf. budur(%).
quite extended area on which forms búdur(#) Usual in hunter’s vocabu-
Buda, Budva are attested lead to the lary: ‘elevated cliffs/rocks, on which

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55
Pars prima
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wild goats use to stay’. The same con- spirant (laryngeal).
struction as in other archaic forms, bufní ‘to sulk, to pout’ (usually re-
e.g. but!ur!%, but!ur!ug!%, (a se) ferring to small explosions, also
gud!ur!a, m%t!ur!% etc. The root bud! figuratively, as when furious). From
seems the same as in bud%, NL, NFl the same root buf!/buh!/bu&! as in
Buda and may be of Preie. origin. buh%, bufni#% and bu&í; also the par-
buf Imitative of a fall down, ap- allel form pufni is atttested. The al-
prox. ‘bang’. The word originally ternating f/h/&, sometimes also v,
was imitative!onomatopoeic, never- indicate the existence of a velar spi-
theless its archaic origin is most rant (laryngeal). The family repre-
probable. The root is *b(h)uX! ini- sented by these forms, with alternat-
tially denoting a powerful air flow, ing f/v/h/&, is the best example of
like a gust of wind or air when how prehistoric velar spirant devel-
speaking. See buflei, buft, bufni, oped, and finally changed into his-
bufni#%; buh, buh%. The alternating torically later phonemes. Similarly
f/h is specific for the treatment of v%taf/v%tah but the verb a v%t%&í and
the archaic velar spirant in Roma- NP V%t%&escu v. NP V%tafu. Cf.
nian, via Thracian. See also puh, pufni, puf%i/puh%i.
puf%i/puh%i, probably from the same búfni"# ‘owl’. The root buf!/buh!,
root. also in the parallel form buh%, with
bufléi ‘a fat, plumpy child or ani- alternating f/h, also with alternating
mal’. From the same root as buf, f/v/h/&, the indication of prehistoric
bufni, bu&i. and perhaps also historic velar spi-
buft ‘stomach’. From the same root rant (laryngeal). The root *buX!,
as buflei ‘fat, plumpy’, and largely was initially onomatopoeic, immita-
to the root represented by the re- tive of the sound made by owls and
lated forms derived from root then generalised as in the verbs a
bufní and a bu&í.
*buX!: buf, bufni, buh, bu&i, puf%i
and pufni, with the original meaning buh Now only in expressions: a i se
‘to swell, to explode (air through duce buhul ‘to become known as...’,
mouth etc.)’. Alternating f/h/& stand usually pejoratively. Derived from
for the original *X, a specific velar

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Lexicon Etymologicum
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root *buX! ‘to explode, to inflate, to and haplology.
make a noise or specific sound’. bulhác, !e ‘a pond’. From the same
Here X stands for the archaic velar root as balt%, with development in
spirant (laryngeal). velar spirant (laryngeal) *X and
buh# ‘owl’. A parallel form of buf- suffix !ac.
ni#% (see). Cf. a bufní and a bu&í. bumb, !i s.m. ‘a round small ob-
buiéstru ‘a specific walk of horses ject, a button’. Der.: bumb%reaz%,
with both left legs, then both right bumb%rea#% ‘a prominence’. Cf.
legs, at the same time’. Considered Phrygian bambalon ‘genital organ’,
by Russu indigenous, even though it Lith. bamba ‘navel’, Latvian
seems derived from, or ratherrelated bamba, bumba ‘a (small) ball’.
to, bis!eo, indeed with unexplained Seemingly related with bub%, with
phonetic evolution. The indigenous nasalised vowel in the first syllable.
origin may be accepted though, if See also boamb%.
we admit that bu! is related to Latin búmben Now only in expressions
bis and (i)estru related with eo, ire like a dormi bumben = a dormi
as remotely related Indo!European bu&tean, lit. ‘to sleep like a log’ (=
forms. profoundly). Derived from bumb.
bújd# ‘a small house or dwelling, a bunget s.m. (collectively) ‘a
hut’. Also bojdeúc%, with a devel- thicket’. Seems related with Alb.
opment with suffix !uc!. Archaic bunk, art. bungu ‘an oak!tree’,
term referring to small, traditional formed as br%det (from brad, also
dwelling. Root buj!, bu&! ‘dwelling’ indigenous), from root *bung!, and
is unclear, but both bujd% and bo- possibly suffix !et from Lat. !etum;
jdeuc% seem indigenous. Cf. bud% alternatively, also the indigenous
and the place!names derived from it. suffix !at(e), !et(e), !%t(e). There are
Forms bud% and bujd% seem related. also place!names derived from root
búlg#r(e) ‘a round form as a ball’, bung!. The basic meaning in Thra-
e.g. bulg%re de z%pad% ‘snow ball’. cian must have been ‘tree, wood,
Root bul!g! seems related to the ba- timber’. • The same construction as
sic meaning ‘to grow, to inflate’ as in br%det.
also in bolbo&a, with reduplication
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búrc# ‘a specific cake’. The initial stomach’, i.e. root bur! and suffix
meaning seems to have been ‘swollen !(a/e/i)c. The relation bur!t% –
cake’, therefore from the same root as bur!ic, on the one hand, and burt% –
burduf, buric and burt% ‘stomach’. burduf, burt% – bor# – bor#os, on the
See Burcea, Burcu below. other hand, seems much more prob-
Burcea NP Der. Burcescu. See able than the usual explanation, lit-
burc% and ND Bork7ithias, Lexicon tle probable, if not entirely absurd.
E, part B. burlán ‘a tube’. The word seems
Burcu NP See Burcea. archaic, and included by Russu in
burdúf, !uri s.n. Akin to Alb. his list. Other linguists have denied
burdhë ‘a bag’ (cf. Rom. burt%). The the indigenous origin on the unar-
basic root bur! must have had the gumented ground that, in such a
meaning ‘swollen’, cf. burt%, bor#, case, final !án should have been
IE *bher!, *bhor! ‘to bear, to closed and nasalised, which is not
carry’, initially applied to the belly necessary: some archaic forms pre-
of a pregnant woman, later associ- serve indeed !án in final position;
ated to any swollen, big object, re- also final !án may be reshaped at a
sembling a pregnant woman's belly. newer date. No clear etymon,
• Rom. final f reflects an initial velar probably akin to burc%, buric, bur-
spirant (‘laryngeal’); cf. a puf%i/ duf, burt%.
puh%i, v%taf etc. originally with the burt# ‘stomach; belly’. Quite
same velar spirant. See Part II for clearly reflects IE *bher! ‘to bear,
discussions regarding the Thracian to carry’, with the specific change
velar spirant. IE(*! > Thr. ur. Related with burduf.
buríc ‘navel’. Usually considered a The word was probably used ini-
colloquial Latin element, via a tially for the belly of pregnant
complicated evolution: ombilicus > women, as proved by bor#os, fem.
umbilicus > umbulicus > un (i.e. bor#oas% ‘fat; pregnant’.
assimilated with un < unus) + buli- buruian# ‘weed’. Currently held
cus > buric. • Against this quite tor- for a Slavic borrowing, even if the
tuous explanation, we suggest a origin in Slavic is not clear (Machek
close relationship with burt% ‘belly, 77, on Czech bu@ina, bu@eE: ‘p)vod
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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nejasn*’). Cf. Lith. bur8a ‘a heap’, sound produced in scratching the
Latvian bBra ‘a heap’. The forms in horse, then a derivative from the
Romanian and Slavic seem related, same root as bu&i, bufni.
not borrowed from. Until further butálc# A specific wooden rod with
arguments are invoked, we incline two crossed pieces used for prepar-
for an indigenous, substratum ori- ing cheese. From the same root but!
gin, which is well supported by the as butuc, buturug%.
other parallel forms.
butoarc# A regional variant of bu-
bu&í ‘to make a specific noise, e.g. tur%.
when falling down; to cuff, to
butúc ‘a trunk of a felled tree; a
thump’. With alternating &/f and dif-
stump; a piece of wood’. Also bu-
ferent development, from the same
tur%. The root but! seems related to
root like bufni, further from the
a basic, archaic meaning ‘piece of
same root like buh% and bufni#%.
wood; the trunk of a tree’, hence the
bu&teán An equivalent of butuc.
most probable etymon is IE *bheu!
The original form seems to have
‘to grow; to swell’, usual for some
been *bu;!t!ean, and would there- terms referring to vegetation.
fore be a derivative of buc and/or
bútur# From the same root as butuc.
somewhat related with butuc, butu-
rug%, even if the alternating bu&t! buzái"n# A shelter for keeping vari-
with but!uc/but!ur!ug! is not com- ous recipients. Seems derived from
fortable. Anyway, the substratum buz% (see), with the basic meaning
origin seems probable. The sug- ‘a lip!like shelter’ or ‘a shelter on
gested IE root is *bheu! ‘to swell, the lip (= front) of the courtyard’.
to grow’. See also Buz%u and buzunár.

bu&tihán A dialectal form of buz#, !e s.f. 1. ‘lip’; 2. fig. any ob-


bu&tean, with h showing an initial ject at the limit of something etc.
velar spirant (laryngeal). NL Buza (numerous locations, with
the generic meaning ‘hillside’), NP:
bu&umá ‘to scratch and clean a
Buzea, Buzescu, Buzil%, Buzatu etc.
horse with a wisp of straw’. Archaic
Akin to Alb. buzë ‘id.’ Cf. NP Thr.
term, etymon unclear. If the original
Byzas, Byzes, Byzos, a Thracian
meaning may be related to the

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59
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leader with this name being also the Dacian and Romanian [?!]. • A cer-
creator of the city of Byzantion. IE tain oscillation b/m in ancient spell-
*bheu!0! ‘to swell, to bend, to ings referring to Thracian names
curve’, hence also Lat. bucca may be rarely observed as in the
‘cheek’, Irish bus ‘lip’, eng. bosom case of Timi!.
etc. See also Buz%u and buzunar. •
buzunár, !e s.n. ‘pocket’. A de-
Bg. buza ‘cheek’ is from Romanian,
rivative of buz%. • The various hy-
rather than a direct preservation of
potheses, which assume a (neo!)
the Thracian form, but reflects the
Greek origin, are unjustified; the
meaning of Lat. bucca ‘cheek’. The
Greek word is also borrowed from
evolution ‘lip’ – ‘cheek’ seems a
Romanian.
Bulgarian innovation as Lat. bucca
had a peculiar evolution in East
Romance (i.e. Romanian): ‘but- cáciur (noun and adj.) ‘lamb with
tocks’. Cf. Buz%u below. • Devel- black fur on the body and grey on
opment in !z% (bu!z%) as in brînz%, the muzzle, ears, paws and tail’.
cinte!z%/!zoi, pup%!z% etc. Obviously archaic, with a probable
Buz%u NFl, NL on the river Buz%u. derivation prefix ca! (unknown
meaning) and ciur ‘black’ as in
Attested in the antiquity as Mou-
cioar% ‘crow’ (i.e. ‘black’).
sa9:;, <:73=:; probably “instead of
cáier ‘a tow; a hemp bundle’.
*5:736:; considers De#ev (1957:
Seems derived in the same way as
320, as already suggested by
baier. Basic, archaic term, closely
Tomachek a century ago). Related connected to basic house activities
to buz% ‘a lip’, NP Buzea, Buzescu specific to women. Etymon unclear.
and to NP Thr. Byzas, Beuzas, Busa, The original meaning seems ‘a con-
Gr. spelling 5>,';, hence Byzantion fuse heap of something, e.g. hemp
‘the town of Byzas’, according to or wool’, as proved by the verb (a
the legend. All reflect ultimately IE se) înc%iera ‘to skirmish, to fight’.
*b(h)eu! ‘to swell, to curve’. • Kiss Caraimán and Caramán NM, NP
(1980: 115) suggests a Slavic As mountain name, refers to the
B1zov1 as the intermediary between highest peak in the Bucegi. Preie.

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Lexicon Etymologicum
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*KaR! ‘a stone, cliff’ (see also s.v. ‘stone, cliff; mountain’, hence the
Caransebe&, Cara&, Carpa#i) and Thracian ethnikon Carpi, Korpiloi,
suffix !man. Similar forms, also located on the East Carpathians. The
with suffix !an, also spread in the same root is in Cara&, Caran!sebe&,
South Slavic archaic, indigenous Cara&ova, Cara(i)man, C%rand,
placenames. • Caraorman is of Cîrpa (mountain name) and crap, the
Turkish origin: kara ‘black’ and or- fish carp. Alb. karpë ‘a cliff’ also
man ‘forest’: ‘black forest’, and belongs to this group; cf. NM Cîrpa,
should be not included in the cate- infra.
gory of archaic forms. ca"# ‘a long rod, approx. 2.5 m,
Caransebe& NL Related to Carai- with a hook in order to catch sheep’.
man, Caraman, Cara& and Carpa#i, Another basic word belonging to the
Preie. root *KaR!, *GaR! ‘a stone, archaic activity of sheep keeping.
cliff’; for the second part of the One may surmise a connection with
compund see Sebe&, Sibiu. a ac%#a/ag%#a ‘to catch’ (a!ca#!/
Caramán See Caraiman. a!ga#!), but cannot be held for cer-
tain, though tempting indeed. The
Cára& NFl, NL Preie. *KaR!
form is, beyond any reasonable
‘stone, cliff’. see s.v. Carpa#i and doubt, archaic, but there is no clear
Caransebe&. Cf. NL Thr. Karas!ura, etymon, possibly of Preie. origin.
Carsi!dava.
c#ciúl#, !i s.f. ‘a fur cap’; related
carî'mb, !i s.m.; carî'mb#, !e s.f. to Alb. kësulë, kësuljë, if the Alba-
‘the part of a boot which surrounds nian form is not rather borrowed
the leg’; (rarely) ‘a rod, a twig’. from Romanian, as Rom. ci (;) –
Seemingly archaic, cf. glosse in He- Alb. s; a reverse sense of borrow-
sychius ‘karambas means a shep- ing, from Albanian into Romanian,
herd’s rod [in Thracian]’. • The is not acceptable. The ultimate ori-
(sometimes) suggested Latin origin, gin seems IE *kadh! ‘to cover, to
from calamus, cannot be accepted. protect’, as in Eng. hat. The ar-
Carpa"i NM Ancient Karpates oros chaic, Proto!Thracian form must
‘the Carpathians’. Archaic Preie. have been *kadh!keu!l!:. Intervo-
name, root *KaR! (and *KR!, *KuR!) calic !l! is normal in the case of an

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61
Pars prima
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indigenous element. Alternatively, improbably of Slavic origin too).
a prefix ca!/c%! and root ciul! as in Related with C%lan, C%liman, ulti-
ciuli. mately of Preie. origin. • Sl. root
c#f#líe Dialectal and expressive. kal! ‘mud, a moor’ is anyway of ob-
Seems related with ceaf%, even if scure origin, perhaps of archaic
the alternance ce [;] F c [k] is not Pre!Slavic origin too.
comfortable, and would indicate c#lbeaz# See g%lbeaz%.
that some Thracian dialects had a C#limán NM. Built as Caraiman,
centum!like, not satem!like, pho- in both situations with suffix !man
netic evolution, a detail furtively (also in archaic place names south
noted by Iv$nescu 1980, but not fur- of the Danube, e.g. Igman, Lexicon
ther argumented. Cf. sc%f%lie and A). Related with C%lan, C%lata,
sc%fîrlie, in which latter case !r! Preie. *K!L! ‘stone, cliff’. • Der.
seems epenthetic. See also NM NL C%lim%ne&ti (MS, VS, VL, VN);
Cheafa, Parîng Mts. C%lim%neasa (VN).
C#lacea NL (several locations: BH, C#lín NP. Der. C%linescu. From the
TM, SJ). The same atymon as same root as C%lan, C%liman.
C%lan.
c#lú& ‘a typical, male only, folk
C#lán NL (HD). At. 1387, kenezius dance’. Der.: c%lu&ar ‘a dancer of
de villa Chalanteluch. Intervocalic c%lu&’. There seems to be a general
l, still commonly held impossible in consensus that the relation with cal
the indigenous elements, has im- ‘horse’ (< Lat. caballus) is a result
peded further analysis. As this as- of mere hazard. Beside this, there
sumption is erroneous, see NP have been numerous attempts to
C%lin, NL C%lacea, NM C%liman plausibly explain the meaning, all of
etc. Probably archaic, Preie. origin, them starting from the erroneous
root *K!L!, related with *K!R! idea that intervocalic !l! cannot be
‘stone, cliff’. accepted for a substratum word. •
C#lata NL (CJ). At. 1213, villa Ka- Our hypothesis is that c%lu& should
latha. Dr$ganu erroneously as- be discussed together with the nu-
sumed a derivative of NP C%lata < merous forms derived from Preie.
Sl. kalota (as in NP Calot%, which is *K!L! ‘stone, cliff; earth’, i.e ‘the
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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dance of the earth’. Suffix !u& also and admit that there is a simple in-
supports this archaic origin. Ty- terference with cap ‘head’.
pologically also, the dance of c%lu& c#pút# ‘the foremost part of; up-
reminds of archaic times, for which per’. Russu holds it for indigenous,
see the numerous descriptions of the though it rather seems derived from
dance. • See C%lacea, C%lan, C%lin, cap ‘head’, also in figurative con-
C%liman. structions e.g. ‘the foremost part; a
c#p&un# The plant Fragaria mo- leader’.
schata or viridis; ‘strawberry’. Col- C#ránd NL (AR) Built like Gi-
loquially also frag%. DEX suggests mand, Zarand etc. Etymologically
a derivative of c%pu&%, which may related with the Preie. forms derived
be ultimately possible, but also very from *K!R!, G!R! ‘stone, cliff’, see
debatable. This seems rather a for- Cara(i)man, Cara&, Caran!sebe&,
tuitous similarity, just like – possi- Carpa#i; cf. Alb. karpë ‘stone, cliff’.
bly – the similarity c%pu&% – cap
c#tún, !e and !uri s.n. 1. a very
(see below under c%pu&%). Also, the
small village, a hamlet; 2. a hut. The
relation c%p&un% – cap seems the
word is largely spread in southeast
same result of hazard. If really ety-
Europe: Alb. katun, katund, kotun ‘a
mologically related, we lack the
village; dwelling’; Ngr. katouna ‘a
semantic evolution and/or initial
connection. • Possibly indigenous, tent, a tent camp’; S.!Cr. katun ‘a
as many terms related to flora and village of Romanian or Albanian
fauna. shepherds’ etc. The ultimate origin
may be IE *kadh! ‘to hide, to pro-
c#pu&#, !e s.f. melophagus ovinus,
tect’ (cf. c%ciul%, codru), but a
a parasite of sheep. Alb. këpushë
Preie. origin is also feasible. • Root
‘id’ seems borrowed from Roma-
kat! with reference to ‘dwelling’
nian. Some linguists hold the forms
seems to have had a major expan-
for Thracian, though they seem de-
sion in prehistory, cf. Finnish koti
rived from cap ‘head’. Also, Bg.
‘house’, kotona ‘at home’; Hung.
k%pu+, S.!Cr. krpu+a seems also of
ház ‘house’ (with final z as in száz v.
Romanian origin. Nevertheless, we
Finnish sata ‘one hundred’); NFl
may accept a Pre!Romance origin, Katun, in the Altai Mts, at the bor-

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63
Pars prima
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der of China, Russia and Mongolia. serve the Thracian form, upon
A form katun ‘house’ seems also which some Latin meanings of quid
attested in Ainu. If these forms are were engrafted. The evolution IE kw
etymologically connected, then *ka- > Thr. ; > Rom. ; (spelled ce, ci) is
tun must have been the pre!historic normal. Cf. ciot, cioc etc.
term for primitive dwelling in the ceaf#, cefe s.f. ‘(back part of the)
Euro!Asian vast space. • Romanian neck’. Related with Alb. qafë
undoubtedly inherits c%tun from the ‘neck’. The ultimate etymon is un-
Thracian substratum. Cf. c%tur. clear, perhaps of Preie. origin (as we
c#túr ‘a young tree’. Seems de- believe). Phoneme f probably re-
rived from the same root as c%tun, flects the archaic velar spirant *X
with a reconstructable parallel (or laryngeal in the traditional ter-
meaning ‘tree’ – ‘dwelling’ at a time minology), the result of which was
when wooden dwellings were the f, h, v and zero in Romanian. This
rule. The derivation c%t!ur is the velar spirant is reponsible for a se-
same as in caci!ur (with ci for /;/). ries of specific phonetic changes,
among these the alternation f/h,
c#úl# ‘a small raft used as a mobile
hence ceaf%/Ceahl%u. As argu-
bridge’. Archaic, etymon obscure.
mented elsewhere, Hechy ‘the
The derivation seems c%!ul!%.
Czech lands, Bohemia’ (as part of
ce pron. invar. 1. interogative; 2. Czech Republic) seems also derived
adverbial, with conjunctive func- from this archaic root, with the spe-
tion. Most linguists assume it sim- cific meaning ‘the neck of a hill’ =
ply reflects Lat. quid. In fact, a ‘mountainous region’ (Lexicon D). •
deeper analysis shows that the Ro- There is a series of seemingly re-
manian form cannot be isolated lated forms without palatal ;, i.e.
from Alb. çë ‘what, which’. It seems NM Cheafa, c%f%lie, sc%f%lie, and
that both Romanian and Albanian which are closer to Alb. qafë and
preserve Thracian *;e, *;" < IE Arabic qaf: ‘neck’. If this relation is
*kwi!d!, as in Old Indian çit, Aves- accepted, then we must assume a
tan ;7 ‘how’, Slavic *;4 (> ;o, co). Pre!Semitic, Circum!Mediterranean
In this perspective, we assume that term.
both Romanian and Albanian pre-
__________________________________________________________________
64
Lexicon Etymologicum
__________________________________________________________________
Ceahl%u NM One of the examples Preie. origin.
showing the alternating f/h, rem- Ceia, also Ceie. NFl, a tributary of
nants of the archaic velar spirant Tîrnava. Unknown origin, probably
(laryngeal), therefore the same ety- indigenous, if not (improbably) de-
mon as in ceaf% and NL Cefa, fur- rived from the plural form of cel,
ther NR Hech ‘Czech’ (see Lexicon cea, cei, cele < Latin; this rather
D). Similarly, buh%/bufni#%, seems a fortuitious similarity.
fer%str%u/Her%str%u, v%taf/v%tah, Cheafa NM (Parîng) Related with
vuí/huí etc. with alternating f/h/v. • ceaf%, NM, NL Ceafa, with a diffi-
Dr$ganu, Rom. 347 refers to Hung. cult to explain alternance c[k] F ;,
csahló ‘bald eagle’, which should as in ceaf% – c%f%lie, sc%f%lie.
be anyway re!analysed.
chel ‘bald(!headed)’; from the
Cefa NL (BH) Same etymon like same root also: chelie ‘baldness’;
ceaf%. See also Ceahl%u, with alter- chelos ‘bald’; chelb ‘bald’; chelbe
nating h/f, remnants of the archaic ‘scald head, porrigo’; probably also
velar spirant (laryngeal) *X. chelf%ni ‘to scold’ (< ‘to tear some-
ceg# The fish Acipenser Ruthenus. one’s hair until bald’). Form chel is
Skok 2: 72, discussing S.!Cr. forms currently held for a Turkish borrow-
kè;iga, kè;ika, kèsega, ;iga defines ing, whereas chelbe is held for un-
the words as ‘Balkan words of known origin; also currently, lin-
Hungarian origin’ (Balkanska rije# guistic analyses have not noted the
mad,arskog podrijetia); in their obvious relationship of these forms,
turn, the authors of the Hungarian and further their clear relationship
Etymological Dictionary (TESz 2: with German Geld and Gold, Eng-
602) define the word as ‘difficult’ lish gold, gild, gleam, glimpse;
(‘származékszó... Más finnugor Latin galbinus > Rom. galben ‘yel-
egyeztetése, török, valamint kauka- low’, etc. all from IE *ghel!2 ‘to
zusi származtátása téves’); and the shine’, hence derivatives related to
research seems to turn around a vi- names of colours and forms related
cious circle. • We assume that the to the semantic sphere ‘bright; to
forms were spread from the Thra- shine; yellow’. Thracian preserved
cian and/or Illyrian substratum,
without a clear etymon, possibly of
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65
Pars prima
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the semantic sphere ‘bright, to nation: (1) an old Turkish origin,
shine’, and associated it to a ‘bald accepted for Romanian and Hungar-
head’. • Given the rich family of ian forms, from qïyïn, *qï?n; (2) in-
related forms in Romanian, via digenous, related with Lith. kentéti,
Thracian, the hypothesis of a Turk- kentIjimas < IE *ken!k! ‘to burn;
ish origin of chel should be defi- thirst, hunger’. We incline for this
nitely abandoned. Note the evolu- latter solution, as the Turkic origin
tion of IE *gh > Thr. gh, kh > Rom. cannot explain the obviously related
ch (k), which does not palatalise to forms in Romanian and Baltic.
;, a feature specific to other forms chircí vb. ref. ‘to crouch, to
as well. cower’. Reflects IE *(s)ker! ‘to
chelbe ‘baldness’. See chel. curve, to bend’, hence also via
chelf#ní ‘to drub, to scold’. Expres- Thracian Cr%ciun, cre# and Cri&
sive derivation from chel (see); from the same IE root, also
‘bald!headed’, from the basic mean- Sl. kr;iti; Rom. cîrcel ‘a cramp’ is
ing ‘to tear somene’s hair to get also indigenous, though some lin-
him/her bald!headed’. See chel for guists still hold it for a Slavic bor-
further related forms. rowing. Related to all these, Eng.
chelíe ‘baldness’. See chel. crouch‘ to cower’. • See cîrceie,
cîrcel, cre# and Cri& from the same
chelós ‘bald’. See chel. IE root.
cherchelí ‘to get drunk (a little bit),
chirfosí ‘to turn around, to meddle
to get dizzy’. As in other instances, in something dirty’. Expressive
formed by reduplication and haplol-
derivation from the same root as in
ogy: *cher!cher!l!i (ker!ker!l!i). chirci.
The ultimate etymon must be IE
chi& s.m. (dial.) ‘wickerwork, a
*(s)ker! ‘to turn, to bend, to curve’,
pen’. Unclear, seemingly indige-
a figurative association when drunk: nous of Thracian origin. Cf. NL
the world around seems to be
Chi&in%u.
curved or bent around.
Chi&in%u NL (BH, Rep. Moldova).
chin ‘pain’. Der. a chinui ‘to tor- At. (in BH): 1331 villa Jeneusol
ment’; chinuitor, adj. ‘tormenting’.
(deformed, instead of expected
There were two directions of expla-
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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*Jeneufol/wa/; falu ‘village’); 1333 of birds, e.g. cioar%, erete, uliu etc.
sacerdos de villa Jeneu. Mediaeval • Var. also cínti#%.
forms show that the initial word was cínti"# See cintez%.
seemingly Ineu, In%u (see). The first cioac# ‘each of the two horizontal
part of the compound, chi&, cannot consoles of a loom’. Seems related
be explained as borrowed from with cioc ‘beak’, i.e. ‘prominence,
Hungarian kis ‘small, little’, but re- protuberance’.
lated to dialectal form chi&, which
cioanc# ‘a pipe with a short trunk’.
also clarifies the meaning of the
The original meaning must have
place!name. Hungarian Kisjen< is
been ‘a piece of wood’, therefore
adapted, via folk etymology, to a
related with ciot, cioc and cioanc%.
Hungarian specific form.
cio!ár#, ciori s.f. ‘a crow’. Related
cimilí ‘to say riddles’. Root cim! / to Alb. sorrë ‘id’, or the Albanian
cin! (alternating m/n reflect syntac- form was borrowed from Roma-
tical phonetics) must be the same as nian? IE root may be *ker!, *kor!,
in cimpoi and cintez% < IE *kan! ‘to *kr!, also with palatalised k, the re-
sing’. Der. cimilitúr% ‘riddle’ leads sult of which is Thracian ;. Hence
to the idea that riddles were initially also interjection cra, imitative of a
melodies. crow’s noise. • The relation between
cimpói" ‘bag!pipe’. Seems related Rom. ; and Alb. s, as in c%ciul% v.
with cíntez% (see), both from IE root kësulë should be carefully analysed.
*kan! ‘to sing’. See also cimilí. • There is also Friulan ;ore, sore
cíntez# The bird Fringilla coelebs; ‘crow’, which is obviously from the
‘chaf!finch’. Masc. cintezoi. Built same etymon; REW (2449) also re-
with suffix !z%/!zoi (fem.–masc.), cords Alpine!Balkanic ;aola, which
cannot explain the Romanian and
e.g. pup%!z%/!zoi; same develop-
Albanian forms, and we dare say
ment in bu!z%, Bu!z%!u etc. Etymon
neither Friulan. The complex rela-
unknown, possibly IE *kan! ‘to tionship between Romanian, Alba-
sing’ (as in Lat. cano, !ere; intensive nian and Friulan should be analysed
canto, !are etc).; belongs to the carefully by future research.
large category of indigenous names

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cio!áreci s.m. pl. (unused as singu- ciuf, ciut (cf. ciot), ciump (ciomp),
lar) A kind of Transylvanian trou- ciut% (see s.v.).
sers; also ‘socks’. IE *(s)keu! ‘to ciocán ‘hammer’. From cioc + !an,
cover, to protect’, hence also cioban a derivation frequent in the indige-
‘a recipient (especially for milk)’, nous elements. • Current dictionar-
ciub%r, c%ciul%. The evolution from ies erroneously assume a Slavic ori-
IE *(s)keu! to Thr. *;u!r!, ;o!r! is gin, even if the relation cioc – cio-
normal, specific to Thracian. can is obvious.
cio!, ciu! Basic root of several ciocléj ‘the lower part of maize
forms with the original meaning trunk after harvesting’. Derived
‘cut short’, i.e. ‘stump, hornless’. from cioc.
See: cioc, ciocan, ciot, NL Ciuc, ciont See ciunt.
NM Ciuca&, NL Ciucea, ciucur(e), ciocói! A pejorative term, now out
ciuf, ciufuli, ciut. The oldest mean- of use, referring to greedy, unscru-
ing seems best preserved in cioc. pulous people. Expressive deriva-
cioban (1) a shepherd; (2) a recipi- tive from cioc ‘beak’, with the basic
ent for liquids. Second meaning cur- meaning ‘to peck (= steal) from
rently absent in most dictionaries. people, to exploit’.
See ban. Current dictionaries, like ciolpán A tree felled down by
DEX, simply ignore the meaning wind; an old tree. Seems derived
‘recipient’, and for sure assume a
from the same root cio!/ciu! as in
Turkish origin for meaning ‘shep-
ciot, ciut, ciont. Alternatively, from
herd’ on the erroneous ground that
*ciop!la!n (as in ciopli), with
intervocalic !b! cannot be preserved
metathesis.
in a substratum word.
ciopîr"í ‘to cut into pieces’. Related
cioc, !uri s.n. ‘a beak, a bill’. Alb. with ciopli.
çok, with the same meaning, is bor-
Cióplea NM, NL (Bucegi) Related
rowed from Romanian. IE basic
with ciopli and ciopîr#i.
root is *kwe!, *kwo! ‘sharp, a sting’,
cioplí ‘to cut wood, to engrave’.
as in ciocan ‘hammer’ (obviously
derived from cioc), ciot, ciuc, ciuc% Archaic, without clear related ele-
ments, cf. Votyak ;apo ‘to cut’,
(as mountain!name Ciuc, Ciuca&),
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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Zerene ;up! ‘to make a notch, to (ignoring the former) is held for a
cut’ (Collinder, CoGr 402). Cf. Turkish borrowing. The substratum
ciopîr#i. The root ciop! [;op!] meant origin is probable, and intervocalic
‘to cut; a cut piece of’. !b! is normal in an indigenous form.
Ciopraga NP From the root ciopli. Ciuc NM See ciuc% and Ciuca&.
cioráp, !i s.m. ‘a sock’. Related Ciúca& The same root as in ciuc%;
with cioareci. Turkish çiorab has see also Ciuc.
been sometimes assumed as the ori- ciuc# rar, dial. ‘a peak’; also NM
gin of the Romanian word; the Ciuc, Ciuca&. Closely related to
sense of borrowing seems reversed, cioc, ciuf (see), as a term with the
as the case of Rom. copil. In fact, same archaic meaning ‘prominent,
ciorap and cioarec are specific sharp, pointed’. • Alb. çukë, S.!Cr.,
terms related to a more northern re- Bulg. ;uka ‘a hill’, Hung. csúcs ‘a
gion, and there archaic relationship peak’ are borrowed from Romanian.
is obvious. Forms ciorap and ciúcur(e) ‘tassel’. Also the plant
cioareci must have the same origin. Campanula glomerata. From the
ciorov#í Pejorative for ‘to speak same archaic root like cioc, ciuc%
nonsense, to gossip’. Expressive and suffix !ur, frequent in the in-
derivation from cioar% ‘crow’, with digenous elements.
the basic meaning ‘to speak like a ciucu&oár# Name of various plants
crow’. Intervocalic v is normal. of the family Alyssum. Derived
ciot s.n. ‘a knot, a gnarl’. Related from ciuc with diminutival suffix.
with cioc. Skok 1: 335 ‘;okot, ;ot su ciuf s.n. ‘a tuft (of hair)’. Also
pred!rimske panonske rije#i’. used for various night birds like
ciúb#r ‘a recipient, usually for owls with two tufts above eyes;
milk’. Usually held for a Slavic bor- named also ciuhurez. Related with
rowing, hence would be also Ger- cioc (see) with the same basic
man Zubar, Zuber. Furthermore, the meaning ‘pointed, prominent’. Final
origin of the Slavic form is obscure. f as in burduf and v%taf, a remnant
• It is probable that this word is of an initial velar spirant (or laryn-
closely akin to cioban ‘recipient’ geal) *X. Similarly, in intervocalic
and ‘shepherd’, in its latter meaning position, ceaf%. The variant
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69
Pars prima
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ciuhurez, with intervocalic h, also ciuléi A small plant (Ceratocapus
witnesses the initial velar spirant, arenarius) with thin and thorny
with different suffix !ur!ez, as in leaves. Derived, together with ciulín
huhurez, also another name for (see), from the same root as in ciul
owls. and ciulín.
ciuf# ‘eagle owl’. Derived from ciulí ‘to prick up (about animals)’,
ciuf. A parallel name of the eagle mainly in the expression a ciuli ure-
owl is huhurez; see also bufni#% and chile (with frequent reference to
buh%. dogs). Closely related with ciul, fur-
ciufulí ‘to have uncombed hair, as ther with its co!radical forms. Cf.
in tufts’. Derived from ciuf. ciufuli.
ciugulí (about birds) ‘to eat grains, ciulín ‘thistle’ (the plant Carduus).
to pick up grains with the bill, to Related with ciulei, both derived
peck’; fig. ‘to pick up or steal small from ciul.
quantities; to learn from other’s Ciule!ándra A specific dance. In
methods by stealing technology’. expressions: a umbla ci(u)leandra
Archaic, seemingly derived from ‘to tramp about’. Related with ciul,
cioc, with a normal evolution o>u, ciuli and suffix !andr!a. • DA 1: 405
and unexplained evolution !k! (!c!) refers to Hung. csellengi ‘to tramp
> !g!: cioc [;ok] > ciocoli [;okoli] > about’, which neither explains the
;uguli. • The root must be archaic, Romanian form, nor its obvious
perhaps already in the Proto!Boreal etymological family.
age, cf. Finno-Ugric ;üng, ;ogjul ciumíz# The plant Setaria italica
‘to peck’. Hung. csokolni ‘to kiss’ maxima. The root cium! (pron.
cannot explain the Romanian form. ;um!) seems the same as in ciump,
ciuhuréz A specific kind of owls further ciunt, ciot etc.
with two tufts above eyes. See ciuf. ciump and ciomp ‘a knot, a gnarl;
ciul adj., obs. ‘with short ears part of a cut limb’. Alb. thump,
(about animals)’; other meanings thumbi ‘a thorn’. Related with ciot
are equivalent with ciut, ciunt, with (see). The correspondence Rom. ci/
which the form is closely related, ce [;] – Alb. th is normal in some
with a different suffix. Cf. c%ciul%. archaic elements.
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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ciung ‘with one arm, one!armed’. ciurlán The plant Salsola ruthenica.
Related with cioc, ciot, ciont. Closely related with ciulin and the
ciunt Variant of ciung (see); also other forms derived from root cio!,
‘shortly cut’, which a semantic vari- ciu! (see ciot, ciunt, ciump etc.). The
ant of ciung/ciunt. difficulty consists in a seemingly
ciuperc# ‘mushroom’. Commonly epenthetic !r! for a more plausible
held as a Slavic or Hungarian bor- *ciulán (as in ciulin). There may be
rowing, even if of obscure origin in an interference with ciur ‘a sieve’
these linguistic families. It should (<(Colloquial Lat. cibrum, classical
be explained as co!radical with ei- cribum). Nevertheless the sequence
ther ciupi or ciump/ciomp and suffix ciu!r!l!án may be inherited from the
!erc!. The form has related forms in substratum as such.
Romanian, not in Slavic or Hungar- ciut dial. also &ut adj. ‘(animal)
ian, where we should assume a bor- without horns’. Related with Alb.
rowing from Romanian. shut ‘id.’, from Thracian *;o!, *;u!,
ciupí vb. ‘to pinch, to sting’. The as in ciot (see) and ciut%.
root *;o!, *;u! may be the same as ciut#, !e s.f. ‘a female deer’ (i.e.
in ciopli or ciot (both see) and their ‘without horns’). See ciut.
rich etymological family. Albanian cî'l"i (only plural) ‘tow, oakum’.
çupis ‘to peck; to pinch’ is bor- Unexplained so far. The derivative a
rowed from Romanian, as the nor- încîlci ‘to tangle, to put in a confuse
mal parallel would be Rom. ce, ci situation’ leads to a basic meaning
(;e, ;i) – Alb. sh (&); see also s.v. ‘confuse, a heap of something’.
ciut, ciut%. Etymon unclear, the Slavic origin
Ciurila NL (CJ) At. 1733 – Csur- improbable (even if accepted by
ila; 1750 – Tsurila. Improbable to some linguists).
be derived from ciur, but rather cî'nep# ‘hemp’, usually held for
from the same root cior!, ciur! reflecting Lat. cannabis. This is de-
[;or!, ;ur!] as in cioar%, with an batable. We are rather inclined for
evolution o > u in unstressed posi- an indigenous, Thracian form akin
tion; or it may be related with ci- to Latin, and to be included in the
urlán. specific category of European!only
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71
Pars prima
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terms referring to farming and with cîrp% ‘a rag, a cloth’ is a
plants. folk!etymology.
cîrcéi!e (pl.) ‘a piece of the cart cîr&# (rare, dial.) ‘peak’. Same root
when four oxen are attached’. Re- as Cîrpa and other forms quoted
lated with cîrcel, chirci, cre# and there. Cf. Hîr&ova.
Cri&, all from IE *(s)ker! ‘to turn, to cîrtí ‘to grumble, to protest’. Seems
bend’. akin to the group derived from IE
cîrcél ‘a cramp’. Closely related *(s)ker! ‘to bend, to curve’ as in cîr-
with cîrcei, chirci, cre# and Cri&. cei, cîrcel, chirci, cîrlion#, Cri&. If so,
cîrlán ‘A small weaned lamb; a the basic meaning was ‘to bend, to
weaned colt’. The basic, archaic get curved by protesting’.
meaning seems to have been ‘off- clintí vb. refl. ‘to move (of its ini-
spring in course of maturing’, and tial place), to begin moving’. Re-
the form belongs to the basic, ar- flects IE *kel! ‘to move, to initiate’,
chaic pastoral life. There is no clear hence also Lat. celer ‘fast’ and Gr.
etymon. Formally, it may belong to klonos ‘agitation’. The preservation
the same root as cîrlig, but the se- of the sequence cl! from Thr. kl!e! is
mantic evolution is not clear. normal (in the Latin elements it
cîrlig ‘a hook’. Related to cre#, Cri& should be che/chi, i.e. ke/ki).
from IE *(s)ker! ‘to bend, to curve’. clip# ‘a moment, an instant’. Re-
The present form must be viewed as lated with clipi.
an evolution IE *(s)ker! > *k!#l# > clipí ‘to blink; to wink’. Closely
Thr. *kur!l! as proved by other ex- related with sclipe# and sclipí, and
amples. See also cîrcei, cîrcel. the best argument that clipí cannot
cîrlión" ‘ringlet; kiss!me!quick’. be of Slavic origin, as in DEX and
From the same IE root *(s)ker! ‘to other authors. The preservation of
bend, to curve’ as in cîrcei, cîrcel, sequence (s)cl! + vowel e/i is nor-
chirci, cre#, Cri&. mal in an indigenous element.
Cîrpa NM Alb. karpë ‘a cliff’. cloamb# A branch, a twig. Seems
Related with NM Carpa#i, NFl, NL related with clintí from IE *kel! ‘to
Cara&. The possible association move’, with a diferrent vowel grade.

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72
Lexicon Etymologicum
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Cluj NL At.: 1183 Culusienses figure after his death. Similarly per-
comes; 1213 Clus, castrum Clus. haps in the case of Blaj.
Claudiopolis, in the Middle Ages. co!ác#z#, !e s.f. The plant Ribes,
Variously explained. Nevertheless gooseberry. Related with Alb. koqë
any tentative should start from the ‘berry; fruit’, koqëzë ‘bonbon’. The
basic meaning, ‘the town/fortress of archaic meaning seems to have been
Claudius’. A direct evolution from ‘round’, in which case the ultimate
the Latin name Claudius > Cluj is origin may be Preie. *K!K!, *G!G!
not possible, but it gives the clue to
‘round, ball!like’, cf. cocoa&%, go-
the topic. Lat. Claudius is derived
goa&%, cocon. • The word also has
from claudico ‘to hobble, to be
lame’, Claudius means ‘lame’ from suffix !%z%, as in brînz%, pup%z%,
rînz% etc.
IE *kleu! ‘to curve, to bend’, hence
two basic meanings were derived: coborî' ‘to go down, to descend’.
(1) ‘an enclosure, a fortress’, e.g. Intervocalic !b! was probably the
Thracian place!names Clev!ora, main reason in assuming that it can-
not have a substratum origin, as
Cleb!ora, Cles!bestita, Clepi!dava
most linguists erroneously assumed.
and (2) ‘curved; lame’, hence Thra-
The verb is formed on the structure
cian personal names Kleous, Kleus,
related to Lat. Claudius. We assume cob!or! (see suffix !or/!ur), while
that the reconstructable, real pro- cob! seems indeed isolated, perhaps
nunciation in Thracian was *Klu" or of Preie. origin (cf. urca ‘go up,
Klu6; " and 6 were, as always in climb’, where the Preie. origin is
similar cases, approximated in the much clearer).
Greek and Latin texts. • If we admit coc# ‘dough, paste’ (for bread or
that basically the origin of the various other similar food products
place!name must be a Thracian per- based on flour). The form must be
sonal name, as calque of Lat. Clau- derived from the usual ball!like
dius, i.e. Klu" or Klu6, the next form of such a paste during prepara-
question is to which Claudius refers tion, therefore is closely related
the place!name. We assume that this with cocoa&% and gogoa&%, each
must be emperor Claudius II group with numerous related forms
Gothicus (268–270), a legendary and derivatives, and from Preie.
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73
Pars prima
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*G!G!, *K!K! ‘to swell, to inflate; cocoa&#, !e s.f. ‘a hump, a hunch’.
an inflated form, like a ball’. Der.: a (se) coco&a, lit. ‘to get a
cocîrl# The small mushroom hunch’, especially with the connota-
Marasmius scorodonius, having a tion ‘to get old’. Related with
smell similar to garlic. The root cocon/cucon, gogoa&%, from Preie.
coc!, with the basic meaning ‘in- *KoK!, *GoG! ‘to swell, to become
flated, a ball’ is the same as in coc%, big’, hence ‘a ( prominence, a
cocoa&% and gogoa&% (see). hunch’. This root is richly attested
in southeast Europe.
cocioab# ‘a small house, a hut’.
Similar to colib%. There are two cocon, !i (also cucon) s.m. 1. obs.
ways to explain this form: (1) a pre- ‘a (small) child, a baby’; 2. obs. ‘a
fix co! and the root *cioab%, which young boyar’, as a polite term, later
makes no sense; (2) a compund of completely replaced by boier. Fem.
IE root *((s)keu! and *kadh!, both cucoan%, cocoan%. 3. (silk) cocoon.
having the meaning ‘to cover, to The neighbouring language have
protect’. The form is archaic, its similar in the feminine only: Bulg.
non!indigenous character has long kokona, kokonica (hence re!bor-
been ignored because of intervo- rowed from Romanian or re!shaped
calic !b!, which is a normal situation after the South Slavic model), Gr.
for the substratum elements. kokona, kokonitsa, Turk. kokona.
All these forms were borrowed, be-
cocláuri ‘lost, isolated places or
yond any resonable doubt, from
regions’. Obscure, with little doubt
Romanian, where – via Thracian – it
of indigenous character. One may
must reflect the archaic Preie. root
think at the same Preie. root *K!K!
*KoK!, *KuK!, as in cocoa&%, go-
‘to swell, to inflate; a ball’, as in
goa&% (see all these). The basic
coc%, cocoa&% etc., which satisfies
meaning was ‘to swell, get big’.
the form, less the meaning.
cocór ‘crane’; the bird Grus grus.
coclé" A part of the loom, in form
Closely related with cucor%, a kind
of a net. Obscure, presumably ar-
of swan, further to the rich group in
chaic; perhaps from the same root
coc!, cuc!: cocoa&%, cocon, cuc%,
like coc%.
cocoan# Feminine form of cocon.
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74
Lexicon Etymologicum
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cucui etc., all reflecting Preie. root tism); S.!Cr. kòleba, koliba (also in
*K!K!, *G!G!. place!names); Bulg, Mac., OCS ko-
coco"á, especially reflexive a se co- liba; also Czech, Slovak koliba; al-
co#á ‘to climb up’. Seems derived ways the meaning is ‘small house’.
from the same root coc!, ultimately The forms are archaic, and refer to a
from Preie. *K!K! ‘to swell, to in- traditional type of dwelling, usually
flate’, as in coc%, cocoa&%, gogoa&%; explained from Gr. kalybe ‘id.’ re-
in this case, the basic meaning must lated with kalypto ‘to cover’, hence
have been ‘swell = go up, climb’. also Kalypso. BER (2: 555) com-
pares it with Czech chalupa, Pol.
codru, !i s.m. 1. dense forest; 2. in chalupa ‘a hut’, but these forms are
codru de pîine ‘big piece/loaf of
unclear (thus in Machek and
bread’ is derived from (1). Related
Holub!Kope#n*. Skok ultimately
with Alb. kodër, kodrë ‘a hill’.
assumes that “it is a Greek word
There are two basic explanations:
borrowed at an early time by Bal-
(a) from IE *kadh! ‘to cover; to pro- kanic Latin, perhaps via Thracian”.
tect’; (b) an ‘expressive’ construc- (For Greek, see Chantraine
tion with co! and Thracian root !dru 1968!1980: 487, s.v. kalypto). Nev-
‘wood, forest’ (as A. Poruciuc be-
ertheless, details like b, not v (with
lieves). • The old explanation from the exception of Alb. kalivë), indi-
Lat. quadrum ‘a square’, starting cate an Old Greek element. If Thra-
from meaning (2) is erroneous. We cian transmitted the word from
rather incline to explain the form Greek to Balkanic Latin, the evolu-
from IE *kadh!. tion a > o may eventually be a
colb ‘dust’. For sure archaic, de- South Slavic influence, but late
rived of the type col!b!, perhaps Thracian also has this evolution in
from Preie. *K!L! ‘stone, gravel’. some situations. In Czech and Slo-
Cf. entry colib%. vak, the term is of Romanian origin
(Machek 269) and seems to have
colib#, !e ‘a small house, a hut’.
the same status as vatr% and
Southeast European ‘technical’
strung%: terms referring to the ar-
term: Alb. kolibë and kalivë (in the
chaic, traditional dwelling. Intervo-
latter case with Neo!Greek phone-
calic l is normal, see bal%, balaur,
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75
Pars prima
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balig% and c%ciul%. Disregarding the *KoP!, *KuP! ‘small’ > ‘small
ultimate origin, the word seems to (tree)’, then ‘tree’ in general. Also
have spread from Thracian. related seems NI Kypros ‘Cyprus’
cop! A basic root supposed to be (hence aes cyprium, cuprum ‘cop-
reflected in copac ‘a tree’, copil ‘a per’), maybe also k*pros ‘a measure
child’, and a rich series of for corn’. The form is archaic in
place!names: Copalnic, Cop%l%u, Romanian, and according to some
Copand, Coplean, Copleand, Co- views, the modern singular copac is
pru, Cop&a. We assume a Preie. ori- re!reconstructed from plural copaci
gin, from *KoP!, *KuP! ‘small, (read kopa;). See further
little’; hence (1) ‘child’ and (2) cross!references s.v. cop!.
‘bush, a small tree’, then ‘tree’ (in Copálnic NL (MM): Copal-
general). • Root cop!, kop!, kup! is nic!Deal, Copalnic!M%n%&tur. At.:
attested in Thracian, cf. place!names 1405 Kwzepsew Kopalnok; 1424
Kopoustoros, Koupous, Cuppae and MonosthorosKapolnok; 1527
personal name Kobos. Monostoros Capal. Probably, as
copác, !i s.m. ‘a (forest) tree’; Alb. most forms derived from root cop!,
kopaç ‘a knot, a stump’. Also in reflects Preie. *KoP!, *KuP!
numerous place!names: Copaci ‘small, little’. See references s.v.
(HD), Copacu (IF), Cop%ceana cop!.
(VS), Cop%cel (BH, BV), Cop%cele Cop#l%u NL (BT) Related with, or
(CS), Cop%celu (VL), Cop%ceni derived from, copil with augmenta-
(several districts), Cop%ce&ti (VN), tive suffix (with pejorative meaning
Cop%cioasa (MH). Undoubtedly now) !%l%u, ca în f%t%l%u, h%ndr%l%u
indigenous Pre!Romance, but a etc.
clear etymon is difficult. Outside Copánd NL (AB, MS) At.: 1288
Romanian and Albanian, where the possessio Coppan (AB); 1285 villa
forms are clearly related (or bor- Coppan, Cuppan (MS). See under
rowed in Albanian from Romanian), cop! and suffix !and.
another plausible approach may be
copíl, !ii (dialectally also cupil)
to Gr. kyparissos, Lat. cupressus
s.m. ‘a child’. Derivatives: copil%,
‘cypress’, probably from Preie. root

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76
Lexicon Etymologicum
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copil%ros, copil%rie, a copil%ri. Parva Kabaz. Another place!name
Probably one of the numerous forms derived from root cop!.
derived from Preie. root *KoP!,
cor! Basic root with the reconstruc-
*KuP! ‘small, little’ (see also
table meaning ‘round, ball!like; to
Selkup, Uralic, kypa ‘small’). Fur- roll down (like a ball); (round) fruit;
ther references s.v. cop!. • Bor- insect’. See corcodu&, corcolí / cor-
rowed from Romanian in all the coní, corhan, corh%ni, coroban% (?),
neighbouring languages, including corobea#%, corozbin%.
Turkish.
corcodú& The tree Prunus cerasifera.
Cople"án NL (CJ) At.: 1348 pos- Seems reduplicated with haplology
sessio Kaplyon, Koplyon. See refer- from *kor!kor!d!u" > corcodu&. The
ences s.v. cop!. root cor! in a name of tree is other-
cople&í vb. ‘to overwhelm (also wise obscure. Its basic meaning may
figuratively), to surround; to im- have been connected to its fruit, there-
press’. Usually explained from Lat. fore see other forms with root cor!
*complexire, which is difficult to below. If so, the meaning of cor! may
accept. The basic, archaic meaning
have been ‘round, ball!like; fruit’.
seems to have been ‘to make small,
corcolí, also corconí ‘to caress
to press, to compress’, and seems
someone, to spoil (a child)’. Etymon
derived from root cop! (see s.v.). •
obscure, probably an indigenous
The ultimate origin is probably
element. If we accept the basic
Preie.
meaning ‘round, ball!like’, hence
Copru NL (CJ) At.: 1329 – terra
‘to play with a ball, with a child’,
Copur; 1379 – Capurd, Kapur. De- the root may be the same as in cor-
rived, as many other forms, from
codu&; also, the derivation, as in
basic root cop! (see). Cf. NI Kypros other cases, by reduplication fol-
‘Cyrpus’, hence also the name of lowed by haplology: *cor!cor!l!,
copper via Latin.
*cor!cor!n! > cor!co!l!, cor!co!n!.
Cop&a: Cop&a Mic#, Cop&a Mare
corhán The insect Blatta ger-
NL (SB) At.: (Cop!a Mare) 1283 –
manica. The root cor! ‘round,
Copus; 1289 – villa Kolx [Kops];
1345 – Capus; (Cop!a Mic$) 1402 – ball!like’ seems the same as in cor-

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codu& and corcolí/corconí; phoneme corúnc# A device used in crude oil
!h! seems to witness the original extraction for pulling out pipes or
velar spirant (laryngeal). Though beams still in place after an acci-
apparently without any etymologi- dent. The term is archaic, and con-
cal relationship, but probably indeed nected to prehistoric activity of
so, see corh%ní below. crude oil extraction in the Carpathi-
corh#ní ‘to roll down felled logs or ans (until the 20th century, crude oil
stumps to a river or road (where was still exploitable at the surface
they may be further carried on with of earth or at little depth). The root
a cart or raft)’. Even if without an seems the same as in cor! (see fur-
apparent relationship, seems derived ther connections there). The original
from, or closely akin to, corhán, and meaning must have been ‘round,
confirms the basic meaning of root claw’, from the form of the device.
cor! ‘round, ball!like’, hence ‘to roll co&cán# The root and part of the
down (like a ball)’. reed or rush trunk after harvesting.
corobán# (reg.) ‘a hollow (in a The root co&! with the reconstructa-
tree)’. Either derived from the root ble meaning ‘knot, gnarl’ (see also
cor! (see further references there) or ciot and the references) seems the
to scórbur%, with identical meaning, same as in co&mag% and co&melie,
both having the meaning ‘small
from IE *(s)ker!, ‘to cut’, in this
house, hut, modest shelter’.
case with o!grade vowel.
co&mág# ‘a small, humble hut’.
corobeá"# ‘wild apple’. Derived
Seems the same root as in co&can%.
from root cor!, also in another fruit
co&melíe ‘a small, humble hut’. See
name corcodu&% (with reduplica-
co&can% and co&mag%. Var. also
tion).
cu!melíe.'
corozbín# The small multi-
cotárl# ‘bad and skinny dog’. The
coloured fish Blennius sanguinolen-
root cot! for a domestic animal must
tus. Seems derived from the same
be the same as in cotoi and co-
root cor! (see there further connec-
to&man.
tions).
cotói" ‘tomcat’. Commonly ex-
plained as a derivative from Sl. root
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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kot! ‘cat’ (as in Czech kotA ‘kitten’), cotrob#í ‘to fumble, to rummage’.
even if such a derivation is not easy Used mainly pejoratively when
to explain, as words in !ai/!%i, !ei, someone illegally peeks into a per-
!oi, !ui are often indigenous, not son’s objects. There are two ways of
borrowed (see m%lai, v%trai etc.). explaining it: (1) Either an ‘expres-
As in the case of motan v. mî#%, and sive’ prefix co! and trob!, of obscure
pisic%, it is rather probable an in- origin; (2) or rather related with co-
digenous root akin to, not borrowed tropi, with expressive and pejorative
from, Slavic; also related with Lat. deformation of the initial form. It is
cattus. See further discussions under probable that initially cotropi and
mî#%. Form coto&man is from the cotrob%i were variants of the same
same root. root.
cotolán ‘maize cob’. Formerly with cotróg reg. ‘a shelter, a refuge’. If
the meaning ‘stump, stub, tab’, as in the original meaning referred to an
cotor. animal’s shelter, then must be de-
rived from the same root as in cotoi,
cotór ‘stub, tab; stalk, stump’. The
cotarl% and coto&man.
root cot! is also in cotolan and co-
toroan#%, and must be indigenous. cotropí ‘to invade’ (the traditional
The semantic sphere is tangent with term for invading a territory). Held
the family derived from ciot, but a by Russu for indigenous, though
closer relationship is not possible, other linguists assume a Romance
unless we assume a typically satem derivative from con + torpeo. Both
evolution in ciot v. a centum evolu- the indigenous and Latin theories
tion in cotor, which is not supported put problems of phonetic evolution.
by other possible examples. The Obviously, initial co! (assumed by
root cot!, with suffixes !or!/!ur! and some linguists like Poruciuc to re-
flect an indigenous contruction, as
!ol! may be of Preie. origin.
in co!pil, co!dru etc.) and second
cotoroán"# ‘old, ugly and wicked
part trop! offer a way to explain the
woman’. An expressive, pejorative
form by a prefix and the root trop,
derivation from cotor.
as in a trop%i (about horses) ‘to
coto&mán ‘tom!cat’. See cotoi. make the specific noise when run-

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ning’, which is in full accordance Romanian, respectively, also bor-
with the basically military meaning rowed by the Slavs.
of the verb; also trop!trop, tro- crapán A device formed of ropes
pa!trop, interjection, imitative for and hooks used for loading or un-
the noise of horses at high speed. loading heavy objects. Related with
The basic root may be the same as cîrlig ‘hook’, with a different vowel
in Latin tereo, terere, but the Roma- grade.
nian form seems to rather reflect an creang#, pl. crengi s.f. ‘a branch, a
indigenous root + the Latin prefix twig’. Seems related to the group
con > co, if not just related with its derived from IE *(s)ker! ‘to bend,
Latin counterpart, not derived from to curve’, e.g. cre#, Cri&.
it, as shown by the quite numerous
Crengu"a NP Derived from cre-
forms of indigenous origin with ini-
ang% and/or NP m. Creang%. • In
tial co!. folk beliefs, NP Crengu#a is consid-
crap, !i s.m. Fish Cyprinus carpio. ered a symbol of freshness, fragility
Similar forms in other languages and continuity (Ionescu 1975: 95).
too: M. Lat. carpa (sec. VI e.n.), Fr. cre" adj. ‘curly!haired; bent’. NP
carpe, Eng. carp, Gm. Karpfen, Sl. Cre#u, Cre#ia, Cre#eanu, Cre#ulescu
korp1, Lith. karpa, Latvian karpe, etc. Der.: a încre#i, descre#i. From
k%rpa, Alb. krap. Usually consid- IE *(s)ker! ‘to curve, to bend’,
ered a Slavic borrowing. The name hence also Cri&, crac%, creang%,
of this fish reflects an archaic, com- Cr%ciun, curcubeu, curs%, curpen
plex situation. Wasserzieher (115) (see).
correctly noted that the name should
Cri& NFl Important river with three
be related with Carpathians, Rom.
ramification: Cri&ul Alb (White Cri!),
Carpa#i (see), the fish Cyprinus
Cri&ul Repede (Swift Cri!) and Cri&ul
Carpio being therefore ‘fish of the
Negru (Black Cri!). Ancient Krisos,
Carpathians’. In this perspective, it
Crisia, Grisia, Gresia. Reflects IE
seems that the Slavs borrowed the
word from either Romanian or even *(s)ker! ‘to curve, to bend’. Related
Thracian. Cf. nisetru, #ipar and, on with cre#, crac%, creang%, Cr%ciun,
the other hand, cum%tr% and colib%, criv%#, curcubeu, curs%, curpen (see).
archaic indigenous or Latin forms in Hung. Körös is borrowed from Ro-
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manian, with svarabhakti (epenthetic crî'ncen ‘terrible, violent, pas-
vowel). sionate’. The original meaning
crivác A rudimentary device for- seems to have been connected to ‘to
merly used for loading salt boulders bend, to curve’, and therefore is re-
to the surface. From IE *(s)ker! ‘to lated to the group represented by
curve, to bend’, hence ‘crook’ as in cîrceie, cîrcel, cîrlig, cîrlion#, cîrti
cîrlig (and also Eng. crook). • Sl. (see all these), with metathesis of
liquid r, which may be based on a
root kriv! ‘curved, bent’ is related
Thracian prototype.
with this, but does not seem to be
the origin of Romanian form, but an cru"á ‘to spare, to take care of, to
interference is of course possible. defend someone’s life’. Archaic,
basic term of a traditional society.
crív#" ‘a powerful stormy wind
The initial meaning seems to have
blowing from the east in winter’.
been ‘to protect, to defend’, so the
The original meaning must have
etymon might be the same as in
been ‘a powerful wind which
curves, bends and/or destroys’, so cre#, Cri& etc. < IE *(s)ker! ‘to turn,
the form must belong to the family to bend’, hence ‘to curve, bend in
represented by cre# (see), Cri&, etc. order to defend’.
< IE *(s)ker! ‘to bend, to curve’. cubélc Variant of culbec.
Cf. viscol. cuc! Alternating with coc!. A root,
crîmpéi! ‘a flash, a glitter’, figura- ultimately of Preie. origin, present
tively also ‘a selection, a moment’. in numerous forms with the basic
The basic meaning seems ‘a glitter, meaning ‘peak, prominence’, in
flash’, and therefore probably re- both vocabulary and place!names.
lated with scrum (see). • DEX in- See mainly cuc%, cucor%, cucui and
correctly refers to a supposed Sl. the parallel forms with radical coc!.
kr@mp1 ‘small’. cuc# 1. ‘high and isolated hill or
crîmpo&íe An indigenous type of mountain’. 2. A specific high cap
vine, and the wine produced of its held in the Middle Ages during
grapes. Seems derived, in obscure ceremonies. Archaic, Preie. origin,
circumstances, from crîmpei. related with cocon, coac%z%, co-
coa&% (see), root *K!K!, *G!G!

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‘round, prominent, peak’. DEX as- culbéc Reg. ‘snail’ (cf. usual form
sumes a Turkish origin for cuc% melc). Also cubelc. One may won-
‘cap’, and unknown origin for cuc% der which is the basic form, and
‘mountain’, even if the derivation which one is by metathesis. In our
‘hill, peak’ > ‘a (high) cap similar to view, cubelc is newer, via metathe-
a peak’ is obvious. • Turkish kuka is sis and influenced by melc, which is
a borrowing from Romanian (de- the basic word for ‘snail’ in Roma-
spite the reverse hypothesis advo- nian (also indigenous). Form culbec
cated in DEX). This is obvious by seems derived from a root cul!, per-
comparing the rich family of the haps of Preie. origin, root *K!L!
forms in Romanian, all of Preie. ‘elevation, prominence’, which
origin, against the isolated form in would be in accordance of the basic
Turkish. root *M!L! for melc, also of Preie.
cúcor# ‘a species of swan with a origin. Note suffix !c in both culbec
black protuberence on the beak’. and melc. Form culbec seems there-
Related with cocor and akin to the fore archaic and isolated in Roma-
large family represented by cocon, nian.
coac%z%, cocoa&%. culíc The bird Numenius, with a
cucúi! ‘bump’. Akin to cuc%, cu- long and curved beak and with
cor%, ultimately reflecting Preie. brownish feathers. Seems derived
root *K!K!, *G!G!. from Preie. root *K!L! ‘elevation,
Cucu(i)e"i Derived from the root peak’, the same as in culbec above.
cuc! as in cuc%, cucui, Cucora etc. cupil See copil.
Cucurí& NL (HD) From the same Curcub%ta NM (1848 m, the high-
basic root cuc! as in cuc%, cucui, est peak in West Carpathians). Re-
Cucora etc. lated with curcubeu (see).
Cugír NFl, NL Must be derived curcubéu!, !eie s.n. 1. ‘rainbow’; 2.
from the same archaic Preie. root the plant Lychnis coronaria. Redu-
*K!K!, *G!G!, as in cuc%, gog%, in plicated, as other indigenous forms,
this case with alternating c(k)/g in *kur!kur!b!, IE *(s)ker!‘to curve, to
the root. bend’; the archaic meaning must
have been ‘bow [bent] in the sky’.
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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Essential term of folk beliefs. The ‘to curve, to bend’. Related with
plant is such named probably from cre#, crac%, creang%, Cr%ciun, cur-
its capsule!like fruit, perhaps also cubeu, curpen, Cri& (see).
influenced by curcubét% ‘pumpkin’ custur#, custure ‘a cutting edge; a
< Lat. cucurbita. specific knife; any cutting object’.
curmá ‘to cut wood across; to cut Held by Russu for indigenous; other
in general; to stop an action’. Seems linguists hold it for a folk derivation
related with a scurma ‘to dig the from cu#it > cu#itur% (from Latin).
earth (e.g. referring to pigs); to scru- If the Latin origin is to be rejected,
tinise an action’. If this relation is then we may surmise a form related
accepted, then the ultimate etymon with Latin.
may have been the same as in cre#, cu&melíe See co&melie.
Cri& etc. < IE *(s)ker! ‘to turn, to cu"u 1. interj. a call for dogs; 2. a
bend, to curve’. See also the proba- (small) dog. An archaic root for de-
bly related forms zgîrma and zgîria, nominating dogs, also related with
with alternating c/k according to some Uralic forms: Vogul ku;u
phonetic syntax. • Alb. kurmue may ‘small dog’, Ziriac kuti ‘dog’, Hung.
be borrowed from, not precisely re- kutya ‘dog’. The phonetic structure
lated with, curmá. does not allow the hypothesis of a
cúrp#n, curpen !i s.m. 1. branch of Hungarian borrowing. Cf. &o.
a creeping plant; 2. various species
of plant Clematis. Alb. kulpër(e), !d! Suffix, especially toponymical,
kurpur, kurpen. the archaic meaning e.g. Deda, Turda; seems from the
must have been ‘bent, curve’, IE same root as Deva, Thracian dava,
*J(s)ker! ‘to bend, to curve’. • Re- deva, dova ‘fortress, castle’.
lated with crac%, creang%, Cr%ciun,
da!, da!da!, also do!, du! Archaic
curcubeu, curs%, curpen (see). Alb.
root, probably of Preie. origin, in
kurpen seems rather borrowed from
some forms reflecting mainly the
Romanian.
musical sphere, or derived from it:
curs#, !e s.f. ‘a trap’, an archaic dad%/dod%, doic%/duic%, dain%/
mechanism for catching animals. doin%, a d%inui, duios (also doios,
Alb. kurthë ‘id.’ from IE *(s)ker! dial.). The root is also frequent in
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83
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feminine personal given names and doios/duios, dain%/doin%, a d%inui.
some family names, e.g. Daina/ dain# (dial.), doin# The specific
Doina, Doina&, Doineanu etc. The Romanian song. Related with Lith.
main representative of this group is dainà, Latvian daiKa as long noted
dain%, doin%, the specific Romanian by Hasdeu at the end of the 19th
song. The origin is Preie., root century. The root seems to be da!da,
*DA!, *DO! with the reconstructa- dai! ‘to sing, to lull a baby asleep by
ble meaning ‘to sing; to play an in- singing’, and belongs to the basic,
strument’, hence ‘to lull a baby archaic vocabulary. The Albanian
asleep; wet nurse’. The words de- parallel is perhaps dajrë ‘a tambu-
rived from this family formed a rine, a drum’ (with rotacisation of
compact etymological group. As intervocalic !n!). The same root
such, da, da!da is also an interjec- must have been in Dacus, Daci, the
tion imitative of long, lament songs. Dacians (the northern branch of the
• The linguists who simply assumed Thracians), the most plausible
an interjection specific to children’s meaning of this ethnic name, as the
language are wrong, even though its Thracians in general, and the Daci-
ultimate origin points to it; yet in ans in particular, were known as
many similar situations the evolu-
good musicians; also in Dece!neus,
tion had an early start towards inde- the attested priest of king Dece-
pendent developments, cf. ga!ga. balus. Also related must be dad%,
dad#, also dod# Derived from the dod% ‘a polite term for a beloved
basic root da!, da!da!, also do!, du! girl or older woman’, duios, doios
as in dain%, doin%. ‘soft, sweet, mild’ (about songs).
Daia NL (AB, HR, IF, MS, SB). Also frequent as personal, given or
Must be derived from the root da!, family, name: Doina, Doina&, Do-
ineanu etc. (detailed in S. Paliga,
da!da (see), and therefore related
Actes du XIVe symposium national
with the rich group derived from it.
de thracologie, reprinted in Paliga
daic# (dial.), usually literary form is 1999). • The various, local typolo-
doic#, also rarely duic#. Derived gies of the doinas were analysed
from the root da!, da!da!, and is and classified by Béla Bartók (see
closely related with dad%/dod%,
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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his correspondence with the Roma- d#hulá See d%ula.
nian musicians). d#inuí ‘to last, to keep for a long
Dalu NP The same root as in deal. time’. Derived from dain%/doin%,
dar Conj. ‘but’. Obviously related the specific Romanian song, which
with iar (see). We assume a com- is typically a long song of lament.
pound with de (< Latin de, very fre- d#rîmá ‘to put down, to demolish,
quent in Romanian derivatives) and to destroy’. Alb. dërmón. The hy-
iar. pothesis of a local derivation start-
dará Rare. From the same root as ing from Latin de and rimo does not
adaru (mainly Aromanian). seem to make sense. The basic
meaning may be reconstructed as
dárie The plant Pedicularis cam-
‘to put down, to destroy to earth’,
pestris. Origin obscure, presumably
or, better, ‘to make earth’. In such a
indigenous. The root dar! for a
case, the root must be reconstucted
name of plant seems isolated.
as *D!R! and seems the same as
da& ‘home lamb’ (dialectal); related
*T!R!, as in t%rîm. The origin seems
with Alb. dash ‘a ram’. Seems de-
to be Preie., from the basic meaning
rived from IE *dh7(i)! ‘to suck’,
‘earth, ground’, for this verb ‘to de-
hence also Alb. delë ‘a sheep’. Some stroy to the ground, to make (a
linguists assume that Romanian form
building) earth’. • Yet a colloquial
may be a recent borrowing from Al- Latin and East Romance form
banian, which – as in all similar
*de!rimare cannot be rejected, even
cases, of supposed borrowings from
if improbable.
Albanian – should be now consid-
ered erroneous, as there is no histori- d#ulá ‘to exhaust, to get rid of
cal or cultural background to admit physical power’. Obscure, very
such borrowings. It may be rather a probably archaic. The form may be
Romanian borrowing in Albanian. either interpreted as built with prefix
de!, d%! and the basic root ul!,
Da&a, also Da&ea, Da&u NP The
same root as in da&. which may be the same Preie. root
as in the forms quoted under root
Da&ova NL From the same root as
ol!, ul!, having the basic meaning
da& and Slavic suffix !ova (as in ‘high, peak, mountain’. If so, d%ula
Hîr&ova, Drencova).
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85
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may have meant ‘to get down from rites were accompanied by music.
the peak’ = ‘to exhaust power’; al- de Used as a relative and in certain
ternatively, a root daul!, obscure, linking constructions. With this
may be postulated. • The archaic meaning, it must be discriminated
origin is probable. The dialectal against de < Lat. de, usually a
variants d%hulá, dehulá, with inter- preposition or a prefix, and rather
vocalic !h!, may indicate an original linked to Alb. dhe ‘and; also, too’.
velar spirant *X > h. If so, a root With this meanings, this must be
*Xul! may be postulated, non ana- held for indigenous, and interfering
lysable. Cf. d%ulí. with de of Latin origin.
d#ulí ‘to bewail, to lament’. Var. Deaj NL (MS) The same as in
d%olí. We may think that this form Dej. Pron. de!aj, which confirms
is built with prefix de and aoleu, an that Dej also was pronounced with
interjection of bewail or lament. two syllables.
Even if the derivation is newer, in- deal ‘hill’. Basic word of the vo-
terjection aoleo, aoleu may be in- cabulary; very frequent in
digenous, and the form may be ar- place!names (also in the long de-
chaic. DEX simply assumes that bated form Ar!deal, see). Long, and
aoleu in onomatopoeic. Another erroneously, held for a Slavic bor-
possibility is to see the verb closely rowing. It reflects the archaic Preie.
related with the forms derived from
root *D!L!, *T!L! ‘hill, mountain’,
da!, do!, du!, hence the most com- largely spread in European
mon is doin%, dain%, duin% (see for
place!names. The Slavic roots dAl!1
further references of this rich fam-
ily), the typical Romanian folk ‘to make, work’ and dAl!2 ‘to divide’
song; from the same root also the have nothing to do with the Roma-
ethnonym Daci, Dacisci, the north- nian form; we must assume an inter-
ern branch of the Thracians. We are ference when forms of Slavic (or
inclined to supporting this latter ex- possibly Slavic) origin interfered
planation, which is in full accor- with the indigenous forms, e.g.
dance with other data and preserv- Pre!deal, which is improbably
ing the tradition of the Thracians as Slavic, but rather created in Roma-
good musicians, and whose burial
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86
Lexicon Etymologicum
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nian, with the meaning ‘on the hill’, table meaning ‘confuse, unclear’,
as opposed to sub deal ‘under the with prefix de! changing sense.
hill’. Derna NL (BH) At. 1406 – pos-
Deda NL (MS) At. 1393 – possessio sessio walachalis Olahdarna.
Deda. Cf. Thr. LM.34 (quoted in Seems the same archaic Preie. root
Pokorny 235) < IE *dh7! ‘to set, to as in the reduplicated form derdelu&,
put’, as in Deta and Deva. Preie. *D!R!, *D!L! ‘hill, eleva-
dehulá See d%ula. tion’; cf. Dorna, seemingly the
same root with alternating e/o.
Dej NL (CJ) At. 1214 – Dees;
1261 – Deeswar; 1284 – villa desb#rá, dezb#ra ‘to get rid of; to
Deeswaar. Earliest attested forms cast/put away’. Unclear, probably
indicate an original pronunciation indigenous. Seems derived from a
*De!e& > *De!ej > Dej. Related root *b%r!/*ber! with prefix de(s)/
with Deda, Deja, Deta, Deva, Deve. de(z), and also presupposes an older
See also Deaj, two syllables, which form *îmb%ra on the parallel a de-
confirms that initially Dej had two schide ‘to open’ – ‘a închide’ ‘to
syllables as well. close’, both on the basis of Latin
Deja NL (SJ) Related with Dej. root ‘to close’ – claudo. A Latin
origin of desb%ra, dezb%ra does not
derdelu& ‘a coast, an elevated place seem probable, except for the prefix
where children sledge’. By redupli-
(which may ultimately be indige-
cation, then haplology, nous too, and related with, not de-
*der!der!l!u&, Preie. root *D!R!, rived from, Latin). If the basic
akin to *D!L! ‘hill, hillock’. Ar- meaning of desb%ra is ‘to put away,
chaic. Intervocalic !l! is normal in a to get rid of’ (as opposed to the pre-
substratum word. supposed, unpreserved form
dereticá Held by Russu for indige- *îmb%ra), then the IE root may be
nous, even though the Latin origin *bher! ‘to bear, to carry’, as in
is rather probable: de!radicare. If burt%, bor#os/bor#oas%. If so, the
not a local creation in colloquial original meaning may have been,
Latin, then just Latin prefix de! and with specific reference to pregnant
a root ret!, rat! with the reconstruc- women, ‘to get rid of pregnancy, to

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87
Pars prima
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abort a baby’, i.e. ‘to put away the destr#má ‘to unravel, to tear’,
baby’, hence a generalised meaning mainly referring to threads of a tis-
‘to get rid of’. The semantic sphere sue, like clothes. With prefix de!
is colloquial, and the term presuma- from the same root of strai ‘clothes’
bly referred to young, unmarried and stram% ‘thread’.
girls who remained pregnant and de&ela Derived from &ale (see).
found solutions to get rid of preg-
Deta NL (TM) At. 1360 – Deed;
nancy. Beyond any doubt archaic.
1411 – Ded. Related with Deda, Dej
descurcá The opposite of încurca and Deva.
(see).
Deva NL (HD) At.: 1269 – cas-
desghiná See dezghina, as opposite trum Deva; 1303 – Dewa. Undoubt-
of înghina. edly reflects Thracian deva, dava ‘a
desmierdá, dezmierda ‘to caress’. fortress’ (also deba) < IE *dh7! ‘to
There is a long debate on this word, set, to put’. Cf. Deve, Dej, Deda,
theoretically derived, or derivable, Deta. • Intervocalic v is normal in
from Latin de and merdum. For an indigenous element. In South
many linguists, this cannot be a Thracian, NL Pulpudeva, now
‘scientific’ explanation, therefore Plovdiv in Bulgaria.
the analysis has remained pe- Deve NL (AB) Related with NL
riphereal. Nevertheless if we admit Deva.
that the word referred to ‘cleaning
dezghiná ‘to unmount, to put
up a baby’, then the basic meaning
pieces, components apart’. The verb
‘to clean up a baby’s merdum’,
which – in practical terms – means dez(des)!ghina is the opposite of
‘to make a baby happy, to make a în!ghina, which is a common paral-
baby feel good’, hence the generic, lel derivation in Romanian, e.g. în-
and erotic, meaning ‘to caress’. In chide ‘to close’ – deschide ‘to open’
this perspective, a desmierda is in- etc.
deed a local derivative in Late, dibaci adj. ‘deft, skillful’. Der.: a
Post!Classical Latin, not an indige- dib%ci, dib%cie. Related with first
nous, Thracian element. part of Dabato!peios ‘the Deus Fa-
ber of the Thracians’, i.e. ‘the skill-

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Lexicon Etymologicum
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ful god’ < ie. *dhabh! ‘to set, to but the semantic association is not
match, to fit’. • Intervocalic b is clear. If not so, another root dîr!m!
normal. Cf. dibui. probably of indigenous origin too.
dibuí vb. 1. ‘to hesitate, to search dîrvál# ‘exhausting, hard work’.
hesitatingly’; 2. ‘to guess, to fit’. Must Used for referring to both humans
be co!radical with dibaci (see). It is and animals, especially horses, in
less probable to be derived from a the expression de dîrval% ‘for hard,
Germanic idiom, cf. Germanic exhausting work’. The word was
*duppjan (> Eng. to dip), *diub!, initially specific to the hard work of
*dub! ‘id.’ < IE *dheub! ‘deep; a hol- horses, by extension later applied to
low’; the hypothesis of a Germanic humans. If so, it must be derived
from the same root as dîrlog, a spe-
borrowing in Thracian or Post!Classi-
cific term applied to horses.
cal Latin is indeed difficult.
dîrz ‘bold, steadfast, enduring’.
dîmb ‘a hillock’. Akin to Gr. %+5&'
Also related is Thracian ND Derze-
‘grave’ < IE *dhAbh ‘elevation,
las ‘the bold, steadfast god’. Re-
hill’. The sometimes invoked Slavic
lated with Avestan dar"yu! ‘bold,
origin, from d@bN ‘oak’, is not ac-
powerful’, Lith. drOsùs ‘bold’ etc. •
ceptable. (Poghirc RRL 12/1968:
Slavic d4rz1, often held for the ori-
210; LR 17/1968: 19).
gin of the Romanian form, is rather
dîrloág# ‘a jade, a bad horse’. Akin
again a substratum, Thracian, ele-
to dîrlog.
ment in Slavic, as proved by the
dîrlóg ‘(bridle) rein’; also variant phonetic evolution and the general
of dîrloag%. Archaic, specific term comparative tableau of the forms.
of horse use in traction. The root Also, the Thracian god!name does
dîr! seems the same as in Avestan not support the hypothesis of a
dra6aite ‘he holds, keeps’, Slavic Slavic element in Romanian.
d4r6@, d4r6i7i, d4r6ati ‘to hold, to dod# See dad%.
keep’. The same root in dîrz. dódii! Now only in expressions a
dîrmóz The bushy plant Viburnum vorbi în dodii ‘to talk or speak non-
lantana. Seems akin to dîrlog, from sense’; a l%sa în dodii, a l%sa în do-
the same root dîr! ‘to hold, to keep’, diile lui ‘to let someone with his

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whimsical behaviour’ etc. The form ‘river!side’; if so, Do!mal!d may
is surely connected to the root da!, have meant ‘two river!sides’. Both
do!, du! as also în dod% and doin%. components of the compound are
The root is connected to the seman- indigenous.
tic sphere ‘to sing (a typical long dop ‘a cork’; any object similar to
and lamenting song)’, hence ‘person a cork used for closing up a recipi-
singing’, formerly also presumably ent. Sometimes held for a borrow-
‘sacred song’, and the association ing from German (the German dia-
with the persons fallen into magical lects in Transylvania), which does
trance. When the original pre!Chris- not seem probable. Saxon (Transyl-
tian connotation was lost, the form vanian) Tap may rather seem a re-
became periphereal and got pejora- lated form. The derived verb a în-
tive connotations. See also d%uli. dopa ‘to feed up (an animal, pejora-
doic# See daic%. tively about humans) does not sup-
doios Dialectal. See duios. port the German origin either. Ety-
mon and origin still debatable. Pos-
dolc# rare today, dial. ‘a bitch, a
sibly, as Russu suggests, IE
she!dog’. Usual in rural areas as a
*dheubh! ‘a stake, a peg’ (Pokorny
(she!)dog name Dolca. See dul%u. 268) or *dPp ‘a cut part, a piece’.
dolofán ‘fat, plump’. An expressive dord Also durd. See durduliu.
equivalent of durduliu (see). The
Dorna NFl The same root as in
root dol! ‘fat’ is isolated, and inter-
Derna, with alternating e/o. A
vocalic !f! indicates an original ve- Slavic origin, from a supposed root
lar spirant (laryngeal). It is possible
dor!, is not probable, as some lin-
to see in dol! a variant of dor!, dur! guists still assume. Iordan 1963:
as in durduliu, which are semanti- 510 refers to a dialectal form dorn%
cally identical. See also dulu#%. ‘a whirl’.
Domald NFl, a tributary of Tîrnava. Drancea NL Also Drîncea,
A German (Saxon) or Hungarian ori- Drînceni (Iordan, 1963: 65). Akin to
gin does not seem plausible. The Drencova, which has the oldest at-
form would indicate *do!mal!d!, tested forms.
with do! ‘two’ and mal!d! as in mal

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Drencova NL (CS) Probably re- may have been ‘fear’, hence ‘a
lated with NFl Drina (Serbia). Simi- frightful quantity’. Nevertheless,
lar forms are attested in Thracian: an Albanian origin is at least debat-
8#93,.), 8#-,.) (Priscius), with able, if not outright impossible. See
the alternating : – - as a hesitation Brâncu!, SCL 12/1961: 198 ff.
given to a sound absent in Greek. drog The plant Genista albida or
Similar forms are attested in Illy- the plant Genista oligosperma. As a
rian: 8#(,&$;)(, 8(#,&$;)(. • The name of plant, must be akin to
Romanian place!name is attested as dre#e.
Dranka in 1451 and as Drenkova in druete rar, dial. (Oltenia) ‘wood;
1693. The suffix is Slavic. Cf. timber’. Alb. dru, pl. drutë ‘id.’.
Hîr&ova, Or&ova etc. Seemingly from the same root as
dre"e The aquatic plant Nymphaea ancient Thracian NL Drubeta,
lotus thermalis; also the plant Lysi- Drobeta, cf. drys ‘wood; timber’,
machia nummularia, used in folk Sl. dr<vo ‘id.’. Thracian root dro!,
medicine. The form should be akin dru! may be identified in several
to Drencova and other river!names forms. See also codru, if a deriva-
derived from the root dre!, dri!, tion co!dru may be accepted. Sug-
which would satisfy at least the gested IE root is *derew(o)! ‘tree’,
meaning for the aquatic plant. We perhaps specifically ‘oak!tree’.
may assume another etymon, for the
drum, !uri s.n. ‘a road, a street’.
time being obscure, but the form is
Similar Alb. dhrom, Bg. drom,
very probably archaic. See also
S.!Cr. drum. It is commonly as-
drog.
sumed that southeast European
Dridu NL The same etymon as in forms reflect Gr. dromos, in Old
Drava, Dreta, Drina, Drinja;a Greek having the meaning ‘(horse)
(Lexicon A). race’, ‘race track’, and in Modern
droaie ‘a large quantity, a lot of’, Greek ‘a road’. In such a case the
like in sequence o droaie de copii evolution Gr. o > Rom. u (stressed)
‘a lot of children’ etc. Compared is not clear and without other exam-
with Alb. droe, droje ‘fear, fright’. ple. • Our hypothesis is that the
In this view, the archaic meaning forms are of Thracian origin, cf.
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Thracian NL Ana!draimos, trans- normal in ALL the indigenous ele-
lated in the Antiquity as ennea ho- ments of Romanian, cf. c%ciul% etc.
doi ‘nine roads’. The Modern Greek See also dolc%, the feminine form of
form may be re!modelled after Ro- dul%u. Very probably, the same root
manian. In any case, the forms are dul!, dol! is in the verb a adulmeca
old all over southeast Europe, and (see).
early attested in East Romance (Pro- dulú"# Only in expressions like a
to!Romanian). In modern Roma- se duce dulu#% ‘to roll down like a
nian, another equivalent is cale. ball’. Must be from the same root as
dughíe The plant Genista oli- dolofan ‘fat, plump’, root dol!, dul!
gosperma used as fodder. Obscure, ‘round, ball!like, fat’.
presumably indigenous. dumbé" Another name of plant scli-
duic# See daic%, doic%. pe# (see). Obscure, perhaps from the
duios ‘mild, soft’ (with special ref- same root as Sl. dQbN ‘oak’, yet a
erence to songs). Derived from the Slavic origin does not seem possible.
same root da!, da!da, do!, do!do, Dún#re(a) NFl The indigenous
the base of a series of words like Romanian name of the Danube. See
dain%/doin%, dad%/dod%, a d%inui Dunav, Dunava, Dunaj in Lexicon
etc. A. Also indigenous are Chilia and
dul%u, dul%i s.m. ‘(big, wicked) Sulina, two branches of the Danube
dog’. Held by Hasdeu for a Thra- Delta, and also Tulcea, the most im-
cian element by comparing it with portant town of the Danube Delta
Lydian Kan!daules ‘dog killer’, region. Cf. Mure! which reflects the
Thracian Kandaon, Kandaios ‘epi- same evolution Thr. : > Rom. u (via
thet of Ares’. The approach may be a phoneme like ô) and a mura ‘to
doubtful, but most linguists have pickle’. The reconstructable etymon
denied its obvious archaic origin,
for (late) Thracian is D=n!ar! with
disregarding the etymon, on the er-
evolution = > ô > u and o (in some
roneous ground that intervocalic l
dialects). • Slavic and Hungarian
would show its newer origin. As
proved by the numerous examples forms with root Dun! reflect their
in this lexicon, intervocalic l is Romanian origin.

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durd Variant of dord; see mainly du&!man, the second part of which
durduliu. is related with NP Manea, Manu
durdulíu! ‘fat’ (colloquial, approx. etc. • The hypothesis of a Turkish
‘plumpy’). The root is connected to borrowing is not justified; not even
the archaic conception ‘to swell, to a possible Greek influence cannot
get fat’. Mu!u (1982: 64 ff.) ex- be ultimately accepted.
plained the historical and semantic
context of this form, unboubtedly of eréte ‘harrier’ (bird circus). Re-
archaic, indigenous origin. The IE lated with Lith. erelis ‘eagle’, fur-
etymon is probably *dher!, *dhor!, ther Sl. orel4 ‘id.’ Belongs to the
*dhB! ‘to come out, to get out’. For important group of substratum
Thracian, we must start from a ze- words referring to flora and fauna
ro!grade *dhr!, with evolution IE (e.g. cocor, mistre#, ra#%, #ap etc.).
*dhB! > Thr. dur!, which is normal. !esc Very productive adjectival
The modern form, probably reflect- suffix; !escu typical for personal
ing the original form, is a reduplica- names; !e&ti is the plural of !escu.
tion, followed by haplology: See also !e&te. Attested in Thracian
*dur!dur!l! > dur!du!l!. Intervo-
as !isko!, cf. Alb. !ish. Interferes
calic !l! is normal in an indigenous
with Latin !escus. (Graur, Romania
element. Cf. dolofan. 53/1927: 539 ff.; Poghirc RRL 12/
du&mán ‘enemy’. Old Indo!Euro- 1967: 31).
pean word, from unknown reason
!e&, also !a&, !o&, !u& Suffix fre-
considered of Turkish origin in Ro- quent in indigenous, substratum
manian. Turkish dü!man is from
place! and river!names.
Persian (for a similar case, see also
cioban). The Romanian form has !e&te Adverbial suffix. Alb. !isht.
clear parallels in Gr. *$>µ:)?', San- Derived from, or akin to, suffix !esc.
skrit durman:C ‘enemy’ = Rom.
du&man (Simenschy!Iv$nescu 208). f# See the discussion under b%.
IE prefix *dus! is privative, ‘il ex- f#rî'm# ‘a small piece of; a small
prime une idée de mal, manque’. quantity’. Alb. thërrimë, with simi-
The form is therefore a compound
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lar meaning. Rom. f – Alb. th (as fi"e Now only in expressions like a
English th in thin) speaks of an old face fi#e ‘to be whimsical, to expect
phoneme *X, a velar spirant or la- others make the first step in an ac-
ryngeal, held responsible for the tion’. Expressive form, related with
alternating f/h/v in Romanian v. f/h/ fî# and fî#îi.
th in Albanian. (In this sense, see
fîs#1 1. The fish Cobitis taenia; a
also v%taf). The forms are archaic,
cheerful, sprighty person. The usual
as proved by the verbal derivatives
form for this fish is zvîrlug%, in rela-
a f%rîma, a sf%rîma. No clear ety-
tion with zvîrli, azvîrli ‘to cast, to
mon, but the indigenous origin is
throw’; also with the meaning
beyond any reasonable doubt. See
‘cheerful, sprighty person’. The
also Reichenkron, 1966: 118–119.
form is isolated, improbably derived
Feleac NL (CJ) At. 1310 – Fellok, from fîs, onomatopoeic, imitative
Fellak; 1377 – villa Olachorum Fe- for any fizzing sound; the verb is a
lek. The explanation from Hung. fél fîsîí ‘to fizz’. A relation may possi-
‘half, a half’ is not plausible. Cf. NL bly be if we accept an original
Filisa – Pelesa and Fala – Pala meaning ‘a quick move’, hence the
(Schmid IF 77/1972: 10). The ulti- sound of a quick move, which may
mate origin is probably Preie., root explain both the name of fish Cobi-
*P!L! ‘mountain, hill’ (see peleag, tis taenia and ‘cheerful, sprighty
Pele& etc.) The alternance f – p is person’. Initial f indicates an origi-
not comfortable, but should be ana- nal velar spirant (laryngeal) *X,
lysed as such. which later changed into f, v, h and &
ferí, also reflexive a se feri ‘to in the indigenous elements of Ro-
avoid, to stay/stand/keep aside (a manian. The archaic form must
danger etc.)’. Obscure. Initial f indi- have then been *X!s ‘quick, fast; a
cates an initial velar spirant (laryn- quick move’.
geal) *X, so the archaic form should fîs#2 ‘a small, quick bird, similar to
be reconstructed as *X!R! ‘to avoid skylark, of the family Anthus. Asso-
(a danger), stay afar from/of’, and ciated to the meaning ‘quick’ of
must have referred to prehistoric fîs%1.
hunting or war state.

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fî" ‘quick move’; hence a (se) fî#îi Romanian preserves, via Thracian,
‘to move to and fro’ (usually pejo- both semantic spheres: one the one
ratively). Incorrectly assumed a hand fl%mînd ‘hungry’, and fleac,
simple onomatopoeia in DEX and fleanc% and flec%ri on the other. Ini-
other works. Initial f indicates and tial f in all these forms stands for an
archaic velar spirant (laryngeal) archaic velar spirant (laryngeal) *X
*X, later changed into f, h, v and &. > f, h, v and &. The root was *X!L!
See also ha# and ho# ‘a thief’. ‘mouth; to speak; be hungry’, also
fî"îí ‘to move to and fro’. See fî#. preserved in Alb. flet ‘(he/she)
speaks’.
fl#mî'nd ‘hungry’. Root fla!/fl%!
has two basic meanings: 1. ‘mouth – fle" Pejorative and expressive: ‘na-
to speak’; 2. ‘mouth – hungry’. Ini- ïve, a little bit stupid’. Seems de-
tial f reflects the archaic velar spi- rived from the same root as fleac,
rant *X > f, h, v and &. The archaic fleanc% and flec%ri, with the basic
form must have been *X!L! ‘mouth’ meaning ‘person who gossips, un-
– ‘to eat; to be hungry’ and ‘to able to express his/her thoughts’.
speak, to gossip’. See also fleac, flit ‘muzzle’. Regional and dialec-
fleanc% and flec%ri. tal for bot. With the basic meaning
fleac ‘unimportant thing or details’; ‘animal mouth’ closely related with
in the plural ‘simple gossiping, just fleanc% and flec%ri. • In contempo-
words’. The original meaning is rary Romanian, it interferes with
connected to the sphere ‘to speak, to other forms flit, of various origins.
gossip’, for which see fleanc% and flúier ‘a flute’. Alb. flojere ‘flute’.
flec%ri. See also fl%mînd. Seems a back!formation from the
fleánc# Pejorative for ‘mouth’. See verb a fluiera ‘to whistle’. The rela-
flec%ri. tion with Lat. flo, fl:re is doubtful
or, if a colloquial Latin form is ac-
flec#rí ‘to gossip, to speak non-
ceptable as origin, the phonetic de-
sense’. The archaic root fle! is re-
tails are difficult to reconstruct. Cf.
lated to the meaning ‘mouth’ – ‘to
fluture and a flutura.
speak, to gossip’ (hence also Alb.
flet ‘he/she speaks’) and ‘mouth – fluierá ‘to whistle’. See fluier.
be hungry’ (see fl%mînd above).

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flútur(e) ‘butterfly’. Also NP Flu- fúf# 1. ‘small fish’, especially fish
tur(e), Fluturescu etc. Closely re- fry (Leucaspius delineatus); 2. a
lated with a flutura ‘to wave, to flut- whore. Obscure. The term seems
ter’. Currently unexplained. There archaic, and very probably indige-
must be an etymological relation nous. Initial and internal f may stand
with Eng. fly, to fly, to flutter as a for the original velar spirant (laryn-
common Indo!European heritage. geal), so the original root must have
Compare the parallels fluier – a been *X!X! ‘small’, ‘small fish’,
fluiera v. flutur(e) – a flutura; and then pejoratively ‘whore’. Cf.
Eng. fly, to fly – to flutter. See also huhurez, with alternating f/h.
fulg. fuiór ‘tow; hemp or flax bundle’.
fluturá See flutur(e). See also fulg. Obscure, presumably indigenous.
fri&c# ‘cream’, specifically the fresh Initial f stands for an archaic velar
fat part of milk, which – if whisked – spirant (laryngeal) *X.
the specific milk cream is obtained. fulg ‘flake’. Must be related with
The term is archaic and closely con- fluture, a flutura.
nected to milk production, where the Fulga NP, mainly family name. See
Romanian terminology is basically fulg. As many family names, ending
Latin and indigenous (Thracian). Ini- !a rather reflects the invariable defi-
tial f indicates an original velar spi- nite article !a (see).
rant (laryngeal), so a root *XR!
funigél mainly used in the pl. funi-
should be postulated. The analogy
géi ‘gossamer’. Often held for un-
with a freca < Lat. frecare may have
known origin, but an indigenous
consolidated the form.
character is debatable. It rather
foac The fish Squalius leuciscus. seems a local derivative based on a
Obscure. Initial f, if accepting the colloquial Latin form derived from
hypothesis of an indigenous ele- fungus ‘mushroom’ and diminutival
ment, which is most probable, suffix !el.
stands for the archaic velar spirant
(laryngeal) *X. Isolated, no related
form identifiable. ga!ga Onom. Imitates the sound of
geese, and is also the root of other
names of birds or related to similar
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96
Lexicon Etymologicum
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sounds. See gaie, gai#%, g%l%gie, Another rare case would be Iza, if
gîsc%. not a Thracian river!name. Cf. Cal-
Gagu NM (Baiu Mts, PH); NL latis, the ancient name of Mangalia.
(IF). The same etymon like gog%, Philippide OR 2: 374 and Dr$ganu
Gogu, Gogiu etc. ultimately of Rom. 280 assume a Cumanic origin
Preie. origin. (gala ‘fortress’), which is doubtful
gáie The bird Milvus (‘kite’); (among others, cannot explain the
sometimes also ‘jackdaw’ (Corvus large extension of similar
monedula). Derived from root ga!, place!names all over Central! and
also in gîsc% and onomatopoeic South!East Europe). Intervocalic !l!
gaga, imitative for goose sound. See is normal in a substratum element.
also gai#%. gard ‘a fence, an enclosure’. Alb.
gái"# The bird Garrulus glandar- garth, gardhi. Archaic term, related
ius, ‘jay’. From the same root as with Sl. grad1 (once held for the ori-
gai#%. • DEX incorrectly refers to a gin of both Romanian and Albanian
Serbian origin, as the numerous re- forms), Gothic garda ‘an enclosure
lated forms in Romanian, but absent for animals’ etc. All reflect IE
in Slavic, do not support such a hy- *gherdh! ‘to enclose, to surround’.
pothesis. Thracian may have also had the pala-
Gala"(i) NL, several locations: AB, talised parallel *zerd!, *zard! as
BN, GL, HD, SV). There are nu- shown by forms like Zerdenós, if the
merous place!names with radical etymon may be the same, as Russu
gal! all over Europe (e.g. Galata). believes. See în!gr%di and z!gard%
They are usually held for Celtic as (z!gard!%).
the result of their expansion in the gárdin# ‘the cut at the end of a
antiquity. Root *G!L! is otherwise, beam in order to be fixed’. Listed by
in most instances, of Preie. origin. Russu, and rejecting the possible
For the Romanian forms, we may derivation from gard, as it seems
accept an archaic substratum, Preie. probable. The basic meaning seems
heritage, and/or a later Celtic influ- to have been ‘a method to fix
ence, even if the Celts left very few beams, fences etc.’
traces in Romanian place-names.

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gata ‘ready’. Many derivatives: a nian (in the series, once common,
g%ti ‘to cook, to prepare food’: refl. that there would be ‘Albanian ele-
(a se g%ti) ‘to prepare, to make ments in Romanian’). As the basic
ready; to adorn oneself (about meaning refers to a liver disease,
women, especially). Must be related human or animal, the forms are
with Hittite qati, kati ‘ready’ (Frie- rather derived from galben ‘yellow’,
drich, Heth. Elementarbuch 2: 113) of Latin origin, in which case the Al-
and Sl. gotov1, both meaning banian forms are borrowed from
‘ready’. • ( A ( late Thracian or Pro- Romanian. • Nevertheless an archaic,
to!Romanian origin of Slavic forms Pre!Romance origin is not excluded,
is possible. and in this case we may surmise an
g#g#ú"# ‘stupid person’. Derived interference with the forms derived
from imitative, onomatopoeic root from galben. We are rather inclined
for a local derivation from galben
ga!ga!, also in gîsc% ‘goose’, gaie
‘yellow’.
and gîgîlice (see all these).
g#l#gíe ‘noise, hubbub’; also dial. g#rî'n#, !e s.f. (dial. Banat)
h%l%gie. Archaic form from IE ‘oak!tree’. Related with gorun (see).
*ghel!1 ‘to shout, to yell’, hence NL G%rîna, Garîna. • Some hy-
potheses refer to Slavic gorAti ‘to
Eng. yell and nightin!gale. Note
burn’, which definitely is a hazard,
preservation of IE *gh to Rom. g.
as the basic meaning of the word
g#lbe!áz# and c#lbeaz# s.f., unused has no connection with the meaning
in the plural. ‘sheep pox; the plant in Slavic.
Hepaticae, liverworts’. Related with
g#sí vb. ‘to find’. A common ex-
Alb. këlbazë, gëlbazë, klëbacë ‘sheep
planation refers to Slavic gasiti ‘to
pox’. There are two basic hypothesis
extinguish (fire); fig. to identify, to
regarding the Romanian and Alba-
consider’, which is again (see
nian forms: (1) A common Thracian
g%rîn% above) the result of hazard.
and Illyrian heritage (starting from
The verb a g%si is related with a
the unproved assumption that Alba-
ghici ‘to guess’ and with a gîndi ‘to
nian is a Neo!Illyrian idiom, which is
think, to consider’, a mental rela-
at least debatable), or (2) the Roma-
tionship ‘to find’ – ‘to guess’ – ‘to
nian forms are borrowed from Alba-
get’ identifiable also in the parallels
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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like Eng. to get – to guess, also gheb 1. pl. !uri ‘a hump, a hunch;
etymologically related, from IE an elevation’; 2. pl. !e ‘eatable
*ghe(n)d! ‘to get, to catch’, hence mushrooms of the family Armil-
‘to get by mental concentration = to laria, Lepiota or Collybia. Deriva-
guess, to find, to identify’. • Cf. a tives: ghebos, ghebo&at ‘a humped
ghici, a gîndi. person’. NP Ghebu, Gheba, Ghibu.
genúne, obsolete, dial, gerúne ‘an Undoubtedly indigenous from IE
abyss’. Held by Russu for indige- *ghebh! ‘elevation, head; end’. Re-
nous, even though the rotacised par- lated with ghimpe (see). • The at-
allel genune – gerune cannot sup- tempts to explain the form from Lat.
port this hypothesis, as rotacisation gibbus, gibba ‘id.’ or Hung. göb
of intervocalic !n! is specific to only (this must be a borrowing from
the Latin elements of Romanian, Romanian) cannot be accepted, but
and also in Albanian. There is no a relationship with the Latin forms
convincing example that the Thra- is probable.
cian elements may have ever had Gherla NL At.: 1291 – Gerlahida;
this treatment too. The etymon is 1410 – Gherlah. Unexplained. A
obscure, but the Thracian origin, possible explanation from ghear% ‘a
even if tempting (given the archaic claw’ does not seem acceptable. The
character of the word), is difficult. It form must be related to/with
may be yet re!considered if further Gher#a, grui and Gurghiu (see) and
arguments may be invoked. NL Gerla in Hungary: 1259/1466 –
Gersa NFl (Rodna Mts) and NL on Gwrla, seemingly for a real pronun-
this river. Unclear, presumably in- ciation *Gurla (cf. Rom. grui, Alb.
digenous, cf. Thr. NL Germisara. gur); the Hungarian place!name
ghear# ‘a claw’ (of both mammals must be Pre!Hungarian just like
and some birds). Seems related with Gerlah in the Tatra Mts. All these
English claw, which is the closest seem to reflect Preie. root *G!R!
translation of ghear%. If not so, the ‘stone, cliff’. In Romanian, the
next possibility is Greek kheir Thracian origin is the only plausi-
‘hand’, from an IE root *khe(i)r! ble. See further discussions s.v.
‘to get, to grasp’. Carpa#i.

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gherme!á A piece fixed in a wall, ghimpe, !i s.m. ‘a thorn’. Alb.
allowing to consolidate further at- gjemp ‘id.’. From IE *ghebh!
tachments. Closely related with the ‘thorn, prominence’ (> Gr. kephale
root in ghear% ‘claw’. ‘head’, Gothic gibla ‘a peak’ etc.),
Gher"a NL (SM) There are two nasalised *ghe!m!bh!. Related with
neighbouring location: Gher#a Mare gheb, which preserves the non!na-
and Gher#a Mic%. Related with salised form.
Gherla. ghin A kind of chisel, ‘crozer’; a
ghibór" The fish Acerina cernua. curved knife used in carving wood.
Derived from the same root as gheb. The same root as in ghimpe (nasal-
ghicí vb. ‘to guess, to anticipate’. ised) ‘thorn’ and in gheb. See also
Related with Alb. gjeça ‘I find’ (3rd ghin#.
person gjen). The forms should be ghin" A curved tool used for en-
discussed together with a g%si. We larging footwear. Must be the same
should compare the parallels in root as in ghint.
Germanic languages: Germanic
ghioag#, !e s.f. ‘(approx.) a club, a
*getison > Eng. guess from IE
mace’. Alb. gjegë. Old, traditional
*ghed!, nasalised *ghe!n!d! ‘to get, weapon made up of a wooden or
to catch’ hence also Eng. get, with iron club, with an arched head.
many meanings in modern English, Technical military term, probably of
and the basic meaning ‘to catch’. As
Preie. origin from root *GoG! ‘to
this is a general mental process (i.e.
swell, to get big; expanded’. Seem-
‘to get’ ! ‘to find’ ! ‘to guess’), we ingly related with gog%.
assume that a similar relationship
ghionoáie ‘woodpecker’ (any bird
was in Thracian: IE *ghe!(n)!d!s! >
of the Picidae family). The usual
Thr. *g4s! (cf. a g%si) and *g4D! > word is cioc%nitoare (from cioc ‘a
Rom. a ghici, related (urverwandt) bird’s bill’). Alb. gjon ‘an owl’. Ar-
with a g%si. From the nasalised chaic, even if the Albanian form,
form, Thracian had also a gîndi ‘to with final n, would rather show a
think, to consider’ (see). See also a borrowing (from Romanian), even if
g%si, a gîndi. Russu assumes that the Romanian
form is borrowed from Albanian.
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The root is ghion (pron. g’on!, gy- giupî'n The old form of jupîn. The
on!), of unclear origin. The basic original pronunciation was ?upîn.
meaning may be connected either to gîde, gîzi s.m. ‘executioner (in the
a bird’s bill or to the specific activ- Middle Ages)’; equivalent of c%l%u,
ity of a woodpecker, like ‘to drill’. currently considered of unknown
Cf. ghionoi and ghiont. See also the origin too. Obscure, undoubtedly an
parallel cioc – ciocan. old ‘technical’ term usual until late
ghionoi Now rare, dialectal: in the Middle Ages. It seems a re-
‘hammer’. Same root as ghionoaie gressive derivative, with ironical
and ghiont. and euphemistic motivation, from a
gîdila ‘to tickle’. (see below). Also
ghiont ‘a nudge’. Seemingly re-
we may assume an archaic form
lated with ghionoaie, supporting the
which eventually interfered with a
meaning ‘to strike, to hit’ of the root
gîdila related with Eng. cut (Old
*ghion!.
English cutten, kitten), Icelandic
ghirín The plant Halimane pedun- kuta ‘to cut with a knife’. • A Ger-
culata. Seems the same root as in manic origin is not plausible,
ghear%. though suggested by some linguists.
ghiuj, !i rare today; dial. vîj; Arom. gîdilá vb. ‘to tickle’. Alb. gudulís
ghiu& ‘old man’. Alb. gjush ‘old ‘id.’ (See also s.v. gîde). Seemingly
man; grand father’. Without many related to a (se) gudura ‘to fawn
doubts indigenous, etymon unclear. upon somebody’ (basically the word
Aromanian (Macedo!Romanian) refers to dogs, ironically to people
form is not necessarily borrowed who flatter their boss); these forms
from Albanian, as some linguists must reflect IE *ghed!, *ghend! ‘to
assume, as the alternating j/& are get, to catch’, zero grade *ghEd! >
met in other cases too, e.g. Arghij/ Thr. *gud!il!, *gud!ur!. The evolu-
Arghi&, Blaj/Bla&, Cluj/Clu& etc. We
tion IE *E > Thr. u, un > Rom. u is
assume that, as in most cases quoted normal. See also under g%si, ghici,
here, the Albanian form is borrowed
gînd, gîndac. Cf. gîde and z!guduí. •
from Romanian.
Common dictionaries (DA, DLRM,
giugiulí See guguli. DEX) assume a borrowing from

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Bulg. RNSTU VW XT ‘it tickles me’, find’. • See also a ghici, a g%si, also
which does not explain the origin of gîndac. In zgînd%ri (also see), the
the Bulgarian form either. If not original meaning of the IE root is
borrowed from Romanian, as we are preserved. • Hungarian gond is bor-
inclined to believe, then a common rowed from Romanian.
Thracian heritage in both languages. gîndác, !i s.m. A generic name for
gîgîlíce ‘small person or object’ (black) beetles and cockroaches,
(usually applied to kids or animal e.g. ~ de buc%t%rie, ~ negru etc.
offspring). Seems derived from the Obscure, probably indigenous from
root ga!, reduplicated ga!ga!, which IE *ghed!, nasalised *ghend! ‘to
is imitative for goose sound. This get, to catch’. It seems, though not
supports the indigenous character of easy to identify the archaic deriva-
gîsc%; the same root is in gaie. tion, related with gînd (see), with a
gînd, !uri s.n. ‘a mental activity: a reconstructable evolution ‘to get
thought’. Der.: a gîndi ‘to think’, with the mind = a thought’, whereas
gîndire, gînditor. It is usually held gîndac preserves the basic meaning
that Romanian form was borrowed of the root: ‘to get, to catch’, i.e. ‘to
from Hungarian gond ‘preoccupa- catch/crawl’.
tion’, even though the very origin of gîngurí vb. (about children) ‘to
the Hungarian form is unknown. babble’; (about birds, especially
The Romanian word is related to doves) ‘to coo’. Related to Gr. gyg!
Lithuanian godYti ‘to feel, to have e.g. goggYzo ‘to murmur’, góggysis,
an intuition’, godóti ‘to make an goggysmós ‘a murmur’. In Roma-
effort; to think’, godelI ‘a thought’. nian the form must be explained
Sl. gadati ‘to guess’, Lat. from Thracian, from an archaic IE
(pre)hendo, Lith. (pasi)gendu ‘to root of onomatopoeic character, as
get, to catch’ etc. The ultimate root in ga!ga, (cf. gîsc%). • Formed by
is IE *ghed!, nasalised *ghe!n!d! ‘to reduplication, then nasal infix in the
get, to catch’ with semantic evolu- first component.
tions – in various linguistic areas or gînsác, !i s.m. ‘goose male’. See
the same area – ‘to get – to get with gîsc%.
the mind = to think, to guess, to

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gîrgî'r A specific device used in glug# ‘hood’. Most references are
fishing for encircling and gathering to Bulg. gugla, gugla, which is of
groups of fish. Reduplicated form unknown origin either. Both Rom.
derived from the same root as and Bulg. form seems related with
ghear% ‘claw’. Germ. Gugel and Lat. cuculla, but a
gîsc#, gî&te s.f. Masc. gînsac, gîs- borrowing from German or a collo-
can ‘goose’. Similar words in many quial Latin heritage does not seem
European languages: Alb. gogësírë, plausible. The word may be indige-
gogësímë, Sl. g@sZ (Russian gus’, nous.
Pol. g[\), Lith. 6Osis, Latvian zuos. goang# ‘insect, bug’. Must be de-
Lat. anser (< *hanser), Gr. ch7n, rived from Preie. root *G!G!, *K!K!
Germanic *gans! (Eng. goose, ‘to inflate, to swell; round, ball!like’,
German Gähne), etc. It is currently with nasal infix, as in gog%, gogoa&%
assumed that the origin of the Ro- (which also has the meaning ‘co-
manian forms would be Bulgarian coon’) etc. • DEX incorrectly labels
g%ska, S.!Cr. guska. The Balkanic it as ‘onomatopoeic’.
South Slavic forms rather seem to Gog, Goga See gog%.
be inherited from the substratum gog#, !e s.f. ‘a ghost, hobgoblin’.
language; we may label them ‘Bal- Alb. gogë ‘a ghost’. Basic term of
kanic Thracian forms’. The Slavic folk beliefs. Romanian and Alba-
origin of Romanian forms is at least nian forms must be related with Gr.
debatable, if not entirely erroneous; Gigas, Gigantes ‘the Giants’ from
they must reflect the archaic IE root
Preie. *GoG!, *GuG!, *GiG! ‘to
*gha!gha!, *ghe!ghe!, *ghi!ghi!.
swell, to inflate; round, ball!like;
Romanian also preserves and uses
big, huge’. Cf. ghioag%, gogoa&%,
onomatopoeia ga!ga. There were of cocoa&%, cocon. There is a difficult
course Romanian!Slavic interfer- phonetic detail: o in the pre!final
ences in Southeast Europe, but the syllable should have turn to diph-
basic forms must be of Thracian tong oa in the case of a feminine
origin all over this part of Europe. noun. The absence of this phe-
Cf. ra#% ‘duck’. nomenon may be attributed to either
linguistic taboo or perhaps to the

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initial masculine gender of this gógori"# (also stressed gogorí#%) ‘a
noun, cf. pop% (not *poap%), vod% figure of the fairy!tales, which
(not *voad%). The modern form scared children’; in modern Roma-
may be therefore derived from an nian used especially with the figura-
older masculine form *gog as in NP tive meaning ‘imaginary, unfounded
Gog, Goga, Gogu, Gogiu etc. threat’. The basic meaning was
Gogiu Funerary representation in ‘round, spherical’, and is closely
southern Moldavia, Adjud area, in related with gog%, gogoloi, gogon,
which the main character is called gogonea.
Gogiu. Must be related to gog%. gorun, !i s.m. Oak tree, especially
gogo!á&#, !e !i gogo&i s.f. 1. quercus petraea. Variant: g%rîn%.
doughnut; 2. pl., fig. gogo&i ‘lies’; 3. Must be related with Gr. grynós
a cocoon; 4. an excrescence on ‘trunk of an old oak tree’, Basque
oak!tree leaves. The archaic mean- haritz (k > h), Port. carvalho,
ing must have been ‘excrescence, to Sp. J carrasco, carrasca all having
swell’, and thus related with co- the meaning ‘(little) holm oak’ (ilex,
coa&%, cocon/cucon, gog%, Goga, Sp. encina pequeña). Preie. root
Guga, Gugu from Preie. *KaK!, *K!R!, *G!R! ‘stone, cliff’, hence ‘a
*KoK!, *GoG! ‘to swell, to inflate’. tree growing on stones and cliffs, a
Built on the same structure as co- tree of hard essence’. The same ar-
coa&%, with alternating k/g, as in chaic root also in Carpa#i, Gurghiu,
other cases of the Preie. heritage. grui. • Also frequent as place!name:
Goruni, Gorona, Goronet, Goro-
gogolói ‘a spherical, ball!like ob-
nete, Gorune&ti (< NP Gorunescu);
ject’. Closely related with gogoa&%.
NP: Goron, Gorun, Gorunea, Go-
gogón (now obsolete) ‘a small runeanu, Gorunescu etc. See also
round object’. See gogoloi and go- the dialectal form g%rîn%.
gonea.
grai, !uri s.n. ‘speech; a local dia-
gogonéa ‘immature tomatoes used lect’. Der.: a gr%i, gr%itor ‘elo-
to be later pickled’. Closely related quent’. Related with Gr. gérys
with gogoloi and gogoa&%. The ba-
‘voice’, géryma ‘sound’, root gar!
sic meaning was ‘spherical,
‘to shout, to speak’, Old Irish g:ir
ball!like’.
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‘a shout’, from IE *g(h)er!, *gre!, and Gala#/Gala#i). A newer, German
*gra!, initially with onomatopoeic (Transylvanian Saxon) origin is also
values. • Bg. graja ‘id.’ has been possible for that area.
sometimes invoked as the origin of gro!áp#, !gropi s.f. ‘a pit; a grave’.
the Romanian form; we assume that Der.: gropar, a în!gropa. Alb. gropë
the sense of borrowing is from Ro- ‘id.’. Related with Gothic graban
manian to Bulgarian, or we may ac- ‘to dig’, OCS grob1 ‘a grave’ from
cept a common Thracian origin in IE *gher! ‘to dig, to scratch’, with
both Romanian and Bulgarian.
later developments a, e and o:
grap# ‘a harrow’. Basic farming *ghrebh!, *ghrabh!, *ghrobh!. For
tool. The old meaning should be Thracian we must reconstruct an
connected to sphere ‘to dig, to o!degree development and evolution
plough’, therefore a plausible root is
bh > p, as in giupîn/jupîn, st%pîn. •
IE *ger! ‘to turn up, to plough’ or The(word is specific to folk beliefs
rather the same root as in groap% related to burial rites.
(see below). Possibly related is verb
grui, !e s.n. ‘a peak; a hill; hill!side’.
a zgîria ‘to scratch’ (*z!gîr!,
Related with Alb. gur ‘stone, cliff’,
*s!gîr!), and related to its English
of Preie. origin, root *G!R!, variant
equivalent: to scratch, Latin scribo
of *K!R! ‘stone, cliff’. Cf. Gurghiu,
(< ‘to scratch, to engrave symbolic
gorun and Carpa#i.
signs on objects’). • Alb. grep ‘fish-
ing rod; hook’ seems related too. grumáz, !uri s.n. (and pl. grumaji,
See also z!grep!#%ná. s.m.) ‘neck’. Alb. gurmas, grumas
grésie ‘sandstone’. Alb. gërris, ‘id.’. Reflects IE *gwer! ‘to swal-
gris. From the same root as grap%, low’, zero!grade and evolution to
groap% or rather the same root as in Thr. gur! > gru!, so an initial form
z!gîria and English grind. *gurmaz, *gurmas is probable.
Seems related to grai (see); the two
Grevel NM (Tîrnava!Media!)
forms and meanings may have inter-
Seems related with Eng. gravel <
fered across time: to swallow – to
Celtic ghrau < IE *ghr7u! (Pokorny
speak. The Albanian forms seem
460 and AHD 1521). A Celtic origin rather borrowed from Romanian.
is not excluded (see the case of Iza
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See also su!grum!a; cf, the similar Gugu NM (2292 m altitude, de-
parallel gu&% – su!gu&!a and fl%mînd limited by Godeanu, -arcu and Re-
– flec%ri. tezat). Der.: gugan ‘an inhabitant of
Gugu peak area’. Same etymon like
grunz, grunji s.m., arom. grund%,
gog%, ultimately of Preie. origin.
pl. grundz, megl. grus ‘a small
Etymologically related to NM Ko-
round object’. Alb. grundë, krundë
gaionon, the sacred mountain of the
‘husk, chaff’. Form grunz seems
Dacians.
reconstructed from the plural form,
as suggested by the other parallels. gugulí, also giugiulí, gugiulí ‘to
The archaic root seems IE *ghren!, caress’. The basic root gug! is
closely related with Preie. root
*ghwren! ‘to grind’ (cf. Eng. grist
*G!G!, *K!K! ‘round, swollen’. The
and grind). Oldest reconstructable
oldest form is gugulí, while gugiuli
form in Thracian is *grun!d!. Cf.
and giugiuli, are newer, even if
bulz.
giugiuli, deformed by similarity
gudurá vb. (mainly about dogs) ‘to with other words, is the most usual
fawn’; figuratively ‘to flatter’. Re- now.
lated with Alb. gudulís, both proba-
gugulói! See gogolói.
bly related with a (se) gîdila (see);
the alternance l/r is old, not at all Gurghiu NM (MS); also NP
the specific Romanian evolution of Gurghianu. Closely related with
intervocalic l > r, which affects the grui and Alb. gur, all ultimately of
Latin elements only. • Russu (1981: Preie. origin.
328) relates it to Lith. gedáuju ‘to gu&#, !i s.f. ‘goitre; crop (of birds);
wish, to desire’ from IE *gwhedh! fig. double chin’. Alb. gushë ‘id.’.
‘to ask for, to beg’, highly improb- Beyond any doubt archaic, with two
able. The forms are archaic, and possible IE roots to consider: (1)
specific to shepherd life. Cf. gîdilá, *geu! ‘to curve, to swell’, hence
z!guduí; also cu#u, &o. New Persian g8"a ‘a corner’, Norw.
kBs ‘a hunch, a hump’, Gr. gyíon ‘a
Guga NL (CJ) At.: 1592 – Guga.
See gog% and Gugu. curve; knee’; (2) *gheu! ‘to open
wide’, hence Eng. to yawn, to gape.
gugiulí See guguli.
• Italian gozzo ‘id.’ seems related to
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the Romanian form; its origin is un- ish haydi seems rather a borrowing
clear. It may be surmised a borrow- from Bulgarian and/or Serbian, with
ing from southeast European Thra- haj+(i)di (the imperative of iti), also
co!Illyrian substratum. See also su- mirrored in Romanian in haide,
gu&a; cf. the similar parallel haidi, haidem (hai + idemo ‘we
grum!az – su!grum!a. go’). The basic form hai is rather
remnant of an old verb with the
Gutî'i NM From the same root as
meaning ‘to go’, imp. ‘go!’; also
gutui (Ján Blaho, Linguistica Slo-
initial h stands for an original velar
vaca 3/1941: 28).
spirant (laryngeal), and the forms
gutúi The tree Cydonia oblonga or may be globally related to the same
vulgaris; ‘quince tree’. Unknown root as Lat. e8 (< *ey8), Cs, Cre ‘to
origin; a root gut! for a name of tree go’ < IE *ey!/i! ‘to go’, which
or plant seems isolated in Romanian, would satisfy the meaning, and par-
and is replicated in NM Gutîi. The
tially the existence of initial h!,
tree requires a warm climate, so – if
which does not seem etymological
borrowed – its origin must be Medi-
(if accepting this hypothesis); alter-
terranean, but this may have hap-
natively, hai reflects another root,
pened in prehistoric times.
with the basic meaning ‘to go’,
which eventually interfered with
hai ‘let’s go!’. Also variants like those quoted above.
haide, haidem, haidi. Spread all hai!hui adv. Especially in construc-
over southeast Europe (South Slavic
tions like a umbla hai!hui ‘to err, to
and Turkish haydi). Held for an
go to and fro, without any plan’.
onomatopoeia in DEX and other
Expressive, with reduplicated base
dictionaries, with the suggestion
hai!hui, for which see hai and hui,
that all these languages borrowed
also vui. This form, together with a
the form from Turkish, which is at
hui/vui, huiet/vuiet, huidui reflect
least debatable, if not outright erro-
the alternating velar spirant devel-
neous. • Obviously South Slavic
haj, hajdi, hajdem(o) is an interfer- oped in Romanian as f/h/v, some-
times also &. See hai and hui/vui.
ence with the forms of iti, idem,
idemo, idi! ‘to go’, therefore Turk-

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halí ‘to eat, to devour’ (expressive, solidated and is definitely old, if not
colloquial; also referring to animals, archaic, prehistoric. A second root
especially to wolves). Alb. ha ‘he/ ha#, h%#! is in h%#i& and NM Ha#eg,
she eats’, both forms related with with seemingly a different meaning,
hame& and h%mesit ‘hungry’. also well consolidated from prehis-
hame& ‘hungry’. Alb. hamës ‘eater, toric times.
greedy’. The root ha! is also pre- Ha"eg NM Related with h%#i&
served in Albanian: ha ‘he eats’; ‘thicket; bushes’; the root ha#!/h%#!
hejë ‘food’, corresponding to Rom. ‘thicket’ should be discriminated
a hali (colloquial, pejorative, as against root ha#!/h%#! ‘to seize, to
compared to a mînca < manducare, steal’ in ha#, ho# and the verb a
the usual form), h%mesit ‘hungry’. înh%#a, unless an archaic, prehistoric
Initial h! leads to an archaic velar evolution between the two semantic
spirant (laryngeal) *X. No clear spheres may be reconstructed.
etymon, but these archaic forms H#b#&e&ti NL Derived from a sup-
show that phoneme h was inherited posed personal name as most forms
in Romanian from the substratum. A in !e&ti. The root h%b! must be re-
relationship with Lat. fames ‘hun- lated with h%u ‘abyss’ and hobîc ‘a
ger’ is possible.
hollow, a pit’; NL Hobi#a. Initial h
ha" Interjection with the basic reflects the archaic velar spirant (la-
meaning ‘to take abruptly, to seize, ryngeal) *X.
to steal’ as confirmed by the derived h#mesit ‘hungry’. Same root as
verb a în!h%#!á ‘to seize’ and the hame&.
probable parallel ho# ‘thief’, with
h#rean (rare, dial.) ‘whey’. Alb.
alternating a/o. Phoneme h would
hirrë ‘whey’. Etymon unclear, but
indicate an original velar spirant
archaic, beyond any doubt.
(laryngeal) in Thracian. DEX sug-
gests an onomatopoeia for this H#&date NFl, NL (CJ, near Turda;
form, which is of course possible HD). If not a deformation of Ger-
for an archaic period (as in many man Hochstadt, which is doubtful,
other cases), yet the parallels ha#, a then indigenous. The archaic suffix
înh%#a and ho# show that the mean- !ate would also indicate an archaic
ing ‘to seize, to steal’ is well con-
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origin, and initial h! would indicate hîrîí ‘to rattle; to growl’. Akin to a
an original velar spirant (laryngeal) s!fîr!îí ‘to sizzle’; the alternating h!
*X. No clear etymon. The Preie. /sf! indicate an original velar spi-
suffix !ate was analysed by Battisti rant (laryngeal). May be ultimately
1959: 33. Cf. H%&ma&, hojma and related to Latin hirrCre ‘to snarl’.
hojmal%u. The root hîr!/sfîr! is imitative, and
H#&ma& NM Seems related with had an onomatopoeic origin, as
H%&date, hojma and hojmal%u; if a many other forms.
relation with German hoch is in hîr&í ‘to wore out’. Colloquial and
view, then it should be accepted for expressive. Akin to hîrîi and hîr&îi.
all these forms. Currently, they are
hîr&îí ‘to scrape, to grate’. Akin to
held for unknown origin or not ana- hîr&i.
lysed at all.
Hî#r!ova NL Dobrudja. Reflects an-
h#" ‘bridle; reins’. Must be akin to
cient Carsium, with an unexplained
ha# and ho#, also with the verb a
change k > h, and Slavic suffix
înh%#a, with the basic meaning ‘to
fix, to seize’. !ova. We assume, on the one hand,
that – in several instances – pho-
h#"á& ‘a path in abrupt, mountain-
ous locations’. Must be the same neme h is inherited from the sub-
root as in h%#i&. stratum, and, on the other hand, that
h#"i& ‘thicket’. The same root as in in alternance with f, v and zero, it
NM Ha#eg and h%#a&. reflects a Late Thracian laryngeal or
velar spirant. • Iordan, 1963: 89
h#u ‘abyss’. Root ha!/h%! reflects
(quoting Bogrea) refers to cîr&e
an initial velar spirant (laryngeal)
‘peaks’, but he does not even try to
Xa! with the reconstructable mean-
explain the alternating c–h, which is
ing ‘hollow; abyss’. Gh. Mu!u, Voci
not so simple. In their turn, cîr&e
din dep%rt%ri, analysed similar may be indigenous too (see Cîrpa,
forms in the Pre!Hellenic and first of all, and the other
Pre!Semitic area. Cf. H%b%&e&ti, place!names derived from Preie.
hobîc, Hobi#a.
*K!R!, *G!R! ‘stone, cliff’). An-
cient spelling Carsium, with c in-
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stead of an original velar spirant, is H%&date and H%&ma& above and
normal, as such a phoneme was ab- hojmal%u below.
sent in both Greek and Latin. hojmal%u ‘big, very tall’ (pejora-
hoásp# The cover of cereal grains tively, about too tall people). Seems
and other vegetables, like peas or related with hojma and NM
beans. Seems related with Gr. H%&ma&. If we accept the archaic
5+>-@&', the plant Vigna sinensis opposition ‘deep’ – ‘high’ (i.e. the
but also referring to other plants. extremes), then a relation with h%u
Hence is Rom. fasole ‘bean’ and ‘abyss’ is probable.
generally post!classical Latin hotár ‘border, fronteer’. Usually
phas7lus, hence spread in other lan- held for a borrowing from Hungar-
guages as well, e.g. Czech fazole ian hotár, even if the origin of the
etc. The Greek form is Preie. Initial Hungarian form is obscure. There
h in Romanian usually reflects an are two Albanian forms which sup-
archaic velar spirant X. In the case port the indigenous origin in Roma-
of a Preie. elements, the root X!S!, nian: hatër, (1) ‘border, fronteer’,
Thr. *X!s! > Rom. *hos!, later hoas! and (2) ‘pleasure’; the second mean-
in prefinal syllable required by the ing shows that in Albanian two ini-
feminine gender, may reflect a spe- tial forms merged into one, one ar-
cific archaic sound. The correspon- chaic, common to Romanian, the
dence Rom. h – Gr. 5 is not usual. other one of Turkish origin (hatır
See also p%staie and p%stra. ‘pleasure’), Rom. hatîr. In our view,
Rom. hotar and Alb. hatër ‘border,
Hobí"a NL See hobîc.
fronteer, margin’ belong to the same
hobîc ‘a hollow, a pit’. Related archaic heritage; Hung. hotár is bor-
with NL Hobi#a, further with h%u rowed from Romanian. • Initial h
‘abyss’. Initial h reflects the archaic speaks of the same velar spirant *X
velar spirant (laryngeal) X. (or laryngeal) later treated in Roma-
hojma adv. ‘continuously, repeat- nian as f/h/v and as f/h/th in Alba-
edly’. Unexplained, presumably in- nian. For this treatment see f%rîm%
digenous, with initial h, a former and v%taf.
velar spirant (or laryngeal). Ukr.
ho6ma is from Romanian. See

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hot#rî' ‘to decide’; initially ‘to are isolated in Romanian, and no
draw a line, border in an action’. further relation has been identified
Derived from hotar. so far.
ho" ‘thief’. Closely related with ha# hutupí ‘to eat gluttonously, to
and verb a înh%#a, with alternating swallow up’. With a different vowel
a/o. grade, must be related with hali,
hudubáie ‘big house or dwelling’. h%mesit, root *Xa!, *Xu! ‘to eat; to
The root hud! ‘big, large’ is best re- be hungy’.
flected in huidum%. hututúi ‘amazed’. Alb. hutón ‘to
hudubleáj# ‘large, prey bird’. Re- amaze’. The prototype was
lated with hudubaie and huidum%. *hut!hut!úi, then by haplology hutu-
huhuréz ‘eagle owl’ (the bird tui. Etymon unknown, forms iso-
Strix). From the same root as huí, lated in Romanian and Albanian.
with reduplication. The form origi-
nated in an imitative interjection. iar 1. conj. ‘and’ (in certain con-
huí ‘to hum, to din; to roar’; also a structions, otherwise &i); 2. adv.
vui. The alternating h/v, sometimes ‘again, once more’ (with this mean-
also f and & ("), is the indication of ing, also iár%&i). Related with Lith.
an initial velar spirant (laryngeal) in ir ‘and’. Cf. dar ‘but, on the other
a reconstructable root *Xu! ‘to hum, hand’. Beyond any doubt, an in-
to roar’. The derived verb, by redu- digenous word.
plication and internal haplology/ Iara, gen. Ierii NFl (West Carpa-
alternance, is a huidui (< hui!hui!); thians) Probably related with the
cf. hai!hui and huhurez, also r%!fui. forms derived from Preie. root
huidúm# ‘big, fat or very tall per- *AR!, with iotacisation in initial po-
sition.
son’. The root *hu(i)d! ‘big, large,
tall’ is met in hudubaie ‘big house, iár#&i adv. ‘again, once more’. See
big dwelling’, hudubleaj% ‘big, prey iar + suffix !a&/!%&. Final i is non-
bird’ and, with the generic sense of etymological, just a graphical con-
the root, in huidum%. Initial h re- vention, and – in this case and other
flects an archaic velar spirant (la- similar ones – incorrect; the correct
ryngeal) *X. Otherwise, the forms spelling should be iar%&.
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Ia&(i) NL (AG, GJ, IS), NM neu; 1256 – villa Ienw, Jenw; (2) in
(Parîng Mts). The analyses regularly the district of Bihor: 1202–1203 –
refer to only the important town of villa Jeneu; 1332 – villa Jeneusol;
Ia!i, but the other forms are equally 1333 – sacerdos de villa Ieneu. Also,
relevant, mainly the mountain the root is the second part of the
name. Cf. NPp Iassii. Most linguists compound Chi&in%u (Chi&!in%u). Re-
assume, referring to the town of lated with Gr. ND In8 = Leukothea,
Ia!i, that the name reflects the Alans which leads to the Preie. root *AN!,
after the 9th century. Poghirc ILR 2: *IN! ‘white; bright colour’. Related
360 is the only who assumes a forms are NFl Inn, a tributary of the
substrtum origin, though he again Danube (At. 1150 – Hin), German
does not refer to the other forms. Inn, NFl Lat. Aenus, possibly Epi-
We also inclinde to the hypothesis rotic en ‘water’; see also NFl Enga-
that all these indeed reflect an ar-
din, a tributary of Inn, Reto!Roman
chaic origin; akin to Ie&. See also I6 Engiadina < * en cò d’Oen ‘at the
(Lexicon B, II, 5 and II, 7). beginning of Inn’, Latin in capite
Ie& NM (Parîng). Akin to Ia&(i). Oeni (Kiss 1980: 203).
Ibru NFl, NL (AB) Closely related inga ‘look here! here it is!’. Also
with similar forms in Bulgaria iga. Archaic, isolated, probably an
(Ib%r) and Serbia (Ibar). Also, Ukr. archaic relic without identifiable
NFl Ibr, Ibra reflects the same Thra- etymon. If the basic root is ig!, na-
cian origin, directly or via Roma-
salised ing!, then we may relate it
nian. Thracian forms spelled Ebros, with ago, agere, but this is just a
Hebrus, Ebrus as the prototype of
guess.
modern forms. See also Lexicon A.
Inuc NL Cluj See In/u, Ineu.
The preservation of sequence !br! is
normal for a substratum form. inc ‘a wish to play, make fun or
iga Variant of inga. laugh’. Also încot. Obscure indeed.
There seems to have been an ar-
In%u, also Inéu NL (AR, BH, HR,
MM); NM (MM). Early records of chaic root enc!, inc! ‘play, laugh’.
the names: (1) in the district of Arad: incot Variant of încot; same root as
1214 – villa Ieneu; 1236 – terra Ie- in inc.

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Ineu See In/u. roots analysed elsewhere in this
Ip NFl, NL (SJ); At. 1208 – vena- volume. Please refer to the basic
tores bubalorum de villa Ypu (in roots for further references. There
may have been a similar prefix in in
which final !u is the Romanian
Thracian too, which have later
definite article, see the case of NFl
merged with the Latin form. The
Ipoly/IpeA/Eipel; Lexicon D); 1213
derivatives with initial îm!, în! are
– villa Ip, Ipu (again !u is the defi- mainly verbs, and are very frequent
nite article). Probably related and in Romanian. Some of them are
derived from the same root are NL used with the prefix îm!, în! only.
Ipote&ti (several locations), NL Ipa- The forms analysed mainly refer to
tele (IS). Related with NFl Ipoly this latter case.
(Hungarian spelling), Ipe] (Slovak
îmbîrligá See bîrliga.
spelling), Eipel (German spelling) at
the Slovak, Hungarian and Austrian îmbuibá vb. ‘to eat too much, ex-
border, At. in 1135–1262 – Ipul cessively; to gorge’. Compounded
(which seems the Romanian form with prefix în! and an indigenous
with the definite article !ul). The form probably derived from IE
ultimate origin is probably related *b(h)eu! ‘to swell, to inflate’; the
with IE *ap! ‘water’ or rather Preie., same IE root in bub/.
from a reconstructable root *AP!, înc"ierá ‘to skirmish, to fight’. De-
*IP!, of unknown meaning. rived from caier with prefix în!, and
Iza NFl (MM) Closely related supports the archaic, substratum ori-
forms are in the Celtic area: French gin of caier, with the basic meaning
Isère < Celtic Isara; Fr. Oise < ‘confuse heap of something, confuse
*Isi: etc. A Celtic river!name can- situation’. Cf. în!curca, în!curc/tur/;
not be excluded in that part of Ro- în!cîlci, în!cîlceal/ etc.
mania, but it rather continues a
încîlcí ‘to tangle; to put in a con-
Thracian form, related with Celtic.
fuse situation’. Built with în + cîl#i.
î'ncot Same meaning and origin
îm!, în! Many forms quoted under î
like inc, incot.
reflect prefix îm!, în! (< Latin in) +

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încoto&m#ná ‘to put on large and îndreá See undrea.
heavy clothes’. Prefix în! + co- înfofolí ‘to put many, think clothes
to&mán ‘big and fat cat’. Colloquial on’. Prefix în! and fuf/, pejorative
and expressive. The basic meaning for ‘clothes, cloth’ (also means
is ironical, and may be translated as ‘whore’). See also încoto&m%na.
‘to put so many clothes on, that he/
she may look like a big and fat cat’. îng"imá ‘to speak with difficulty
(like a wounded or sick person); to
încre"í Prefix în! and cre#.
utter nonsense’. Prefix în! and basic
încurcá vb. ‘to mix in a confused root ga! (see), as in ga!ga imitative
way, to deorganise’. prefix în! (from for goose sound and other deriva-
Latin in) and root *curc! ‘curved, tives quoted under ga!, ga!ga. See
wry, crooked’ from IE *(s)ker! ‘to also îng/la.
curve, to bend’, development *k^k! îng"lá ‘to work slowly and without
>Thr. *kurk!, also preserved in method; to speak with difficulty
other indigenous words: curs/, (with this meaning, a synonym of
cru#a (with the same evolution IE *B îng/ima). Closely related with
> Thr. ur, specifically Thracian), îng/ima.
also, with a different phonetic evo- înghina ‘to unite, to join’; the op-
lution, crac, crac/, Cr/ciun, cre#,
posite is now rare form desghina,
Cri&, curs%. All these must reflect dezghina (but still frequent in Aro-
IE *(s)ker!. manian); for such parallels, see în-
îndeléte ‘slowly’. Especially in chide – deschide ‘to close – to open’
constructions, e.g. pe îndelete (Latin origin), încurca – descurca
‘slowly, calmly’. Formed from join- ‘to confuse – to make clear’ (proba-
ing: în!de!lete, see lete. bly indigenous Thracian) etc. The
îndeletnicí Especially reflexive: a origin may be archaic, without any
se îndeletnici (cu) ‘to deal with’. clear etymon. A folk derivative from
Akin to îndelete, and both derived Latin imbinare may not be ex-
from lete, now obsolete. cluded, though difficult to prove.
îndopá See dop. The root *ghin!, unused as such,

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must have the original meaning ‘to basic root is *s/il!, *seil! ‘to sew;
match, to put together’ (such as the thread’. See also saiá, also related
components or parts of a mecha- to this form.
nism). în&irá See &ir.
ingr"dí Prefix în! and gard (see), înt"rí See tare.
then metathesis. Cf. în!gurzi with a înt"rîtá ‘to incite, to stir fury’ (es-
similar construction. pecially referring to incite dogs in
îngropá ‘to bury’. Prefix în! + order to attack). Seems derived from
groap/ ‘a pit; a grave’. tare ‘hard; solid’ and a suffix !0t!.
îngurzí, also îngruzi, îngorzi vb. întîmpiná ‘to welcome soneome;
‘to wave, to curl, to ripple’. Prefix to come from the opposite side’.
în! < Lat. in and an indigenous root Often held for a folk derivative
*gurz! (possibly also *gord!, with from a Latin root difficult to define.
the evolution d > dz > z ) from IE A possible relation with tîmp, tîmpit
*ger! ‘to wave, to curl’, a variant of ‘idiot, fool’ does not seem real, but
* (s)ker! (see above încurca). The mere hazard. Yet a relation with
tîmpl/ ‘the right or left side of head
phonetic evolution from IE *gB! >
near the eyes’ cannot be excluded.
Th. gur!. Form îngruzi is a metathe-
The archaic meaning must have
sis ur/ru, and îngorzi reflects either
been ‘to come (from opposite side),
an opening evolution u > o, or per-
to meet’. Russu assumes there was
haps a parallel evolution to stressed
an indigenous root akin to Latin
o. See also similarly the relationship
tempus (< ‘time span, time length’)
gard – a îngr/di.
and templum ‘space’, which may be
înh#"á ‘to seize’. Derived from ha#. indeed debatable, but not impossi-
îns"ilá, înseilá ‘to sew’. Seems a ble. See also întîmpla. DEX holds it
quite clear construction with prefix for a derivative în (< Lat. in) +
în! and an indigenous root perhaps tîmpin/, of Slavic origin. The latter
akin to English sew. The form explanation may be plausible, the
des/ila ‘to un!sew’, i.e. ‘to go back initial meaning being ‘to play in-
unsewing for sewing again’. The
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115
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struments upon the arrival of an of- derived from tenebrium or in!tu-
ficial guest’. nicare ‘to cover with a tunica’; or
întîmplá ‘to happen; to occur’. from toneo, !ere. All are unconvinc-
Usually held for a derivative from ing. The possible relationship may
tempus or templum (for which see be with German Dunkel, even if the
întîmpina above). Russu holds it for phonetic correspondences are ob-
indigenous. The ultimate Latin ori- scure. We suggest IE *dheu! ‘to rise
gin, based rather on templum, can- in a cloud’, i.e. dust, vapour, smoke;
not be excluded, so the basic mean- for Thracian, an evolution
ing may have been ‘to present in the *dheu!n!ko! > *dh!E!ko is feasible.
temple’, hence ‘to happen, to oc- The modern form may be derived
cur’. The form must be anyway dis- from *în!tumn!ec!a > în!tun!ec!a,
cussed together with întîmpina and by de!nasalisation.
tîmpl/.
în"#rcá ‘to wean; to stop milking
întremá ‘to recover (after a dis- offspring’, i.e. ‘to put offspring in a
ease), to get well’. Prefix în! and pen or enclosure’, therefore derived
root *trem, perhaps the same as in from #arc ‘an enclosure, a pen for
tare ‘strong, solid’. It seems the op- sheep or animals in general’.
posite of destr/ma ‘to come into în"epá Prefix în! + #eap%.
pieces, to get apart’ (as often with !îrl!, !îrl!" Non!productive suffix
the verbs in the pair with prefixes în as in ciocîrl/, ciocîrlie, &opîrl%, a
v. de, des, dez, of various origins). n%pîrli etc.
The root seems the same as in tare,
so the form must be indeed based on
an indigenous, Thracian root. jánghin" (now obsolete) ‘a disease
of horses’. Hence janghinós (pejora-
întunecá ‘to get dark’ (as sunset’;
tive and colloquial) ‘dirty and lack-
the opposite of a se lumina ‘to get
ing self!care’. Obscure, presumably
light’, i.e. dawn. Der.: întunéric
indigenous.
‘dark; night’. The root is *tunec!,
which has been tentatively ex- janghinós See janghin/.
plained from a Latin colloquial form
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116
Lexicon Etymologicum
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jan" The greasy whey upon prepar- therefore the root must be the same
ing certain types of cheese. Starting as in the group derived from ji! ‘to
from the basic meaning ‘liquid’, flow; river; whey’: jan#, Jiu, Jijia,
seems related with jel#, jil#, Jijia, jel#, jil#. The technique thus used is
jinti#% and Jiu. called jir%víre.
jel" Rare, dial. ‘a brook, a rivulet’; jir#víre See jir%ví.
also jil#, jîl#. Probably from the Jiu NFl Unclear, probably indige-
same root as NFl Jiu. nous from IE g0el1 ‘to glitter’. Seems
jil" See jel#. related with jel# ‘a brook’ and NFl
Jigureasa NFl A tributary of Jiu, Jijia. • The hypothesis of a borrow-
in the Or$!tie Mts. A compound: ing from Sl. 6iv! ‘alive, live’ is not
Ji!gureasa or Ji!g!ureasa; the first plausible.
part is related with Jiu, Jijia, and the jîl" See jel#, jil#.
second part, depending on how we joián" The plant Oenanthe silaifo-
analyse it, unclear: !gureasa, de- lia, having a yellowish!orange liq-
rived from gur%?; or we should as- uid in its roots. The basic meaning
sume an epenthetic, linking !g!, and seems to be connected to the colour
!ur!easa, see or!, ur!. See also Jiu, of the liquid in its root, therefore a
Jijia, jel#. root jo! with chromatic meaning.
Jijia NFl Related with Jiu, with This form is also used for cow
reduplication, as in curcubeu, Cur- names, and would thus confirm that
cub/ta, S/sar, Rar/u etc. the basic meaning was related to
colours.
jínti"# ‘milky product obtained by
gradually warming up whey’. Re- jumate, jum"tate; reg. gium/tate
lated with jan#. [Bum/tate]; Arom. Bumitate. Alb.
gjCsmë, !a ‘id.’. It is commonly held
jir"ví ‘to let colours on pottery
for a substratum element, and also
flow from margins towards centre’.
assumed that variant jumate is a
The basic meaning may be recon-
haplology (omitting a similar
structed ‘to flow’ (referring to col-
sound). Indeed, the Albanian paral-
ours used in pottery ornaments),

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117
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lel would indicate a root jum!, with
two development variants: jum!ate lab#, !e s.f. ‘a paw; pejor. hand’.
and jum!/t!ate. On the other hand, Usually held for a borrowing from
we may admit a prefix ju!, Alb. Hung. láb ‘a leg’, though the ety-
gjys! and mat!/m/t!, which may re- mon of the Hungarian form is ob-
scure, and references to Samoedic
flect IE me!2, ‘in the middle,
and laamb, lamb ‘the sole (of foot-
half!way’, as in *me!dhi, English wear)’ raise major difficulties of
mid!wife, or Greek me!ta ‘between, phonetic correspondences. • We in-
with, aside’. The Albanian form cline for an indigenous origin,
seems newer, but would also sup- seemingly related with Gr. labé
port the hypothesis of a prefix gjys! ‘getting, catching’, from IE
and me ‘half’. If the basic root is *(s)lagw ‘to get, to catch’. As the
supposed to be jum!, then we may evolution IE *gw > b is natural for
accept a Thracian form akin to Lat. Greek, not for Thracian (at least as
duo, duae ‘two’. We are rather in- we may deduce from existing data),
the hypothesis of an old Greek word
clined for the hypothesis of a prefix
borrowed in Thracian cannot be ex-
ju!, Alb. gjys! and me!dh! ‘half’.
cluded. A second view is to consider
The role of ju! is obscure. a fortuitous similarity with Greek,
jupî#n Formerly Bupîn. See ban and and refer to Preie. *L!B!, *L!P!
st/pîn. ‘stone, cliff’, but in this case the
jupuí ‘to flay’ (also fig.: ‘to ex- semantic evolution is indeed diffi-
ploit, to exhaust someone’s en- cult. • Hung. láb should be anyway
ergy’). Probably indigenous, though considered borrowed from Roma-
nian. • Intervocalic b in Romanian
sometimes referred to Bulg. 6upja ‘I
is normal in an indigenous element.
peel (off)’. The two words may be
See also l%b%r#a.
related as an indigenous substratum
Lala NSt, NM (MM) Probably
heritge in both languages, even if
from an initial form *Alala
we may assume either a direct heri-
(*Al!al!a) > Rom. Lala (similarly in
tage from Thracian in Bulgarian, or
Rar%u). The ultimate origin must be
a Romanian intermediary.

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Preie. *AL! ‘elevation, peak’. NP f. the Slavic origin of the Romanian
Lala seems from the same root. forms, and suggests a Hungarian
la"e pl. ‘long hair; tuft’; der. l%#os origin, from lápos ‘a marsh, a
‘furry, with long hair’. Alb. lesh moor’. We may admit that form
(from *lash) ‘wool; hair’. Seems L%pu&na, even though derived from
related with Gr. lasios ‘furry, L%pu&, which for sure is NOT a
Slavic or Hungarian borrowing, is
long!haired...’, lachne ‘hair’, Sl.
an interference at folk level. Never-
*vlas1 ‘hair’ etc. Most probably in-
theless NM, NL L%pu& and
digenous.
L%pu&ata must reflect an indigenous
l#b#r"á (usually referring to foot- heritage, Preie. root *L!P!, *L!B!
weare) ‘to get (too) large (by daily 'stone, cliff, mountain’, which is in
or frequent use). See lab%. Lat. lapis ‘stone’. From this reason
L#pú& NM (MM); NL (Tîr- at least, the Mediaeval attestation
gu!L%pu&). Many related forms: Lapis Sancti Michaelis is interest-
L%pu&nic NFl, NL (Semenic Mts), ing, and would indicate the preser-
L%pu&na NL (Gurghiu Mts, and a vation of meaning ‘stone, cliff’ until
similar form in the Rep. of late in the Middle Ages. • The forms
Moldova); L%pu&ata and NP L%pu&nic may indeed reflect a
L%pu&eanu, NL L%pu&e&ti < NP Slavic origin, or a Slavic influence
L%pu&escu. Some of the forms have in adapting the pre!existing form(s).
early attested forms: 1320 – Lapis See also lespede (< *lepsede,
Sanctis Michaelis (a location which probably, with metathesis).
later disappeared). The mountain- l#"ós ‘hairy, wearing (too) long
name, at least, as well as the numer-
hair’. See la#e.
ous forms spread on a large area
indicate a well consolidated moun- le!ág#n, !e s.n. ‘cradle (also figura-
tain! and place!name. The etymo- tively, calque after French berceau).
Der.: a se leg%na, leg%nat, leg%nare.
logical explanation usually refer to
Related with Gr. léchos ‘id.’, léktron
Sl. lopuch1, the plant Arctium or
‘a bed’, Lat. lectica, Germ. liegen
Rumex, hence would be Sl. NL
and Eng. lay etc. The Thracian pro-
Lopu"na, Lopu"nik etc. (.milauer,
totype must have been *légh!4n.
SlTop 114). Kiss 1980: 373 rejects

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119
Pars prima
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leg#ná ‘to rock a child, to balance’. metathesis from *lepsede, therefore
Derived from leag%n. a relation, in the sense of
lehámite ‘nausea’; fig. ‘disgust’. Urverwandtschaft, is probable with
Related with leh%i and le&ina. many other forms having root
leh#í vb. ‘to speak nonsense; to *L!P!. The ultimate origin may be
prattle’. Related with Alb. leh ‘to Preie., via Thracian. The same
bark; to bay, to yelp’. Unclear ety- Preie. origin for Latin lapis. See
mon; intervocalic h reflects an ar- also L%pu&.
chaic velar spirant (laryngeal), cf. le&iál# Now obsolete and dialectal:
h%mesit, Hîr&ova; in this perspec- ‘state of weakness or sickness’. See
tive, related with le&ina, with alter- le&ina and le&ie.
nating h/&, another proof – if ac- le&íe Now obsolete. A variant of
cepted – of the original velar spi- le&ial%.
rant. le&iná ‘to lose conscience, to faint’.
lep#dá ‘to cast, to throw; to put Sometimes held for a derivative from
away: to miscarry a baby’; refl. ‘to le& ‘corpse’, of Turkish origin, and
abjure, to get rid of a former opin- spread in many southeast European
ion’. The former relations to Latin languages. Russu, on the opposite
lapidare and liquidare have been side, assumes that the similarity is
abandoned, even if a derivative fortuitous. The verb is obviously de-
from lapis ‘stone’, hence ‘to cast a rived from the same root as le&ial%
stone’, then ‘to cast’ in general is and le&ie. Also, all these forms with
tempting. The etymon is obscure, root le&! are related with lihni (see).
and the Latin origin still possible. The alternating h/& (in other cases,
Russu rejects all these in favour of the alternating phonems are f/v/h and
an indigenous element, yet a collo- &) are remnants of the original velar
quial Latin *lapidare seems the spirant (laryngeal) *X. The original
most probable. meaning of root *leX!, *liX! must
léspede ‘a large piece of stone, es- have been ‘weak; hunger’.
pecially the stone cover of a tomb; a lete ‘free time; respite, leisure’.
large piece of stone in general’. The The basic root of the more fre-
modern form seems the result of a
quently used îndelete (în!de!lete).

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As such, completely obsolete. Ety- luceo, !Fre, hence Rom. a luci. Cf.
mon unknown, but probably ar- licurici. See also n%!luc%.
chaic. Frequent in derived forms licuríci, ~ s.m. ‘glow worm’. Re-
and constructions: (a se) îndeletnici
lated with a lic%ri ‘to glitter, to
(cu) ‘to deal with’; (pe) îndelete glow’.
‘slowly, calmly’. Alb. lehtë, adj.,
lihní ‘to feal weak or without
adv. ‘slight(ly)’. Beside the Alba-
power, especially when hungry’.
nian parallel, no clear relation.
Starting from the basic meaning The root lih! is related with root le&!
‘slow, mild’, one may refer to either in le&ial%, le&ie and le&ina. The al-
l7nis or lentus, but this is a mere ternating &/h reflect the archaic velar
guess; Slavic lAto ‘year’ may be an- spirant (laryngeal) *X.
other possible relationship (not a Lotru NFl Obviously built like
borrowing though), which would Motru; a derivation from lotru
fairly correspond to the structure of ‘thief’, does not seem either possi-
this archaic term. ble or probable. I am rather inclined
for a relation with Cretan lat ‘a
leúrd#, !e The plant Allium monta-
marsh, a moor’, NL Latsida, both of
num. Bulg. levurda is from Roma-
nian (less probably directly from Preie. origin. A root *L!T! is not
Thracian). Seems related to Alb. immediately identifiable, so further
hudhër, hudër, with the same mean- research is necessary. Probably re-
ing, but a common prototype is dif- lated with NFl Loire, in France.
ficult to reconstruct. In Albanian, macioál# ‘ugly, wicked woman; an
the relationship may rather be ugly, sick and non!performant cow’.
hudhër, hudër – hédhë ‘(corn) ear’. Seems closely related with the root
The IE root seems *leud! ‘small, in m%ciulie.
little’, later *leud!er!, then metathe- mal, !uri s.n. ‘river bank’. Very
sis. • Does not seem a construction frequent also in place!names, and
based on a prefix le! and urd%. borrowed by the neighbouring lan-
lic#rí vb. ‘to glitter, to glow’. Der. guages. Also related with Alb. mal
(regressive): líc%r s.n. From IE ‘hill, mountain’. The ultimate origin
*leuk!, *lek! ‘to glitter’, as in Lat. is Preie. *M!L! ‘hill, cliff’. The ar-

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chaic meaning in Romanian must tial meaning must have been ‘a
have been ‘rocky river!bank’, cf. hill(ock) of = a heap (of), a large
Roman province Dacia Malvensis = quantity of’.
Dacia Ripensis. • Also attested in máldur Dialectal variant of
ancient place!names: NL Malva, NL mald%r.
Malontum (southern Illyria); NL Málna& NL (CV) At.: 1366 –
Di!mallum ‘two hills’ or ‘two riv- terra Malnas. The first part is the
er!banks’ etc. One of the substratum same as in mal from Preie. *M!L!
forms with ancient and continuous ‘hill, cliff’.
attestation through ages. See also !man Suffix or rather second ele-
maldac/m%ldac, mald%r, m%lai,
ment in compounds: C%liman,
M%leia.
Caraiman, du&man etc. Seemingly
maldác and m#ldác rare, dial. ‘a
related to the second part in orto-
bunch of hay’. Seems related with
man ‘rich’ (regional and obsolete).
Neo!Greek mandakes ‘a bunch of
This is also specific for some ar-
osier’. It is not clear whether we
chaic place!names south of the Da-
may assume a borrowing from ei-
ther sense. The origin seems ar- nube, e.g. Igman. Poghirc ILR 2:
chaic, Thracian, also with Illyrian 363 refers to related forms Iranic
parallels. The first part of form !manes, Sanskrit !manas and Greek
mal!dac seems related with mal, !µ:)-', which seems a reasonable
therefore the basic meaning may etymon, even if not clear for all
have been ‘a hillock of hay/osier (or forms. • Should not be confused
any similar product of farming)’. A with Turkish orman ‘black’ in some
Romanian origin of Neo!Greek more recent place!names like Car-
form is possible. See also mal and aorman, cara ‘black’ and orman ‘a
mald%r. forest’. See also Manea and the re-
máld#r ‘a heap (of), a large, unde- lated forms quoted there.
fined quantity of’. From the same Mandra NL (OT), NP. See Manea,
root as mal and maldac/m%ldac, and also Manu, mendre, Mendrea. Cf.
also supporting the archaic, substra- mandr%.
tum origin of these forms. The ini-

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mandr# Obs., archaic ‘a flock of mang# ‘a stubborn person’. Ob-
sheep’. NP Mandrea. Obscure; per- scure, probably related with !man
haps related with Manea and/or and/or Manea.
!man, even if the semantic sphere is Manta NP Probably related with
difficult to circumscribe to these Manea. Cf. NP Thr. Manta, Etrus-
forms. can ND Mantus, a subterranean
Mándrea NP See Mandra, Manea. deity (De#ev 1957: 286–287). The
Manea NP Also Man, Manu, attestation of Thracian personal
M%nescu etc. Similar forms attested name, and other related forms, is
in Thracian: Manes, Manis, Mannis, precious in underlying the tradition
Manites etc. (De#ev 285). Probably of this name in the area, even if the
related with Eng. man, German relation with the Etruscan name
Mann etc. < IE *manu!s ‘man’. See may be doubtful.
also du&man (du&!man ‘enemy mantíc# Rare, obsolete: ‘milk
man’). • Bulg. NP Manto is also re- cream’. Cf. Iberian manteca ‘id’ and
lated with these forms; cf. Rom. NP perhaps Dravidian m:ntana ‘sheep
Manta. It is not clear the relation butter’ (Lahovary RIO 3.1951: 191).
between these forms and suffix The relation with Sl. smetana is un-
!man (above). See also Mandra, clear, and is debatable that Rom.
Mandrea, mendre, Mendrea. smîntîn% is a Slavic borrowing. If
Lahovary’s approach may be ac-
Manga NL (DB). Akin to !man cepted, then an archaic Preie. term.
and/or Manea; a personal!name is
Mara NFl Maramure%. Also the first
probably the origin of this
part of the compound Mara!mure!
place!name.
(for the second part see Mure!). The
Mangália NL An important town
approach to the Pan!Christian NP
on the Black Sea shore, some 35 kms
Maria can only be a folk etymology,
south of Constan&a; continues the
ancient Callatis. Seems related to though many linguists incline to
Manga, mang% and the other forms such a hypothesis. Also the riv-
referred to under these entries. er!name cannot be related (urver-
wandt) to Mure! as the root does not
allow this approach. Mara must be
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derived from Preie. *M!R!, also guists have firmly rejected such an
*M!L! ‘stone, cliff’ (see the forms explanation, and assume that the
form is of Thracian origin, from IE
with root mal!). If rejecting the
Preie. origin, then we must recon- *m7r!os, *m8r!os as in Old Irish
m8r, m:r ‘big, great’. The discus-
struct a Thracian root with short a
(%), as Thr. : regularly turns into sions are still hot and in progress.
Rom. u and/or o, as in Mure& or See also Mara and Marma#ia. The
mum%, but NM Codru Moma Thracian NP Beri!maros, Maron, NL
(mom% = mum%). It is not clear Maroneia (?) and ND Pyr!m7rula
whether it may be related with (with first part pyr! ‘fire’, see pururi,
mare, but – if so – the hesitating pururea) would also support the hy-
hypotheses regarding the origin of pothesis of an indigenous, substra-
mare may find a conclusive answer. tum heritage.
See also Maramure&. Mare& NP A frequent family name
Maramúre& NR Obviously a com- of the Romanians. Related with
pound from Mara and Mure& (see mare or Mara or Mure&, in this lat-
both). The region has early attesta- ter case only if we accept an old al-
tions as river!name: 1199 – Ma- ternating m:r!/m%r! of the root. As
ramorisis; fluvium Maramors; 1231 personal family name, also met in
– fluvium Maramorosu. It is prob- Czech and Slovak (Mare"), which
able that the river!name referred to should be accepted as an adapted
as Maramorisis etc. is the river name from Romanian. Very proba-
Mara. bly an indigenous name, as other
mare ‘big, great’; a different origin forms support this origin.
than mare ‘sea’, from Latin mare, Marmanu NL (MH). A compound
maris. The origin has been hotly de- Mar!man!, for which see Mara and
bated for 150 years. Some linguists Marma#ia for the first part, and
assumed a simple derivation!associa- !man or Manea for the second part.
tion on the principle mare ‘sea’, the Marmá"ia NR Traditional, histori-
sea is big, therefore the meaning cal region in northern Romania.
‘big’ associated with ‘sea’ would be Obviously a reduplication
a Romanian innovation. Other lin- *Mar!mar!#!ia > Marma#ia by hap-
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lology. The root mar! must be the very big, giant’ must be postulated.
same as in Mara, Mara!mure&. Cf. ma", especially pl. ma#e ‘bowels’.
mare. Obscure, seemingly related with
Marna NL (SM). From the same Eng. maze, of obscure origin as
root as Mara and Marma#ia. Cf. well. If so, the archaic meaning
NFl Marne (France). must have been ‘intricate, confuse’,
Marpad NL (SB). From the same hence also Eng. a!maze, originally
root as Marna, Mara, Marma#ia; or ‘to put someone in a confuse, intri-
from Hungarian? cate situation’. The pair ma#(e) – a
ame#i ‘to get dizzy’ seems to corre-
má&ter# ‘step!mother’; generically
spond to English pair maze – amaze.
‘wicked, agressive person’. Also The preservation of these forms in
used as an adjective: ma&ter, English and Romanian seems inde-
ma&ter%. The ultimate root must be, pendent and based on archaic hu-
of course, IE *m:tér! ‘mother’. man psychology. See also ame#i.
There are two details to be ex-
máz#re, Arom. madzire s.f. The
plained: 1. IE *: usually results in
plant Pisum sativum, the pea. Alb.
Thracian :, then Romanian 8 and B
modhullë ‘id.’, with the not rare, but
(presumably via a non!attested pho- irregular, correspondence Rom. z –
neme *ô), as in Dun%re, mum%, Alb. dh. The forms seem related
mura, Mure& etc.; 2. The non!ety- with Thracian names of plants mo-
mological (epenthetic?) &. The ar- zoula, mizela ‘savory (Satureia
chaic origin seems probable though, hortensis)’. It may be assumed that
and the stress on the first syllable is in old Romanian there was dz, at
in agreement with other indigenous least in some dialects, correspond-
forms like mGHturG. ing to Alb. dh (as in Eng. the); the
matahál# (colloquial and pejora- correspondence Rom. r – Alb. ll is
tive) ‘too fat and/or tall person; a met in other examples too (in all
giant, any giant being in the tales’. these cases, Romanian r is older
The same root in the verb m%t%h%í, than the evolution r > ll in Alba-
otherwise obscure. Phoneme h re- nian). In some instances, z in the
flects the archaic velar spirant (la- indigenous elements seems to re-
ryngeal) *X. A root *mat!aX! ‘huge,
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flect the original sound, and dz is from Preie. root *MAT(T)!, *MATs!.
rather influenced by the evolution This root was probably related to
from Latin to Romanian (e.g. dies > bushes, hence various names of
dzi > zi ‘day’); see also zîn%. Our plants derived from this archaic
hypothesis is that z, not dz, is the meaning. A third possibility is to
original phoneme in both maz%re accept a root mak!, ma;! in m%ce&
and zîn%. See also m%z%riche. and also m%cri& (mainly the plant
m#, also m#i An apellative for a Rumex acetosa), perhaps also
man or for a boy. See also the situa- m%ciulie ‘knob’, a meaning derived
tion of b%, b%i (and its possible rela- from the usual form of fruit of vari-
tion with b%iat) and of f%, f%i, the ous plants. This last possiblity
apellative for women or girls. All seems to be the common denomina-
these forms are now peripheric and tor of all the forms with root mac!,
vulgar, even if frequent in colloquial m%;!.
Romanian. Given the symmetrical M#cín NM (TL). The oldest moun-
forms b%(i), m%(i) and f%(i), they tains in Romania, northern Do-
seem to reflect an indigenous heri-
brudja. Etymon obscure, probably
tage. the same as m%ce&.
m#cé& The plant Rosa canina,
m#ciulíe ‘knob’. Seems derived
sometimes also Mespillus ger- from the same root as m%ce& and
manica or Crataegus oxyacantha: m%cri&. The word is also used for
‘hip rose’. Archaic, probably de-
referring to the form of various
rived from the IE root *mak!, the fruit, as m%ciulie.
plant papaver, Eng. poppy; the pos-
m#crí& The plant Rumex, and its
sible explanation would be that
variants acetosa, acetosella and
flowers of both Rosa canina and
conglomeratus; sometimes also the
Papaver are similar. The form is
plant Oxalis acetosella. As a name
archaic, and its indigenous origin in
of plant, seems to derive from the
Romanian seems most probable,
same root as m%ce&.
even if the etymon may be uncer-
m#d#rî' ‘to ridicule someone; to
tain. If an evolution *mat!;!e" is
lose usual temper; to caress’. Russu
accepted, then the basic root is mat!
assumes the indigenous origin, by
as in ma# and other names of plants
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criticising the suggested Hungarian m#g#dán (pejorative; now rare and
origin from madár ‘a bird’ (Lajos dialectal) ‘(too) tall, huge person’.
Tamás), but he fails to offer a con- See m%g%d%u and m%g%daie.
vincing etymon, perhaps IE *med! m#g#d%u ‘(too) tall, huge person’;
‘to measure, to invent, to judge’, as also m%g%dan. The root m%g!, with
in Armenian mit ‘a thought, a con- the basic meaning ‘(too) large,
sideration’, Greek méd8 ‘to take huge, tall’ is also met in m%g%oaie.
care of, to protect’, even though The closest connection is Gr. megas,
these do not seem to support megalos ‘large, big’, but a Greek
Russu’s hypothesis. • The form is borrowing is not possible, unless we
now dialectal and with pejorative accept an old borrowing from (Old)
meaning; the archaic origin is pos- Greek in Thracian. This seems to be
sible, but difficult to prove. Does the rational hypothesis, as IE. *meg0!
not seem related with root med! in would have resulted in Thr. *mez!
Media& and its related forms. or me6!. The centum!specific pres-
m#gár The equus asinus: ‘donkey, ervation of this IE root, which is
ass’. Alb. magár, magáç, magjár rare indeed among the Pre!Romance
and gomár m., gomáre f. Origin de- elements in Romanian, should be
bated, and never explained satisfac- further analysed. We may also admit
torily. The word seems archaic, and a late IE root *meg(h)!, and in this
the Romanian form is oldest; Alba-
case the phonetic evolution would
nian rather shows a borrowing from be normal, even for a satem idiom
Romanian, and – for some forms – a
like Thracian.
metathesis. We hypothesise a rela-
tion with m%gur%, and an original m#g#o"áie 1. ‘a too large, huge per-
meaning ‘mountain animal’, i.e. son or object’; 2. ‘a fright, scare-
‘used for traction in mountainous crow’, or any similar frightening
areas’. If this approach is accepted, object. See m%g%dan and m%g%d%u.
one may also note that Alb. ll m%gur# ‘a small hill, a hillock, a
should have reflected Rom. r in an tumulus; a small hut’. Alb. magullë,
old element, as the parallel Rom. with the expected ll for Rom. r; as
m%gur% – Alb. mogullë. shown by other examples, Rom. r
must be older and the original pho-
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neme as in maz%re v. modhullë etc. these). The construction is m%l!ur!%
The root seems related with mu- as in m_g!ur!%, m_t!ur!% etc.
gur(e), both from a Preie. root m#m#líg# ‘maize flour bread’; ini-
*M!G!, *M!K! ‘a prominence, a hill, tially ‘millet flour bread’. An essential
a tumulus’, which explains both ba- term related to traditional cook. The
sic meanings: ‘prominence = modern form is a reduplication of
hill(ock)’ and ‘prominence = blos- *m%l!m%l!ig!% > m%m%lig%, by hap-
som’. The form m%gur%, art.
lology. The root is Preie. *M!L!, the
m%gura is very frequent in
same as in mal, m%lai, m%ldac, and
place!names in mountainous areas. reflects a visual association between
m#i See m%. the m%m%lig% and a hillock. A dialec-
m#lái! ‘maize flour’, replacing the tal form m%lig% is also attested.
old meaning ‘millet flour’. Obvi- m#rar The plant Anethum
ously derived from the Preie. root graveolens: ‘dill’. Alb. maráj, mërajë
mal!, with the basic meaning ‘hill, ‘dill’. Poghirc ILR 2: 345 rejects, with
mountain’, hence ‘ground stone (as arguments, the explanation from
on a hill!side)’ = something resem- Post!Classical Latin *marathrium <
bling ground stone, i.e. flour. For marathrum < Gr. µ+#(D&), Mycenean
the construction, cf. v%trai < vatr%. ma!ra!tu!wo (Chantraine 666: ‘il faut
See also NFl M%leia, which helps in partir de *`,a,)!"; probablement
clarifying the archaic mentality, terme indigène emprunté). It seems
which led to associations of this
obvious that in Thracian (hence in
type: hill – ground stone on a Romanian and Albanian) and in
hill!side – flour. Greek we must reconstruct a root
m#ldac See maldac. *mar!, of Preie. origin. The hypothe-
M#léia NFl (Parîng Mts., a tribu- sis of a colloquial Latin heritage can-
tary of Jiu). From the same root of not be accepted as the phonetic evolu-
mal and m%lai. tion is not supported by any Romance
m#líg# Dialectal variant of language. In change, an independent
m%m%lig%. heritage in both Greek and Thracian
m%lur# ‘smut’. Closely related (hence in Romanian and Albanian) is
with mal, m%lai and m%ldac (see all
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the only feasible, as correctly noted Rar%u etc.
by Poghirc. See also m%rat below. m#rcát Only in Aromanian: ‘a cer-
m#rát ‘a poor man/person’. Alb. tain type of processed milk, a kind
mjerë ‘unhappy, miserable’. Un- of yoghurt’. Russu suggests a deri-
clear, held by Russu for indigenous, vation from IE *mer7! ‘to coagu-
without offering a plausible etymon. late’, which may be a plausible ex-
A colloquial derivation from am%rît, planation. Some linguists admit a
in its turn from amar ‘bitter’ is not colloquial Latin origin, from mar-
excluded, but the Albanian parallel cidus ‘altered’, which does not
would indeed indicate an indige- seems possible. If accepted as in-
nous, archaic origin. If we accept digenous, it may be related with
that the plant dill is ‘bitter’, then the m%rar and m%rat, with the basic
closest relationship is with m%rar meaning ˆbitter’ of Preie. root mar!,
‘dill’. in this case ‘bitter milk’ (against the
m#r#cíne ‘bramble’. It is com- ‘sweet’ taste of fresh milk, Rom.
monly accepted that it may reflect a lapte dulce).
colloquial latin form *marrucina or m#t#h#í ‘to move with difficulty,
*marricina < marra ‘a kind of hoe’. e.g. a giant or huge person’. See
The Latin origin is supported by matahal%.
Italian form marruca ‘bramble’ and m#treá"# 1. ‘dandruff’;. 2. a generic
Alb. markyin ‘a kind of hoe’ (Ales- name of algas randomly growing on
sio, Omagiu Iordan 6–7). It may be
lakes or ponds; 3. The plant Peplis
also acceptable to assume a substra- portula; 4. The lichen Usnea bar-
tum element ‘intruded’ into collo- bata. The archaic meaning of this
quial Latin, and therefore a Thra- root may be reconstructed as ‘con-
cian and/or Illyrian element cannot fuse grow of plants’, hence ‘dan-
be excluded; in such a case, a rela-
druff’. If so, may be related with
tion with m%r!ar is acceptable. ma#, from a Preie. root *M!T(T)!,
M#r%u NL (Deva!Sibiu area) If *M!TS! ‘confuse, labyrinthine; bush’
not derived from m%r, which is im- or rather with m%t!ur!% (see).
probable, then related with Mara,
m#turá ‘to broom’. See m%tur%.
and a development like Buz%u,

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m%tur# ‘a broom’. Also the plants folk tales). The explanation from
Sorghum vulgare and saccaratum, Hung. mellék, in its turn unclear and
and Kochia scoparia used for manu- unexplained, is debatable. It seems
facturing brooms. Alb. nëtullë, with rather related with mal ‘river!side’
expected ll for Rom. r (cf. maz%re, and Alb. mal ‘hill, mountain’; if so,
m%gur%). One of the clear indige- as we believe, then the original
nous elements in Romanian, related meaning was ‘mountainous land’,
with (not borrowed from) Slavic hence ‘land, region’ in general. •
metati ‘to broom’. The Rom. de- The Hungarian form is rather bor-
rived verb is a m%tura. rowed from Romanian. See also
m#z#ríche ‘vetch’ (the plant Vi- Meleia and M%leia.
cia); also ‘sleet’. Derived from the mele!án ‘tall, young man’. Seems
same root as maz%re. derived from the same root of mal,
Média& NL (near Sibiu). An in- the initial meaning was ‘hill’, i.e.
digenous root *med!, as in other ‘man like a hill’, i.e. ‘tall and
place!names in southeast Europe, healthy’.
see Medija, Medulin (Lexicon A) melegár A wooden basin used for
and Me6anj (Lexicon B, II, 8). collecting ground ore extracted
melc ‘a snail’. A clear indigenous from a mine. Seems to be the same
element. Russu explains the form root as in mal ‘river!side’ < ‘rocky
from IE *mel! ‘to grind’, which is (i.e. ground gravel) river!side’. The
improbable. The word is rather of original meaning of root mal! was
Preie. origin, root *M!L! ‘a promi- ‘hill, mountain’. See mal, m%lai,
nence, a hill’, and is therefore re- meleag, melean.
lated with mal ‘riverside’ < ‘hill’, Meleia NM, Or$!tie Mts. See
‘rocky rivereside’. The archaic M%leia.
meaning was that snails were a kind méndre Now only in compounds
of moving, vivid hillocks. A possi- a!&i face mendrele ‘to take pleas-
ble relationship may be with Lat. ures; to rape a woman’. Now pe-
mollis and mollusca < *mel!d!. riphereal, seems to be derived from
mele"ág ‘a land, a region’ (tradi- IE *manu!s ‘man’. Also preserved
tional and colloquial; frequent in in some family names like Mendrea.
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The archaic meaning may be recon- constructed. The form belonged to
structed as ‘to behave like a man’, colloquial Post!Classical Latin, and
i.e. ‘to have sexual intercourse’. seems built on the same source like
Méndrea NP See méndre. pic, un pic ‘a little, little bit’, pici ‘a
Mera NL (CJ) At. 1299 – Mera; small child’.
1334 – villa Mera. Iordan assumes a mierlí, especially in the reflexive
borrowing from Bulg. mera ‘pas- construction a o mierlí ‘to die’, in-
ture’, which is highly improbable. It cluding figurative meanings, e.g. ‘to
must be related with Mara and the be in trouble’. Absent from current
first part of Mara!mure&, eventually lists of indigenous elements, proba-
to the root in m%rat and m%r%cine. bly on the erroneous ground that it
may have a connection with mierl%
meteáhn# ‘a fault, a flaw; a bad
‘blackbird’, of Latin origin. • The
habit’. Phoneme h leads towards an
verb obviously belongs to the fam-
original velar spirant *X. The form
ily represented by Latin mors, mor-
is related with matahal% and
tis, Slavic s1mrt1 ‘death’ etc. The
m%t%h%i(see). The modern meaning
is derived from m%t%h%i ‘to move form is well established at collo-
slowly, with hesitations’. quial level, and surely belongs to
the archaic vocabulary. Cf. mieru.
miár"# (pejorative) ‘a small, al-
most dead being’. Must be closely mieru Now rare, dialectal ‘light
related with mierlí ‘to die’. blue, bluish’. Seems to belong, as
Russu believes, to the group derived
mic adj. ‘small, little’. Many de-
from IE *mel! in various names of
rivatives: micu#, micu#el, mititel etc.
colours, e.g. Gr. mélas ‘black’, even
Indigenous, presumably related with
if there does not seem any example
ancient NL Micia (NPp Micenses),
NP Miccos, Miccas etc., IE root of any change !l! > !r! in intervocalic
*(s)meik!, *(s)mik! ‘small, little’, as position (despite many attempts to
show this). The ultimate etymon may
in Gr. mikros (see further Thracian
examples in De#ev 1957: 304). • be different, a root *m!(y)er!, *mur!
The word may have been early bor- with chromatic meaning; cf. murg. •
May be eventually related with
rowed in Post!Classical Latin,
mierli ‘to die’, i.e. ‘colour of death’.
where a form *mic(c)us may be re-

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Mieru, also Mieru" NM, Parîng explains it from mîner ‘a handle’,
Mts. See mieru. which is impossible.
mig#í Variant of mig%li. Mini& NFl Archaic river!name re-
mig#lí ‘to work meticulously, care- lated with many other Thracian
fully’. Also mig%í. Unexplained. forms, e.g. NL Mende, Menda; ND
Must be indigenous, related with Mendeis, name of a nymph, and NP
Eng. make and Germ. machen, Lat. Mendi!doros; NP Minacos, Minas,
m:cer:re < IE *mag!, *mak! ‘to Minno. Archaic Preie. root *M!N!
knead; to fit’. ‘to cover, to protect’, i.e. ‘covered,
mig#lós ‘meticulous’; see mig%li. protected place’.
mihál" The river prey fish Lota Mini& NL (BN). At. 1302 – villa
lota. Obscure. Definitely, there can- Menesy. Same etymon as NFl
not be any connection with root Mini&.
mih! in personal and Biblical name Míntia NL Related to Mini&. At.
Mihai ‘Michael’. Phoneme h sug- 1330 – terra Nempty; 1381 – pos-
gests an original velar spirant *X, sessio Nymiti. The forms are cor-
which resulted in Romanian alter- rupt, as often in Mediaeval docu-
nating f, v, h and &. A root *miX! ments. Dr$ganu, 1933: 21 explains
should therefore be postulated, with it from Hung. német ‘German’,
unknown meaning. which is an impossible etymon. The
form is obviously related with
Mina NP Related with Mini&.
Mina, Minea, Mini&, Mintiu.
Bulg. NP Mino, Mina may be from
Romanian or, possibly, a direct con- Mintiu NL The same etymon like
tinuation of the Thracian personal Mintia, and further Mini&. At. 1332
names. – sacerdos de Fulnempty; 1380 –
possessio Nemetu.
Minea NP Same root as Mina,
Mini&. The root is quite frequent in mire ‘bridegroom’. Fem. mireas%
family names. ‘bride’. There is a long history of
debates whether to hold this form
Minéu, Mîn%u NL (SJ), related to
for indigenous or derived from
Mina, Minea, Mini&. At. 1335: sac-
Latin miles. We may surmise that,
erdos de Mened; 1435: Menye, Me-
after the conquest of Dacia, most
new, Meney. Iordan DNFR 307–308
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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bridegrooms were represented by digera); fig. ‘to consume, to burn’.
the Latin miles who married indige- Hung. emeszt ‘to digest’ is bor-
nous girls. On the other hand, the rowed from Romanian (not
relationship with Old Indian márya! vice!versa, as some linguists erro-
‘a man, a young man’ from IE neously claim). Seems related with,
*meria! ‘man, young man, a be- not derived from, Lat. misceo, Lith.
loved man’ is tempting; hence also mie"iu, mi7"ti ‘to mix’, Sl. mAs@,
feminine nouns, e.g. Lithuanian mA"itti ‘to mix’ < IE *mei!I! ‘to
martì ‘bride, virgin girl’. The form mix’. Alternatively, it may be re-
seems indigenous rather than de- lated with mistre# and mi&ca, in
rived from miles, even though such which case a Preie. origin is also
a possibility cannot be excluded. possible. • Archaic term.
Alb. mërkosh ‘young man’ seems to mi&cá, also refl. a se mi&ca ‘to
belong here as well. • A contamina- move, to move oneself’. Belongs to
tion of an indigenous form and Lat. the basic vocabulary. We assume it
miles is also possible. Essential term is derived from the same archaic
of family relations. root *M!S!, *N!S! ‘round, curve’, as
mistré" ‘a wild boar’. Isolated in in mistre#, Nistru and nisetru.
Romanian, undoubtedly an archaic Closely related with mu&ca.
term. Various attempts to explain mi&c#1 ‘a twig; a thing whip’. Re-
the form (see in Russu). For the lated with the verb a mi&ca. DA, lit.
contruction, cf. cre#. Among various M, 1: 628 refers to Bulg. mi"ka
attempts, we assume the word is of ‘small mouse’, which is – for sure –
Preie. origin, root *M!S!, *N!S! a fortuitous similarity.
‘round, curved’ (as also in mi&ca,
mi&c#2, pl. mi&te ‘a heart!like piece
mu&uroi, and Nistru, nisetru). This
of stone used for anchoring’. Unex-
basic meaning was connected to ei-
plained. Seems an archaic deriva-
ther the habit of this animal to dig
tion from the verb a mi&ca, and
the earth or rather to its meandering
would be therefore related with
strips when young. • An archaic
mi&c%1.
word referring to indigenous fauna.
mîhní ‘to make someone sad or
mistuí ‘to digest’ (the standard,
depressed’; (passively) ‘to be sad or
colloquial term, lately replaced by a
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depressed’. Obscure and isolated. mal’. • The Thracian origin in Ro-
Phoneme h indicates an original ve- manian seems certain; an Illyrian
lar spirant, which leads to recon- parallel, proved by god!name Men-
structing a root *m!X! ‘sorrow, zana, is probable.
grief’. mînzát ‘weanling’. See mînz.
mînz, mînji s.m. ‘a colt’. Alb. Gjeg mîr Imitative for a dog’s bark.
mës, art. mëzi; Tosc maz. Related Hence a mîrîí ‘to bark’. Often held
with Illyrian ND Menzana ‘an epi- for a simple onomatopoeia. Never-
thet of Jupiter’, to whom horses theless its origin must be archaic,
were sacrificed. See also Basque proved by the derivatives mîrlan,
mando ‘mule’. Similar, related mîrtan. These forms must have de-
forms are also: It. manzo, Sard veloped together in an archaic pe-
mendzu ‘calf’, Bavarian German riod.
manz, menz ‘barren cow’ etc. It is mîrîí ‘to bark’. See mîr.
difficult to assume if all these forms
may be derived from the same pro- mîrlán ‘a boorish, bad!mannered
totype. Obviously, there is a com- person’. Used always critically and
mon origin in Romanian and Alba- pejoratively. Also modorán,
nian, and this should be the Thra- modîrlán. Etymon obscure, but the
cian substratum (with a probable forms seem indeed archaic and in-
parallel in Illyrian). Also mînzat digenous. Cf. mîrtan ‘tom!cat’,
‘calf meat’, Alb. mëzat ‘cow, cattle’, which itself is seemingly deformed
which is very close to the semantic from mîrlan and motan ‘tom!cat’. If
sphere ‘cow’. The forms may be root mîr! should be accepted as ar-
borrowed in Post!Classical Latin, chaic, its meaning may be recon-
and also in other languages. • The structed as ‘something unpleasant,
IE origin must be *mend!, *mond! abhorring’. It may also be derived
‘to suck’, cf. Alb. ment ‘(he, she) from mîr, imitative for the sound of
sucks’, mëndeshë ‘wet nurse’. If a barking dog; also mîrîí ‘to bark’.
Basque mando should be included If so, the basic meaning of root mîr!
in this group, then the ultimate ori- may have been ‘ugly, abhorring’ <
gin may be Preie., with the recon- ‘frightening = barking’.
structable meaning ‘calf, small ani-
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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mîrtán Dialectal form of motan phonetically possible. In its turn,
‘tom!cat’. Liquid r seems epenthetic pisic% is constructed as pis!ic!% (the
and expressive, and/or an interfer- back!form pisic ‘small tomcat, male
ence with mîrlan ‘a boorish, kitten’ is also used), with pis!pis as
bad!mannered person’. Cf. mîr, the appelative, approx. ‘come to me,
mîrîí. cat’; root pis! must be related with
mî&îí (about animals) ‘to smell, to Sl. p4s1 ‘dog’, and probably the
track hunt’. The root mî&! seems to root initially referred to a common,
be the same as in a!mu&!in!a and domestic animal like a dog or rather
mu&ca, with evolution u > î (close its offspring, i.e. ‘small animal’
neutral vowel). (note small or weak jer, initially
mî"# ‘cat’. Alb. macë and German short i in Proto!Slavic, v. Rom. i). It
Mieze are the only related forms. may be assumed that form mî#%
Romanian has 4 terms referring to consolidated in the Middle Ages,
’cat’: mî#%, motan ‘tomcat’, pisic% and its origin may be searched in
‘cat’ (the most used, the ‘classical’ the immitative sound mC! specific to
term, with derivatives, e.g. pisoi cats. The form motan, the male cat,
‘kitten’) and cotoi ‘tomcat’. There- is still more difficult to explain as it
fore, two terms for the female ani- is isolated in Romanian, and a sub-
mal, out of which one generic stratum origin is most probable.
(pisic%) and other two for the male And cotoi, the other parallel form
animal. All seem old and well con- for ‘tomcat’, probably a substratum
solidated in the common vocabu- element too, closely related with
lary, with regional and dialectal dif- Lat. cattus, Eng. cat and Sl. kotA
ferences regarding their frequency. ‘kitten’.
Obviously, only the wild cat may be moac# 1. ‘bludgeon’; 2. (collo-
in view in search of a substratum quial) ‘face’ (similar to mutr%); 3.
element, possibly with an initial ref- used pejoratively for a person whom
erence to another animals. Form the speaker despises (for his/her be-
cotoi is akin to Eng. cat and Lat. haviour or look) – this meaning is
cattus, but a direct continuation of obviously derived from (2); 4. The
Lat. cattus > cotoi ‘tomcat’ is not fish Cottus gobio. The root moc!,

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moac!a (diphthong !oa! if a is in the ock; something like a small protu-
final syllable) is met in several ar- berance’. The root mog! ‘(small)
chaic forms, which probably reflect protuberance must be the same as in
Preie. *M!K!, *M!G! ‘round; a mugur and moac%, with other re-
form’, hence ‘knob, bludgeon; face; lated forms, all from Preie. *M!G!,
round object in general’. See also *M!K! ‘protuberance, something
root mug! in mugur(e). evidenced’.
moa&# See mo&. molíd ‘a spruce tree’. Preie. origin,
moc#í Mainly reflexive a se moc%í root *M!L! ‘elevation; hill, mountain’.
‘to work or move slowly’ (used ex- Akin to mal. Both molid and brad
clusively pejoratively in modern reflect archaic terms related with the
Romanian). Derived from the same specific flora of the Carpathians.
root moc! like moac%; see also mo- Moldova The region between the
cofán. East Carpathians and Nistru
mocofán ‘silly, idiot; bad man- (Dnjester). Currently considered
nered person’. Derived from moac%; derived from molid (Iorgu Iordan),
see also moc%í. even if such an evolution is unac-
ceptable. The form seems a com-
modru ‘mode, a way or means,
possibility’. Now rare and dialectal, pound *Mol!dova, in which the first
isolated. Seemingly an archaic part must be related to mal, while
form. Russu derives it from IE the second must be related to Dava,
reflecting the traditional Thracian
*med! ‘to measure; to think, to con-
word for ‘fortress’ (dava, deva,
sider’, therefore akin to, not derived
dova). If this explanation is ac-
from, Latin meditor, modestus and
cepted, the oldest meaning of the
moderare. Nevertheless a post!clas-
place!name was ‘the fortress on the
sical derivation in colloquial Latin
hill/mountain’, and was presumably
from a root akin to moderare is pos-
applied to an old military centre on
sible, and may explain the Roma-
the river Moldova or somewhere in
nian form.
the neighbourhood. • The relation
mogîldeá"# ‘a small, unclear object
with molid must be seen in the con-
or person (usually pejoratively ap- text of the complex, archaic heri-
plied to people); a small hill or hill-
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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tage, not as a simple derivation, The form muma p%durii, lit. ‘forest
anyway impossible in the way pre- mother’, is regularly an ugly old
sented by Iordan. woman, who attracts, torture and
Moldova NFl An important river of kills innocent people.
Moldova (see). mormán ‘a heap, a multitude of ob-
molíd The tree Picea abies or ex- jects one above another’. We also
celsa; ‘spruce’. Like brad, with incline for Russu’s hypothesis, who
which it is often confused, indige- holds it for indigenous. Nevertheless,
nous, related with mal and Moldova, if accepted, this form leads to recon-
with alternating a/o of the root. Ul- sidering the origin of mormînt ‘a
timately, of Preie. origin. grave’, commonly held for reflecting
Latin monumentum. We assume that
Moma in place!names, e.g. Codru
both morman and mormînt belong to
Moma. See mom%.
an archaic root *mor!m!, with the
mom# (obsolete, dialectal) original meaning ‘a prominence of
‘mother’; closely related with
earth, a hillock’, later ‘a heap of’.
mum%. See also Moma. The root
mormî'nt ‘a grave’. Usually held
mom!, mum! ‘mother’ < Thr. m:m!
for a Latin element, derived from
is parallel to mam% < Lat. mamma
monumentum. See morman above.
and maic% < Slavic majka.
If morman is accepted as indige-
momí ‘to entice, to attract’. De- nous, as we believe, then the ori-
rived from mom%; see also mum%. gin of mormînt should be also re-
momîiá"# A regional synonym of considered; an interference, at the
mogîldea#%. For the etymon, see level of folk etymology, may have
momîie. occurred too.
momî'ie ‘a wooden skeleton on morói1 Dial. (Moldova), rare in
which cloth and other objects are literary Romanian: ‘a kind of fish
hanged as a fright or scarecrow; a living in lakes’. Etymon unclear,
pejorative epithet for a weak or ugly probably related with the root in
person’. Derived from mom%, also Mure&, with alternating o/u < Thr. :.
mum%, the indigenous form for morói2; moroaie, fem. ‘a ghost of
‘mother’, which gradually acquired the Romanian tales, usually held for
pejorative or negative connotations.
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affecting children’s fate’. Der. a The modern form, as in other cases,
moroi ‘to daunt’. Alb. mora, and is a reduplication *mo&!mo&!d!,
similar forms in some Slavic lan- *mo&!mo&!l! > mo&mond!, mo&mol!.
guages, e.g. Russian kiki!mora, The verb is colloquial and expres-
mora, generic for referring to sive, and archaic, beyond any rea-
ghosts. A Slavic origin in Romanian sonable doubt. The name of plant
is highly improbable, rather mo&mon, the Mespilus ‘medlar’
vice!versa. The ultimate root must must be derived from this root too.
be the same as in Lat. mors, mortis; motán ‘tomcat’. Obscure, very
cf. a mierli, with different vocalism. probably indigenous, and in a way
mo& ‘an old man’; the feminine or another related with mî#%. See
moa&# has specialised for the mean- also pisic% and cotoi.
ing ‘midwife’. Der. mo&íe ‘a prop- mototolí ‘to crump, to turn (a
erty of land’; mo&iér ‘land owner’. cloth) over’. Obscure, perhaps from
Alb. métshë ‘grey!haired, old’. The the same root as mo#; or related with
original meaning is well preserved motan ‘tomcat’, but a common de-
in mo& ‘old man’, and we assume a nominator, which may explain two
Preie. origin, from root *M!S!, quite different semantic spheres,
*N!S! ‘curved, bent’, i.e. ‘with ‘tomcat’ v. ‘to crump’ is not easy to
curved back = old’. Archaic, be- identify. The modern form is a re-
longs to the basic and traditional sult of reduplication, followed by
vocabulary. haplology: *mot!mot!ol! > *moto-
mo&món The plant Mespilus ger- tol!. See also s!motoci.
manica; ‘medlar’. Must be related Motru NFl It has always been clear
to the verb mo&mondi, and both de- that the modern form continues an-
rived from the same root as in mo&, cient Thracian NFl spelled Amou-
moa&% (see). trion, Amutria, Amytron, and that it
mo&mondí, also mo&moli, mo&moní is related with similar river!names
‘to potter about’. The basic meaning in France, e.g. Matra, Moder,
is ‘to move slowly, inefficiently, as Marne, Meyronne (Dauzat, Noms
an old man’, therefore the root must 199) < IE m:ter ‘mother’. See also
be the same as in mo& ‘old man’. Modrejce in Lexicon A. From rea-

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Lexicon Etymologicum
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sons connected to a shallow analy- gin. Der. a în!mugurí ‘to be in blos-
sis, it has often been assumed that som’. Note the parallel Rom. r –
the Romanian form would indicate a Alb. ll, as in other cases, with Rom.
Slavic intermediary; in fact, vocal- r older and the original phoneme.
ism o (and u) is normal when Thra- muián Coll., vulg. ‘face’. See muie
cian had : (long a). See the similar and mutr%.
situation in Mure& and Moma (NM
muie Coll, vulg. ‘face’; der. mean-
Codru Moma); moma is the substra-
ing ‘fellatio’, in expressions. The
tum form, whereas mama is from
forms muian, muie and mutr% seem
Latin. The river!name is beyond any related and archaic, from a root
doubt archaic, and no Slavic inter-
*mu! ‘mouth’; form mutr% may be
mediary is necessary. If such an in-
yet of Preie. origin, while muie,
termediary is to be considered, the
muian may derive from the same IE
only case would be Olt and Oltina
root as Eng. mouth and Gm. Mond.
(see). Cf. Lotru.
mum# ‘mother’. Also mom% in
mo"1 ‘tuft of hair’. Obscure, proba-
NM Codru Moma, lit. ‘mother for-
bly Preie., akin to forms like a
est’. Indigenous, with the normal
mo#%i and a J mototoli, from an ar-
evolution Thr. : > Rom. u and o
chaic root *M!T! ‘unclear, obscure,
(dialectally) < *m:!m!, as in Lat.
labyrinthine’.
m:ter. The same evolution Thr. : >
mo"2 An inhabitant of $ara Mo#i- Rom. u/o is in Dun%re, Mure&, a
lor. The name of the mo#i must be mura. See also mom%, Moma, momi,
derived from mo#1, having the origi- momîie. DEX incorrectly assumes
nal meaning connected to either that mum% is a simple variant of
their specific hairdress or referring mam% (< Lat. mamma); the forms
to a region of mo# ‘region with mom%, Moma, momi, momîie, mum%
tufts’. reflect the indigenous heritage,
mo"#í ‘a doze off, to take a nap’. whereas mam% reflects the Latin
Obscure, probably akin to mo#. stratum. The forms are of course
múgur(e) ‘a blossom’. Alb. mu- related as a large, common Indo!Eu-
gull. Archaic, from the same root as ropean heritage.
m%gur%, of presumably Preie. ori-

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139
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munún# dial. murún# ‘an orna- Mu&etoiu etc. Archaic, probably of
mental strip; an ornamental crown’. Preie. origin, root *M!S!, *N!S!
Held by Russu for indigenous, but ‘bright, shining; beautiful’; cf.
the alternance n/r, specific for the Mu&ata, Mu&ea, Mu&lea, Mu&u,
only elements of Latin origin of mu&e#el.
Romanian, leads to rather reconsid- mu&cá ‘to bite’ (especially about
ering the Latin origin, perhaps a col- dogs and insects; also about peo-
loquial deformation of cunun%, from ple). Archaic, from the same root as
corona. Cf. genune. mi&ca, from Preie. *M!S!, *N!S!
Mure! NFl Ancient Marisia, Maris, ‘round, curve’, from the usually
later <:)J3K;. From IE *m:ro, round form of a dog’s bite.
*m:no ‘wet’. Related to Marica Mu&ea, Mu&lea, Mu&u NP Archaic
(Lexicon A) with the evolution personal names, from the same root
north Thr. (Dacian) : > Rom. u (via in mu&at ‘beautiful, handsome’.
a phoneme like ô) as in Dun%re. Mu&ata NFl (Mold.) From mu&at
This evolution is specific to only the ‘beautiful, handsome’ (cf. NP
north Thracian (Dacian) dialects. Mu&at, Mu&u, Mu&lea).
Related to a mura ‘to pickle’ (spe- mu&cói!, rare mî&coi ‘mule, animal
cific traditional term). See also for hard traction’. Alb. mushk, pl.
Mura and Murva in Lexicon A. mushqe; Venetian musso, Friulan
murg, !% adj. 1. (about horses) muss ‘donkey, ass’. Meyer EWA
294: ‘illyrische Alpenwort’. As an
‘dark!coloured...’; 2. (rare) = amurg
Illyrian term in Romanian cannot be
(‘sunset’, see). Alb. murk, art.
accepted (there is no other exam-
murgu ‘dark’. Undoubtedly archaic,
ple), we may think at a common
sometimes referred to IE *mer(4)gu
Thracian!Illyrian element, which
‘to get dark’. If related to amurg,
then a Preie. origin is acceptable. was early borrowed into Post!Clas-
Both the archaic and modern mean- sical, colloquial Latin. In Romanian,
ing is in the chromatic sphere. Cf. it is built like mu&uroi or moroi, etc.
mieru. mu&e"él adj. Plant camomile (Ma-
mu&át adj. ‘beautiful, handsome’; tricaria chamomilla). From the
NP Mu&at, Mu&ata, Mu&etescu, same root as mu&at.
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mu&iná (about animals) ‘to sniff, to Initially it was, beyond any doubt,
smell’. Also amu&ina (with prefix an infantile term, just like mama, as
a!). The root mu&! ‘to sniff, to proved by similar forms spread in
smell’ must be related with mu&ca, the Uralic languages: Uralic *biLä
with the basic meaning ‘to move, to > Hung. n< ‘woman’, Finn. nainen
make a round move’. The relation ‘woman’ (Collinder 1960: 408). In
mu&ca – (a)mu&ina is clear if we Romanian, it must be assumed an
consider other forms referring to indigenous, Thracian origin; a simi-
animals and their specific behaviour. lar term probably existed in Illyrian
too. Alb. nanë is borrowed from
mu&urói" ‘ant! or mole!hill’; fig.
‘any object similar to this’. Akin to East Romance (Proto-Romanian) as
the other forms in the Southeast
the forms derived from Preie. *N!S!,
European languages, like South
*M!S!, e.g. Nistru and all the forms
Slavic. Similar infantile forms, but
quoted there.
archaic beyond any doubt, are dad%,
mutr# pej., coll. ‘face’ (against dod%; also mum% (indigenous) v.
usual fa#% < Latin facies). Obscure, mam% (< Latin). It is probable that
seemingly related with Basque mu- the feminine form is the oldest,
tur ‘face’, in which case we may while the symmetrical masculine
surmise a Preie. origin. Cf. muie, form was derived later, as cum%tru
muian. If such a relationship is pos- < cum%tr% < Colloquial Latin *cu-
sible, the archaic root may be *M!T! matra, classical commater (French
‘face (?)’. Cf. Eng. muzzle. commère, Spanish comadre etc).
Nandru NL, NP; as person-
nan# A traditional, polite term for al!name, also Nandri& etc. Pre-
addressing an elder woman, e.g. the sumably from the same root as
elder sister or the beloved girl. The nan%.
masculine form nene is used for an násture ‘a button’. Akin to Nistru
elder man. Similar forms spread in and other forms quoted there, Preie.
the neighbouring languages: S.!Cr. root *N!S! ‘round, curve’.
nana, Russian njánja; related forms
n#lúc# ‘a ghost’. Built of type
are Sanskrit nan: ‘mother’, Persian
n%!luc%; prefix na!/n%!/no!, with
nana; Lat. nonna belongs also here.
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141
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augmentative or stressing value, is n#ruí ‘to fall down, to demolish;
also met in n%!mete v. om%t, noian – (fig.) to vanish, to die’. The root
v. Alb. ujë ‘water’. The origin of nar!/n%r! with this meaning does
prefix na! /n%! /no! must be indige- not seem related with nar!, n%r!,
nous Thracian, related with Gr. anà ner! in N%ruja, Nera, Neretva,
or Sl. na; the second part *!luc% is which seems specialised for riv-
not used standalone, and must be er!names. Nevertheless, this is not
related with Lat. luceo > Rom. a excluded if we accept an initial
luci from IE *leuk! ‘to shine’. The meaning ‘to be smashed away by
same root is in licurici and lic%ri, flood, to destroy during a flood’.
therefore Thracian preserved the The form is most probably archaic.
root with radical vocalism i and u. Alternatively, a prefix na! / n%! (see
n#méte, n%me#i ‘snow hill’. See above further cross references) and
om%t. a possible root *ru! ‘to fall down; to
n#pî'rc# ‘an adder, a viper’; fig. ‘a destroy, to ruin’, as in Latin ruere. A
wicked person’. Alb. nepër(t)kë, local innovation based on this Latin
same meaning. Archaic, belongs to root does not seem possible, and is
the basic vocabulary. Probably akin not supported by other parallels, yet
to NL Napoca, the ancient city of it may be eventually considered if
modern Cluj, Transylvania. The ul- other arguments may be invoked.
timate origin is Preie., root *N!B!, nechezá ‘to neigh’ (specific for
*N!P! ‘stone, cliff’, which explains horses, pejoratively for persons).
both the place!name and the indige- Archaic form, initially onomato-
nous viper’s name: a snake living poic, just as Eng. neigh, OE
on stones, which is a known habit of hnMgan, MHG n7gen.
vipers. N#ruja NFl Related to Nera.
n#pîrlí ‘to moult, to shed’. From nene See nan/.
the same root as n%pîrc%, viewed as Nera NFl (BN, TM). Flows at the
typical for the recurrent phenome- Romanian!Serbian border. See
non of moulting specific to adders
Lexicon A s.v. Nera, also Nerav,
or vipers, and then held for generic.
Neret, Neretva.

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Ner$u NL (TM, near Sînnicolau ni"él ‘a little bit, a small quantity’
Mare) Derived from NFl Nera. (mainly adverb, rarely adjective).
nisétru The fish Acipenser, espe- Similar to un pic, see pic, pici.
cially Acipenser Güldenstaedti and Russu holds it for indigenous,
Sturio; ‘sturgeon’. Akin to Nistru which may be possible. Difficult to
and other forms quoted there. Some analyse. Apparently, it is a com-
linguists, accepting the archaic ori- pound *ni!#el, in which *#el may
gin, assume an Indo!European root; have had the meaning ‘small; a little
we maintain our view that it reflects quantity’, in which case would be
related with #ic ‘small child, baby’,
a Pre!Indo!European origin.
NP $ica, $icu; #înc, the nasalysed
Nistru NFl (beside the well!known form of #ic, similar in meaning with
big river in the Republic of pici (see). The forms are colloquial,
Moldova, also a small river in well consolidated in the vocabulary.
northern Romania). Archaic riv-
noián, pl. noianuri or noiene ‘a
er!name of Preie. origin, related to large surface of water; a large quan-
many other forms with initial n! tity in general’. Sometimes con-
and m!: nisetru, the fish Acipenser; nected with Alb. ujë ‘water’, there-
nasture ‘a button’; mistre# ‘a boar’; fore the Romanian form would be
a mi&ca ‘to move’; a mi&una ‘to built as no!ian. This is not a fre-
move to and fro, to swarm’; a quent build, but may be considered
mu&ca ‘to bite; mu&uroi ‘ant!hill’; as a linguistic relic. The original
mo& ‘old man’ and its feminine meaning was ‘water’ or ‘large, big’.
equivalent, but with a changed The form seems indeed archaic, but
meaning in modern Romanian, no clear etymon may be offered. A
moa&% ‘a midwife’. Archaic Preie. similar construction, with prefix
root *M!S!, *N!S! ‘to bend, to na!/n%!, no! is in n%luc%: n%!luc!. It
curve’ (also with a parallel root hav- seems that this prefix, with augmen-
ing the meaning ‘to be bright, to tative meaning, had a certain role in
shine’). Akin to Ni", ancient Nais- the substratum (Thracian) elements.
sus, and other forms spread over norói" ‘mud, mire’. Bulg. naroj.
southeast Europe (see Lexicon A).
Both forms must be related with

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NFl Nera, N%ruja, also Neretva (see Europe; see also Orga and Vrbas
furhter examples in Lexicon A), (Lexicon A) and Vir (Lexicon B, I, 5).
o!grade of IE root *nar!, *ner!. Of the same origin must be the series
of Hungarian place!names in or!
quoted in Kiss 1980 s.v. In Romania
oác#r (about sheep) ‘with black
dots on the muzzle’. Obscure. A some place!names witness the same
root *ok! ‘? black; ? dot’ should be root (see below the forms with root
postulated. or!, oar!, ur!). • There is also the par-
Oana NP, feminine. By folk ety- allel root *OL!, UL!, for which see the
mology, associated to Ioana, the forms derived from root ol!, ul!.
feminine of Ion ‘John’. Unclear Oarba NL, Mure% district, east
etymon, presumably indigenous, cf. Transylvania; related by folk ety-
oin% and suffix !oane. The mascu- mology to oarb%, fem. of orb
line parallels are Onea, Onu, On- ‘blind’ (‘etymological substitution’;
escu, which support the indigenous for definition see Skok 1950 and
origin of this group of personal other examples in Lexica A and B);
names. Preie. root as in oar!, or!, ur!.
!oane Motional feminine suffix. Oar$a and Or$i$a NL, both in Ma-
Seems related with Alb. !onjë, as ramure%. At. in 1391 as Trywarcha
and then Warcza in 1475. Preie. root
ujk ‘wolf’ – ujkonjë ‘she!wolf’ etc.
Similarly, Gr. @E,(F)( < @E,&'; as in oar!, or!, ur!.
Lith. vilkenI < vilkas ‘she!wolf – oin# A traditional game similar to
wolf’ respectively. baseball. Unknown origin, possibly
indigenous, if not derived from
Oar NL (SM). One of the numer-
oaie, pl. oi ‘sheep’ (< Lat. ovis, Acc.
ous place!names derived from oar!, ovem), assuming that it was a game
or!, ur!, from Preie. root *OR!, specific to shepherds. If indigenous,
*UR! ‘great, big, huge’. See !oar, as we incline to believe, see also NP
!oara, Oarba, Oar#a, ora&, uria&. Oana, Onea, Onu, Onescu and
oar!, or!, ur! Numerous place!names feminine suffix !oane. • The game
witness a root derived from Preie. once had a general spread, and has
*OR!, *UR! ‘big, huge’ spread over various other local names: matca
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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mare, hîlca, lapta!lung%, baciul nian.
(Blaj area); fuga (Sibiu); hopaciu Olt NFl One of the most important
(Dej); apuca, ogoiu (Suceava); de!a rivers of Romania. Attested in the
lunga (/cheii Bra!ovului); the antiquity as Alutas, Alutus, Alutum,
forms hoina, oina are specific to (N:7O';. Related to Oltina, a lake
southern Romania, the dialect of in Dobrudja, attested in the late an-
which is also the base of literary tiquity as -NO9$' (Procopius) and
Romanian. The dialectal initial h! Altinum (Notitia Dignitatum). There
may indicate a former velar spirant is no doubt that the modern form
*X; it is also true that the remnants preserves the old Thracian riv-
of this archaic phoneme, which later er!name. Problems have been raised
turned into f/v/h in Romanian is also by vocalism o against a in Thracian,
applied to words of Latin origin as a considered by most linguists as re-
reflex in initial position, e.g. haia, flecting a Slavic influence, i.e. a
haie < aia, literary acea, aceea. Slavic intermediary. If so, it would
olát ‘region, territory; property’. be the only ancient river!name of
The root ol! with this meaning must Romania affected by Slavic vocal-
be the same as in Olt, Olte#, Oltina, ism. Cf. NFl Alta in Russia, of
Preie. *OL!, *UL! akin to *OR!, Iranic origin, and without the shift a
> o in an area with powerful okania.
*UR! ‘high, big; peak; vast region’.
Cf. also NFL Olt, Oultet in Oc-
See parallel forms with root or!, e.g.
citany. I am rather inclined to con-
Orad!ea, Or!lat etc. sider an ancient vocalism o (a dia-
olm (obsolete) ‘smell; odour’. Must lectal form) against a attested in
be related with *!ulm! in adulmeca documents. Alternating a/o are not
(*ad!ulm!ec!a), also supporting the rare in the indigenous forms. Also,
archaic origin of adulmeca. if starting from an initial Thracian :,
olog ‘lame’. Alb. ulok. Der. a ologi the result o/u in Romanian is normal
‘to make someone lame; to break (see mom% / mum%, mura, Mure&
someone’s leg/arm’. Isolated in etc.) The archaic root is Preie. *AL!,
Romanian and Albanian, etymon *OL! ‘high, elevated; deep’.
unknown, probably indigenous. Alb.
form seems borrowed from Roma-
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Olte" NFl Deminutival derivative ‘white, bright’; see also Ampoi,
from Olt. Anie&, Ineu.
Oltina NSt (CT) At. : Altina (Pro- omán Plant Inula helenium; rarely
copius), Altinum (Notitia Dignita- plant aconitum (see s.v. omag), also
tum). From the same root as NFl Olt called iarb% mare lit. ‘big, great
(see). grass’, and iarb% neagr% ‘black
omág (pl. unused) Various species grass’. Used in folk medicine
of plant aconitum: a. moldavicum, against cough, baldness, and associ-
a. napellus, a. vulparia etc. Also ated to various creeds. Related with
omeag (especially species a. varie- omag (above).
gatum), omec (a. napellus), omac, om%t, ome#i s.m. ‘snow’. Usually
rarely oman. A plant with blu- explained from Sl. o!mAt!, o! and
ish!violet or yellow flowers, fre- mAt! ‘to broom’ (cf. m%tur%). • The
quent in folk beliefs and used in root seems related to the important
folk medicine against various dis- series derived from Preie. *AM!,
eases. Romanian form has parallels *AN!, *OM! ‘white, bright’, see
in Slavic: Pol. omeg, omi[g, Czech omag, oman, Omu(l) and Ampoi,
omAj, Slovak omich, omega, omeda, Anie&, Anina, In%u/Ineu. Cf. NP Thr.
Russian omeg, Slovene omeg. Oimedes. See also n%mete. • Slo-
Slavists generally assume that the vene omet ‘mortar, plaster’ cannot
forms are derived from omie6diti ‘to explain the Romanian form.
poison’, which is at least debatable.
om#tú"#, !e s.f. Name of two spe-
The plant is not reported as being
cies of snowdrop, with white flow-
poisonous, on the contrary. Sec-
ers: Leucojum aestivum and L. ver-
ondly, the name has interesting par-
num. Derived from om%t.
allels in Romanian, not in Slavic,
namely a series of seemingly ar- Omu NM, the highest peak in
chaic words with root *OM!, of Bucegi Mts; similar names in other
course not related to om < Lat. mountains too. By folk!etymology
homo: om%t ‘snow’ (= Rom. nea < related to om; similarly, NI Man, the
Lat. nix, nivis, and z%pad%, Slavic), British island, in fact an unex-
oman (see below), NM Omu(l), re- plained archaic Pre!Celtic form.
flecting Preie. *AN!, *AM!, *OM! NM Omu must be related with
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146
Lexicon Etymologicum
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om%t, omag, oman, Preie. *OM!, flects Hung. Nagyvárad, lit. ‘Great
*AM!, *AN! ‘white, bright’. • The Várad’ as Germ. Großwardein. Kiss
oldest may have been *Am(u), re- 1980: 453 assumes that Rom. Or-
placed by Om(u) as a result of adea is borrowed from Hungarian,
folk!etymology, but this is not nec- which is phonetically impossible
essary. Cf. Ampoi, amurg; Oarba. (just like Rom. ora! from Hu. város,
almost a legendary, but equally er-
Onea, also Onu, Onescu Related
roneous, etymology). Oradea is
with Oana, feminine (by folk ety-
built like Vedea, Vrancea (see both
mology associated with Ioana), and
forms). The key to understanding
probably also with oin%.
this form is the general context of
opái" A primitive lamp, approxi- the Preie. root *OR!, *UR!, as pre-
mately ‘earthen lamp, rushlight’. sented here and its relations to both
Also used to denote the plants prat- ora!, dial. also ura! ‘township’ and
ense and memorale. Possibly akin to uria!, dial. also oria! ‘huge; giant’
v%paie, even if the phonetic evolu-
(the latter sense typical in
tion is not comfortable; more
folk!tales).
probably a Preie. relic, root *OP!,
orá& also now rare, dialectal urá&
*AP! identifiable in some place! and
‘town, city; township generically)’
river!names. Archaic, indigenous. Der.: or%&ean, or%&enesc, a
Orad NL, today vanished (located or%&eniza. • The word has had a
near Suceagu, Cluj district). At. tremendous ‘career’ in the linguistic
1343 – possessio Orad; 1350 – pu- literature, and has been almost ex-
tiula terre Orath, Oraath. Obvi- clusively considered a Hungarian
ously built like Arad and related influence. Hungarian város ‘id.’
with Oradea and other forms de- seemed similar enough in order to
rived from Preie. root or!, ur!. A be considered, in the 19th century,
Hungarian influence in pronuncia- the origin of the Romanian form
tion is possible, yet note that Roma- ora& (the dialectal form ura& has
nian preserves both forms with a been regularly disconsidered). In its
and o in the same area. turn, Hung. város is derived from
Orádea NL, Bihor. At. in 1103 – vár ‘fortress’. A genuine analysis
Varadinus. The Latinised form re- shows that: (1) Hung. vár does not
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have a clear etymon in Hungarian, Cap!ora, Clev!ora (cf. Cluj, Cleja),
as – in fact – some other forms Scap!ora, Ur!briana, in which the
common to Hungarian and Roma- second element is !ora, !oros, !oron,
nian; (2) if Hungarian could be the beyond any reasonable doubt the
origin of Romanian forms, then the precursors of the Romanian forms
result should have been *v%ra&, not !oara (now in place!names only),
ora& or ura&; (3) the basic idea that
ora&, ura&. The basic meaning must
Hungarian may have had a specific have been ‘fortress, urban settle-
term for ‘township’ before the 10th
ment, township’, with a certain dif-
century A.D. is anachronical, as ference as compared to the similar
most ancient languages, e.g. Latin meanings of deva/dava, bria, poris
or Greek, borrowed these terms
etc. Comparative analysis allows to
from the indigenous inhabitants: postulate that Thracian had at least
Latin borrowed urbs, urbis from the
two forms: *ora hence Romanian
Etruscans, and Greek asty is for sure
oara, now preserved in place!names
a Pre!Hellenic term. Finnish uses
only (presumably because of its in-
kaupunki ‘township’ and kauppala terfering with oar% < Lat. hora);
‘a market place, a town’, which is
*ora", *ura", hence Rom. ora&,
borrowed from Germanic. The at- ura&. All these forms must reflect
tempts to explain Hung. város as an
Preie. *OR!, *UR! ‘huge, big, gi-
old Finno-Ugric term related to Os-
ant’, hence also Gr. oros ‘a hill, a
tiak vo", va" ‘township’ or a bor-
mountain’ and Lat. urbs, urbis
rowing from Avestic v:ra! ‘a shel- ‘township’ (of Etruscan origin). In
ter’ have been abandoned, and with
this perspective, the Romanian
the argument that such attempts forms are not isolated, on the con-
have proven their false background.
trary, they must be included in the
• Rom. ora&, ura& is a typical repre- large category of forms derived
sentative of Preie. *OR!, *UR! from Preie, *OR!, *UR!; see further
‘huge, big’ hence ‘big settlement,
cross!references under oar!, or!,
township’. An additional proof is
ur!: Oradea, Or%scu, Orescu,
offered by the Thracian place!names
Or%&tie, Orlat, Orlea, Orman,
attested in the Antiquity: Az!oros,
Or&ova (with Slavic suffix), orto-
Al!oros, Tarp!oron, Cep!ora,
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148
Lexicon Etymologicum
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man, Or#i#a. • Hung. város ‘town- Or#&tíe NL (HD) At.: 1224 –
ship’ is derived from vár ‘fortress’, Waras; 1283 – Warasium. Derived
in its turn derived from Rom. oara from ora&. The Mediaeval forms
‘township, fortress’, now preserved show that the genuine pronunciation
in place!names only. Hungarian bor- must have been *Ora&, Latinised
rowings do not preserve final !a, as *Ora&ium. See further discussions
Hungarian !a is used for the geniti- under ora&. Spelling Waras is for
val construction, when vowel har- *ora&, and Warasium is a further
mony requires this (similarly Rom. latinisation.
lab% > Hung. láb; Rom. talp% > orceág ‘chive’ (the plant Allium
Hung. talp etc.). See also the forms schoenoprasum). Like or%stic%/
with root ur!: Urca, Urcu, Uric, or%&tic%, derived from Preie. root
Uria, Urlea, Urleta, Uriu and uria&, *OR!, *UR! ‘big, elevated’; see fur-
urca, urd% (for which see dialectal ther cross!references under or!, ur!.
ura&). • The hypothesis of the Hun- oreáv A valley with flowing brooks
garian origin of ora&/ura& must be or rivulets after rain. From Preie.
abandoned. root *OR!, *UR! ‘big, great; high or
Or#scu and Orescu NP Belong to deep’; see cross!references under
the numerous forms derived from or!, ur!.
or!/ur! and anthroponymical suffix ori conjuction expressing alterna-
!escu, of Latin or Thracian origin, tives, ‘or’; also sau. Indigenous, see
possibly a contamination of both; also dar ‘but’ and iar ‘and; again’.
suffix !iskos is attested for Thracian. The similarity with Eng. or seems
or#stíc#, also or%&tíc% ‘black!eyed fortuitous as the oldest form is
pea; everlasting pea’. The plants oththe.
Lathyrus niger and vernus. Also oria& See uria&.
called m%z%riche neagr%. The name órie A net for fishing in form of a
derives from the Preie. root *OR!, bag. Archaic term, probably derived
*UR!, as in ora&, Or&ova etc. from the same Preie. root *OR!,
or#&tíc# See or%stic%. *UR!; see cross!references under
or!, ur!.

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Orlát NL (BV) At.: 1317–1320 – archaic Thracian forms (including
ecclesia de Monte Civinii; 1322 – the region south from the Danube).
villa Warolyafolw (with deformed • Later spellings: 1312 – Urman;
spelling specific to Hungarian; sec- 1333 – Orman. The oscillating and/
ond part folw reflects Hung. falu ‘a or hesitating spellings may reflect
village’). See the references under local or regional pronunciations.
oar!, or!, ur!. Cf. Orlea, Urlea etc. oropsí ‘to persecute; to exploit; to
Órlea NL (OT), NP Derived from scold’. Seems derived from the
root oar!, or!, ur!; see also Or%scu, same Preie. root *OR!, *UR! ‘big,
Orescu etc. The name seems to re- great’, with this meaning ‘great
flect ancient Thracian personal- pressure, intolerable weight’. See
name Oroles, name of a Thracian or!, ur!.
king and also the name of Thuchy- Ór&ova NL (MH, MS) At. (in
dides’ father etc. MH): 1349 – castrum Vrsoua, Or-
Orliga NM (TL, M$cin Mts). Be- suua. Related with, or derived from,
longs to the rich category of names ora& (see) and Slavic suffix !ova. It
derived from Preie. root *OR!, is possible, given its occurrence in
*UR!, see mainly ora& and the ref- some archaic place!names, that an
erences under or!, ur!. indigenous Thracian suffix !ova,
Orman NL Cluj. At. in 1292 as !ava may have existed too, as sug-
Urlman, then Urman, Orman; 1312 gested by NFl, NL Bîrzava, ancient
– possessio Urman; 1333 – Orman. Bersovia, Bersobis, where the
For the ending !man see also South Slavic influence is excluded. An in-
Slavic forms in Lexicon A. If it is terference with the later Slavic
not an erroneous spelling, as often forms seems the most probable.
in such cases, then it may really be ortomán adj. (rare today) 1. (about
an archaic prototype form *Urlman, shepherds) ‘rich, with many sheep’;
as backed by NM, NP Orlea, Urlea. 2. (about boys or young men)
The place!name may be included in ‘handsome’; 3. (about horses) ‘of
the category of the numerous forms great speed, good horse’. A com-
derived from Preie. root oar!, or!, pound of orto!, which reflects oar!,
ur!. Suffix !man is also met in some or!, ur!, of Preie. origin and suffix
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150
Lexicon Etymologicum
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!man. Preie. *OR!, *UR! ‘big, gi- paparúd#, also p%p%rud%. Fantas-
ant’, parallelled by *OL!, *UL! tic female figures of the indigenous
‘id.’, hence Gr. ólbos ‘rich’, with creeds, also borrowed in the neigh-
identical meaning in Romanian or- bouring languages as peperude, pa-
toman. • The form is rare and dia- parude (mainly in South Slavic;
lectal, and introduced in the literary analysed by Ovsec 1991: 170, 291);
language by Vasile Alecsandri in also Albanian perperone,
processing Miori#a. Neo!Greek perperina. The form has
Or"i"a NL (MM) At.: 1391 – Try- spread over Southeast Europe, be-
warcha (cf. Oar#a). Derived from yond any doubt from the Thracian
Oar#a. substratum, directly or via Roma-
nian. The modern form is the result
of reduplication, pa!pa! or rather
pál#1 1. a small heap of hay (i.e. the reduplication followed by haplol-
quantity taken by a scythe once); 2.
ogy, par!par! > papar!. The prehis-
a blow of wind. Related with Alb.
toric root cannot be identified, but
pale ‘fold, plait; pleat’. The initial
the meaning ‘female, woman’ seems
meaning may be reconstructed as
the oldest reconstructable; see also
‘hillock of hay’, therefore the root
paparug% ‘lady bird’, where the as-
must be Preie. *P!L!, also *P!R! sociation between the semantic
‘hill, hillock; elevation’. See Paleu,
sphere ‘female, woman’ and insect
p%l%rie and the numerous forms Coccinella is also met in English.
with root par!.
paparúg# ‘lady bird; Coccinella’
pál#2 ‘a whim, a caprice’. Seem- (usually called buburuz%, also in-
ingly related with pal%1, but the digenous, see). Must be related with
evolution is not clear, perhaps an paparud%, p%p%rud%.
association like ‘an elevation in
parî'ng The plant Panicum or
thought or thinking’.
Lithospermum. See Parîng.
Paléu NL Bihor. Seemingly related
Parî'ng NM, an important chain in
to Peleaga, Pele!; the approach to
the South Carpathians. Obviously
Hu. palló ‘a small bridge’ or
reflects Preie. *P!R! ‘mountain,
Sl. ( paliti ‘to burn’ cannot be in-
hill’; hence also NL Praha (<
voked. See pal%1.
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Pars prima
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*Paraga, Lexicon D) and Pirin in chaic. Hence P%cál%, a witty hero of
Bulgaria, Lexicon A. • At. 1470, the Romanian tales; p%c%leál% ‘a
July 28: cdefghij. cheat, a hoax’ etc.
pát# ‘stain’. Obscure and isolated. p#i conj. Used after a question,
No etymon, presumably indigenous. and noting a hesitation. In DEX,
p#!, po!, pî! Expressive prefix of in- considered a simple form of adverb
digenous origin, used for derivational apoi (< Lat. ad post) ‘then, after
means, mainly for verbs. Seemingly that, afterwards’. Obviously related
related with p%i. It interferes with with Alb. po ‘but, only that’; also
Slavic po, nevertheless in most in- ‘yes’ and particle for building the
stances its situation and origin may be progressive form and also with em-
fairly well discrimianted against the phatic role. From the same root is
Slavic borrowings. In a form like probably also the, mainly verbal,
pîrîu ‘brook, rivulet’ (see) we may prefix p%!, po!, pî!. • It is indeed de-
identify its role in conjunction with batable, as DEX assumes, that p%i is
rîu ‘river’, even if most Thracian a simple derivative of apoi, even if
studies analyse pîrîu as a form in it- – at dialectal level – p%i and apoi
self, and not as an obvious derivative interfere as ap%i, which is a variant
from rîu. The etymological analysis of p%i, not of apoi. If indeed p%i
should also discriminate the situations may be accepted a colloquial Latin
in which p%!, po!, pî! is a prefix form, then we must demonstrate
against the situations in which this that Alb. po is a simple heir of Lat.
sequence is a part of the root. post. Note also the specific position
of p%i and po!, a prefix recorded in
P#cál# A witty guy of the Roma-
several indigenous forms; in these
nian tales; see p%c%li.
situations, po! does not seem to re-
p#c#leal# See p%c%li.
flect Slavic po!, which is otherwise
p#c#lí ‘to hoax; to cheat’. Obscure. absent as a borrowing. See the situa-
The word may be analysed either as
tion of prefix po! under podidi,
compound with prefix p%! (cf. p%i)
popîndac, popînd%u.
and root kal! ‘to cheat’, or as a root
p#l#ríe ‘hat; the upper part of some
pak!; in both cases, obscure. Iso- mushrroms looking like a hat; the
lated in Romanian, presumably ar-
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152
Lexicon Etymologicum
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upper part of sunflower’. The root with Alb. pellk ‘marsh, moor’.
pal!, p%l! derives from Preie. *P!L! Closely akin to Peleaga, Pele& etc.,
‘elevation, peak; hill’; see pal% 1, ultimately Preie. root *P!L! ‘hill,
Paleu. rock’. • Alb. pellk, with ll, which
would denote an older r, may be
p#p#rúd# See paparúd%.
rather related to the parallel Preie.
p#stái!e ‘a pod’ (as of beans or forms with root *P!R!; the modern
peas). Alb. pishtajë, bishtajë. The meaning ‘marsh, moor’ may be an
basic meaning must be connected to innovation from ‘moorish region in
the meaning ‘to cover, to protect’, the mountains’.
therefore should be analysed to-
Peleaga NM Banat. Related to pe-
gether with p%stra. The original
leg, peleag% ‘a small hill, a hillock’,
form may have been *p%straie. An
cf. Thr. and Ill. NL Pelen!dova,
archaic root *pes!, *pis! ‘to cover,
Pelva, Pala, Palae. Reflects Preie.
to protect’ is suggested by some
Uralic forms, e.g. Estonian pesa root *P!L!, also *P!R! ‘a hill, a
‘nest’, pesitama, pesitsema ‘to pro- rock; mountain’, spread all over
tect in a nest’, Finnish pesä ‘nest’; Europe. The preservation of inter-
all these would suggest a pre!his- vocalic !l! is normal in indigenous
Thracian words. Cf. Pele! and Pula
toric Proto!Boreal root as defined
in Lexicon A.
and analysed by N. D. Andreev. See
also Gr. písos = Lat. pisum ‘pea’, pelég See peleag%.
from the fact that pea is protected, Péle! NL Maramure%, also Alba;
covered in a pod. Cf. maz%re ‘pea’. NM in Sinaia, Prahova. Related to
p#strá ‘to keep, to preserve’. Ar- Peleaga. Considered as derived
chaic, unclear etymon. We assume it from Hu. pilis ‘baldness’ by Iordan
to be of Preie. origin, root *P!S!, 1963: 118–119, which is a mere
similarity by hazard.
*B!S! ‘to protect, to cover’; the
same root seems to be in p%staie, Péreg NL (AR) The same Preie.
probably from *p%straie. root *P!R!, related to *P!L! ‘moun-
pele!ág#, also pelég ‘hill, hillock, tain, cliff’ as in Parîng, Per&ani and
elevated location’. Possibly related Pere#; built as Peleg, peleg, peleag%.
Pere" NP Same root as in Pereg.
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perpelí ‘to roast, to grill’; also (a specific Romanian and SE Euro-
pîrp%li. The basic meaning is ‘to pean food). Must be related to Ital-
burn/roast (e.g. meat) by turning it ian piccolo; it may be surmised that
around’; fig. also ‘to make someone all these forms were borrowed, from
upset, curious’. DEX refers to Bulg. an unknown source, presumably
pripalja and S.!Cr. pripaliti, from Thracian and/or Illyrian, in
root paliti ‘to burn’ and prefix pri!. Post!Classical, colloquial Latin.
The main problem of this explana- pici m. ‘a small child’. See pic.
tion is that the phonetic evolution is picotí ‘to doze, to drowse’. Also pi-
not possible. The word is created by rotí. The oldest form seems picoti,
reduplication, then haplology (as in which may be derived from pic with
other cases), *per!per!l! > perpeli, the basic meaning ‘small sleep; to
pîrp%li. The same root also in pîrli, sleep for a short time’, which is the
pîrjoli and &perl%, which definitely basic meaning until modern Roma-
reject the hypothesis of a Slavic ori- nian. Dialectal form pirotí seems de-
gin. formed, with non-etymological !r!.
Per!áni NM, Vrancea region. If not pigulí ‘to peck; to pick (a small
derived from a family!name quantity)’. If not derived from a col-
Per!anu, then it should be derived loquial Latin form derived from
from Preie. root *P!R! as in Parîng. *pic:re, then indigenous, as we are
At. 1355 – Persani; 1527 – posses- inclined to believe. See also ciuguli
sio Persány (influenced by Hungar- and cioc. Probably akin to pic.
ian spelling). pipiríg Name of several plants:
Pe&ti& NL Seems derived from the Schoenoplectus lacustris, Scirpus
same root as (a) p%stra and p%staie. silvaticus, Equisetum hiemale and
The similarity with pe&te ‘fish’ Holoschoenus vulgaris. Eng. ‘Dutch
seems the result of hazard. rush, pewter’. Also sometimes
pic ‘little bit, a small quantity’, es- called #ipiríg (see, usually used for
pecially un pic ‘a little bit’. Form the amonium chloride, Eng.
pici ‘a small child’ belongs here too. ‘salmiac’). The modern form may
Seems built on the same source as be either interpreted as deriving
mic ‘small’, mici ‘small meat!balls’ from a root pip! or rather derived

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from reduplication ans haplology further discussions under pipirig.
*pir!pir! > pipirig (for the frequent pirotí ‘to doze, to drowse’. Also
reduplication and haplology phe- picoti. There does not seem to be
nomenon in the indigenous ele- any connection with root pir! in pir,
ments, see Part II). It is therefore *pirpirig > pipirig. This form
questionable whether pipirig may seems deformed against what seems
be etymologically connected to pi- the original picotí.
pot%. In change, it seems related pisc ‘peak’. Cf. Helvetic NM Piz
with pir ‘couch grass, twitch’ d’Aquo, with the second element of
(Agropyrum repens), which DEX
Preie. origin, root *AK! ‘hill, peak’.
assumes of Bulgarian origin. We
The root pis!k! is spread between
doubt this hypothesis; given the
the Carpathians and Alps. Czech
richer etymological family of these
pysk ‘mouth, muzzle’ may also be-
names of plants in Romanian, the
long here.
Bulgarian origin of pir should be
revised. It may be a Thracian relic piscói 1. a tube used for some mu-
as well, directly or via Romanian. In sical instruments; 2. a small person
such a view, the root pir, as such (pejoratively). Derived from pis, the
with the meaning ‘couch grass’ and apelative for ‘cat’; see also pisic%
by reduplication and haplology ‘cat’, pisói ‘kitten’.
*pir!pir!ig > pipirig, may be safely pisic# ‘cat’. Root pis! is also the
held for indigenous. Etymon un- usual appellative for cats. Related
clear, possibly Preie., as many other to, not borrowed from, Sl. p4s1
forms created by reduplication and ‘dog’. Indigenous, with initial refer-
haplology. ence to small, domestic animals.
pípot# ‘gizzard’; ironically ‘stom- See further examples and discus-
ach, belly’. Obscure, isolated, pre- sions under mî#%.
sumably an indigenous relic. A pistr# ‘thick cloth used for mat-
Preie. origin may be possible, even tresses’. Related with p%stra and
probable. p%staie, and confirming both the
pir ‘couch grass, twitch’; the plant basic meaning of Preie. root *P!S!
Agropyrum repens. Usually held for ‘to cover, to protect’, and also that
a borrowing from Bulgarian. See
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p%staie is derived from *p%straie. • pitic ‘a dwarf; small’. From a root
Definitely, no connection with Sl. pit!, pi#!, pu#! as in pit%, pu#in,
pestr1 ‘multi!coloured’, which is a pi#igoi (see).
fortuitous resemblance. pi"igói! The bird Parus maior; ‘tit’.
pi&cá ‘to pinch; to sting, to bite’. The root pi#!, pu#! basically means
The basic meaning may be recon- ‘small, little’, as also in pu#in and,
struct ‘to bite A LITTLE BIT’, beyond any doubt, pu#%. With alter-
therefore the verb seems derived nating t/#, also in pitic ‘dwarf’ and,
from pic ‘a drop’; un pic ‘a little bit, very probably, pit% ‘a kind of
a small quantity’ (see pic). The old- (small) bread’. Italian pizza seems
est form was *pi;!k! > pi"!k!. to belong here too. If so, we hy-
pí&c# a device used for manoeuver- pothesise a Thracian and/or Illyrian
ing ships, especially where rivers word, which also ‘intruded’ into
make a turn. Must be derived from West colloquial Latin, if we accept
verb aJpi&cá. that pizza is also derived from this
root.
pi&leág a kind of nail which fixes
spokes. Seems related with pi&cá, pî'lnie ‘funnel’. Related to, not bor-
pi&c%. rowed from, Sl. p1ln1 ‘full’ < Thr.
pit# ‘a kind of bread’. Related to *pul!ny!: < IE *pel! ‘to fill’, zero grade
pitic, pi#igoi, pu#in, pu#% from a root *pP! > Thr. *pul!, with the evolution IE
pit!, pi#!, pu#! ‘small, little’. Seems *P > Thr. *ul.
related with Italian pizza, which we pîndár ‘guard, watcher’; derived
hypothesise a borrowing in collo- from pîndi.
quial Latin from late Thracian or pîndí ‘to still!hunt; to stay hidden
Illyrian; cf. the case of pic, pici, for hunt’. It is doubtful that this
pi#igoi. word reflects a Slavic borrowing
pití Mainly reflexive a se piti ‘to (p@nditi). The word reflects an ar-
hide’, sense derived from ‘small, chaic activity, and may refer to Pro-
little’, i.e. ‘to make himself/herself to!Boreal *Ghw!N ‘to run for hunt;
small’; see pitic. Cf. Thr. to still!hunt’, wherefrom Slavic go-
kF%E-.D->($#G' (De#ev 1957: 372), niti ‘to run (for hunt)’ indeed. The
therefore kF%E- ‘something hidden’. evolution PB Ghw > Sl. g and Thr. p
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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is normal, and confirmed by other satisfactorily explained, therefore a
examples. From this root, Thracian Romanian innovation *p4!rîu >
(and hence Romanian) independ- pîrîu or abridged from pîn%!n rîu
ently preserve pîndi v. goniti (hence ‘until (it get to) the river’ should not
a goni in Romanian, as a Slavic bor- be put down; if so, rather a Latin
rowing). Alb. pëndár ‘guard’ is element, derived at the level of col-
probably from Romanian. loquial East Romance. Starting from
pî'nz# ‘a cloth, a tissue; the same Latin form rivus > rîu, we
spider!web’, from IE *pan! ‘a may also surmise a built with in-
cloth’. Archaic, related to Lat. pan- digenous prefix p%!, po!, pî! (see)
nus, etc. The original meaning was and rîu. If so, the Albanian form is
connected to sewing and/or weav- borrowed from Romanian.
ing. Built as brînz%. pîrjolí ‘to scorch, to burn’ (espe-
pîrî' ‘to denounce, to tell on some- cially with reference to the military
one’. DEX refers to a Sl. prAti with- technique of burning land in order
out any other motivation, which is to stop or slow down an invasion).
at least debatable. Etymon rather DEX assumes a borrowing from
unknown, probably archaic, with a Hung. pörzsölni, perzselni, in its
reconstructable meaning in the turn of unknown origin; it is, be-
sphere ‘to speak (in), to tell’ or, pos- yond any reasonable doubt, a bor-
sibly, derived from the same root ‘to rowing from Romanian, as pîrjoli is
burn, to scorch’ as in pîrli, pîrjoli, obviously related with pîrli, perpeli
pîrnaie; also perpeli and &perl%. In and &perl%.
this case, the evolution may be re- pîrlí ‘to singe, to scorch’; fig. also ‘to
constructed ‘to burn, to scorch’ > ‘to get cheated’. The archaic root is Pro-
burn/scorch with words, by de- to!Boreal *Ghw!R! ‘to get warm, to
nouncing, telling on someone’. burn’ > IE *ger!, *gor!, which re-
pîrî'u ‘a small river, a rivulet’. Alb. sulted, on the one hand, in Sl. goreti
përrúa, art. përroj, pl. perronje ‘to burn’, and Thr. *per!, *pir! ‘to
‘river bed’. The forms seem archaic, burn’, with the evolution IE ( *gh >
without a clear etymon. On the Thr. p (as in pîndi). Note that the
other hand, the relation with rîu
treatment of IE kw and gw was NOT
‘river’ (< Lat. rivus) has never been
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Pars prima
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symmetrical in Thracian. See further same Preie. root. Their archaic ori-
considerations in the chapter on Pho- gin has been long denied on the er-
netics. The same root is in pîrjoli, pîr- roneous grounds that intervocalic !l!
naie, pîrp%li/perpeli and &perl%. • The cannot be preserved in such words.
hypothesis of a Slavic origin, as ad- As proved in this lexicon, and in
vocated in DEX, should be definitely other works, this was a fundamen-
rejected. Bg. H1IJK is related to Ro- tally erroneous assumption, un-
manian as a common Thracian heri- proved by any example at all. Forms
tage or rather borrowed from Roma- like German Pflug, Eng. plough,
nian. • See also pururi, pururea. Rom. plug and Sl. plug1 reflect the
pîrnáie ‘large pot for preparing wheeled plough, Gr. kF)*-)( ‘a
food’. Closely related with pîrli, kind of archaic, primitive plough’,
pîrjoli, pîrp%li/perpeli and &perl% is of Preie. origin, root *P!N! ‘to
from an archaic root ‘to burn, to curve, to bend’. • Romanian, Slavic
scorch’, hence ‘to prepare food by and Germanic are a quite compact
burning, under fire’. area, which preserves this archaic
pîrp#li See perpeli. term of Neolithic Europe. Cf. the
plisc ‘beak, bill’. Probably from case of grap%. • This is a typical ex-
ample, which shows that the whole
Preie. root *P!L! ‘elevation, peak’
topic of ‘Slavic borrowings in Ro-
as often in place!names (e.g. Pele&,
manian’ should be fundamentally
peleag%), with zero grade and de-
revised.
velopment *pl!is!k.
pod 1. ‘bridge; any device similar
plug Archaic farming term spread to a bridge’; 2. ‘attic’. Incorrectly
in the European languages only, Sl.
held for a borrowing from Sl. pod
plug1 and Germanic, e.g. German
(OCS pod1) ‘under, below’. See
Pflug, Eng. plough. The ultimate further discussions under podea.
origin is Preie., root *P!L!,‘stone,
podéa ‘floor; low plain surface in
cliff’, and initially referred to stone
general’. Long held for unknown
ploughs. The Slavic origin is at least
origin, probably because it seems,
debatable, as Rom. plug is related to
or may seem, derived from Sl. pod
other forms like Pele&, Peleaga, pe-
(OCS pod1) ‘under, beneath, be-
leag%, Paleu, all derived from the
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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low’. Nevertheless Romanian did podidí (followed by a noun) 1. ‘to
not generally borrow Slavic prepo- overwhelm; to burst; 2. to be preoc-
sitions or prefixes, therefore we may cupied. In modern Romanian, the
suspect an indigenous form related verb podidi must be followed by a
with Sl. pod, which seems the most noun, which is also the grammatical
reasonable assumption. Note that in subject; it also requires an accusa-
oldest Slavic forms, pod did not tive, e.g. l!a podidít plînsul ‘he burst
mean a subordination, but rather into tears (= crying)’ etc. Etymol-
‘close contact’, which seems to ogically, there seems to be prefix
have been the original meaning in po! (see p%!, po!, pî!), and a redu-
Romanian via Thracian, as we are plicated form di!di, of Thracian ori-
inclined to believe. We also assume gin, probably akin to Lat. do, d:re.
that the analysis of podea is also The original meaning must have
connected to the etymological been, as reduplication shows, an
analysis of pod ‘bridge’, in our view intensive of ‘to give’, i.e. ‘to give a
erroneously explained from Sl. lot, too much’. • Prefix po!, which
pod1‘below, under’, as this meaning may be etymologically related with
is not Slavic. For ‘bridge’ Slavic has p%i (see), cannot be of Slavic origin.
mostN from *mot!to!s; it seems to As it occurs in some forms of Thra-
be, according to some views, in re- cian origin, we hypothesise to re-
lation with met@, mesti ‘to throw, flect an indigenous form as well.
cast; to broom’. This is, of course, a popîndác A vegetal accumulation
secondary debate. The relation pod of sedge or bulrush on lakes, which
– podea is specific in Romanian give the impression of an island.
only, and obviously is not a Slavic Just like popînd%u (see), formed
borrowing. For further discussions with prefix po! (for which see also
on the confusion between some podidi) and the root in the verb
Thracian forms, preserved in Ro- pîndi.
manian from the substratum, on the popînd%u ‘ground squirrel’ (Citel-
one hand, and the Slavic borrowings lus citellus). Just like popîndac and
proper, on the other hand, see the podidi, built with prefix po!, also of
Introduction and Part II. indigenous origin rather than Slavic,

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and the root in pîndi ‘to lie in wait, from ‘deep’ > ‘sad’.
to still!hunt’; see pîndi. po&írc# Pejoratively used for a bad
popîndóc 1. ‘field mouse’; 2. an- alcoholic drink, usually referring to
other variant of popînd%u. See wine. Built with prefix po! and the
popînd%u. same root as in &iroi, for which see
both.
poponé"1 1. field or forest mouse;
2. a variant of popînd%u. Same ety- po&ovoaíc# A dance specific for the
mon as popînd%u, with adjustments Caransebe! region. Built with prefix
in association with popou ‘but- po! and the same root as in &ov%i.
tocks’, diminutival popone# ‘a potáie 1. ‘cur, tike, vile dog’; 2. fig.
baby’s back, buttocks’. ‘scoundrel, rascal’. It seems built
poponé"2 ‘wick, mainly the wick with prefix po!, also p%!, pî! and a
for a primitive earthen lamp’. De- root ta(i)!, which does not seem to
rived from popone#1 with its mean- be the same root as in t%iá, tai ‘to
ing ‘ground squirrel’, as the wick cut’ (< Latin *taliare). The form is
was figuratively associated with a expressive and seemingly built on
squirrel. an indigenous pattern, possibly pre-
posomorî' ‘to become sad’. Obvi- serving a Pre!Romance form.
ously built with prefix po! (see p%!, pózn# ‘folly, prank’. Usually ap-
po!, pî!) and a form related with plied to children’s actions. For-
Hungarian szomorú ‘sad’. The ety- mally, it seems derived from Slavic
mological explanation relies on po!znati ‘to know’, which does not
whether to hypothesise a borrowing make any sense. The word seems to
from Hungarian in Romanian, reflect an indigenous model, built
which is not supported by a parallel with prefix p%!, po!, pî!, which may
example, or to accept a Romanian indeed be related with its Slavic
borrowing in Hungarian, which is counterpart, and a root zna! ‘witty;
what we believe. • The root som! action’, which may eventually be
‘sad’ is the same as in other forms related with Sl. znati ‘to know’ and
like Some& etc. < Preie. *S!M! Lat. gnosco.
‘deep’ or ‘high’; meaning ‘sad’ must
be derived, if accepting our view,
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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pr#jín# ‘pole, staff; a Mediaeval acceptable, the etymon must be
length unit of 5–7 m; a Mediaeval looked for elsewhere, but the in-
surface unit of approx. 180–210 digenous character of the form
sq.m.’ Forms pr%jin%, pr%&tin% and seems certain. The stress and suffix
prepeleac seems related, all having !ur! as in m_t!ur!%.
the basic meaning ‘pole, staff’. In pre& ‘a carpet’(especially the tradi-
all of them, the root may be recon- tional carpet in the countryside).
structed as *pr4!, pr%!/pra! ‘a stick, Unexplained, obscure. If related to
a pole’. There does not seem to be the sphere ‘object spread on earth’
an etymological connection with (as usual in traditional houses), then
par ‘stake, pole’ < Lat. palus, as it may reflect Preie. root *P!R!
such derivations are not attested for ‘earth, stone’, as in Parîng and
the Latin stratum of Romanian. If Per&ani.
indeed derived from the Latin form,
Proca NP Iordan 1983: 380 ex-
then all these three forms follow an
plains it from Ukrainian, even
indigenous pattern.
though this origin should be proved
pr#&tín# ‘a pole, staff’. See first. Name rather indigenous, cf.
pr%jin%. ancient Dacian NL Napoca, Rom.
prepeleác, prepeleág a variant of pre& < Preie. *P!R!, with zero grade
pr%jin% and pr%&tin% (see). The end- development *PR!oc!.
ing !ac/!ag supports the hypothesis proháb ‘fly (opening)’ (of male
of an indigenous element, and also trousers). Isolated and obscure
the indigenous character of the other form. Given its situation, very
two forms, rather than a derivation probably indigenous. If so, pho-
from par < Lat. palus. neme h reflects the archaic velar
présur# ‘bunting’ (the bird Em- spirant *X. A root *proX! ‘opening,
beriza). A small singing, migratory a hole’ may be hypothesised.
bird with a long, bifurcated tail. If
prunc ‘a small child, a baby’. From
the name was associated to its tail,
the same root as NFl Prut, with a
then may be the same root as in
nasal development, IE *preu! ‘to
pr%jin%, pr%&tin% and prepeleác /
spring, to come out’. The term ini-
prepeleág. If this association is not

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tially ‘sprung out from mother’s pul# ‘penis of a mature man, penis
belly’ = ‘baby, recently born child’. in erection’. Given the taboo char-
Prut NFl Ancient Greek Q7)KOR;, acter of the word, rarely analysed.
by the Scythians as Q:)&O', 5):SO:; Probably closely related with NL
(first centuries A.D.), 5:7)&O (by the Pula < Preie. ( *P!L! ‘elevation,
Pecenegs). Reflects IE *preu! ‘to peak’, hence figuratively the penis
spring out’, as in prunc (nasalised) in erection, seen an ‘erotic peak’.
‘a baby’ (< ‘sprung out from See also pu#% ‘a little boy’s penis’.
mother’s belly’), hence also Skr. Romanian discriminates a child’s
pru!th ‘to spring out, to explode’. penis (pu#%) against a mature man’s
pul% (vulgar and taboo in usual
puchi ‘bleary eyes; a stain’. Also
speech). • The relation with Lat. pu-
puchín%, same meaning. Der.
ella is, most probably, mere hazard.
puchinós, adj. A root puk(h)! may
púng# ‘a bag, purse; any object
be reconstructed, but no further re-
similar to a bag or purse’; in some
lationship available. The similarity
with Eng. puck < ME pouke < OE compounds, e.g. Punga!babei, the
pBca seems mere hazard, unless plant Pulicaria dysenterica. Isolated
there may be a common denomina- and etymologically obscure, pre-
sumably indigenous. The sequence
tor for a common origin of both.
pun!g! may either reflect IE *pE!g! >
puchín# See puchi.
*pung!, or a nasalised form of *pug!.
puchinós See puchi.
púp#z# The bird Upupa epops;
pufní ‘to snort; to burst (into laugh-
‘hoopoo’. The word started from an
ing), as in a pufní în rîs. The same
onomatopoeia, as Lat. upupa. It
origin and etymon like bufní, with
should be labelled indigenous, as is
alternating b/p; phoneme f reflects
built like cinte!z% or bu!z%. • A deri-
the archaic velar spirant *X.
vation from Lat. puppa, pBpa ‘a
puh#í ‘to push our air with force; girl, a doll’ is not feasible. Alb.
to inflate, to release air with force’. forms are similar: pupë, pupzë,
From the same root as pufni and pupcë.
bufni, from an archaic root
Puru NFl (Latori&a Mts; flows into
*b(h)uX!, see buf!, buh!.
lake Vidra); NL (VL) Preie. origin

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via Thracian, root *P!R! ‘stone, ‘eternally, for ever’ – ‘fire(s)’:
cliff’; cf. Parîng. • Root pur! ‘fire’ përhërë ‘eternally’ related with për-
is in pururi, pururea ‘eternally, for hin ‘to cover with ashes’. • The
ever’, of IE origin (see). This root change of meaning from ‘fire(s)’ –
does not seem to be the origin of ‘eternally, for ever’ should be ex-
this river!name, but this possibility plained in a religious context in
cannot be excluded, even if seman- which fire was considered eternal,
tically improbable, unless the local hence the evolution ‘(eternal) fire’ >
inhabitants referred to a possible ‘eternal (in general)’. • To note that
cremation was the usual burial rite
fire!like colour?
of the Thracians, therefore fire, Thr.
púrurea See pururi.
pur!, and associated beliefs must
púruri, also pururea, de!a pururi, have had a crucial role in their relig-
de!a pururea adv. ‘eternally, for ious life.
ever’. Alb. përhërë ‘id.’. From Putna NFl (several locations), NL
Thracian root pur! ‘fire’, fairly well (several locations too) Cf. NL Thr.
attested in Thracian, especially in Pydna, LE*)(. Etymon unknown,
personal names, probably with the possibly Preie.
sense ‘fire!like hair, fire!like reddish pu"# ‘a little boy’s penis’. Must be
hair’: Pyroulas, Pyrula, Purula, Pi- closely related with the words de-
rurus etc. Thr. pyr!, pir! (pur!) is rived from root pi#!, pu#! ‘small, lit-
related with Gr. pyr, pyrós ‘fire’, tle’, as pu#in, pi#igoi, pitic (with al-
also German Feur, Eng. fire ‘id.’. ternating t/#). Romanian clearly dis-
Pururi was initially, as it still shows criminates pu#% against pul% (see),
now, the plural of *pur ‘fire’. Form
which – despite initial pu! – do not
pururea is newer, by association
seem related, but rather a result of
with adverbs like ades – adesea,
hazard, which may have supported
when the basic meaning ‘fire’ was
the association at popular level.
lost (see also entry !a for the quite
pu"ín ‘a little (bit), a small quan-
frequent situations of this definite
tity’. From a root pu#!, pi#!, also pit!
article of adverbs and demonstrative
adjectives, specific to Romanian). ‘small, little’ as in pit%, pi#igoi,
pu#%,. Cf. pic, pici, ni#el, all having
Albanian preserves too the parallel
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Pars prima
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the basic meaning ‘small, little, a ráng# ‘crowbar’. The original
little (bit)’. meaning seems to have been ‘rod’,
therefore akin to rînc% (see).
ra!, r#! Indigenous prefix of nouns rántie ‘a long overcoat’. DEX
and verbs, related with – but proba- holds for a possible Ukrainian ori-
gin (rantuh), which is at least debat-
bly not reflecting – Lat. re!. It may
able. If the basic meaning may be
also be used with roots of other ori-
accepted as ‘long as a rod’, then re-
gin, not necessarily indigenous:
lated with rang% and rînc%. If a
r%!fui (< indigenous root *Xu! as in
Slavic origin may be envisaged,
vui), ra!zem, r%!gu&i (gu&% < Lat. then further arguments should be
geusiae) etc. invoked. Until then, rather indige-
rácil# 1. ‘serious disease; 2. fig. nous.
‘problem, fault’. Seems related with ráp#n A disease, of humans, ani-
Slavic rak ‘crayfish, crab’, also mals and trees. Referring to hu-
‘cancer’. The dual meaning ‘crab’ mans, an equivalent for rîie ‘itch,
and ‘cancer’ is also attested for scab’; otherwise, used with the ge-
some Romanian dialects. Otherwise, neric meaning ‘filth’. Referring to
Czech rakovina ‘cancer’, derived trees, the term reflects a specific
from the same root. If a root *rak!, fungus, which attacks trees. Must be
and followed by i, k > ;, may be analysed together with r%pciug% ‘a
accepted as Slavic, there are real disease of horses; an epithet for
difficulties in explaining the Roma- filthy, sick animals’; and with
nian form. If indeed archaic, we r%pciune, the popular name of Sep-
must hypothesise an indigenous root tember. The basic meaning may be
*rak! ‘serious disease, cancer’, reconstructed as ‘disease; sick’; re-
hence generically and figuratively ferring to September, imagined as
‘main problem, fault’. We are in- the month when nature is ‘sick’, i.e.
clinded to admit an indigenous in- falling down to winter (cf. Eng. fall
herited form akin to Slavic rak, not ‘autumn’). A root rap!, r4p! ‘dis-
borrowed from Slavic. See also ease, sick’ may be postulated.
r%covin%, r%cuin%, r%coin%.
Rar%u NM (East Carpathians). The
original form should have been
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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*arar"!, of masculine gender, arti- ‘earth’, which also confirms the ex-
cled *arar%u. Closest forms which istence of this root in Thracian, as
explain the mountain!name are Thr. known from ND Zamolxis (the ar-
Araros, ()'):;, ()'7):;; cf. NFl chaic and original form; Zalmoxis is
Arar (France). The possible ap- a metathesis); also in zmeu and
proach to rar ‘rare’ is, of course, a zmeur% (see). Prefix r%!, re! seems
folk!etymology. The forms ending also indigenous and without any
in #$%u, #éu must have been mascu- identified parallel. • The original
lina in !a or !e followed by the mas- meaning of reazem was ‘set, put on
earth’; the verb a rezema, a r%zema
culine definite article !u(l).
‘to set, to fix on earth’, hence ‘to
ra"# ‘duck’. Alb. rosë. Isolated in set, fix’ in general. • The construc-
Romanian and Albanian from IE tion is similar with other examples
*r:s!, *r%s! ‘to shout, to yell’ as in derived with prefixes like în! (< Lat.
Old Indian rásati, r:sate ‘to shout in, very frequent), also co!, p%!/po!/
(about animals), Gothic razda
pî! (indigenous) etc.
‘voice’, Old Icelandic r@dd ‘voice’
etc. See similarly gîsc%. r#bdá ‘to endure, to suffer’. Der.
r%bdare ‘patience (< endurance)’;
rázem ‘support, base’. Var. reázem,
r%bd%tor ‘patient, tolerant’. Archaic,
rGHzem. Der. a rezemá, refl. a se
rezemá (de), dial. r%zemá ‘to sup- probably of Preie. origin, root *R!B!
‘to curve, to bend’, hence ‘to curve
port, to lean (oneself) against’.
one’s back = to endure (physically,
Russu, by assuming its indigenous
origin, rejects the possible associa- as under a burden)’. The same root
is in NFl Rebra and Raba; NP Ruba
tion with Alb. rëzë and Arom.
seems also related to this group, and
aradzîm ‘foot!hill, the lower part of
perhaps Sl. ryba ‘fish’ (from the
a high mountain’, though such a
curve form of most fish).
connection is inevitable, and the
forms must be indeed related. The r#cói!n# See r%covin%. See also
explanation consists ultimately in r%cunin%.
correctly interpreting the form as a r#covín# The plant Galium rotun-
compound built with indigenous difolium or, in some dialects, the
prefix r%!, re! and root z%m!, zem! plant Stellaria media. Also named

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r%coín%, r%cuín%. A root *rak! may *gaz!, seemingly with the meaning
be postulated, for which see rácil%. ‘time!span’. Archaic and isolated,
As in the quoted case, the Slavic therefore the indigenous character
origin is possible, but improbable. • seems probable.
The forms r%coin%, r%cuin% are r#g#líe Specific meaning: ‘thicket
most interesting, as they witness the or bush made up of underwater trees
loss of intervocalic v, an exceptional or parts of a tree in a running water,
phenomenon in the case of indige- e.g. a river’. Archaic and isolated.
nous (Thracian) elements of Roma- We may surmise prefix ra!, r%! (see)
nian. They prove that (1) the forms
and a root *gal!, in this context hav-
r%coin%/r%cuin% are indeed old
ing the meaning ‘tree, part of a tree
(Pre!Slavic) in Romanian, and (2)
trunk’; possibly of Preie. origin. If
they were rather forwarded to Ro-
of Preie. origin, the root *K!L!,
manian via the initial colloquial
*G!L! should be invoked.
Latin stratum, as there seems to be
no other example of an indigenous r#gu&í ‘to get hoarse’. Obviously
(Thracian) element with intervocalic prefix ra!, r%! (see) and gu&% ‘a bird’s
b/v, which may have been lost in crop’, also ‘goitre’. A good example
Romanian. of Thracian!Latin co!habitation: an
r#cuín# See r%covin% (also see indigenous prefix and a Latin ele-
r%coin%). ment: gu&% < Lat. geusiae, even if the
form is not recorded by current Latin
r#dicá See ridica.
dictionaries; Ernout-Meillet’s dic-
r#fuí (mainly reflexive a se r%fuí)
tionary quotes it as a Celtic element.
‘to settle accounts’; a se r%fuí cu ‘to
If not a Celtic element in colloquial
fight with’. Built with prefix ra!, r%!
Latin, including East Romance (i.e.
and the same root in vui, with alter-
nating f/v < velar spirant *X. Proto-Romanian), we must look fur-
ther for an indigenous element in the
r#gáz ‘free time; time!span’. The case of gu&%, which would be not ab-
meaning is ‘time!span allowing to normal. A similar case in Sînziene.
take a decision, mainly an important r#mf See rîmf.
decision’. Seems built with prefix
ra!, r%! (see) and an isolated root
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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r#pciúg# 1. a disease of horses, shout’ or a root *r4s!t! ‘to shout, to
manifest by ulcerous wounds on the yell’.
nasal mucosity; 2. an epithet for a r#súr# 1. ‘hip!rose (Rosa canina)’,
filthy, sick animal. Must be derived
otherwise m%c(i)e& (see); 2. a larva
from the same root as rap%n (see); of ephemerides. Obscure, built with
cf. r%pciune.
either prefix r%! and a root *sur!
r#pciúne The popular name of (which seems different from sur
September. See rap%n and r%pciug%, ‘greyish, black!and!white’) or a root
with which seem etymologically
*r%s! and suffix !ur!.
related.
r#&luí 1. ‘to peel; to scratch’; 2. to
r#sco!áge The plant Chamaenerion
scratch; 3. fig. ‘to snatch, to take
angustifolium. Seems built with
out’; 4. to destroy. Seems modelled
prefix r%s! and root k!g! as in gog%, after a r%zui, in relation with a rade
Guga, Gugu, gogoa&% etc. The root (< Latin), from an indigenous root
kog!, gog! is of Preie. origin. identifiable as either *r4"!l! or pre-
r#sfúg 1. a contagious disease of fix r%! and a root *&l!, difficult to
sheep and goat, characterised by interpret. It may be also analysed as
lack of milk; ‘agalactia’; 2. anthrax; a deformed, dialectal form of r%zui.
3. the plant Chondrilla juncea used
r#tutí ‘to lose head, to get dizzy’.
in folk medicine against agalactia
Reduplication followed by haplol-
(see meaning 1 above). If not de-
ogy, as in other cases, from *r%t!rut!
rived from the same root of a fugi
> r%tut!. The original meaning may
‘to run’ (< Latin) with prefix r%s!,
which does not make any sense, be reconstructed as ‘to swirl
(around)’, hence ‘to get dizzy, con-
then probably indigenous. No fur-
fused’. Cf. ame#i.
ther etymon.
reazem See razem.
r#stí Mainly reflexive in the con-
struction a se r%sti (la cineva) ‘to Rebra NFl, NM (Rodna Mts); NL
bluster, to shout, to give (some- (CJ, several locations). At. 1375 –
body) rough!house’. Obscure, Rivulus Rebra; 1440 – Alsó Rebra
probably indigenous, built with ei- (Rebra Mic$ or Rebri!oara); 1440 –
Felseo Rebra, Felsz<rebra (Rebra
ther prefix r%! and a root *st! ‘to
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Mare, Cluj). Closely related to NFl indigenous, not borrowed, form.
Raba (Lexicon A), NFl Thr. Rabon rezemá ‘to lean (against)’. Derived
(Dacia), R7bas (Bythinia), NP Thr. from razem, reazem.
Rebo!, Rabo!; probably also related ridicá ‘to take up, to extract’. Dial.
with r%bda. The ultimate origin is also r%dica. Russu holds it for in-
Preie. *R!B! ‘to bend, to curve’; digenous, though it rather seems
Russu suggests IE *rebh! ‘to move’, derived from colloquial Latin
but he – and many others – regu- *eradicare, as suggested by most
larly ignore(s) the Pre!Indo!Euro- linguists. Cf. ridiche, r%diche < ra-
pean heritage. dix, Acc. radicem.
réchie The plant Reseda lutea, Riza, also Rizea, Rizescu Frequent
‘weld, dyer’s weed’. Unknown ori- family name. The root must be a
gin, etymon non analysable for the Thracian riz!, ris! attested in nu-
time being. Probably archaic in- merous forms. Cf. rizafc%, rizeafc%.
digenous Thracian, word. rizáfc# See rizeafc%.
rédiu, also r%diu ‘small and young rizeáfc# A species of herring or
forest’. Obscure, probably indige- mackerel of the Black Sea, which
nous. A root *rad!, *rPd! may be migrates to the Danube for food and
postulated. reproduction; the Alosa caspia
remf See rîmf. nordmanni. The root riz!, ris! in at-
retevéi a stick of wood, a club. De- tested in numerous Thracian ele-
rived from the same root as reteza. ments. Cf. NP Rizea, Rizescu. Pho-
retezá ‘to cut (shorter)’; fig. ‘to get neme f probably reflects the archaic
shorter, to interrupt’. Seems related velar spirant *X.
with Czech @etAz ‘a link (of two rîmf sg. The plant Aristolochia
parts)’, in its turn of unknown ori- clematitis. Hasdeu already assumed
gin. The root ret! ‘to cut’ is difficult an indigenous origin by approach-
to analyse, but was seemingly the ing it to Thracian rhomphaia ‘a
origin of this form in Thracian, pos- spear’, from spear!like form of its
sibly also in the substratum idiom of leaves. Later, G. Meyer compared
Czech (see Lexicon D). The form Romanian form to Alb. rrufé, rrëfé,
retevéi also supports the idea of an
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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rrfé ‘a lightning, a thunder’. N. r%bda (see). If so, an archaic Preie.
Dr$ganu refers to Transylvanian element from *R!B! ‘round, to
Saxon (s$sesc) Rimf"rt ‘plant Tana- curve, to bend’. The Neolithic peo-
cetum vulgare’. As the form is dia- ple of Central and Southeast Europe
lectal now, a Saxon origin cannot be did know the wheel, and wheelbar-
excluded, yet the indigenous origin row was their usual construction
is most probable. device. Nevertheless the cart and
rînc# 1. ‘bull’s pizzle’; 2. by exten- domesticated horse were brought by
sion ‘horse whip’; 3. a kind of ring the Indo!Europeans. • Intervocalic b
by which the lateral parts of a cart is normal in an indigenous element.
are linked together. The basic mean- roco"eá The poisonous plant Stel-
ing seems to have been ‘rod’, i.e. a laria graminea. Seems derived from
rod or whip. It also seems related the same root as r%covin%, r%coin%,
with rang% (see). A root *ran!, r%cuin%.
*ren! ‘rod’ should be postulated. Roma NL (BT) Unclear. Does not
Origin obscure, presumably indige- seem a Mediaeval name simply cop-
nous. ied after the city of Rome. If ar-
rînz# ‘rennet; gizzard; stomach chaic, then related with Lat. Roma.
(usually of animals and/or birds)’. There are Thracian names with this
Alb. rendës. Archaic, even if ety- root, which would also support the
mon unclear. Perhaps related with hypothesis of an indigenous form:
Eng. rennet, with identical meaning, NP Rome!, Roime!, e.g. Roim7!tal-
< IE *er! ‘to set in motion’, i.e. ‘to kas, Roimos, Roimus etc. (see fur-
coagulate’. Construction as in other ther examples in De#ev 1957).
indigenous forms like brînz%, buz%, Rona NL (MM) At. 1360 – Rona;
pup%z% etc. Rona possessio Olachalis; Felseu-
roab# ‘wheelbarrow’. One of the rona Stani filii Petri Olahi. Iordan
of the most obscure forms in Roma- 1963: 132 refers to Hung. róna
nian. Definitely an indigenous form, ‘field’. The forms seem rather in-
derived from a root *rob! with the digenous, and supported by Thra-
reconstructable meaning ‘round, cian forms with this root: NPp Ron-
wheel’, probably the same root as in

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dai, Rondaioi; NP Rhondes; NP in literary Romanian too) and with
Ziri!ronyis (see De#ev 1957). Eng. to sew. Beyond any reasonable
rostogolí ‘to roll down, to turn doubt, an indigenous relic.
down’. Seems an expressive innova- sárb#d ‘without any taste, taste-
tion based on the model rotocol, less, unpleasant’. Alb. tharbët
coined from roat% ‘wheel’ (< Latin) ‘acid!like, sour’. Archaic, in both
and ocol ‘round, turn around’ (< Romanian and Albanian connected
Slavic), even if phonetic details are to the sphere ‘unpleasant taste,
not simple to explain. Alternatively, tasteless’. Etymologically related
the form may reflect an indigenous with Eng. sour, OE sBr, OHG sour,
heritage, possible re!shaped in asso- Lith. sBrus ‘salty’ etc. The original
ciation with rotocol, if we accept meaning seems to have been ‘(too)
this quite unparallelled coinage. salty’, hence ‘tasteless, with un-
pleasant taste’. The Albanian mean-
ing is closer to the prototype,
Sabara NFl, NL (IF) See Sabasa
whereas it has interfered with sare
and the references there.
(< Lat. salem, accusative) ‘salt’. •
Sabasa NFl (Stîni!oara Mts). Re- Sometimes spelled searb%d. Note
lated with Sabara, S%bi&a, Sebe&, Rom. s against Alb. th.
Sibiu, ultimately Preie. root *S!B!. Savu NFl (Parîng Mts, a tributary of
Sadu NFl, a tributary of Jiu. Cf. Olte&). Closely related to Sava
Thracian forms like NP Sadaios, (Lexicon A), Eng. NFl Severn. Lat.
Sadaeus; Sadalas; NL Sadame, form was spelled Savus, Gr.
Sadamia (in ancient Astica); also as M+&$&'.
a second element !sades, !sadas in S#bi&a NL, NM (MM) Closely
forms like B7ri!sád7s, B7rei!sád7s, related with Sabasa and Sebe&/
Mai!sád7s, M7do!sad7s, Parysád7s Sebi&.
etc. (De#ev 408–409). • The refer- S#sár NFl in N Romania (Mara-
ence to Sl. sad1 ‘garden’ is wrong. mure%). From *as!ar!ar!, the same
saiá ‘thread’ (dialectal, rare in liter- root as in As%u and Asuaj, i.e. Preie.
ary Romanian). Must be related *AS! in words with chromatic
with the root in în!s%ila (see, usual meaning: ‘black, dark’, with redu-

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Lexicon Etymologicum
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plication as in NM Rar%u (Preie. type should have been *sc%rp%ra,
origin) and NM Curcub%ta (related *scr%p%ra, dissimilated to sc%p%ra.
to curcubeu ‘rainbow’, IE origin). • The initial IE meaning must have
The component !ar is frequent in been ‘to strike two objects in order
river!names, e.g. Dun!re(a), Arge!, to produce fire’.
Arie! etc. sc#rm#ná ‘to card; to tease, to
Sbîrlea NP also Sburlea; see zbîrli. thrash; to beat someone (a little bit,
especially referring to children)’.
sburda See zburda.
The root seems IE *(s)ker! ‘to turn,
scai sg. Plant Dipsacus fullonum.
to bend; crooked, meandering’ as
From IE *(s)kel! ‘sharp; to cut, to
also in cre#, Cri& etc.
scratch’. Ancient texts recording
schilav See schilod.
Thracian and Greek forms also wit-
ness other related forms, e.g. skalme schilod, also schilav, schil%vos
‘knife’, skolops ‘a sharp club’ etc. • ‘cripple; maimed, mutilated’. The
The Latin origin should be rejected, root schil! is isolated. The forms
and S.!Cr. "kalj, 6kalj is borrowed seem archaic and indigenous,
from Romanian, with lj for semi- probably related with Lat. claudico,
vowel i as in other similar borrow- NP Claudius etc.
ings (e.g. boljar against Rom boier schindúc The plant Conioselinum
etc.) vaginatum. Related with schindúf,
sc#f#lie See c%f%lie. the plant Trigonella foenum grae-
sc#lî'mb ‘not even, crooked, worn cum. The root schin! in these names
out’. Seems related with scîlcia ‘to of plants is isolated. the indigenous
worn out, to make crooked’, and origin is probable.
therefore we may identify a root schindúf The plant Trigonella foe-
*skel! ‘crooked, uneven’. num graecum. The final f would in-
dicate an original velar spirant *X.
sc#p#rá ‘to strike a match, to send
Related with schinduc.
out sparks’ vb. Alb. shkrep ‘id.’,
shkrepës ‘flint’. From IE *(s)kerp!, scîlciá (especially about footwear)
‘to worn out, to get crooked by
*(s)krep! ‘to cut, to scratch, to
wearing out’. Seems related with
strike; sharp’. The Romanian proto-
sc%lîmb.
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Pars prima
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sclai part of a saw!mill, which sclipuí ‘to earn (living, money) by
keeps the log or tree!stump after effort and in small quantity’. Seems
having been cut by the saw. Obvi- closely related with, and derived
ously archaic, presumably indige- from, the same root as in sclipi.
nous. The sequence scl! + vowel scoab# ‘a clamp’. Related with
does not turn to sche!/schi! or &che!/ scobi. DEX assumes a borrowing
&chi! as in the words of Latin origin, from Bulg, S.!Cr. skoba, which seems
another argument for its indigenous rather borowed from Romanian.
origin. Suffix !i (y, semivowel) as in scobí ‘to hollow, to cut (usually
v%trai (< vatr%) or m%lai (< *mal%), wood)’. Reflects IE *skei!, *sek!
for which see both these forms. The ‘to cut’, with o!root. The root is at-
root *(s)kle! must have had the tested in Thracian, e.g. Sko!pan7s
original meaning ‘to cut’ (if refer- and other forms quoted in De#ev
ring to the semantic sphere ‘saw, to 1957: 459–460. Cf. scorbur%.
cut’) or ‘to keep, to support’. scociorî' ‘to dig; to make a hol-
sclipé" 1. The plant Potentilla low’. The root sco!, with the basic
erecta; 2. the plant Teucrium cha- meaning ‘to cut, to dig’, seems to be
maedrys (otherwise called dumbé#). the same as in scobi, scorb and
Obviously related with sclipi, clipi scorbur% (see).
and clip%, and also a good argument scorb Rare, dialectal ‘hollow, cav-
against the Slavic origin of clipi/ ity’. See scorbur% and scobi.
sclipi, as erroneously assumed in
scórbur# ‘a hollow (in a
DEX and in various other authors.
tree!trunk)’ (like for hiding or for
The root skle!, skli! must have had
wild bees). From the same IE root
the basic meaning ‘to glimpse, to
glitter; a very short or brief action’. like scobi, scoab% < *(s)ker! ‘to
cut’, o!root in Thracian and devel-
sclipí ‘to glimpse, to glitter’. Re-
lated with sclipe#. Erroneously as- opment *skor!b!ur!. See Thracian
sumed of Slavic origin in DEX and name Scorilo and the dialectal form
other authors. See also clip% and scorb. Also related, with other suf-
clipi. fix, in scormoni. Lat. scr8fa is from

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the same root, from the habit of pigs vulg. ‘to be in erection’. Alb. shkul
to rummage; cf. scormoni. ‘(he, she) raises’. From IE *skel! ‘to
scormoní ‘to rummage’, also figu- curve, to bend’, o grade *skol!, the
ratively ‘to dig (the past), to look alternance o/u being met in other
for something’. From the same root cases too. The basic meaning must
as scorb, scorbur%; see also scurma have been ‘to bend after waking up,
and curma. to go up’; the vulgar sense is secon-
scrînciób ‘a cradle (otherwise dary, but very frequent now. • Inter-
leag%n)’. Related with scrîntí. vocalic l is normal in an indigenous
element.
scrîntí ‘to sprain, to dislocate; to
wrick (the neck, the arm)’. The scul#, !e s.f. ‘a tool (in general);
same root in scrînciob from IE hence ‘penis’ (only contextual and
*(s)ker! ‘to turn, to bend’. colloquial). IE *(s)kel! ‘to cut’, hence
scorú& The plant Sorbus (domes- also Lat. scalpere ‘to cut, to scratch’,
sculpere ‘to cut, to sculpture’, culter
tica, aucuparia) ‘service-tree, row-
‘a knife’ (from *kel!tro!). The recon-
an!tree’. From the same root as
scorb, scorbur%, scormoni. From structable form in Thracian is *skul!
Romanian, also borrowed in other or *sk:l! (Thr. : results in Romanian
neighbouring languages. The ar- u, sometimes also o, cf. mum%,
chaic character in Romanian is Moma, Mure& etc.). The basic mean-
proved by the rich etymological ing must have been ‘a tool for cutting
family. wood’, then ‘a tool in general’. Cf. (a
se) scula, from another IE root • In-
scrum ‘ash, ashes’. Alb. shkrump,
art. shkrumbi ‘ash(es)’. Must belong tervocalic l is normal in an indigenous
to the same archaic IE family like element.
Latin cremo, !are < IE *(s)ker! ‘to scurmá ‘to dig the earth (e.g. about
burn, to be on fire’. Romanian and pigs); to analyse, to scrutinise’. The
Albanian forms with the frequent root must be the same as in curma
initial s!/z!. Possibly related with (see) with initial s! as in many other
crîmpei, from the same root. examples.
sculá vb. 1. tr. ‘to wake up (some- scu" Rare, dialectal: ‘a thin crust or
one)’; 2. refl. ‘to wake up, go up’; 3. film on snow when frozen’. The ar-
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chaic meaning must have been which flows in the area of Sibiu,
‘crust; to cover’. Etymon unclear, was modelled under German pro-
but the indigenous origin is most nounciation: *Sibin > Zibin > Cibin
probable. (pron. ;ibin, Dr$ganu 1933: 552).
searb#d See sarb%d. Various explanations have been of-
fered for each of these forms: Sibiu
Sebe NP Akin to Sebe&, Sebi&, Si-
was tentatively explained from Bg.
biu.
sviba > siba (?); Sebe! was ex-
Sebe! NFl, NL Alba; also Sebi! NL plained from Hu. sebes ‘quick’ (Ior-
Arad, NL Caran!sebe! (see s.v. Ca- dan 1963: 122) etc. The ultimate
ransebe!) and NL Sibiu For a long origin must be Preie. *S!B!, possi-
time the indigenous Thracian words
bly related with *S!M!, ‘high’ or
with intervocalic b/v! and !l! have
‘deep, depth’; cf. Some!, Semenic.
been denied this origin on the un-
Semeníc NM Banat. Related to se-
proved assumption that these
me' ‘high; proud and arrogant’; re-
sounds would have been either lost
flect Preie. root *S!M! as in Some!.
in this position (the case of !b/v!) or
changed to !r! (the case of intervo- semé" ‘proud, supercilious’. Must
be related with NM Semenic and
calic !l!) as usual indeed with the
words of Latin origin. In reality Some&, from a Preie. root *S!M!.
these phonemes are never changed The explanation from a would!be
if present in a Thracian word; the derivative from Slavic s1meti is in-
explanation resides in the different correct.
situation of Late Popular Latin, on seme"í ‘to be proud (of); to make
the one hand, and Thracian (or ver- bold’. Derived from seme#. Cf. as-
nacular Thracian), on the other. See mu#i (a!sm!u#!).
other similar situations, e.g. Deva, sf#rîmá See f%rîm%, f%rîma; cf.
abur(e) etc. These forms must re-
su!gruma and su!gu&a for s(u)! as
flect Thracian root *sab!, *seb! as
prefix, for which see su!.
proved by Thracian forms like NL
sfîrc ‘a prominence’, usually ‘nip-
Sabatium, Sabation, NL Sabin-iri-
ple, teat’. The meaning ‘prominece’
bes, NPp Saboces etc. (De#ev 1957:
406). The name of river Cibin, of root sfîr! should be discriminated

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174
Lexicon Etymologicum
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against the meaning in sfîrîi and siminic, also siminoc. The plant
hîrîi, related to noise or specific Gnaphalium or Halichrysum, ‘xer-
sounds. In both cases though, pho- anthemum’. Same root as Semenic.
neme f witnesses an initial velar spi- Ukr. semenjak is from Romanian,
rant (laryngeal), which leads to re- not vice!versa, as DEX assumes.
constructing the basic root *sX4r! Sirebi NM (near Deva, on the
‘prominence, nipple, teat’. The Mure!) From the same root as Siriu
same root in sfîrl% and probably in and Siret.
zvîrlug% too, if not related with Siret NFl Attested in the antiquity
sfîrîi. under approximately similar forms,
sfîrîí Akin to hîrîi, with the alter- e.g. T+&)'$O:;, U+6)'3:;, Gerasus.
nating h! – sf!, indicating the initial The modern forms must be ex-
existence of velar spirant *X. plained from IE *ser! ‘to flow’ as in
sfîrl# (dialectal) 1. ‘flick; snub’; 2. Séretos (the name of Siret by Pro-
‘muzzle’. Must be closely related copius, aed.), Ill. Serétion (Dalma-
with sfîrc. tia), Séretos (Dardania). Related to
sfrijí ‘to lose vigour or power; to Siriu and also to !iroi ‘a meandering
get lean’. Isolated, presumably in- water’, a !iroi ‘to flow out’. The
digenous. Phoneme f would indicate opposition s~! must be inheritied as
an original velar spirant, and a pos- such from Thracian. See also
sible root *sXr! ‘lean, lacking Serava, Srem in Lexicon A. • Ukr.
power’. Seret, a tributary of the Nistru
(Dnjester) is of Thracian origin too
Sibiu NL; the most important town
(Truba#ëv 1968: 219).
of the eponymous district. At. 1192–
1196: prepositus Cipiniensis; 1211: Siriu NFl, NM, NL Vrancea region.
prepositus Scibiniensis. See s.v. Se- Related to Siret. Similar forms, de-
be!. rived from the same root, also in
Switzerland, NFl Sierre, NL
Simeria NL Hunedoara. Cf. ancient
Crans!sur!Sierre. • Iordan 1963:
Samara. Other discussions s.v.
531 erroneously explains it from
Some!. Preie. root *S!M!; see also
Hung. szer ‘region, place’, while a
Gimian, Gimleu, Gimand, from the
same Preie. root.
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similar form in Dobrudja is assumed situations, Rom. f alternates with v,
of Turkish origin [?]. h and &.
sîmbur(e) ‘core’ (the internal part slai The beam linking the runners
of a fruit, also figuratively). Alb. of a sledge or sleigh; any similar
thumbullë ‘a button, a knot’. Ar- connecting or linking devices. Built
chaic, probably Preie., root *S!M!, with suffix !i as in m%lai or v%trai.
*S!B! ‘deep’ or ‘high, elevated’, as The form seems derived from the
in seme#, Semenic, Some& etc. The same IE root like Eng. sledge and
correspondence Rom. s – Alb. th, sleigh, both being ultimately of
and Rom. r – Alb. ll is normal. The Dutch origin: (1) sleigh < Dutch
original sense in Romanian must slee, variant of slede, from Middle
have been ‘deepest part of a fruit = Dutch sl7de; (2) sledge < Dutch dia-
core’; Albanian meaning is newer, lectal sleedse, perhaps diminutive of
derived from the round form of any Dutch slede, sled, from Middle
fruit core. Dutch sledde.
Sînziana NP Personal feminine smîntîn# ‘milk cream’. Traditional
name re!shaped after sînziene; see form, related to Sl. smetana, not
s.v. zîn%. borrowed from it, as some linguists
still believe. The indigenous charac-
sînziene ‘holy fairies’. The first
ter is supported by the numerous
part of the compound is Lat. sanctus
terms for preparing milk and
and the second part zîn% (see). Also
cheese, many of them indigenous.
the popular name of plants of family
Galium (mollugo, schultesii and smotocí ‘to drub, to whack’. Un-
varium). clear; sometimes referred to Serbian
smotok, unclear as well. Perhaps
sîrm# Dialectal variant of f%rîm%,
from the same root as mototoli, with
one of the most convincing proofs
that Romanian still had a velar spi- a construction s!mot!o;!. Root mot!
rant (or laryngeal) in its early phase may be the same in mototoli and
of development. Here, Rom. s cor- motan. Verb smotoci is built like
responds to Alb. th, while in the lit- scotoci, in relation with a scoate <
erary form Rom. f is opposed to Lat. *excotere, class. excutere.
Alb. th and dialectal s. In other

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Lexicon Etymologicum
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soi ‘mud, filth’, usually filthy sur- to assume that the sense of borrow-
face of an object. Seems related ing is vice!versa, from Thracian
with Eng. slough, slew, slue < Mid- and/or Proto!Romanian to Slavic.
dle English sl8h. Perhaps zoaie Rom. somn belongs to the same ar-
‘dirty liquid’ belongs to this etymo- chaic Preie. root *S!M! represented
logical group too. by Some&, seme#, &oim. The hy-
Some! The ancient river!name Sa- pothesis of a Slavic origin must be
mos, Samus. The root!vowel o abandoned.
against a in ancient texts can be Somúz NFl, a tributary of Siret.
hardly explained as a Slavic inter- Related with Some&. • Iordan 1963:
mediary (see the case of Olt); it ei- 58 refers to Sl. "um! ‘to rustle, to
ther reflects a local pronounciation swish; to blow’, as in "umeti. The
with o or an evolution a>o in the phonetic evolution suggested by
vicinity of the nasal m. Cf. NFl Iordan is impossible though. The
Somme < Samara against NFl Sam- real impediment is ending !uz,
bre in the same area (Dauzat 1947: which would indicate a Turkic ori-
197; Kiss 1980: s.v. Szamos and gin, counterbalanced by the fact that
Somme). The primitive root is Preie. place! and river!names with root
*S!M! ‘high; a peak’ or ‘a hollow, a som! are archaic over a large area
cave’ and may be the same as in the
of Europe, and often reflect Preie.
case of Sl. *som1 ‘the fish Silurus’
*S!M!, l!M! ‘high’ and ‘deep’.
and Rom. somn ‘id.’. Skok (1971–
spáim# ‘acute, deep fear’. Der.
1974: 3, 305) also considers the ori-
gin as Preie. See also s.v. Nistru and în!sp%imînta ‘to fill with (deep)
its relationship with other ichthyo- fear’; sp%imos (adj.) ‘who fears
logic terms. Cf. Semenic, Simeria, anything’. Isolated in Romanian,
9imian, 9imleu, 9imand, also &oim presumably indigenous, referring to
and Goimu&. a basic feeling of primitive man.
somn The fish Silurus. Often con- spelb adj. ‘yellow; pale’; fig. ‘insip-
sidered from Slavic som1, even ide’. From *(s)p(h)el! ‘to glitter, to
though this hypothesis is at least be bright’, development *sphel!b(h)!
debatable. We are rather inclinded > Thr. *spelb!. See also Thracian

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forms NP Spel... , ND Sp...7tla ‘epi- rather than a borrowing from Greek,
thet of Heros’. The chromatic mean- which puts phonetic difficulties.
ing in Romanian developed paral- st#pî'n See ban and jupîn. Der. a
lelly to galben, of Latin origin, st%pîni, st%pînire. A compound with
which also is the usual, generic form. IE st0! ‘to stay, to be’ and the same
spîn" See spînz. root as in ban (see). Similarly in
spînz, !i dial. also spîn# s.m. The jupîn (also see).
plant Helleborus purpurescens, with st#rnút, dial. also str%nut (about
hanging, red flowers. Alb. shpëndër, horses) ‘with a white spot on nose’.
shpëndel, with the same meaning. Seemingly archaic, a term belong-
From *(s)pen! ‘to pull, to hang’, ing to the traditional vocabulary of
hence also Lat. pend7re ‘to hang, be horse breeding, essential across
hanging’; related with a spînzura time. No clear etymon. The basic
(see). Russu, who correctly records meaning must have belonged to the
the origin, did not observe the obvi- chromatic sphere, see also mieru
ous connection between spînz and a and sur.
spînzura, which must be analysed stejár ‘oak!tree’. There are two
together, not separately. main hypothesis: 1. a borrowing
spînzurá vb. ‘to hang; to be hang- from Bulg. ste6er, in its turn of
ing’. From IE * (s)pen! ‘to pull, to non!Slavic origin; 2. an indigenous,
hang’, hence also spînz, spîn# (see). substratum heritage, which also ex-
• The references to Lat. *expendu- plains the Bulgarian form. We in-
lare or *expendiolare are not con- cline to this latter way of analysis,
vincing. in accordance with the consistent
Sprie NFl, NL (Baia Sprie) A pre- number of such indigenous terms in
fix s! and the same root as in Prut, Romanian. The IE etymon may be
prunc. *(s)teg! ‘sharp, prominent’ or *sta!
‘to stay, to be in a place’.
spuz# ‘hot ashes’. Alb. shpuzë.
Sometimes assumed a Latin heri- steregíe ‘scum; dross, waste’. The
tage, ultimately from Gr. >k&*G' original meaning must have been
‘ashes; dust’. It seems a common connected to ‘dirty, waste’, there-
heritage, in Romanian via Thracian, fore Russu’s connection to IE

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Lexicon Etymologicum
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*(s)ter!g! ‘dirty liquid, dirt, waste’ stînc# ‘cliff, rock’. Most probably
(Gr. >%9#3()&'·,Gk#&), Lat. stercus) related with Eng. stone, German
seems correct. Stein, Slavic stAna ‘wall’ (< ‘stone
wall’); alternatively, related to stîn%,
sterp ‘sterile, person who/mammal
which cannot have offspring’; fig. and therefore related to IE root *st:!
‘useless, senseless’. Alb. shterpë ‘to stay, to dwell’.
‘id.’ If not Latin, from a root related stîng ‘left (side, hand)’. Definitely,
to exstirps, which is the oldest the- not related to Italian stanco ‘tired’
ory, then indigenous, which seems as suggested in DEX, but related
most probable, akin to Latin sterilis. with stingher and stinghie.
Cf. &tir% and &terpelí. stîngaci ‘left!handed; clumsy’. The
stinghér ‘isolated; alone; clumsy’. meaning ‘clumsy’ is similar to the
Obscure, very probably indigenous, secondary meaning of stingher
no clear etymon. Also related with (see). Derived from stîng.
stinghie and stîng. strai, mainly used in pl. form straie
stinghie ‘perch, pole’. Seems re- ‘clothes’. Related with strám%
lated with stingher. ‘thread’ and the verb des!tr%má ‘to
stîmpí ‘to stop (doing something)’. unravel, to tear’, fig. ‘to dissolve’.
Seems derived from the same root strám# ‘thread’ (usually a thread
of tîmp, tîmpit with prefix s!, fre- torn off from cloth). From the same
quent in the indigenous elements. root is also strai and destr%má. The
stîn# ‘a traditional shepherd’s origin may be IE *ter4!‘to twist, to
house, usually small’. Archaic term, drill; to rub’, as in English thread. If
etymologically related to (not bor- this etymon is accepted, prefix s! is
rowed from) Slavic stan1 ‘a tent; a also indigenous, whereas in de!s-
dwelling’ (in modern Slavic, both
tr%ma prefix de! reflects Latin de.
meanings preserved, depending on
See also strai and de!str%ma.
language), IE *st:! ‘to stay, to
str#ghiát# (archaic, obsolete in
dwell’. See also st%pîn ‘a local
leader, a master’ and (possibly) literary language) ‘curd’; sometimes
also ‘whey’. Archaic terms related
stînc% ‘cliff, rock’.
to milk processing, in the sphere of

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which Romanian still preserves Struga (see Lexicon A). Otherwise,
many terms of indigenous origin with this meaning, isolated in Ro-
(cf. brînz%). The IE root is probably manian. IE root is *ser! ‘to flow;
*ster! ‘stiff, hard; to coagulate’. fluid’ as in Siret and Siriu. The
Strei NFl Closely related to Strem' forms with str!i (strugure, Strei,
and further to Strima, Strjama, Strem#, Struga etc.) reflect the spe-
Struma, Struga in Lexicon A. cific Thracian evolution IE *ser! +
IE ( *ser! ‘to flow’, zero grade sr! vowel > Thr. *str!.
and evolution sr! + vowel > Thr. strung#, strungi s.f. ‘a narrow
str!, as in the typical indigenous place for milking sheep’. Archaic
word strugure ‘a grape’. The same technical term. Alb. shtrungë ‘id.’.
root, but with other vocalism, also Borrowed from Romanian (perhaps
in Siriu, Siret. • Ukr. Stryj is of also from Albanian) by all the
Thracian origin too (Truba#ëv 1968: neighbouring languages: Greek,
157, 196). Bulgarian, Serbian!Croatian, Hun-
strei An indigenous race of pigs. garian, Slovak, Polish and Ukrain-
From the same root as NFl Strei. ian. From IE *streng! ‘narrow’. See
Strem$ NFl Related to Strei. also NL Strynges, in Remesiana,
with Thracian population. Cf.
strépede ‘a specific worm with
strînge, of Latin origin, but from the
black head and white!yellowish
same etymon. • Eric P. Hamp la-
body growing in cheese’ (named ver
belled the modern area correspond-
de fromage in French, lit.
ing to ancient extension of the
‘cheese!worm’). Alb. shtrep, art.
Thracians as vatr%!urd%!strung%;
shtrebi ‘worm’. Both forms may be
see therefore under vatr% and urd%,
derived from the same root as in
all three terms related to archaic vo-
Lat. serpens or from a root as in
cabulary and traditional activities.
Lith. trandis ‘worm, cheese!worm’. All these three terms have been bor-
Alternatively, possibly the same
rowed, at various historical periods,
root as in Strei, Strem#. by all the neighbouring languages.
strúgur(e) ‘grape’. Basic term of
su! Verbal prefix as in su!grum! (cf.
wine processing. Seemingly related
grumaz), su!gu&! (cf. gu&%) etc. Re-
to NFl Strei, NFl Strem# and NFl
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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lated with Gr. syn and Sl. s1. Inter- Enkiri!sula, Scapte!sule. I wonder
feres with su!, sub! < Lat. sub. As whether the possible approach to
form s!, related with su!, also in sul% < Lat. subula should be con-
other indigenous elements, in which sidered a folk etymology or the
case it interferes with s! < Lat. ex. Latin etymology is erroneous. Any-
way the preservation of intervocalic
Suceagu NL (CJ) From the same
!l! is normal in indigenous Thracian
root as Suceava and Suciu, with ar-
elements as in c%ciul%, C%lan,
chaic suffix !(a)g!.
Chilia, C%liman etc.
Suceava NFl, NL in Bucovina. Re-
suméte ‘to roll, to turn up’ (usually
lated to Suciu and suffix as in Bîr-
referring to sleeves, before begin-
zava, Deva (*De!va) etc.
ning work). The basic meaning
Suciu NFl Maramure%; also used as seems connected to the idea of ‘up,
NP. NL Transylvania; two localities: above’, hence ‘to pull up, to roll
Suciu de Jos and Suciu de Sus. up’. Related to seme#, Semenic;
Hungarian forms are Alsósz<cs and Some&.
Fels<sz<cs. At. in 1325 – Zuchtu. sur ‘whitish, with white and dark
Cf. Thr. NP Sucus, V:7.:7;, V:7.+:;, fur’ (about horses). See Suru.
must be related to Suceava and pos-
surpá ‘to destroy, to demolish; to
sibly to So;a (Lexicon A). If an IE
root should be looked for, then we crumble’. DEX refers to *sub!ri-
may refer to *k0eu1k1 ‘to shine; pare < rupes, which is at least de-
batable, if not entirely wrong. Even
bright’ > Thr. suk!y! > su;!.
if no clear etymon is available, pos-
sugrumá ‘to strangulate’. Derived sibly of Preie. origin, I am inclined
from grumaz: su!grum!. Similar to include it in the list of the sub-
built in su!gu&a v. gu&%. stratum elements.
sugu&á See gu&%. Suru NM in the F$g$ra% Mts. Cf.
Sulina NFl, a branch of the Danube, Thr. NP Sura, Surus, Suris and
and NL, the most important locality Rom. sur (now only about horses)
of the area. This form should be ‘with white and black fur’; also
connected to Thr. !sula, !sule, syle Basque txuri (;uri) ‘white, whitish’.
in place!names like Scapten!sula, Preie. *S!R! in words with chro-

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matic meaning (other discussions vocalic !l! is normal in ALL the in-
and examples in Mu%u 1981, chap- digenous elements of Romanian, cf.
ter Simfonia culorilor ‘symphony of bal%, balaur, c%ciul% etc.
colours’). • Cf. Sura, a tributary of (ar NL, NM Several locations,
the Volga. e.g. Garu Dornei. Akin to lar in
sut# ‘one hundred’. For long con- Lexicon A and, probably, lkar
sidered of Slavic origin, even if Sl. (Lexicon B, II, 2).
s1to cannot explain the Romanian (icula NL (AR) Probably an alter-
form. As shown in detail on another nating &/;, therefore from the same
occasion (Paliga in Slavisti;na Re- root as ciucur(e).
vija 36, 4/1988: 349–358, and re-
(ieu NFl Possibly related with Lat.
published in Paliga 1999), Slavic saevus ‘furious, violent, impetuous’,
s1to must be accepted of Proto!Ro- Latvian sêvs ‘sharp, hard’ or a more
manian origin or Late Thracian probable Proto!Boreal relic out of
(borrowed not later than k1motra which is also Lithuanian NSt Lith.
from colloquial Latin *cumatra > Seivus, cf. Fin. saivo, saivokas
Rom. cum%tr%). The indigenous ‘stone idol located near a lake’ <
character of sut% is beyond any rea- root *SaiW! ‘stone, gravel’. Cf.
sonable doubt now < IE *IAtóm Buz%u, Rar%u, Sibiu etc.
‘one hundred’ > Thr. *suntP, *sutP.
)imánd NL Arad. Same suffix as in
Sut# NP Der. Suteanu, Sutescu. C%rand, Zarand. Preie. root *S!M!;
Derived from sut%.
see s.v. Some!.
&ale ‘loin(s)’. Alb. shalë ‘hips; )imián NL Bihor. Seemingly same
legs’. Many linguists associated the
root as in 9imand.
form with &a < Lat. sella ‘saddle’,
(imléu NL (SJ) Related with Gi-
which rather seems the result of
mand, Gimian.
hazard. Lith. "launis ‘hips, lower
part of the body’ seems closest to &ir ‘a row, a line’; fig. ‘succession,
Romanian and Albanian (even line of thought, sense, meaning’. The
though Albanian word is borrowed original meaning may have been re-
from Romanian, rather than an ar- lated to either ‘line, thread’ or rather
chaic, independent heritage). Inter-

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‘water flow, course’, as we incline to &oim 1. The bird Falco; ‘falcon’; 2.
believe, therefore see &iroi. A high wind, above us (folk creeds).
(iria NL Seems related with &ir, Erroneously considered a borrowing
&iroi, then – with s vocalism – with from Hung. solyom, which is – for
Siriu, Siret. sure – borrowed from Romanian.
The word belongs to the forms de-
&iroad#, !e s.f. ‘a trub, trough’, to-
rived from Preie. *S!M!, l!M!
day reg., archaic. Seems related
‘high’ and ‘deep’ as in numerous
with Gr. siros, seiros ‘a pit for cere-
als’, Arm. "irim ‘a pit, a grave’ (as river! and place!names spread all
Hasdeu wrote more than a century over Europe. • A Hungarian influ-
ago). Cf. Siret, &irimpîu. • The in- ence in pronunciation, not a borrow-
digenous origin seems certain, yet ing proper, is in dialectal form
&oium. • See also NL Goimu&, then
we incline for the IE root *ser! ‘to
somn and Some&; with other radical
flow, liquid’; see also Siret.
vocalism, see also seme# and
!irói! ‘a meandering water’ and a Semenic.
!iroí ‘to flow out’. The same root as
&opîrl# ‘lizard’. Alb. shapí ‘id.’.
in &iroad%, &irimpiu and NFl Siret.
Presumably related with, not bor-
&irimpî'u s.n. Rare, dialectal: ‘a
rowed from, Lat. seps, Gr. >?N, also
channel, a canal’. Seems related
modern forms like Sp., Port. sapo.
with &iroad% and NFl Siret.
All these seem archaic ‘Mediterra-
&o interj. an incentive for dogs to nean’, i.e. Preie. terms, root *S!P!,
attack, especially in the formula &o
*S!B!, without clear, reconstructable
pe el ‘go and attack him’. Related
meaning, seemingly related to se-
with Lithuanian "uo ‘dog’. Pro-
mantic sphere ‘snake, lizard, creep-
to!Boreal root *Ky!W ‘dog’, hence ing being in general’. See also &u-
Skr. çv!: ‘dog’, Vedic ç:u!vana! purí.
‘like a dog’ etc. • The word belongs
&oríc Variant of &orici.
to a category of indigenous forms
replaced by Latin words, and which &orici 1. ‘skin of beacon’; the word
gradually acquired specialised refers to a long tradition of sacrific-
meanings, cf. bîr, bîrsan/Bîrsa, cu#u, ing animals, usually now pigs, on
#ap, u&(i) etc. the eve of Christmas, and their

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Pars prima
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burning after sacrifice; the skin thus posed to the others, a development
prepared is called &orici; 2. ’bark; *s!per!; initial s!/z! (with positional
crust’. Origin obscure, beyond any pronunciation) is a frequent situa-
doubt indigenous. The archaic root tion in the indigenous, substratum
should be circumscribed under the elements, which interferes with
semantic sphere ‘cover, to protect’ words of Latin origin with prefix ex!
or ‘to burn, to cook’. A Pre!In- > Rom. s/z.
do~European origin is possible; in &teaz#, pl. &teze ‘a primitive instal-
this case, a relationship with sur, lation for processing tissues’, ap-
NM Suru is possible. prox. Eng. ‘fulling mill’. Beyond
(ova NP Same etymon as &ov%i1, 2. any reasonable doubt an archaic,
&ov#í1 ‘to hesitate’. Archaic and indigenous form, probably derived
colloquial, etymon unknown. Rei- from IE *st:!, *st7! ‘to be, to stay’.
chenkron considered it indigenous, &terpelí ‘to steal’. Seems derived
a hypothesis rejected by other lin- from the same root of sterp (see).
guists, probably on the ground that The semantic evolution from sterp
intervocalic !v! would oppose it; in to &terpeli may be ‘void, without
fact, intervocalic b, v and l are nor- offspring’ – ‘to get empty, to steal’.
mal in the substratum words. • Der. &tir# ‘sterile’ (feminine only). Alb.
&ov%ial% ‘hesitation’; &ov%ielnic shtjerrë ‘lamb, calf’ (rarely used).
‘hesitating’, etc. See &ov%i2. Unclear, but seemingly related with
&ov#í2 ‘to hiss’. Seemingly a mean- sterp, with the alternance ster!&tir!,
ing derived, in obscure circum- which would be acceptable for the
stances, from &ov%i1. substratum words.
&parlí ‘to steal’. Seems related &tiuléte ‘corn cob’. Obviously an ar-
with, and derived from the same chaic, indigenous term, even if now used
root as, &perl%, with the basic mean- for defining a cereal of American origin.
ing ‘abrupt move (to steal) like fire, It seems related with the root in tuleu,
a glimpse of a move’. tulei, Tulcea with prefix &! (in other in-
&perl# ‘(hot) ashes (which covers stances !s), quite frequent in the indige-
recently burnt coal)’. Related to nous elements. Also pronounced &tuléte,
perpeli, pîrli; in this case, as op- which is closer to the original etymon.
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184
Lexicon Etymologicum
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&úbred ‘unstable; sicky, frail; fig. &upurí ‘to sneak (in/out); to smug-
inconsistent, without arguments’. gle’. Akin to the same root in
Archaic and isolated, presumably &opîrl%.
indigenous. Ultimate etymon ob- (urianu NM, NP Must be related
scure. If we admit a root &u! ‘thin’, with sur, with the alternating s/&,
fig. ‘flimsy, insecure’, then it may not at all rare in the case of substra-
be related with &ui and possibly tum heritage.
with &ufan as well. &ut adj., dial. See ciut.
&ufán ‘a stake or pole to which the
fishing net is fixed’. Obscure, per-
Tabarcea NP (family name).
haps built with a root &u!, which Seems related with t%bîrc%.
may be the same as in &ubred and in
Tagla NM (south of F$g$ra!) See
&ui. Phoneme f would indicate an
Tega and $aga, $agu, $eghea, $e-
original velar spirant (laryngeal) *X.
ghe&, $igmandru ($ig!mandru).
&ui ‘thin; lean; lithe’. The root
Preie. root *T!G!, *T!K!.
&u!‘thin, lean’ may be the same as in
Taia NFl, a tributary of Jiu. Un-
&u!bred and in &u!fan.
clear, definitely no connection with
&uí"# ‘ground squirrel’ (Citellus verb a t%ia, tai ‘to cut’. Probably
citellus or Spermophilus citellus). related with NFl Timi&, Timok,
Derived from &ui. Thames etc.
(uliga NM (Pietroasa Mara- taláb# (dialectal) ‘a primitive har-
mure!ului); Guligu(l), a hamlet of
row’. The root tal! is specific to
village Vi!eu de Sus. Archaic,
some Preie. archaic forms, which is
seems related with &ale, with alter-
also reflected in this traditional
nating a/u.
term. See Talma, talp%, which are
(umol NL (BH) Unclear, probably related.
related with &oim, seme#i/sume#i,
Talma NFl Oa%. Cf. Gr. O6NW' ‘a
Semenic etc. all derived from Preie.
marsh, a moor’, O6NW+; ‘mud’, NL
root *S!M!, *l!M! ‘high; deep’, TKNWK33R;, TK)WK33R; etc. and Tol-
which shows alternating s/& in the min, Tolminka in Lexicon A. Preie.
radical.

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*T!L!, also *T!R! in various words Tarcea NL Bihor. At. 1163 – villa
with toponymic meaning. Thorsa; 1326 – possessio Tarcha.
talp# ‘sole; instep’. Most linguists Must be related to Tarc%u, with
assume it is a borrowing from other development: Tar!k! v. Tar!;!.
Hung. talp ‘id’, even if the situation tare ‘hard, solid; powerful’. Der. a
seems reversed: the Hungarian form înt%ri ‘to harden, to become hard/
talp is borrowed from Romanian. solid’ (also fig.); a înt%rîta (espe-
The word is connected to the idea of cially referring to dogs, also gener-
‘earth’, i.e. ‘part of the body/shoe, ally) ‘to incite (to attack, to become
which touches the earth’, Preie. root agressive)’; a (se) întrema ‘to re-
*T!L! ‘earth, stone; mountain’, as in cover (after illness)’. The traditional
Talma and Tulcea. West!European explanation from Lat. talis has no
talpa > Fr. taupe ‘mole’ is, most sense. Must be derived from the
probably, of the same Preie. origin. same IE root as Eng. stark ‘stiff,
strong’, OHD starc ‘strong’, Lith.
tapó&nic The plant Galeopsis lada-
starinti ‘to stiffen’ and/or the group
num; red hemp!nettle’. Must be re-
represented by Lat. struere, Eng.
lated with the forms derived form
strew, strong and strain. The origi-
root tap!/t4p! as in T%pia. The ulti- nal IE root must have referred to the
mate root is Preie. sphere ‘strong, hard; to make an ef-
Tarc%u NM, NL (East Carpathians, fort’. • atare ‘such as, similar’ in-
OT). The root tar! is present in nu- deed reflects Lat. talis, preceded by
merous European place!names and a! < Lat. ad, as in many other
reflects Preie. *T!R!, also *T!L!, words of Latin origin; forms tare
hence Lat. terra, tellus and Rom. and atare do not seem to be etymol-
(via Thracian) t%rîm ‘land; region’ ogically related.
(typical term of Romanian Tárni"a NFl, West Carpathians.
folk!tales). Cf. Tarcea. The root!de- With a Slavic suffix related with
velopment as in Buz%u, In%u/Ineu, Trani& and other forms derived from
Ilteu etc. The explanations from Hu. Preie. *T!R!.
tar!k< ‘bald stone’ or tarkó ‘neck’ t#bîrc# ‘a (crow) bar; any similar
are incorrect (cf. Kiss 1980: 631). primitive device for mounting

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Lexicon Etymologicum
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heavy objects’. The root tab!/t%b! talp, and calques the French model
seems to reflect the same Preie. root sous!pied. • The quite rich family of
*T!B! as in other probably related the forms derived from talp% is ob-
forms spread all over southeast vious in Romanian. Referring to the
Europe, e.g. $ebea, $aba (in its turn series t%p%los, t%p%nos, t%p%l%gos,
related with Gr. Theba etc.); NP t%p%lag%, they seem derived from
Tabarcea (family name) seems to talp%, with fall of l in unexplained
also belong here. The archaic mean- circumstances (t%p%nos instead of
ing may have been ‘prominence, the expected *t%lp%nos, etc.)
peak’, hence ‘pole, bar’. t#p#l#gós adj. 1. (about men or
t#láni"# ‘a whore, a harlot’. Per- animals) ‘with large, flat feet or
haps related with tîlhar, from a root paws, and walking slowly or with
*tal!/t4l! ‘to steal, to rob’. difficulty’; 2. (about plants) ‘with
large leaves’. Also t%p%lós, t%p%nós.
t#p#lág# (dial.) 1. ‘(too) large and
Obviously related, or derived from,
deformed foot; too large, outworn
t%p%lág%.
footwear’; 2. ‘a piece of cloth used
by thieves to cover a stolen animal’s t#p#lós See t%p%l%gos.
feet in order to not let marks on the t#p#nós See t%p%los, t%p%l%gos.
earth’. Hence also t%p%l%gos, T#pía NL Banat. The same as, or
t%p%nos, t%p%nos. DEX refers, on close to, ancient Tapae where the
the one hand, to Hungarian talpalló Roman and Dacian wars took place.
‘a ribbon fixed in the lower part of Other etymologically related Thra-
trousers in order to fix them tight to cian and other forms are quoted in
the foot; French sous!pied’, which De#ev Sprr 489: Kere!tapa (Phry-
would explain Rom. t%p%lag%; on gian), Tapassos (Caria), Tapasidai
the other hand, the derivative adjec- (Milesian), NP Etruscan tapsina >
tives are let unexplained. As shown Lat. Tapsenna, Tappo, Tappius etc.
under talp%, Hung. talp is, beyond Cf. Rom. dial. tipíe ‘a small hill’and
any reasonable doubt, a borrowing t%p!an ‘an elevated flat place’. Re-
from Romanian (not vice!versa, as flects Preie. *T!B!, *T!P!. See also
still commonly held for); Hung. tal- $ebea, $ible!.
palló is, of course, derived from

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t#p&án ‘an elevated flat place’. Tarcea) by reduplication (as in
Same etymon as T%pia and tipie. Rar%u, Curcub%ta). Cf. T%rt%ria.
See also t%p&i. T#rt#ría NL Alba. The archaeo-
t#p&í ‘to tread, to batter’. Obvi- logical site where the famous Chal-
ously derived from t%p&an, which colithic tablets were discovered by
also clarifies the original meaning of N. Vlassa in the early 1960’s. Same
this form: ‘a (flat) place where peo- type as T%rt%r%u. See also t%rt%ne#.
ple often step’. T#rt#r%u NM, NL (AB). Closely
t#rî'm ‘a land, a region’. Used akin to T%rt%ria, and built almost
mainly in folk tales, with reference identically; also T%rtia and probably
to magic, fantastic lands. Often er- tare.
roneously considered a Turkish bor- T#rtía NFl (Parîng Mts) From the
rowing, from tarım ‘house, dwell- same root as T%rt%ria (which is re-
ing’, which is – we may be certain – duplicated) from Preie. *T!R!
fortuitous. The root is tar!, in un- ‘stone, land; hill’.
stressed position t%r! < Preie. *T!R! t#v#lí ‘to roll, to tread upon’. DEX
‘earth, stone’, as in Lat. terra, Osc refers to Sl. valiti, nevertheless a
teerúm, terúm ‘territory, land’ (B. built ta!/t%! + valiti cannot be ex-
Gerda, Studi Etruschi 16/1942, 3: plained via Slavic. If a relation with
49). This form is therefore remotely Slavic valiti is feasible, it may be
related with #ar% < Lat. terra, but as only surmised as an etymological
independent heritage. relationship. See also t%v%lúg,
t#rt#né" 1. (about persons) ‘of sometimes also t%v%lúc.
short stature, low’; 2. (about head) t#v#lúg ‘roller’, mainly now a
‘round’. Closely related with steam or engine roller; formerly
T%rt%r%u, T%rt%ria. This form may logs were used for this purpose. De-
explain that the original meaning of rived from t%v%li. • Variants are
these place!names was ‘low (hill, t%v%lúc, tefelúg.
mountain)’.
teaf#r ‘healthy, strong’. Definitely
T#rt#r%u NM, a peak in the Parîng indigenous, etymon unknown.
Mts. Preie. root *T!R! (as in Tarc%u, Vowel f probably reflects and origi-
nal velar spirant (laryngeal) *X,
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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therefore the prototype may be re- er!names in Europe, e.g. Italian
constructed *teX! ‘strong, healthy’. Tiberis etc.
Cf. tare. Timi! NFl Several rivers with this
teap# (now pejorative) 1. ‘(social) name; best known is in Banat which
position; 2. personal character. The gave the name of the largest town of
original meaning must have been the region, Timi!oara. Ancient Ti-
‘(social) position, elevation’; if so, bisis, Tibisca, later Tiphesas, Time-
closely related with T%pia and ses; T+XY3.:;, T+Z[3';, T+W[3%;. The
t%p&an. ancient town this river was spelled
teárf# 1. ‘rag, cloth; duster’; 2. Tibiscum, Tibiscium, Tibis. The oscil-
‘bride’s dowry’ (in some dialects lation of spelling b/m may be also
only, obviously derived from the observed in the case of Buz%u. Must
meaning ‘clothes’, which then got a be related to Timava, Timok (Lexicon
pejorative connotation in most dia- A) and further to Thames. All reflect
lects, including literary Romanian). IE *tC!, tC!m!, tC!bh!, also *tm!, tm!m,
Related to tîrf% ‘whore, harlot’ and tm!bh! ‘to melt, to flow’. Cf. Taia.
the verb(s) tîrî, tîrîi, tîr&i. Timi&oara NL in Banat, on the
Tega NL, NFl (BZ) The same root Bega canal. At. 1212 – castrum re-
as in NM Tagla, further Tagla, gium Themes; 1266 – terra castri de
$aga, $agu, $eghea, $eghe&, $ig- Tymes. A compound based on the
mandru ($ig!mandru). name of river Timi& (see), and the
terfelí ‘to soil, to defile’ < lit. ‘to second part on !oara (see the rich
drag along; to turn to worn out number derivationsof this Preie.
clothes’. Related with tearf%, further root). Hung. Temesvár is a calque
with tîrî, tîrîi, tîr&i. after Romanian, not vice!versa, as
Tibru NFl, NL (AB) At. 1352 – many linguists erroneously assume.
Tibor; 1352 – mons Tybur; 1441 – tipíe ‘a low hill or hillock with a
Tiburczpataka. The relation with flat peak’. Same etymon as T%pia
Hung. NP Tibor may be a folk ety- and t%p&an, a t%p&i.
mology at the best. It reflects one of titiréz ‘spinning top’. By redupli-
the oldest and largest spread riv- cation and haplology from a root
*tir!tir!ez >titirez (a similar case in
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189
Pars prima
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huhurez). The root tir! must be akin the named root, in which case the
to Eng. turn, Lat. torno etc. < IE semantic sphere ‘idiot’ may be figu-
*ter! ‘to turn, to rub, to twist’. ratively derived from the basic
meaning of t%p&an, a t%p&i.
titirí (coll.) ‘to get adorned’. Obvi-
ously derived from the same root of tîmpít ‘idiot’. Unclear, some hold
titirez. it for a Slavic borrowing. See fur-
ther discussions under Tîmpa.
tîlhár ‘robber, bandit’. Isolated,
presumably archaic. The basic root Tîmpu NFl (flows in the vicinity of
tal!/t4l! ‘to rob, to steal’ may be the Sarmizegetusa site) Same origin as
same as in t%láni#% ‘a whore’, and Tîmpa.
discriminated against other forms tîrf# ‘whore, harlot’. See tîrî.
with the same root, and spread tîrg ‘a market place; a market or
mainly in place!names. commercial town’. Currently held
Tîmpa NM, NL (several locations); for a borrowing from Slavic, even if
also NFl Tîmpu, NL Tîmna; NP the origin in Slavic is unknown, and
Tîmnea. Unknown origin, probably has been looked for in some Orien-
indigenous, Preie. root *T!P!, with tal languages. The word is yet a
typical Central-European and
nasal infix > *tîmp!. See also T%pia,
t%p&an, a t%p&i. It has usually been South!East European term, mainly,
common to relate Tîmpa to tîmp, also Baltic (Lith. turgus, Latvian
tîmpit ‘idiot’, in its turn a would!be tirgus) and Finnish (tori). Sl. tr1g1
Slavic borrowing, which is at least has modern followers in all the
debatable. The toponymical and an- modern Slavic languages. The ori-
throponymical root tîm!p!, tîm!n! is gin must be Southeast European,
presumably Illyrian and/or Thra-
well represented all over Romania,
and definitely cannot be simply ref- cian, see NL Ill. Tergitio, Tergeste
fered to as a simple derivative from (hence Slovene Trst, Italian Trieste).
The ultimate origin must be Preie.
tîmp, tîmpit. • It is possible to as-
sume an archaic relation of the root *T!R! ‘stone, cliff’, hence
group represented by NM, NL ‘town, location surrounded by
Tîmpa, Tîmna etc. and tîmp, tîmpit stones’. The Slavic and Baltic forms
‘idiot’, only if we start again from originated as initially a borrowing

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Lexicon Etymologicum
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from Romanian (like k1motra and after hunt’, i.e. ‘to drag along a
s1to). Preie. root *T!R! is very well dead, heavy animal’ (like a boar or
represented in many substratum bear), and thus the verbs in this
forms in Romanian, another strong family clearly belong to an archaic
argument against the borrowing activity. Also, as proved by other
from Slavic. The oldest attested examples, the alternating &/f (as in
form in Southeast Europe is Illyrian tîr&i – tîrf%) show the existence of
Tergitio, and – via unclear route – an original velar spirant (laryngeal)
the origin of Romanian and Slavic *X, a specific phenomenon of Thra-
forms must be Thracian and/or Illy- cian, and later reflected as alternat-
rian. ing h/f/&/v in Romanian. • The ulti-
tîrî' ‘to drag (along); to pull mate origin of the root tîr! must be
(along); to crawl (reflexive: a se Preie. *T!R! ‘earth, cliff, stone’.
tîrî). Also tîrîi (same meaning); tîr& From the same root is also derived
‘a small, undeveloped bush or tree’ Lat. terra, in relation with tellus <
(lit. ‘which crawls on earth’); also Preie. *T!L!, as variant of *T!R!.
‘haypole’ and, in some dialects, ‘a tîrîí See tîrî.
broom made up of tree branches’; tîr& 1. a small coniferous bush,
tîr&í = tîrî, tîrîi, especially used with usually a small, underdeveloped
reference to dragging legs when one; 2. the rod in the dance of
walking with difficulty; tîrf% C$lu!ari; 3. vine prop. 4. a primitive
‘whore, harlot’. Also related: tearf% broom made up of small tree
and terfeli. • The verb a tîrî is com- branches (in some dialects). C.
monly held for a borrowing from Dominte, Symposia Thracologica 7/
Slavic trAti, even if this puts major 1989: 455 suggests a relation with
problems of phonetic evolution; ad- Gr. "\)3:;, furthermore he also
ditionally, the obvious family of de- suggests a borrowing from Thracian
rivatives from the same root is in Greek. It rather belongs to the
rarely invoked, but this is the only family quoted under tîrî.
key to understanding the origin of
tîr&í See tîrî.
these forms. As modern distribution
shows, the basic meaning must have toaíp# A tool similar to an axe or
hatchet (dialectal, absent in literary
been associated to ‘dragging game
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191
Pars prima
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Romanian). Seems derived from the companied by flute’ (Hesychius)
same Preie. root *T!P! ‘stone, cliff’; and Gr. toros ‘strident, a sharp
if so, the term initially applied to sound’. • There does not seem to be
stone axes of Neolithic times. The any connection with trestie, and the
same root must be in topor, the simple onomatopoeic origin does
usual term for ‘axe, hatchet’, cur- not seem plausible either. Dial. form
rently held for a Slavic borrowing; also truli&c%.
this hypothesis at least requires fur- trîntí ‘to put down (someone)’. The
ther analysis. If we admit the close basic meaning seems ‘to put down to
etymological relationship of toaip% earth’, so probably related with the
and topor, then the hypothesis of the root ter(r)! as in Lat. terra. Probably
Slavic origin of topor must be related with trîntor.
abandoned. It is rather probable a trî'ntor 1. ‘drone’; 2. (fig.) ‘lazy’.
reverse sense of borrowing, from The same root as in Lith. tranas,
Romanian to Slavic, or a Thracian with the same basic meaning (1).
element in PES. Archaic term referring to bee-
topór ‘axe, hatchet’. Currently held keeping. Possibly related to verb a
for a Slavic borrowing; see toaip%. trîntí, from an initial meaning
Trani& NL (CJ), a village on the ‘down, put down’ - ‘be lazy’.
river Tarni#a, which would indicate trop Interjection, see trop%i and
an original form *tar!, by metathe- cotropi.
sis tra!; in this case, the place! and trop#í (about horses) ‘to make the
river!name have a common origin, specific noise when running fast’.
with a Slavic suffix in the case of The root trop! referring to the noise
Tarni#a. Further, the basic root must made by horses at high speed, with
be Preie. *T!R! as in t%rîm, T%rtia, specific reference to an invading
T%rt%ria etc. army, must be the same as in
Trasc%u NM From the Preie. root co!tropi (see cotropi), both archaic
*T!R! ‘stone, cliff’ as in T%rtia, terms referring to an invading army.
T%rt%ria, also Trani&, with metathesis. Trotu& NFl From Preie. root *T!R!
tri&c#, tri&te s.f. ‘a primitive flute’. as in Trani&, Trasc%u, also T%rtia,
Cf. Thr. glosse torelle ‘sad song ac-
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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T%rt%ria etc. Alternatively IE *ter! and later in 1197 as Thorda. The
‘to dig’, may be also invoked. forms reflect a large category of
truli&c# See tri&c%. place!names spread over a large area;
tuf# ‘bush’. Der. tufi& ‘a group of they reflect Preie. *T!R!. Same root in
bushes, bushes taken generically’. Tura, Turda!, Turia, Turu!lung, Tur'.
Unknown origin, probably akin to In Kiss (1980: 661) Tur is considered
Old French tof(f)e ‘tuft’ > Eng. tuft. of Slavic origin (from tur1), whereas
Further analysis difficult. Phoneme f another river!name of Tobol, also Tur,
may stand for an original velar spi- is considered of unknown origin. Cf.
rant (laryngeal) *X, but even so no Turiec in Slovakia (Lexicon D), for
further parallel available. Substra- which see Romanian form Tur'. The
tum origin highly probable. association with Sl. tur1 is a folk!e-
tuflí (rare, expressive) ‘to put a cap tymology in Slavic speaking areas;
on one’s head with an abrupt move’. the river! and place!names with the
Pejorative meaning; probably de- root tur! are Pan!European and should
rived from tuf%, so the initial mean- be explained as closely related.
ing must have been ‘to put a bush Turda! NL Cluj. Same root as in
(ironical for a cap) on one’s head’.
Tur, Turda.
Tulca NL Bihor. Same root as Tul- Turia NFl, NL (CV, OT). Closely
cea. related with Tur and Turda. See also
Tulcea NL Dobrudja. Cf. Thr. Tu- NFl Iberian Turia, today Gua-
leus, Tylis today Tulovo in Bulgaria dalquivir; Thr. Tyras, today Nistru
and Rom. NL Tulca, also tuleu ‘a (see this form too) etc.
tree!trunk’ and tulei ‘undeveloped Tur" NL (SM). Related with Tur,
part of a bird’s wing; a young man’s Turda, Turia etc., rather than a bor-
beard’. Preie. *T!L! as in Talma. rowing from Sl. tur1 as many lin-
tuléu ‘undeveloped part of a bird’s guists believe. Such a borrowing
wing; a young man’s beard; maize would be anyway difficult to ex-
stem’. Same etymon as Tulcea. plain, given the phonetic evolution.
Tur NFl and NL Turda on the river Cf. NFl Turiec (Lexicon D).
Tur. The town is attested in the first
centuries A.D. as Tyródiza, n3oa3p,
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193
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Turulung NL (SM) Literally ‘long reasonable example, but it correctly
Turu’; see Tur. notes the substratum origin of this
Tuta NL (BC) There are several form.
locations derived from the same *agu NL At. 1327 – Cheeg; 1329 –
root tut!, which seems akin to #u#! Ceeg. Closely related to $aga.
and to #i#ei (root #i#!): Tutana (AG), "ap ‘he!goat’. Alb. sqap; also tsap
Tu#u (VN; also NP Tu#ulescu > NL (Gjeg), which is borrowed from
Tu#ule&ti); a second series is repre- Romanian. The original meaning
sented by root tit!: Titu (DB), Titi- must have been related to the
ana (MS), Titila (VN), and NP thorn!like beard of a he!goat, there-
Titescu > NL Tite&ti. Finally, NL fore the root must be the same as in
Ta#u (CS). The forms seem of Preie. #eap%, în#epa (în!#epa), #epu&(%), NL
origin, from root *T!T! which had $ebea, $ible& etc.
two basic meanings: (1) ‘promi- "apín See #apin%.
nence, peak’; (2) ‘bright, to shine’.
"apín# ‘a raftsman’s pick’. Closely
It is difficult to assign these forms to
related with #eap% and its rich fam-
either of them, as this should be
ily of related forms. • Also #apín.
analysed according to the location
of each. Anyway, they seem archaic. *apu NM, Parîng Mts. See #ap.
"arc ‘an enclosure for animals, a
pen’. Der. a în#%rca ‘to stop off-
*aga NL At. 1211 – Cége; 1243 –
spring sucking’ (especially referring
Chegeteleke. Together with $agu, a
to sheep and cow offspring), i.e. ‘to
Preie. root *T!G! as in #ugui, #uguiat put young animals in a pen, and
‘elevation, peak; hill’. See also Ta- thus isolate them from their
gla, Tega, $agu, $eghea, $eghe&, mother’. Alb. thark ‘id.’ Russu sug-
$igmandru ($ig!mandru). • O. gests IE *twer! ‘to enclose, to encir-
Vin&eler, Studia Univ. Babe&!Bolyai, cle’, as in Lith. tveriù, tverti ‘to en-
Philologica 31, 1 (1986): 38–42 as- close’, Sl. za!tvoriti ‘to lock, to
sumes a “Scytho!Agatyrsian origin, close’. The root may ultimately be
borrowed in Thracian, then in Ro- of Preie. origin, root *T!R!, *T!L!
manian”. Such a tortuous explana-
in various place!names, also in vo-
tion is not supported by any other
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194
Lexicon Etymologicum
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cabulary. Cf. NP $erbea (family "#rú& ‘a stake; any piece of pointed
name), built as $ebea (see below). wood fixed in the ground’. Probably
See also #%rîn% and #%ru&. from the same Preie. root as #arc.
*arcu NM (Semenic) The same The original meaning was related to
root as #arc. ‘ground, earth’, i.e. ‘a pointed piece
of wood fixed in the ground’.
"#c#líe ‘a small and pointed beard,
goafee’. Expressive and regional "eap# ‘a thorn; a pale’. Der. a
term, probably starting from the ba- în#epa ‘to sting’; a #epui ‘to impale’
sic meaning ‘pointed, thorn(!like)’. (archaic), now especially with figu-
If so, the creation is newer, but is rative meaning ‘to cheat (upon)’.
based upon the archaic Preie. root Archaic, probably of Preie. origin,
*T!K!, *T!G!, mainly specific to root *T!B!, *T!P! ‘a peak, a promi-
nence; a thorn, a thorny object’. See
place!names, e.g. $aga, $ega, #ic,
the probably related forms quoted
$icu etc.
under #ap.
"#rîn# ‘tilled field; dust’. Russu
+ebea NL near Brad (HD). At. 1427
notes the similarity #%rîn% – #ar% (<
– Chyba. Related to ancient forms
Lat. terra), then refers to improb-
like Tabia, Tavia (today Taggia, in
able IE roots. We hypothesise it to
Liguria), Tabai, Gr. Theba etc.
be of Preie. origin, root *T!R!,
Preie. *T!B!, *T!P!. See also $i-
*T!L! ‘earth, dust’, as in Lat. terra
bana, qible!, NP $ibuleac; also
and tellus, both of indigenous,
T%pia. All related also to 'eap% ‘a
Preie. origin (probably via Etruscan
thorn’ and Alb. thep ‘a peak’, and to
or other non!IE idiom). Cf. #arc and 'ipar ‘the fish Misgurnus fossilis;
#%ru&. Nevertheless, a local deriva- eel’ (after the thorny form of this
tion from *terrena (< Lat. terra) is fish).
also possible, even if unsupported
*eghea NL (SM) From the same
by other Romance languages. If so,
root as $aga, $agu.
it may be included in the limited
category of Romance elements pre- *eghe& NL (IF) From the same
served in Romanian only, and ab- root as $eghea, further $aga, $agu.
sent in West Romance languages. *epa NL (VN) From the same root
as #eap%.

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195
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*erbea NP (family name). Seems ‘small, little’. See the forms in #ic!
archaic, cf. #arc, also NL $ebea, and #ag!, #eg(h)!, #ig!.
$ible&. "igáie A specific breed of indige-
*ibana NL Same etymon as $e- nous sheep with short and curly
bea, $ible& etc. fleece. Must be derived from the
+ible! NM in East Carpathians. Re- same root as $ig%u, $aga, $egu,
lated to qebea. • Incorrect etymo- $eghea, ultimately of Preie. origin.
logical analysis in Dr$ganu 1928: The parallel forms with root #ic! are
27 and Iordan 1963: 460. also attested.
*ibuleac NP From the same root *ig%u NL (BN). From a root #ig!,
as $ebea, $ibana, $ible&. which must be the same in lîn% #i-
"ic ‘small child, a baby’. Nasalysed gaie ‘&iga fleece’, i.e. ‘wool pro-
#înc. See ni#el (* ni!#el). duced of sheep!fleece originating in
*ica NP See #ic and ni#el. the $iga area’. The root is probably
"ícl# ‘a small, primitive device for Preie. *T!G!, *T!K!, the same root
catching crayfish or crabs’. Related as in $aga, $agu. See also Tagla,
with #ic, $ica, $icu, #iclean, #iclete. Tega, $eghea, $eghe&, $igmandru
"icleán The bird Sitta Europaea; ($ig!mandru).
nuthatch. Related with #ic, $ica, "igî'i A species of black beetles
$icu, #icl% with the basic meaning with yellow dots living in conifer-
‘small’, hence ‘small bird’. Var. #i- ous forests; Hylobius abietis. Re-
cléte. lated with the forms derived from
"icléte See #iclean. Preie. root *T!G!, *T!K! ‘small, lit-
tle’ as in #igaie, $ig%u, $aga, $agu
*icu NP See $ica, #ic and ni#el.
or #ic!, with alternating k/g.
"icúi! A technical, rare term specific
to fishing: to move abruptly the fish- "ipá1 ‘to shout, to yell’. There
ing rod as when fish catches bait. seems to be no etymological con-
nection with #ipa2 (dialectal only, in
The original meaning may be recon-
structed as ‘small, abrupt move’, Transylvania, where the pronuncia-
tion is #îpá). Both forms are ob-
and thus belongs to the family de-
scure, isolated and, most probably,
rived from Preie. *T!K!, *T!G!
of archaic origin, possibly of Preie.
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196
Lexicon Etymologicum
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origin. The meaning ‘shout, yell’ probably in Gebeleizis, while the
may be derived from ‘thorn, second part is the same T!T!; this
thorn!like’, i.e. ‘thorny, acute must be an etymological tautology.
sound’, for which see #eap% and #ap Cf. #u#, $u#ora, #u#ui.
as the main representatives of this "îmburú& ‘a prominence on/of an
archaic root. object’; also #umburu&. Seems a na-
"ipá2 ‘to cast, to throw’; dialectal salised variant of Preie. root *T!B!,
(Transylvania), where the pronun- nasalised te!m!b, later with alternat-
ciation is #îpá; it largely replaces the ing t/#, as often in the Preie. ele-
other parallel form arunca, of in- ments. See cross!references under
digenous origin as well. $ebea.
"ipár The fish Misgurnus fossilis; "înc Nasalysed form of #ic, $ica,
‘eel’. Definitely a substratum ele- $icu.
ment, of Preie. origin, from the
"î&ní ‘to gush, to spout’. The root
same root as #eap% and $ebea (see
#î&! is held in DEX for simply ono-
further cross!references to other
matopoeic, which may be possible,
forms under these forms). The name
as in many cases, with primitive IE
is taken after its thorn!like form.
and Preie. roots. Nevertheless the
"i&tár An animal similar to the existence of this root in #i&tar ex-
ground squirrel (Citellus suslica). cludes a simply onomatopoeic ori-
Related with #î&ni. gin in Romanian.
"i"éi ‘raw, crude oil’. Obscure, un- "oi1 A variant of #iclean, #iclete.
explained. We assume it derives Apparently there seems no connec-
from the Preie. root *T!T! ‘bright’ tion between #oi 1 and #oi 2; never-
and ‘prominent’. Crude oil was still theless, the root #o!, #u! seems to be
exploited at the surface of earth un- a variant of #ic!, #ig! ‘small, little’,
til beginning of the 20th century. which is satisfactory for both the
The archaic meaning was probably sphere ‘(small) bird’ and ‘small re-
related to its shining surface. See cipient’.
Thr. ziby!thides ‘Thracian nobles’ = "oi 2 A small recipient with a long
‘the bright ones’, in which the first neck, usually used for alcoholic
part must reflect IE g&eib# ‘bright’ as
drinks. Hence #úic%, the national
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drink obtained by distillation of "úrc# 2 A specific fur!cap made of
various brewed fruit; local innova- #urcan% wool.
tion after 17th century. See #oi 1. "urcán A specific breed of sheep;
"ugúi ‘a peak (of a mountain)’; hence #urc%2.
hence ‘any prominence or eleva- "urlói 1. ‘shin bone’; 2. A variant
tion’, and the derived verb a #uguiá of #ur#ur(e). From the same root as
‘to make or get elevated or promi- #ur#ur(e), which is reduplicated.
nent’ (often ironically, like an ele-
"úr"ur(e) ‘icycle’. A reduplication
vated hat or cap). The origin must
of #ur!, Preie. root *T!R!, see main
be Preie. *T!G! ‘elevation, peak;
references under Tur, Turda, Turda&,
hill, mountain’; see $ega, $aga,
and $erbea. For the build, see
$agu in place!names. Parallel forms
T%rt%ria, also a reduplication from
are #u#ui, #u#uiat, from Preie. *T!T! the same root.
with a similar meaning: ‘peak, ele-
"u" ‘a prominence, an excrescence’.
vation’. See #u# and other forms de-
The basic root for several forms in
rived from this root.
#u#! with the same generic meaning:
"úic# See #oi2, from which it is ob- #u#ui, a (se) #u#uia, NL $u#ora.
viously derived some time in the Preie. root *T!T! (1) ‘a prominence,
late Middle Ages, when distillation an excrescence; a hill, mountain’;
was gradually spread. (2) ‘bright, shining’. See $u#ora. •
"umburu& See #îmburu&. In expression a r%mîne #u# ‘to be
"úrc# 1 A small rod used for play- astonished, surprised’ (lit. ‘to be
ing; hence the game of #urc% with up’). See also the forms derived
this rod. The root #ur! seems to be from #ug!.
the same in this form as well as in "u"#neasc# ‘a dance specific to
#urc% 2 and #urcan. The ultimate ori- mountainous areas’. This is an ad-
gin is Preie. *T!R!, quite frequent in jective of feminine gender turned
place!names, especially mountain into a noun, obviously derived from
names. See $erbea, #ur#ur(e) and root #u#, #u#uian.
Tur, Turda, Turda&. +ú$ora NL Ia%i. Related to 'u', pl.
'ú'uri ‘a prominence on the skin’
also in expressions ‘astonished’ and
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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to 'u'úi ‘a peak’, hence a se 'u'uia video > Rom. a vedea. The conso-
‘to climb’. Preie. *T!T! ‘high’ also nance with a uita 2 ‘to forget’ (<
‘bright, shining’. The same root is Latin) is the result of hazard, which
preserved in a series of place!names has created confusion in the etymo-
and words among which Gr. T/O'$:; logical analysis. From the same root
‘lime (< white)’, NL T/O'$:; in is Gr. :^]', Germ. wissen etc.
Thessaly. The same root is seem- Ulea NP (historical) Related with
ingly preserved in Thr. ziby!thides Ulie&, uliu, ului, ultimately of Preie.
‘Thracian nobles’ (Gr. spelling origin.
,+X7"Y]%; in Hesychius); the first
Ulie& NL (MS) Akin to Ulea, uliu,
part of the compound reflects IE
ului, Preie. root *UL! related with
*g0heib1 ‘bright’. Zibythides is there-
*UR!.
fore an etymological tautology. Cf.
Cuculka in Lexicon A. úliu The bird Accipiter; ‘spar-
"u"úi! Same as #u#. Derived verb a row!hawk, goshawk’. Currently
se #u#uia ‘to become prominent’. held for a borrowing from Hung.
Similar in meaning and origin with ölyv, in its turn difficult to analyse;
#ugui. some Hungarian linguists assume a
borrowing from Old Turkish, which
"u"uian ‘a Transylvanian shep-
is – we may be sure – impossible.
herd’. Derived from #u#, #u#ui, liter-
Related with the numerous forms
ally meaning ‘shepherd living in
with root ul! analysed here, ulti-
mountainous areas’.
mately from Preie. *OL!, *UL!
*u"uiatu NM (TL; the highest
‘high, prominent’ (akin to *OR!,
peak in M$cin Mts) Derived from
#u#, #u#ui. *UR! with a similar meaning). Form
uliu may be generic for all the forms
with radical ul!, and should be in-
uitá 1 (a se uita) ‘to look at, to con- cluded in the large category of sub-
template’. Obviously indigenous, stratum words referring to specific
from IE *w(e)dei!, *weid! ‘to see’, birds and animals of the area; cf.
hence the whole series of IE verb erete and &oim, among others. •
with similar meanings, e.g. Lat. Hung. ölyv is borrowed from Ro-

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manian, and adapted to the Hun- ol!/ul! with similar or identical
garian specific phonetics. See Ulea, meaning.
Ulie&, ului. !ur Also !or. Suffix in an important
uluí ‘to astonish; to get astonished, number of substratum elements, e.g.
shocked’. Akin to uliu, and confirm- ab!ur, brust!ur!, but!ur!%/but!ur!ug!%,
ing the archaic meaning of Preie. flut!ur!(e), m%t!ur!%, mug!ur!,
root *OL!, *UL! ‘high, prominent’. spînz!ur!a; cob!or!î, coc!or etc. The
The passive form, most used, uluit
origin may be Preie. too, like ur!/or!,
literally means ‘be up’, i.e.
frequent in Preie. place!names all
‘shocked, astonished’.
over SE Europe.
undre!á Also andrea, îndrea ‘knit-
urcá vb. (tr., intr., refl.) ‘to climb,
ting needle’. Usually held for un-
to go up’. Der.: urcare, urcu&,
known origin. The relation with
urc%tor. Ant.: coborî. Ultimately
Andrei, equivalent of Andrew,
therefore a relation with St. Andrew form Preie. *OR!, *UR! ‘big, huge,
seems mere hazard. Seems related giant; high up’, hence ‘to go up, to
to Gothic winden, OHG wintan, climb’; related with Gr. ouranizo ‘to
go up, to climb’, derived from Ou-
Eng. (to) wind < IE *wendh! ‘to
wind, to spin’; for Thracian, then ranos ‘sky’. See furhter cross!refer-
Romanian, form we should proba- ences under or! and ur!.
bly start from an original form Urca NL (CJ). At.: 1289 – terra
*wEdh1 > Thr. *undh! > Rom. und!r! Heurke; 1312 – Eurke. Ultimately
and înd!r!. from Preie. radical *OR!, *UR!; see
ur! Root present, together with under or!, ur!.
parallel or! and ol!/ul! in numerous urciór ‘a prominence on the skin’.
forms; the ultimate origin is Preie. The basic meaning is ‘elevation (on
*UR!, also *OR! and *OL!, *UL! the skin)’, and belongs to the rich
‘big, huge, giant’, preserved in: ura& family of Preie. root *OR!, *UR!.
(variant of ora&), urca, Urca, urcior, See cross!references under ur! and
Urcu, urd%, Urde&, Uria, uria&, or!. • The dialectal form ulcior is
Uric, Uriu, Urleta, Uroi. Cf. or! and influenced by ulcior ‘a recipient, a
pot’.
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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Urcu NL, Cara%. No early mediae- the basic meaning ‘to go up, to
val attestation; possibly derived climb’, hence the modern meaning.
from a urca ‘to climb’ which has, urdoare ‘bleary eyes (Germ
on the other hand, the same Preie. Augenbutter, lit. ‘eye!butter)’, i.e.
origin. The basic meaning is also the greasy liquid in the eyes, when
‘high’ hence ‘to go (to the) high, i.e. ill or affected by a disease. Must be
to climb’. from the same root as urd%.
urd#, !e s.f. A special type of Uria, NL, Olt. No early mediaeval
cheese, obtained by coagulated milk attestations.
at the surface of a recipient. One of uriá&, now rarely also oria& adj.
the numerous forms derived from ‘huge, very big’; s.m. ‘a giant’ (a
ur! of Preie. origin. The archaic specific term of tales). Reflects
meaning may be reconstructed as Preie. *OR!, *UR! ‘big, huge’ (see
‘part which climbs/go up to the sur-
under ur! and or!). Related with
face of liquid’. Similarly in Alb.
Hatti (Pre!Hittite) ure" ‘huge, gi-
urlë ‘boiled milk, then turned to
cheese’. Essential term of traditional ant’, Hittite ura ‘id.’, NP Ú!ra,
vocabulary. Ú!ra!a, uranu ‘to make big, to in-
crease’, Gr. rrí8n ‘Orion’, a con-
Urde! NL, Cluj. At folk level re-
stellation whose meaning is ‘the Gi-
lated to urd%, a kind of cheese
ant’. • Hung. óriás ‘huge, giant’ is
which gathers together at the sur-
borrowed from Romanian.
face of the milk. Archaic pastoral
term of the same Preie. origin. Uric NL, Hunedoara. At. in 1473 as
urdiná ‘to run to and fro, to go in Wryk. Derived from root ur! (see).
all directions’. Most linguists have Uriu NL (HD). At.: 1405 – villa
connected it to Lat. ordinare, Russu Felewr; 1495 – Fel Ewr. Derived
rejects it. Indeed, if of Latin origin, from root ur! (see).
one may expect a form like *urzina, Úrlea, Urléta NL, near Ploie%ti; cf.
*orzina, not urdiná. If an indige- early form Urlman for Orman. The
nous origin is accepted, as we also approach to a urla ‘to shout, to yell’
believe, then the form should be seems fortuitous.
connected to a urca and urd%, with

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urlói ‘stove pipe, flue; rain pipe’. according to REW 502 – has only
The original meaning must have Spanish autillo as probable heir in
been related to Neolithic stove the Romance languages. • The al-
pipes, hence ‘elevated pipe, high ternating forms utu!/hutu! would
pipe’. If so, as we believe, then an- rather lead to a substratum element,
other derivative of the freqent Preie. with h the reflex of the original ve-
root *OR!, *UR! ‘high, elevated’. lar spirant (laryngeal) *X. If accept-
Uroi NL (HD). At.: 1333 – Aran. ing the indigenous origin, a Preie.
Derived from root ur! (see). Cf. origin is possible, from a recon-
Uria, Uric, Uriu etc. • The Mediae- structable root *UT!, *UD!.
val attestation seems deformed by
Hungarian spelling, or shows a par- vai Archaic exclamation expressing
allel form related with Arad, Ar- surprise, as Lat. vae, Gothic wai etc.
anca. < IE *wai!. Romanian form may
u&(i) interj. Used to put away hens reflect both the substratum and the
and other domestic birds. Unex- Latin heritage. The substratum ori-
plained. Seems an archaic word for gin is supported by verb a (se)
poultry, especially hens. See also v%ita.
bîr, cu#u, &o, with similar evolution varz# ‘cabbage’ (the plant Bras-
of meaning and use. sica, with many species). Incor-
!u&(#) Suffix in some substratum rectly considered, with hesitations, a
forms, similar in function with Alb. derivation from Lat. *vir(i)dia
!sh, e.g. scoru&, #%ru& etc. Seems ‘green stuff’. The root var!/v%r! is
similar to !a&/!e& mostly in place! the same as in V%r&and and Vrancea
and river!names. < IE *wer! ‘to bend, to curve’; in
Utura NM, NL (BR); also Huture. varz% a normal build with suffix !z%,
At. stsuT ‘owl, eagle owl’ (Hasdeu, as in bu!z%, Bu!z_!u, púp%!z% etc. •
Cuv. b%t. 1, 303, who refers to Bulg. The hypothesis of a Latin origin
utva, S.!Cr. utva, Alb. ut, hut, which should be abandoned.
we could not identify as quoted by Vaslúi! NFl, NL Seemingly related
Hasdeu). Others refer to Lat. otus with German Wasser, Eng. water
(in Pliny only) ‘eagle owl’, which – etc. It is not clear whether a Tran-
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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sylvanian German (Saxon) influence constructable form was *Xatr!0 >
is possible in that location, so this vatr% and Lat. :trium, with : for the
explanation is highly improbable. If initial sequence *Xa!. • Eric P.
indigenous, the same etymon as in Hamp labelled the modern territory
Germanic should be accepted, even of the ancient Thracians as the areal
if unparalleled by other examples. vatr%!urd%!strung% (see all these
Suffix !ui, as in other indigenous three forms). • Der. v%trai.
forms, would also lead to the hy-
Va"a NL (AG, HD) Probably re-
pothesis of a Thracian origin.
lated with Vin#u (which, in its turn,
Should we also consider a possible
also related with Serbian NL Vin;a,
Gothic influence?
Bulgarian NL V%;a), of Preie. ori-
vatál#, also v#tal# ‘weaver’s reed’. gin. Possibly an original relation
An essential part of the loom. Very with NL Vaticanus, of Etruscan ori-
probably derived from the same root gin. • NL Vatta in Hungary, district
as v%taf ‘a leader’; form vatal%, Abaúj, is probably of Pre!Hungarian
v%tal% was interpreted as an essen- origin.
tial, leading part of the loom. Bulg.
v#g#ún# ‘gully, ravine’. Pl. is –uni,
vatala is borrowed from Romanian.
rarely –une. Built with suffix !un!(%,
vatr# ‘hearth’. Archaic, connected
e) and a root v%g!, which – if we
to the sacred place of fire in any
start from the quite frequent exis-
house. Alb. vatrë. Beyond any
tence of forms once containing the
doubt indigenous, with many hy-
velar spirant *X, may also admit
potheses regarding its origin. Must
that modern initial v may reflect the
be related to Lat. :trium, with the
original *X, as in vatr% or vui (also
remnant of an original velar spirant
hui). If so, as we are inclined to be-
(laryngeal) *X in Thracian and early
lieve, then the first part of
Romanian, as proved by other ex-
amples as well, see the discussions v%g!%!un!% is related with h%u
under v%taf/v%tah, ciuf, ciufuli, ‘abyss’ (see). We may thus recon-
ceaf%, hotar etc. The archaic velar struct an archaic root *Xa! ‘abyss;
spirant (laryngeal) resulted in Ro- gully, ravine’, common to both
manian f, v, h and zero; and in f, h, v%g%un% and h%u.
th, v and zero in Albanian. The re-
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203
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v#itá, especially reflexive a se v%ita The word is archaic, and presuma-
‘to complain, to express pain’. De- bly continues the ancient Thracian
rived from vai, but with similar forms spelled vw.w2k-34,
builds as in Finnish valittaa ‘to cry, xow.w2k-34, an epithet of Heros;
to express pain or sorrow’. also NP vw-)-ky4, Vitupaus, Vitto-
v#páie ‘fire; hot weather’; also pus etc. The forms must be related
vípie ‘hot weather’. Alb. vapë with Lat. vat7s, Germanic Woden
‘heath; fig. passion’. Obviously ar- etc. and in Thracian must have got
chaic < IE *weip! ‘to oscillate, to the meaning ‘leader, spiritual leader
glitter’, as in Eng. whip. The basic at the king’s court’. • The alternat-
meaning was derived on the note ing final f/v/h/j/& reflect the rem-
that ‘fire moves, oscillates, whips’, nants of an archaic velar spirant (la-
hence the sense of ‘too hot, unbear- ryngeal) *X; notably the alternating
able = whipping weather’. f/h and f/& (as in v%taf v. NP
V%t%&escu) is relevant.
V#r!ánd NL Bihor. At. 1214 – Voz-
ian, 1217 – Vosyan, 1467 – Varsan. v#t#má ‘to wound, to affect’ (also
Seemingly related to Vrancea with the juridical term in modern termi-
nology). Russu considers it of in-
the indigenous Thr. suffix !and as in
digenous origin, even though it
Zarand, C%rand etc. IE root *wer!
clearly is derived from Lat. victi-
‘to bend, to curve’.
mare, it is true with an unexpected
v#táf ‘(historical, obsolete) super- evolution as in Italian, not to
visor of servants at a king’s court or *v%pt%ma, as expected. Clearly a
in a monastery, i.e. a kind of head of form developed in colloquial Latin,
all servants; (late Middle Ages) a not an indigenous word.
leader of the court servants or group
v#t#&í ‘to lead, to supervise (a
of military; an important character
group of persons)’ See v%taf.
of the dance of C%lu&ari’. Local,
dialectal variants: v%tah, v%tav, v#trái! ‘a poker’ (for fire). Derived
v%ta&, v%taj; NP V%tafu, V%t%&escu; from vatr% as m%lai from mal;
borrowed in some neighbouring v%trai lit. means ‘an object, a rod
languages as Ukr. vataha, Pol. for cleaning the hearth’. See vatr%.
wataha, Bulg. vatah, S.!Cr. vatak.

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Lexicon Etymologicum
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v#tui ‘one!year old lamb’. Alb. root in Romanian as inheritied from
vetul, ftu]ë, ftujë; the oldest forms Thracian. Der. NL Vidraru. Akin to
must be with initial f/ft, which Lith. údras, m., údra, f.; Latvian
would again indicate an original ve- udris, Germ. Otter, Eng. otter, Gr.
lar spirant (laryngeal) *X, form _>]):;, 1' etc. Sl.(vydra seems rather
vetul would rather witness a Roma- borrowed from Romanian, despite
nian influence. The initial v!/v%! the current views, which suggest an
and Alb. f!/ft! indicate an original opposed sense of borrowing. As
velar spirant (or laryngeal), as ini- long as Romanian clearly proves
several closely forms, the hypothe-
tially in vatr% (< *Xatr!0), therefore
sis of a Romanian influence on
*Xat!u! < IE(*wet!, *wet!es ‘year’,
Slavic is inevitable. Also Sl. vydra
in laryngeal theory *Xwet!. has another radical vocalism against
Védea NFl on which Ro!io- voda ‘water’, another argument
ri!de!Vede is located and other lo- against the indigenous character of
calities with this name (districts of vydra in Slavic.
Arge%, Ilfov and Teleorman). Cf. Vidu NFl a tributary of the Cri%u
Thr.!Phr. bedy ‘water’. Related to Negru. Related to Vedea, Videle and
Vidu, Videle and Vit, Vidin (Lexicon Vit, Vidin (Lexicon A).
A). Numerous forms derived from vi!ézure ‘badger (Meles vulgaris)’.
this root all over Europe, as NFl Alb. vjedhull(ë) ‘id.’. In Albanian,
Iberian Avo(s) > Sp. Ave, Avobriga; the form has been associated with
Gallic Avedo > Provençal Avèze etc. vjeth ‘I steal’ < IE *weg0h1 ‘to pull, to
Vídele NL Akin to Vedea, Vidraru, move’, as in Avestan vazaiti ‘he/she
Vidu. pulls, draws’ etc. In Romanian, the
Vidraru NFl Akin to Vedea, Vi- association, absent in most lexicons,
dele, Vidu. is with vizuin% ‘a dwelling for ani-
mals’. In any case, both the Roma-
vidr# The Lutra vulgaris; ‘otter’.
Currently held for a Slavic borrow- nian and Albanian forms cannot be
new, modern derivations from a
ing, even though the obviously par-
allel forms Vedea, Vidu, Videle supposed root ‘to hide, to dwell’
and/or ‘to steal’ respectively. We
clearly show the persistence of this
agree with Russu that the original
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205
Pars prima
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meaning must have been ‘to pull, to Jos – 1248: teutonici in Wynch;
move, to carry’, which may satisfy 1289 – Wynch inferior. Vin'u de Sus
the semantic sphere of all forms in – 1219: terra Wynchy, villa Wyn-
both Romanian and Albanian. The chy; 1221 – locus qui vocatur Oro-
forms are clearly archaic, referring nos Winch; 1227 – Oranas Winc.
to a specific mammal of this area. Related to Vin'a and Vinga. For the
Cf. erete, mistre#, ra#%, &o, #ap etc. Mediaeval Latin forms Oranas,
vijelíe ‘gale, storm’. The root vij! Oronos, see ora& and the references
in this form must be the same as in under or!, ur!.
vîjîi and viscol. vípie ‘hot weather’ Related with
Vinga NL Arad. At. 1231 – posses- v%paie.
sio Vinga; 1333 – sacerdos de Virghi& NFl, NL (CV) At. 1334 –
Vinga. Must be related to some sacerdos de villa Warlach; 1499 –
Preie. place!names derived from Wargyas. Seems the same IE root
*V!N!, *W!N! as in NM Iber. Vin- *wer! ‘to turn, to bend’ as in
dius, NM Prov. Ventoux < Vinturi, Vrancea, with initial e/i root vowel.
NL Prov. Vénasque < Vindasca etc. A derivation from varg% < Lat.
Cf. Vin'a (and V%;a, Vin;a in Lex. virga ‘a rod, a twig’ is improbable.
A), Vin'u. • The etymology sug- viroág# ‘ravine’. Specifically, the
gested by Kiss (1980: 696) < Sl. term refers to a river valley, which
vinjaga ‘wild vine’ < vino ‘wine’ is may be empty during summer, and
impossible. See .milauer 1970: 190 thus turns into a ravine or a deep,
for the place!names derived from abrupt river bank. The root vir! in
vino in Slavic. this form must be related to Lat.
Vin$a NL Alba. Must be related to verto, !ere and its IE family. Proba-
NFl V%;a in Bulgaria and NL Vin;a bly indigenous Thracian, not a local
in Serbia (see Lexicon A) and fur- innovation based on a Latin root.
ther to Vinga and Vin'u. Preie. víscol ‘a powerful wind with snow,
*V!N!, *W!N!. a storm accompanied by snow’. Der.
Vin$u NL; two localities with this a viscoli, especially in the construc-
name: Vin'u de Jos (Alba) and tion a viscoli z%pada ‘to blow
Vin'u de Sus (Cluj). At.: Vin'u de (wind) and scatter snow’. Indige-

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Lexicon Etymologicum
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nous, most probably IE root vórb# ‘word; talk’; hence a vorbí
*we!s!k! ‘to blow’. Cf. criv%#. ‘to speak’, vorbitor ‘speaker’. For
Vi&%u See Vi&eu. long erroneously considered a
Slavic borrowing from dvormba <
Vi!éu Dialectal pronunciation is
dvor1 ‘court’ (like a king’s court),
Vi&%u. NFl Maramure% and three
‘courtyard’. Slavic dvor1 is related
other villages. At. 1365 – Viso, Ket-
viso, Ketwysson, Ketwyson etc. Also with Lat. forum. It is obvious, that
NL Vi!ea, Vi!a. Must reflect IE vorb/ is related with Lat. verbum
*weis! ‘to flow, to melt’; related to (not derived from it though) and
Ve"ala (Lexicon A) and Wisza in reflects the indigenous, Thracian
Poland. Some Thracian forms with heritage, which parallels the Latin
second element !vissos, with ss for a stratum.
real *", also supports the indigenous Vrancea NR A region where the
character of the form. East Carpathians turn abruptly to
vizuín# ‘lair, den’. Related with the the west. IE *wer! ‘to bend, to
same root in viezure. curve’ as in Lat. verto,!ere and ver-
vîj, !i See ghiuj. mis. Etymologically related with
varz% and probably with vreasc,
vîjîí ‘to whistle, to whizz, to roar’.
from the same IE root.
This form together with vijelie and
viscol should be analysed together. vreasc ‘brushwood’. Commonly
See under viscol. held for a Slavic borrowing, even if
there is no similar form which
vîlvói (about hair) ‘dishevelled, dis-
would support this assumption.
ordered hair’. The root vîl! ‘to turn
Probably related with Vrancea and
around, to put in disorder’ may be
varz% from IE *wer! ‘to bend, to
related to IE *wei4`1! ‘to turn, to
curve’, hence ‘twig, branch’ >
twist’ (AHD wei! and Pokorny 1120) ‘brushwood’.
or IE *wel!J 2 ‘to turn, to roll’ (AHD vui ‘to hum, to din; to roar’; also a
and Pokorny 1120). A Slavic origin, hui, with alternating f/v, the indica-
as loosely suggested in DEX, in not tion of a probable velar spirant (la-
feasible. ryngeal) *X in Thracian.
vîrlúg# See zvîrlug%.
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207
Pars prima
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Vuia NP From the same root as a zar# ‘butter milk’. Alb. dhallë
vui. ‘sour milk’. The same etymon like
z%r, zer.
z! Prefix in some substratum forms; z#r See zer.
positionally alternates with s!, and zban" ‘a link’, usually an iron con-
both interfere with s!/z! < Lat. ex, nection for carts or similar. Seems
sometimes also with Slavic s! (< built with prefix s!/z! and the same
root as in Eng. Jbind.
s1).
zábr# The plant Galeopsis pubes- zbîn" ‘agitation, to-and-fro’ (ex-
cens, with purple flowers. Indige- pressive and ironical, usually refer-
nous, probably derived from the ring to children). See zbîn#uí.
same root as German gelb ‘yellow’, zbîn"uí (usually reflexive a se
Lat. fulvus < IE *ghel!, *g0hel! zbîn#uí). ‘to move to and fro, to be
‘bright, to shine’. agitated, to dance with a vivid
rhythm’. Expressive and seemingly
Zal%u, Z#láu NFl, NL S$laj. Re-
related with other verb with similar
lated to NFl Zala at the Slove-
meaning like zbengui and zburda.
ne!Hungarian border. Reflects
The built z!/s!ben! must have meant
Celtic Sala. The evolution s > z,
‘to move abruptly, to be agitated’,
identical in two relatively distant
areas, is not clear. Yet NR S%laj (< with a prefix s!/z! and root *ben!.
*S%la!) reflects the initial s, maybe All these seem indigenous as they
by association with Hu. szálas ‘a all refer to usual activites, and no
shelter’ which is still an accepted borrowing is feasible.
etymon for S%laj, but ignoring the Zbîrlea NP Also Sbîrlea. From the
other forms. same root as zbîrli.
Zaránd, Z#ránd NM A region rich zbîrlí (about animals and birds) ‘to
in gold and silver ore. IE *g0hel1 ‘to ruffle, to bristle up’. This meaning
shine, bright; gold’. Suffix as in is the same like zbor&i (2). The verb
V%r!and, C%rand etc. Cf. Thr. NL is built with prefix z! and *bîrli, not
Ziridava ‘gold fortress’ and NL Za- used as such (at least not in modern
rand south of Tehran. See also Romanian). The root bîr!l! seems
Zerind.
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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the same as bîr ‘sheep’, and the zbura ‘to fly’ < colloquial Latin
original meaning was perhaps ap- ex!volare, but this cannot be ex-
plied to sheep only, then general- cluded. In this latter case, may be a
ised: ‘to raise its fur when angry, local innovation in Danubian late
furious or upset’. Latin.
zbor&í 1. ‘to get angry, to be furi- Zburlí Variant of zbîrli.
ous’; 2. (about animals or birds) ‘to zdrelí ‘to get a scratch/gall on the
ruffle, to bristle up’ (= zbîrli, also skin’; generically ‘to scratch the
see); 3. (about food) ‘to deteriorate’. surface/film of something’. Very
Derived from bor& and bor&i (see). probably from the same IE root like
This form, which partially interferes Eng. to tear < Germanic *teran <
with zbîrli, is another argument IE ( der! ‘to scratch, to peel’. For
against the hypothesis of a Slavic
Thracian, a derivation *s!der!
origin of bor&. See also boarf%.
should be admitted; prefix s!/z! is
zbughí Colloquial, mainly in the quite frequent in the substratum
build a o zbughí ‘to begin running elements of Romanian.
abruptly, to fly away rapidly’ (e.g.
zdro&í (rare in literary Romanian)
when flying away from a danger).
‘to grind, to squeeze’. Related with
Closest relationship seems to be
zdreli and zdruncina. Suffix !&! may
with Proto!Slavic *bAg@, *bAgti,
reflect an original velar spirant (la-
OCS bA6@, bA6ati etc. ‘to go, walk’,
ryngeal) as witnesses by parallel
further Bengali bh:g! ‘to go, walk’.
derivatives like v%táf – v%t%&í (alter-
Romanian inherits an indigenous
nating h/&). The prototype must
form built with prefix z!/s!, quite
have been *z!droX!, *z!druX!. Fur-
frequent in verbal derivatives, and a
ther discussions under zdreli and
root *bug(h)! ‘to run, to walk’. zdruncina.
zburdá ‘to run to and fro (espe- zdrunciná ‘to shake; to jolt; to
cially referring to children or young
shatter’ (also figuratively). IE *ter!
animals)’. Archaic, etymon debat-
‘to rub; to turn around; to whip’ as
able. Russu refers to IE bher! ‘to in Lat. tereo, Eng. thrash, thresh.
boil’, hence ‘to be agitated, to run’.
Does not seem to be related with a

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zeberí ‘to take by force; to seques- to the idea of ‘what the bride brings
ter’. Obviously built with prefix ze! (i.e. keeps in her HAND) when com-
and root ber! as in bor#os, burt%, ing to the new house, the future
burdihan etc. < IE. *bher! ‘to bear’, husband’s house’. Therefore, this
hence Eng. bear, bore, Lat. fero, Sl. archaic form initially meant ‘hand’
brati etc. A Slavic borrowing from in Thracian < IE *g0hesor1 ‘hand’ (in
some IE languages only, as the word
ze!brati or se!brati is not feasible.
for ‘hand’ was sacred, and therefore
zéghe A specific thick (over)coat, derived from various roots): Gr.
especially for shepherds or people cheir, Tokh. A tsar etc. In Thracian,
in mountainous areas. Obscure, but the evolution was *g0hesor1 > Thr.
most probably indigenous. No iden-
*zestr!, with the normal evolution,
tifiable root. Phoneme z! may reflect
specific to Thracian, IE * g0h > Thr. z
IE g0(h), yet no etymon may be re-
and IE !*sr! + vowel > Thr. *str! as
constructed.
in Strei, Strem#, ancient Strymon >
zer ‘whey’. Like zar%, which must Struma (Bulgaria) etc. • The com-
be analysed together with this form, parison with other language shows
archaic, closely connected to the indeed that the semantic sphere
traditional activity of milk process- ‘dowry’, Rom. zestre, is associated
ing (see also the generic form with the idea ‘to give, to bring (in
brînz%). The etymon may be debat- one’s hand)’: Gr. phern7 ‘dowry’
able, as it has been, but the archaic derived from pher8 ‘to carry’; Eng.
origin is beyond any doubt. dowry from Old French. douaire, in
Zerind NL (AR) Related with Za- its turn from Mediaeval Latin dotar-
rand, Z%rand, and located not far ium, ultimately from classical form
from it. dos, dotis (hence also Rom. dot% via
zestre ‘dowry’. The form has been French) < do, dare ‘to give’; Lith.
often (and erroneously) explained pa!6astis, pa!6astI ‘(keeping) under
from Lat. dextrae ‘solemn promise’ one’s arm’, from 6astas ‘arm’, from
from dext(e)ra (manus) ‘right hand’, the same root as Thr. *zestr! > Rom.
which is not supported by any other zestre. Therefore zestre meant ‘what
Romance language. Nevertheless, the bride brings with herself, in her
the semantic sphere is indeed linked hand, to her new house’; the initial
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Lexicon Etymologicum
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meaning was, beyond any reason- gînd, a gîndí ‘a think’ the evolution
able doubt, ‘HAND’. was ‘to seize, to grasp’ – ‘to seize
zgard# ‘collar’ (especially refer- by mind = to think’.
ring to dogs) Seems derived from zgîriá ‘to scratch’. Alb. shkjer. Ob-
gard ‘fence’ (initially ‘enclosure’), viously related with, but not derived
again proof regarding the archaic from, Lat. scribo, Gr. 3#+5., from
origin of gard. Alb. parallel is and IE root *(s)ker! ‘to scratch, to
shkardhë, with similar meaning. Al- make incisions’, later developed as
ternatively, as Russu believes, a re- ‘to write’. The original meaning
flex of IE *(s)ker! ‘to turn, to twist, must have been ‘to make (sacred)
to turn’. If so, then the derivation signs on stone or wood’. See
from gard, as we continue to be- zgîrma, zgrîma.
lieve, would be fortuitous. zgîrmá ‘to scratch, to grout’, also
zg#u ‘a woman’s belly’, especially zgrîma. From the same root as
the uterus; sometimes also the belly zgîria.
of an animal; generically ‘a hollow’. zgr#bún"# ‘a boil, a swelling (on
Definitely an archaic term, and con- skin); a small ball!like object’. Pre-
nected to the sacred creeds in the
fix z!/s! and a root gr4b! ‘swelling,
woman’s magic uterus. Built with
ball!like’. This root does not seem
prefix z!/s! and the same root as in
to have been preserved in other
h%u and v%g%un%, both from *Xa!, forms, unless we may admit an
*X4! ‘deep, hollow’. etymological relationship with grui
zgîl"îí ‘to shake, to tremble’. Built ‘(low) hill, (low) peak’.
with prefix z!/s!, quite frequent in zgrep"#ná ‘to scratch’. Prefix z!/s!
derivatives, and a root *g4l1‘to and the same root as in grap%. Cf.
shake, to tremble’. DEX incorrectly zgîria, zgîrma.
assumes an onomatopoeic origin.
zgribulí ‘to huddle, to tremble with
zgînd#rí ‘to rake, to poke; to in- cold (mainly referring to very cold
cite’. Built with prefix z!/s! and the weather)’. Prefix z!/s! and a root
same root as in gînd, and reflecting greb! ‘to shiver, to tremble’.
the original meaning of IE
*ghe(n)d! ‘to take, to seize’. In
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211
Pars prima
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zguduí ‘to shake (referring to an dens, dentis ‘tooth’ (> Rom. dinte)
earthquake or figuratively as when a etc. from an archaic IE root with the
big army makes earth shake); to im- basic meaning ‘to eat, to cut food’,
press (deeply, emotionally)’. Prefix hence ‘tooth’ and ‘to cut’. The sub-
z!/s! and a root gud! ‘to shake, to stratum element of Romanian has
tremble’, cf. gîdila, gudurá. the normal correspondence z – Sl. z
– Lith. 6.
zimbru, !i; also zîmbru ‘ure ox’
(Bison bison, i.e. the European bi- zîmbru1 See zimbru.
son). The word has been tradition- zîmbru2 A coniferous tree with
ally held for a Slavic borrowing leaves in form of needles grouped
(*z'mbr1), even if the phonetic evo- by five; Pinus cembra. There does
lution would rather reject this hy- not seem to be an etymological rela-
pothesis. The form zombros is at- tion with zimbru and zîmbru1, un-
tested in 860 for Thrace (south of less we admit that Pinus cembra is/
the Danube), and Niketas Choniates was related with the life of ure oxen.
records zoumbros with the Tauro- Given the striking similarity, if such
Scythians “in the mountains of the an approach is not accepted, then we
Cumans”. The ure ox was a typical must admit a parallel root, also in-
animal of the Carpathians until late digenous, for the Pinus cembra.
in the 17th century, and it is feasible zîn# ‘a fairy (queen)’. Sometimes
to assume that both Rom. zimbru, considered as reflecting Lat. Diana,
zîmbru and Sl. *z'mbr1 reflect the which is impossible. The form is
same origin. In a larger context, a euphemistic, and belongs to the fam-
Slavic origin has been a usual cliché ily represented by Gr. gyn7 ‘woman,
for any Romanian form resembling wife’, Sl. 6ena ‘woman, wife’, Old
a similar form in Slavic. See the Indian jna ‘sacred woman, goddess’
similar situations of ban, gard, etc. The form is certainly indigenous
gîsc%, jupîn, st%pîn, sut%, zim# etc. Thracian. • Sînziene is obviously a
zim", !i s.m. ‘dent; tooth (of a compound with sîn! < Lat. sanctus, !a
mechanism)’. Related with, not bor- and zîn%, with local deformations due
rowed from, Sl. *z'mb1 ‘tooth’, to linguistic taboo as a sacred word
(!ziene instead of expected !zîne).
Lith. 6embiù, 6embti ‘to cut’, Lat.

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zîrn#, !e s.f. Plant Solanum nigrum. questions, as Machek correctly ob-
Probably indigenous. Hasdeu com- served. • The archaic meaning must
pared the form with the Thracian have been ‘being living on EARTH’,
name of plant pro!diorna, pro!di- i.e. ‘human’ (in its etymological
arna, presumably Veratrum nigrum; meaning, from humus), hence ‘man’,
der. a se zîrni ‘to become black’ and as in Lithuanian, where – from the
zîrn%, adj., epithet of black sheep. same etymon – there is 6muo ‘man,
The archaic root must be looked for human’ (related with Prus. smoy
in the chromatic sphere, therefore IE ‘man’). The similarity between Ro-
*dherg!no!, e.g. Ir. derg ‘red’, Eng. manian, which preserves a Thracian
dark etc. Common dictionaries refer (substratum) element, and Baltic
(Lithuanian and Prussian) is normal.
to Sl. zr1no ‘cereal grain’, which
The indigenous character of zmeu is
does not match the meaning in Ro-
also supported by some attested Thra-
manian. This seems a fortuitous
similarity. cian forms: Zimi!, Ziemi!, Zemo! in
compound forms like Zimi-kenthis,
zmeu, zmei s.m. An essential figure
of Romanian folk beliefs and folk Ziem!ices, Zemo!kontes, Zym!drenos,
mythology, with various benefic and Zym!zdrenos etc. As in other similar
malefic attributes, usually represented cases (see under sut%), we surmise
as a subterranean male in search of a that Sl. zm4j4 seems a borrowing
human wife. The form has been held from either a northern Thracian dia-
for a Slavic borrowing, even if many lect, before expansion, or from Pro-
details reject this; closely related with to!Romanian, during the first phase of
zmeur, zmeur% (see), which is NOT expansion (as definitely sut% and
the result of hazard. Sl. zm4j4 ‘snake, k1motra are). See also zmeur(%). The
serpent, dragon’, from a radical *zm!, relation between zmeu and zmeur(%)
in its turn reflecting the root for is essential in understanding the ar-
‘earth’, is not easy to explain, as IE chaic origin of these forms. • See also
*g0h(dh)em! ‘earth’, zero grade rezema, r%zema (re!/r%!zema).
*g0h J (dh)m!, resulted in Old Slavic zméur, !i s.m. and zméur#, !e s.f.
*zem! ‘earth’, whereas the root for The plant Rubus idaeus (zmeur) and its
‘snake, dragon’, *zm4j4, raises major fruit (zmeur%); ‘raspberry; hindberry’.

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Pars prima
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Der.: zmeuri& ‘raspberry/ hindberry zúrzur ‘ornament’. A reduplica-
bush’. Indigenous, from IE *g0h(dh)em! tion, as often in the indigenous
‘earth’, zero grade *g0h(dh)m" > Thr. substratum, from a root zur! ‘or-
*zmeur! > Rom. *zmeur!. Similarly nament’, difficult to analyse. Given
Lith. 6em!uoga ‘strawberry’ (the plant this typical derivation for some of
Fragaria) (from 6emI ‘earth’, cf. zmeu the substratum elements, its Thra-
above) and Germ. Erd!beere ‘id.’, cian origin may be held for certain
or, at least, most probable. The cur-
from Erde ‘earth’, lit. ‘earth!berry’.
rent form zorzoane (pl.) ‘orna-
These examples show that both straw-
ments’ is derived from the same
berries and raspberries were initially
root with a different suffix.
associated to ‘earth’; they also support
the association zmeu – zmeur(%) in zvîrlí ‘to cast, to throw’. Also az-
Romanian as substratum elements. vîrli, with prefix a!. See zvîrlug%. •
Probably most linguists have assumed The Slavic origin, advocated in
that the relation zmeu – zmeur% is the DEX, is highly improbable.
result of hazard; the etymological zvîrlúg# 1. The fish Cobitis taenia;
analysis clearly shows that they are 2. a cheerful, sprighty person. Simi-
indeed related as Urverwandtschaft. lar in meaning with fîs%1. Also vîr-
zo!áie ‘dirty liquid’, especially lug%. The basic meaning, just like
‘dirty water after washing clothes, fîs%, must be reconstructed as ‘quick
usually a mixture of soap and lye’. move’, and must relate forms vîr-
Probably related with soi (see lug%, zvîrlug%, and the verbs zvîrli,
above). DEX erroneously refers to azvîrli ‘to cast, to throw’. The re-
Bulg. and/or Ukr. zola, which is lated form must be Lat. verto, !ere.
phonetically impossible. Derivation is z!vîr!l!.
zorzoáne (pl.) ‘ornaments’ (used
pejoratively); see zurzur.

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214
Part II

Colloquial Latin. Phonetical Evolution.


Grammar
Colloquial Latin. Phonetical Evolution. Grammar
_________________________________________________________________________

Colloquial Latin and Pseudo!Latin in Romanian

The present etymological lexicon quotes a series of words either


currently considered of Latin origin, but which ultimately are indigenous, or
of Latin origin indeed, but sometimes assumed of indigenous origin, rarely
of other origins (the case of boier). I. I. Russu made such considerations, as
in the case of lep!da or v!t!ma. Also this lexicon cannot consider the
numerous situations where colloquial Latin in Dacia and Thrace interfered
with indigenous forms, which may have been similar in the light of the
common Indo!European and, sometimes, Pre!Indo!European heritage. This
may be a generous topic of discussions as indeed all the Indo!European
languages do inherit many similar forms, covering all the semantic and
grammatical spheres. After millennia of diversity, many nouns, pronouns
and verbs are similar from Old Indian to Germanic, and from Baltic to
Greek. During the centuries of Roman and Thracian cohabitation, some of
these forms definitely interfered and – in the very case of Romanian – we
may identify the probable of possible Thracian influence within the
basically Neo!Latin structure of Romanian.
Forms like îs = sînt (bookish sunt) ‘I am, they are’, îi ‘he/she is’ rather
reflect the indigenous influence. Even the case of este ‘he/she is’ cannot be
easily explained via Latin, just e (= este = îi) may be labelled as ‘obviously
Latin’.
In the sphere of noun, we assume that the definite article i (pronounced as
semivowel y or i") in oblique forms like cas! ! case (gen. sg. and pl.) ! unei
case ! casei rather reflect the interference with an indigenous paradigm, as
case!i cannot reflect casae. The examples may continue, but a coherent
analysis would require a deeper approach. Our task is to just briefly note
such situations.
It is not the purpose of this book to cover all these situations, but to point
out some relevant cases only. Further investigations will clarify such
complex occurrences, and will enrich our approach to the topic.

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217
Pars secunda
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Latin v. Indigenous or ‘of unknown origin’

In our lexicon, we assumed that Cr!ciun and zîn!, pl. zîne are not of
Latin origin (from creatio and Diana, respectively). Gh. Mu!u once made a
detailed analysis of Cr!ciun ‘Christmas’ v. cr!ciun ‘piece of wood’ and Alb.
kërcú ‘log, tree stump’; and the author of these page formerly brought
arguments that zîn! ‘a fairy (queen)’ cannot reflect Lat. Diana, but in
Sînziene there is a typical example of Roman!Thracian cohabitation and
bilingualism, in which sîn! reflects Lat. sanctus (as in Sîngiorz < Sanctus
Georgios; to note also the parallel in Croatian place!name Su"ura", of the
same Late!Latin and Christian origin). If the brief arguments in the lexicon
are not convincing, the reader is asked to refer to other studies. Prof.
Grigore Brâncu!, among others, has lately brought solid arguments in
favour of the indigenous origin of Cr!ciun. Maybe we should read and
re!read those remarkable studies.
Across time, various other words initially considered of Latin origin,
often of other origins, mainly Slavic, sometimes of Hungarian or Altaic
origin, have been gradually grouped together in the larger and larger list of
indigenous elements. There are many examples, e.g. st!pîn, jupîn (< #upîn
< *#up$n), which are obviously compound words with ban, *!pîn (< *p$n)
as presented in the lexicon.
Also varz! ‘cabbage’ cannot reflect Lat. viridia as too many linguists still
believe. It is, beyond any reasonable doubt, an indigenous element.
There still are many words incorrectly explained in Romanian. We
assume that a v!t!ma ‘to affect, to wound’ is indeed from Lat. victimo, !are,
even if the phonetic evolution is not ‘by the book’. For almost a century,
many linguists assumed that the Latin elements of Romanian reflect a strict
evolution marked by 165 years of official administration of Dacia. Such
simplistic views should be abandoned. For sure, Romanisation was a
complex and long!lasting phenomenon, which persisted a long time after the
withdrawal of the official Roman administration. If some would expect a
form like a *v!pt!ma instead of a v!t!ma, they should expect specific
evolutions in colloquial and Late Latin. Also, there may have been words of

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Colloquial Latin. Phonetical Evolution. Grammar
_________________________________________________________________________
various non!Latin origin, but which were borrowed in colloquial Latin, at
various historical periods, and may be thus considered of Latin origin. Such
an example may be bordei in probable relation with bordello.
The most interesting category is perhaps offered by forms which
specifically developed in Daco!Romanian and/or Thraco!Romanian only,
starting from basic Latin roots, but with specific meanings in Romanian
only, assuming that colloquial Latin in Dacia sometimes had its specific
evolutions and developments. As always, these may reflect a certain
indigenous influence or calques, but these are usual phenomena in any
linguistic area in similar circumstances. I shall briefly review some specific,
typical cases.

ademeni, dial. ad!m!ni ‘to lure, to entice’. Despite its being one of the
earliest would!be Thracian elements, as Hasdeu believed, it seems a local
construction based on Latin elements: ad and a verbalised form derived from
manus > Rom. mîn! ‘hand’; or rather the imperative of a aduce ‘to bring’,
adu, ad! and mîn!, ad!/adu mîna ‘bring (your) hand’ with opening vowel î >
!, e. The meaning was undoubtedly erotic and pre!nuptial: ‘come to my hand,
hold my hand’. See also under mîn! below. It is difficult to hypothesise an
approximate date of this creation, but it may be indeed very early, starting
first from the construction ad! mîna ‘give [me your] hand’, which was
subsequently turned into a noun, by frequent use (ad!mîna), later verbalised:
*ad!mîní, *ad!m!ní, *ademení, with a vowel harmony !–! or e–e.
apuca ‘to catch; to hold tight’. Derivatives: apucat (1) ‘caught’; (2)
‘mad, crazy’ (cf. aprig); apuc!toare ‘a handle’; apuc!tur! (1) ‘a catch’; (2)
‘custom; behaviour’. The word seems related to, not reflecting, Lat. apiscor
‘id.’, Old Indian %pn&ti ‘(he) touches, catches’, gr. apt& ‘id.’, Hitt. ep!, op!
‘id.’ etc. The Romanian prototype may be reconstructed as *ap!uk! (cf. also
arunc), which cannot support the idea of a Latin word. Also the alternative
Lat. aucupor ‘to set traps’ does not seem a better solution. • If apuca and
arunca may be held for indigenous, then a possible (not necessary)
influence of aduc ‘I bring’ < Latin a!duco may be surmised. It seems clear
that, disregarding the ultimate etymon, apuca and aprig should be analysed
together, not separately. The Latin origin, suggested in some linguistic
works, does not seem plausible.
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219
Pars secunda
_________________________________________________________________________
baier ‘a thread of variable thickness; a rope’. Origin debated; most
linguists hold it for a Romance element, I. I. Russu includes the form in his
list of Thracian elements. The Latin origin seems indeed improbable, so an
indigenous etymon is acceptable.
b!" ‘a stick, a rod’. If not a back!formation from a bate (< Latin), then
possibly indigenous, related with Eng. bat ‘a heavy stick’. Such a relation,
which assumes a common etymon for a bate and b!', would be normal as an
IE heritage, common to both Latin and Thracian, hence to Romanian, from
either language.
boier Often considered of Altaic (Turkic, Pre!Ottoman) origin. It is yet
obvious that boier is derived from bou ‘ox’ just as oier ‘shepherd’ derived
from oaie ‘sheep’. Initially boier meant ‘owner of cattle’ = ‘rich man’, a
traditional evolution of meaning, just as in pecus – pecunia. The word
indeed had a spectacular spread all over southeast and east Europe, but its
origin is in the colloquial Latin of Dacia, in Proto!Romanian. The historical
period when this form could be borrowed in the neighbouring languages,
mainly the Slavic languages, must be assumed the same in which Slavic
k"motra < Proto!Romanian *kumatra – Classical commater (see cum!tr!
below) was also borrowed, i.e. presumably not later than the 6th century
A.D.; in other words preceding or concurrently with the Slavic expansion.
buiestru Held by Russu for indigenous. This is a difficult point of
analysis. Apparently, buiestru seems a compound of bis and eo, ire, even if
the phonetic evolution is far from being clear. Or is there an interference
with an indigenous element? In any case, we must admit it is a compound
derived from, or related with, Latin bis and eo, ire. Indigenous or Latin,
possibly also with a mutual interference, the basic meaning may be
reconstructed as ‘dual [Lat. bis] walk [eo, ire]’.
cî#nep! ‘hemp’, usually held for reflecting Lat. cannabis. This is
debatable. We are rather inclined for an indigenous, Thracian form akin to
Latin, and to be included in the specific category of European!only terms
referring to farming and plants.
cum$tr! ‘a woman representing mother on a child’s baptism in the
church’. Reflects a colloquial Latin form *cumatra, classical commater (Sp.
comadre, Fr. commère etc.). Slavic k(motra is a borrowing from
Proto!Romanian, with the same phonetic evolution Rom. u > Sl. (, as in the
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Colloquial Latin. Phonetical Evolution. Grammar
_________________________________________________________________________
case of Rom. sut! > Sl. s(to. In South Slavic, the usual form is kuma, which
is – as Skok believes – a hypochoristic of *kumatra.
deretica Held by Russu for indigenous, even if the derivation from
de!eradicare seems difficult to reject. I am inclined to assume a Late!Latin,
colloquial origin, not an indigenous form.
desmierda, dezmierda For a long time, linguists seem to have avoided
this form, on the ground that a derivative from de + merdum is, probably,
embarassing. There is no embarassing linguistic analysis, it may be correct
or incorrect. The indigenous origin is improbable, and the colloquial Latin
construction from de + merdum is difficult to reject. The initial meaning
must have been ‘to clean a baby/a small child of excrements’, which is a
usual, banal activity of mothers all over the world. Hence, the generic
meaning ‘to caress, to touch gently’. The word is mainly applied to mothers
taking care of their children, generically ‘to caress, to touch gently’, later
with erotic connotations too: ‘to caress a girl, a beloved woman’.
glíe ‘earth, fatherland’. Formerly assigned to a Latin origin, i.e. glebis and
gleba ‘clod/lump of earth/turf; land, soil; hard soil; piece, lump, mass’, from
unknown reasons meanwhile abandoned, even if this seems the only plausible
explanation. DEX labels it ‘et. nec.’ (unknown etymon). It is true that the
sequence Latin gl/cl + vowel usually results in Romanian gh(e/i)/ch(e/i)1, but
we may admit an exception, as in some other cases, due to a later form.
întîmpla Prefixed with în (< Lat. in) and the root proper. Lat. templum
was suggested, even if not semantically satisfactory, therefore *intemplare
‘to go to the temple’.
lep!da Held by Russu for indigenous, even if a colloquial derivative
from *lapidare seems difficult to reject, even if the semantic evolution is not
comfortable.
m!r!cíne ‘bramble’. It is commonly accepted that it may reflect a
colloquial latin form *marrucina or *marricina < marra ‘a kind of hoe’.
The Latin origin is supported by Italian form marruca ‘bramble’ and Alb.
markyin ‘a kind of hoe’ (Alessio, Omagiu Iordan 6–7). It may be also
acceptable to assume a substratum element ‘intruded’ into colloquial Latin,

1# E.g. glanda > ghind!; clavis > cheie etc.


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and therefore a Thracian and/or Illyrian element cannot be excluded; in such
a case, a relation with m!r!ar is acceptable.
mire ‘bridegroom’. One of the most debated Romanian forms. Russu
holds it for indigenous, current dictionaries point to Lat. miles. Both
hypotheses have their advantages and disadvantages. The preservation of
miles with such a meaning would be normal, and in full accordance with the
specific evolution of some colloquial Latin terms. An interference between
an indigenous form and Lat. miles > *mire is also possible.
mîn!, a mîna 2, a mînui, a mîngîia, a mîntui A spectacular
etymological group based on mîn! < manus 'hand'; a mîná 'to lead (an
animal, e.g. a horse) was immediately associated with mîn!, even if it had
been strictly derived from minari; a mînuí 'to handle' (recently replaced by a
manevrá, under the French influence and/or borrowing meanings after a
manevra) contradicts the largely spread (erroneous) view that verbs ending
in !ui are of Hungarian origin (some indeed are). The situation represented
by a mîngîia 'to caress' and a mîntui (religious Christian) ‘to absolve, to
clean’, hence Mîntuitorul ‘the Saviour’ (Jesus) is outstanding and must be
discussed in more detail3 . The verb a mîngîia 'to caress' clearly belonged to
the vulgar (proper), military terminology from *manu ganeari ‘to caress
with the hand’ (see also a desmierda, a dezmierda above), undoubtedly with
sexual and erotic reference, and a usual term among the Roman soldiers. At
the other side of the vocabulary, a mîntui reflects *manu tuitus ‘absolved,
saved by hand’, and is both connected to Jesus’s miraculous hands, which
healed untreatable diseases, and the magic of hand in general (please note
that there was no common word for ‘hand’ in Proto!Indo!European). It is
just clear that a mînui and a mîntui are built on the same basic, Lat. manus
‘hand’. The hypothesis that a mîntui is borrowed from Hungarian menténi is
at least debatable, if not outright absurd, unproved by any other word in this
semantic sphere. As menténi is of unknown origin in Hungarian, we have all
the reasons to assume it was borrowed from Romanian, and presumably
before, or immediately after, the official conversion to the Christian faith of

2# The ultimate origin of mîná is Lat. minari ‘threaten, speak/act menacingly;


make threatening movement; give indication of’, but this etymon was soon
assimilated to the derivatives from manus ‘hand’ by folk etymology.
3 # Piæ memoriæ Vasile Sav for these remarkable explanations.

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St. Stephen in the year 1,000 A.D. The verb a mîntui and its derivative
Mîntuitorul ‘the Saviour’ belong to the oldest Christian terminology in
Europe, and is in full accordance with both comparative analysis and
cultural evolution. • See also ademeni, ad!m!ni above.
mormán and mormînt The form mormînt is usually held for continuing
Lat. monumentum, with rotacisation of intervocalic !n!; nevertheless, the
parallel form morman, which is clearly related to mormînt does not allow
the traditional explanation. We are rather inclined for an indigenous origin
of both morman and mormînt.
munun! ‘an ornamental strip’; the Latin origin is most probable, for
which see the main lexicon.
pîrîu Despite its being one of the constant presences in the lexicons of
the indigenous elements, the relation pîrîu – rîu (< Lat. rivus) has not been
satisfactorily explained: if mere hazard, even if indeed difficult to accept it,
then an indigenous element. We are rather inclined for considering the form
a local innovation in East Romance, from pe rîu ‘on the river’, or abridged
from pîn!!n rîu ‘until (it gets to) the river’, hence pî!rîu; possibly, an
indigenous prefix p!!, po!, pî! and rîu < rivus. Anyway, the relation rîu –
pîrîu is obvious, and cannot be ignored in the etymological analysis. We
assume that Alb. përrúa ‘rivulet’ is borrowed from (Proto)!Romanian.
pop! The colloquial parallel for preot ‘a priest’ (< presbiterum). In most
works, considered borrowed from Slavic pop(, even if this hypothesis puts
serious difficulties. The general use and position in Romanian shows that
pop! reflects Lat. popa ‘a priest in charge with animal sacrifices’, also a
typically colloquial term. Later it got the attributes of a Christian term. •
Prof. Gh. Mih$il$, with whom we once discussed the situation of this term,
argumented that Romanian should have had *poap!, as Lat. o turns into oa
in the pre!final syllable. Our counter!argument, also discussed in other cases
in this lexicon, is that the evolution o > oa in the pre!final syllable is
specific to only the nouns of feminine gender. This phonetic phenomenon is
so powerful and persistent, that indeed it affects even recent borrowings. It
is obvious that this peculiarity is not present in the very few nouns ending
in !a, but of masculine gender. In the basic vocabulary, there is only vod!, of
Slavic origin, a colloquial abbreviation of vo(i)evod. Among the forms of
Latin origin, there is only tat! ‘father’, the flection of which is identical to
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pop!: the definite article !a (popa, tata); the genitive and dative is popei and
tatei or tat!lui (meu, lui etc.). These are rather arguments favouring the
colloquial Latin origin of both forms, pop! and tat!.
ridica, dial. r!dica ‘to raise; to lift’. Russu holds it for indigenous, even
though the derivation from *eradicare is difficult to reject. Cf. ridiche <
radix, acc. radicem.
stîrní ‘to stir, to incite’ seems rather a colloquial form of sterno, sternere
‘to spread, to scatter’. If indigenous, we may also think at a form akin to
Latin.
a v!t!ma With too feeble arguments considered by Russu an indigenous
elements. It clearly reflects Lat. victimare, with a peculiar evolution to
v!t!ma(re) instead of expected *v!pt!mare. The exceptional treatment of
sequence ct > t not pt as usual, must be explained if starting from a
colloquial form *vi(t)timare, as in Italian, possibly later than the rest of the
Latin stratum of Romanian.
a zbura and a zburda If we admit that Rom. a zbura reflects Lat.
ex!volare, then we must also equate a zburda, as shown in the lexicon. The
forms may have interfered, and a Latin elements was engrafted on an
indigenous structure.

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Derivation, Phonetical Evolution and Grammatical Means

Derivational Means

This chapter aims at clarifying and outlining the main derivation means
in the case of the substratum elements, first of all, in a brief comparison with
the general derivation means of Romanian as a whole.

Reduplication

Reduplication seems to have been a frequent derivational construction in


the substratum elements, in both the Indo!European and Pre!Indo!European
elements. In these cases, haplology (loss of a second, repetitive phoneme) is
usual as well. Examples:

curcubeu < *cur!cur!b!, then by haplology, < IE *(s)ker! ‘to bend, to


curve’; the same in NL Curcub!ta, etymologically related with curcubeu.
d!nd!li ‘to delay on something; to work too slowly’ < *da!da!l!, then
with nasal infix; cf. l!l!i.
derdelu) < *der!der!l!u), then haplology.
durduliu < *dur!dur!l!, then haplology.
huhurez < *hu!hu!r!ez
hututúi < *hut!hut!úi, with haplology.
Jijia, cf. Jiu, without reduplication; probably akin to now rare, dialectal
form jel', jil' ‘a rivulet’.
Lala < *Al!al!a, with normal preservation of intervocalic l, and fall of
initial a (as in Rar!u, S!sar); the loss of initial a! is not regular in the
indigenous elements.
Marma'ia < *mar!mar!'!, then haplology.

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m!m!lig! < *mal!mal!ig!, also with haplology of repetitive r. Preie.
origin.
mo)mondi < *mo)!mo)!d!i, with haplology in the second part, then nasal
infix.
mototoli < *mot!mot!ol!; haplology.
perpeli < *per!per!l! ‘to burn, to put to fire’, from root *per!, *pur!
‘fire’ (cf. pur!uri, pur!urea in the main lexicon).
Rar*u < *Ar!ar!a!, with fall of initial a (as in other examples, e.g. Lala,
S!sar etc.); Preie. origin.
S!sar < *As!as!ar, probably related with As!u, both of Preie. origin, root
*AS!, with chromatic meaning; the fall of initial a as in Lala, Rar!u.
T!rt!ria < Tar!tar!, Preie. origin, related with NL T!rtia (without
reduplication) and, very probably, with 'ur'ur (with alternation t/', and again
with reduplication).
'ur'ur(e), with a very conservative form. Preie. origin.

Affixes (prefixes and suffixes)

The analysis of the substratum elements shows remnants of archaic


affixes. Some have of course interfered with other derivational affixes of
both Latin, during the Roman!Thracian cohabitation period, also with
newer, neologic affixes. Some linguists have erroneously concluded that
these reflect neologic influences. We shall try to briefly summarise the main
affixional means in the substratum elements.
!a, !ea C!lacea (cf. C$lan), Cioplea (cf. a ciopli, a ciopîr'i)
!ac, !ag, !ec, !c desag! (des!ag!!, cf. a în!des!a), Feleac, în!tun!ec!a
(probably from a prototype *în!tumn!ec!a), maldac/m!ldac (cf. Spart!ac!us,
+,-./012 etc.), berc, melc, meleag4, peleag!/peleg (cf. Pele)), Pereg, pisc,
plisc, prunc, Semenic (cf. seme'), 'arc, mi)!c!a, mu)!c!a.

4# Not of Hungarian origin, as often erroneously held.


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!(e)an, !and Some linguists wrongly assumed that any word having
suffix !an should be borrowed during the last centuries, as – indeed – the
rules of evolution from Latin to Romanian would have required a closed
neutral vowel. See also !ân, !în below. Examples: bu)tean, C!lan (cf.
C!lacea), C!lin, C!rand, cioban5, Copand, Caran!sebe), Inand (cf. In!u/
Ineu), noian, 3imand, 3imian, V!r)and, Zarand/Z!rand.
!a)/!aj, !e)/!i)/!ij, !u)/!uj Sometimes, spellings may be with final !i,
which usually notes a very brief palatalisation of the preceding consonants.
Only some relevant examples:
!a), !aj: Asuaj (cf. As!u and S!sar < *As!as!ar) Atea), Blaj, Cara),
Ciuca) (cf. Ciuc), Deaj (cf. Dej), Ia)(i), also Ie)(i), Turda) (cf. Turda), ora),
ura) (dial.), uria), oria) (dial.).
!e), !i), !ij: Agrij, agri), Anie), Arge), Arghi) (cf. argea), Arie), Dej (cf.
Deaj), Ie)(i), cf. Ia)i, NP Mare), NFl Mure), Nire) (cf. Nera, Neretva6),
Pele) (cf. peleag, peleag!), pre), Sebe) (cf. Sibiu), Timi), Timi)!oara,
Vîrghi).
!u), !uj: Abu) (cf. Abud), Buhu)(i) (cf. buh!, bufni'!7), c!lu), Cluj,
Densu) (? < Thracian), ghiuj8 (dial. vîj), L!bu)9 (< lab!), L!pu), Ludu) (? <
Thracian), 3oimu) (cf. )oim), Trotu).
!ân See !în.
!ar, !!r In place!names, personal names and common vocabulary. It may
reflect at least two archaic forms, which later contaminated. Examples:
m!g!ar, maz!!r!e, m!r!ar, 'ip!ar, Dun!!r!e(a), S!sar (< *As!as!ar), etc. In
river!names, we may assume that a compound with !ar! akin to NFl Aar

5# Form cioban is considered, unlike the overwhelming majority of cases, of


indigenous origin. It was denied this origin seemingly on the erroneous ground that
intervocalic !b! should have been lost, and sequence !an should have turned
to !în, !ân.
6! See Lexicon A.
7! With alternating f/h, reflecting an original velar spirant (laryngeal).
8! Alb. gjysh ‘old man; grandfather’.
9! Frequent, usual dog!name.
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should be considered. In the archaic Pre!Indo!European elements, !ar! may
be a variant of !or!, !ur!.
!at(e), !et bereg!at!!, bung!et, C!lata (cf. C!lacea, C!lan), H!)d!at!e10 .
!!u, !eu, !iu Some indigenous forms, also erroneously considered of
Hungarian origin in many cases, reflect this derivation. We assume that
ALL were initially masculine nouns ending in !a, then – during and after the
Romanisation process – received the definite masculine article !u (literary
form !ul). Examples: As!u (cf. Asuaj), Bac!u, Bîrg!u (< *Barga), Buz!u (cf.
Buzia), both akin to buz!), Ceahl!u (phoneme h alternating with f, as in
ceaf!, in both cases f/h reflecting an original velar spirant), curcubeu (<
*cur!cur!b!eu), Curcub!ta, Ilteu, In!u/Ineu, Jiu (cf. Jijia, with
reduplication; jel'/jil' dial. ‘a rivulet’), Mineu/Mîn!u, (cf. Mini), Mintia),
Paleu, Rar!u (< *Ar!ar!a), Sibiu, Siriu (cf. Siret and )irói), Tarc!u (cf.
Tarcea), 4ic!u (cf. NP 4ica, 4icu), Vi)!u/Vi)eu. Some Hungarian
borrowings were indeed included in this category, e.g. Nu)fal!u.
!c ber!c, mel!c
!f Some substratum forms ending in !f probably reflect an original velar
spirant (or laryngeal); in these, and other situations, f alternates with h, v and
). Examples: burduf – burdu)í (cf. burt!), ceaf! (alternating with h as in
Ceahl!u), rîmf, v!taf – a v!t!)i, NP V!t!)escu.
!i bordei, brei, grui, m!lai (NFl M!leia, in Parîng Mts, a tributary of
Jiu), noroi (cf. NFl Nera, N!ruja), scai, )irói, Vaslui11, v!trai (< vatr!),
v!tui.
!în jupîn (< #u!p$n), st!pîn.
!l, !*Xl 12 Gherla (cf. Gher'a), )op!îr!l!!, visc!o!l; gîdila (cf. gudura),
îns!i!l!a/însei!l!a, pîr!l!i.

10# If not from Hochstadt, of course; in this case, we must assume an adaptation of
the German form.
11# A recent borrowing from German Wasser is not feasible; if indeed so, the

derivation would also put additional problems.


12# Here *X notes a velar spirant (laryngeal), which later resulted in various other

phonemes.
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!m scrum, t!rîm; curma, d!rîma, f!rîm! (also verb: a f!rîma, (a se)
în!tre!m!á, a sf!rîma), scurma, zgîrma.
!man Caraiman, C!liman, also C!lim!ne)ti (plural of personal
suffix !escu), du)man13, gogo!man (cf. gog!, NP Goga, Gogu), ho'o!man
(cf. ho', ha'), Or!man, orto!man.14 See also NP Man, Manu, Manea,
M!nescu etc., all with root man!; cf. ND Mani!mazos, an epithet of the
Thracian Heros 15.
!or, !ur Examples: ab!ur, bucur (NP Bucur; verb a se bucura), but!ur!!/
but!ur!ug!!, ciuc!ur(e), cob!or!î (cob!or!), coc!or, *codur > codru, *Copur
> Copru, flut!ur(e), (a se) gudura (Alb. gudulís; cf. gîdila), m!gur!,
m!lur!, m!tur!, mugur(e), scorbur(!), sîmbur(e), strugur(e), viezur(e),
zmeur(!).
!' bor' (cf. bor'os < burt!), cre', cru'a, Gher'a (cf. Gherla), Ghil!or!',
la'e, ma'(e), mistre', seme' (cf. Semenic).
!ud Abrud, Abud (cf. Abu)), Ardud (cf. Ardu!sat).
!ui Many linguists assumed that Romanian verbs ending in !ui reflect
borrowings from Hungarian. In some cases, this is indeed true, with the
important note that one of the invoked borrowings, namely a mîntui ‘to save
(in the Christian meaning), hence Mîntuitorul ‘the Saviour’ (i.e. Jesus) does
NOT reflect a borrowing from Hungarian menténi, on the contrary: the
Hungarian form is borrowed from Romanian (it is ultimately a derivative of
mîn! ‘hand’ + tuitus = *manu tuitus ‘saved by hand’, i.e. by the magic hand
of Jesus Christ). The origin of this derivational means is obscure: it is either
a local innovation during the Roman!Thracian cohabitation, or an
indigenous (substratum) derivational means, !ui or !u!i (the verbs ending in i
generally reflect the fourth Latin conjugation, as a auzi < audire etc.). This
derivational means is met in forms difficult to analyse as: a bîigui ‘to

13# Old Indo!European word with prefix *dus! ‘against’; the current hypothesis,
suggesting a Turkish origin, should be abandoned.
14# Some forms in !man, e.g. Cara!orman ‘black forest’, reflect a recent Turkish

influence.
15# See the appendix, lexicon of Thracian god!names.

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blabber, to speak nonsense’, possibly an ‘intruder’ in colloquial Latin from a
substratum language; a mîntui, mîntuit < *manu tuitus.
!ul c!ci!ul!!, a ciug!ul!i.
!un Cf. !an, !and c!tun, Cr!ciun (also cr!ciun ‘piece of wood’), gorun
!ur See !or, !ur
!z barz!, brînz!, bulz, coac!z!, mînz, rînz!, pînz!, pup!z!, spuz!; a
necheza.

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Some Basic Problems of Phonetic Evolution 16

Phonetic evolution is essential in historical linguistics, so more important


in the case of our analysis, as Thracian had no written documents, and its
trace may be inferred or interpreted in the light of Greek and Latin
documents, which inevitably deformed the original sounds, always
compared with the forms preserved in modern languages, mainly Romanian,
Albanian, Bulgarian and other South Slavic languages. At the same time, the
linguistic and ethnic changes were important after the gradual withdrawal of
the Roman Empire from Dacia, then from all its former provinces. Later the
interferences with other ethnic groups of various origins, Indo!European and
non!Indo!European, led to other linguistic changes. It is the linguist’s task to
identify and analyse these changes. In the given case, the phonetic structure
of colloquial Post!Classical Latin, indigenous Thracian idioms and later
Slavic interfered, with specific intensity across various historical periods.
The data presented in the main lexicon, as well as other data referred to
(including the Addenda), allow a plausible reconstruction of the Thracian
phonetic inventory. We should also consider that local or regional
differences of the Thracian dialects may have been important. Obviously not
all the phonetic details may be reconstructed, but a reasonable phonetic
tableau is possible.
Thracian was a satem language, and was a component of the Eastern
branch of the Indo!European languages, together with Old Indian, Persian,
Baltic and Slavic. A special note should be made on Slavic. The data
presented in the main lexicon as well as the Addenda have led to the

16#This chapter follows, by and large, the chapter on Phonetics in our Influen'e
romane )i preromane în limbile slave de sud (1996), with important additions and
revisions against the original (in Romanian). They mainly refer to the much larger
scope of this volume, which has consequently required a review of this complex
topic. The most important change refers to the so!called velar spirant (laryngeal),
which has been largely argumented in this volume. There are a lot of other more or
less important changes, which will hopefully illuminate specific details.
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conclusion that the once often invoked Slavic influence on Romanian should
be radically revised as many such forms are, in fact, indigenous Thracian
elements. Additionally, only a detailed analysis of the Slavic ethnogenesis
may then clarifiy other details.
Despite older attempts to consider Illyrian a centum language, the more
recent data show that Illyrian was also a satem idiom, and that Thracian and
Illyrian formed a contiguous group of satem speakers in southeast Europe.
We surmise that Thracian and Illyrian were mutually intelligible. In this
perspective, it is clear why the once much invoked ‘Slavic influence in
Romanian’ should be radically reconsidered, as many formerly assumed
‘Slavic elements in Romanian’ are, in fact, indigenous (Thracian) elements
in Romanian. And, in some instances, the way of borrowing was reversed.
Such was the typical case of sut!, which is a clear heir from Thracian, and
Slavic s(to a borrowing from either East Romance (Proto!Romanian) or
Late Thracian. This borrowing was more or less contemporary of another
important borrowing: Sl. k(motra < Proto!Romanian *kumatra (classical
Latin commater), Rom. cum*tr!17.
The following considerations try to reconstruct a phonetic reality of the
first centuries of our era. There may be of course errors, but we do hope our
reconstruction will meet a minimal consensus among linguists. The data
below reflect, on the one hand, the analysis in the lexicon above and, on the
other hand, similar discussions regarding the Pre!Slavic heritage in
Southeast and Central Europe, mainly in place!names, but also in elements
of vocabulary. The analysis also covers the data in the Addenda.

17#Stressed ! in cum*tr! was incorrectly held for a proof of a Slavic (?) borrowing.
Nevertheless stressed !, even if not frequent, is met in some typical cases, also of
indigenous origin, e.g. m*tur!, m*lur! etc., when r occurs in the following
syllable.
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Colloquial Latin 18

Post!classical Latin underwent a radical change of its initial phonetic


inventory, especially of vocalism. As this volume is not a history of the
Romanian language, only the most relevant data are presented below,
especially those aspects allowing a better understanding of Roman!Thracian
cohabitation and, consequently, Latin!Thracian bilingualism.

Vocalism

Romania Orientalis sometimes had a different evolution against Romania


Occidentalis. It is notable, first of all, that Romanian, the Latin elements in
Albanian and, in some circumstances (in closed syllable), Dalmatian keep
intact, and therefore distinct, the evolution of & against u. This phenomenon
is yet also met, in restricted ares, in Romania Occidentalis: parts of
Sardinia, south Corsica and Calabria!Lucano, also in the Latin elements in
Berber and Basque (Tagliavini 1977: 186–187).
__________________________________________________________
Classical Latin !5 %5 65 75 85 95 :5 &5 ;5 <

Colloquial Latin a5 5 =5 e5 >5 i5 o5 o5 ?5 u

Proto!Romance19# a# # %# e# # i# o# # u
__________________________________________________________

18# We use the term Colloquial Latin, not Vulgar Latin, as it may be otherwise
confusing, even if Vulgar Latin has been largely used across time by various
linguists.
19# Proto!Romanian, mainly. The supposed Pannonian language, surmised or

gleaned from too fragmentary inscriptions, may be postulated, but not invokable;
and Dalmatian, with its peculiar evolutions.
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Consonantism

Several tendencies already manifest in Classical Latin consolidate and


lead to altering the initial system. The most important are:
• Phoneme h must have gradually got a weaker and weaker
pronunciation, and post!classical spellings witness this reality: abeo =
habeo; anc = hanc; onorem = honorem. The contrary is offered by so!called
hyper!correct spelling, with h where it had not been and should not have
been: heius = eius; hossa = ossa.
NOTE. This detail is extremely important when we analyse the
situation of phoneme h in the indigenous elements of Romanian, where its
origin is COMPLETELY DIFFERENT, and definitely not the result of the
Slavic influence. In the indigenous (Thracian) elements of Romanian,
phoneme h alternates with f, v and ) (in some instances). It also corresponds
to Albanian h, v and, sometimes at least, th. They reflect the evolution of the
initial velar spirant, which is not clear in all instances, as it was a rare and
historically lost phoneme in the overwhelming majority of the
Indo!European languages. Its survival in Thracian until, we believe,
Proto!Romanian is one of the important, essential details in understanding
the Thracian phonetic evolution and its transformations upon the impact
with the Roman colonists.
• C and g had a similar behaviour in palatalising position, but g had a
different evolution if intervocalic, with a tendency to be eliminated in some
areas of Romania: eo = ego, cf. Rom., Port. eu (pron. yew in Romanian).
• In the group qu (qw) there was a tendency to eliminate the labial
component, therefore pronunciation gradually was ecus not equus (ekwu!us).
On the other hand, Romanian and Sardinian labialised the groups qu and gu,
therefore they stressed the labial component, and dismissed the velar
component20 : aqua > Rom. ap!, Sard. abba; lingua > Rom. limb!, Log.
limba.

20# Such tendencies were analysed by N. D. Andreev for much older periods of
historical linguistcs, in the case of the Indo!European, Uralic and Altaic groups
labelled Proto!Boreal.
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NOTE. Latin qu reflects IE kw; this evolution was radically different in
Thracian, where – as far as our reconstruction is correct – IE kw resulted in
Thracian @.
• X (ks) had a tendency towards simplification to ss (s) in the 1st century
A.D. Sometimes the initial pronunciation was preserved. Both Romanian
and the Latin elements in Albanian witness these tendencies: coxa > coaps!,
kofshë, but dixit > dissit > zise; maxilla > massilla > m!sea.
• Phonemes b and v had a peculiar situation. In post!classical colloquial
Latin both had a tendency towards a similar pronunciation, i.e. the initial
opposition was gradually replaced by a positional opposition: bilabial (!) if
initial (as in modern Spanish) and b if internal. Betacism (v pronounced as
b) is frequent in post!classical inscriptions, also confirmed by phonetic
evolution in the Romance languages: verbex = vervex, berbex > Rom.
berbece, Rr. brebis; corvus and *corbus > Rom. corb, Fr. corbeau, but It.
corvo.
Intervocalic b and v also had a peculiar evolution. In post!classical
Latin, their tendency was to be gradually lost: avi! > au! (aw!) as in avica >
auca; avicellus > aucellus; !avit > !aut etc. This evolution in post!classical
Latin is also confirmed by the phonetic treatment of Germanic borrowings.
Germanic (bilabial) w was initially similar to v, but in post!classical
borrowings was noted as gu: werra > It. guerra, Fr. guerre.
The situation and evolution of intervocalic b/v is extremely important in
explaining some old tendencies in Romania Orientalis, specifically in
Proto!Romanian as this did not have a uniform evolution, not even in
Romanian, a good proof that such hesitations were not generalised, not even
on a restricted area. As an example, Lat. uber > Rom. uger, but habeo
(already pronounced abeo) preserves intervocalic b/v: a avea, avem. Against
this clearly documented situation, intervocalic b/v in the indigenous
(Thracian) elements of Romanian did not undergo such an evolution.
Many, too many linguists incorrectly postulated that the specific situation of
b/v in post!classical Latin was identical in the indigenous elements too.
There is NO clear example, which may eventually confirm this postulate,

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therefore we are compelled to definitely reject it21 . It is interesting that a
form like abur (Alb. avull) has been long present in the usual lists of
indigenous elements in Romanian, even though intervocalic b would have
rejected it. Note that abur is just an example out of other numerous
examples (e.g. Bal!, balaur, Deva etc.)
We do not insist on other well known evolutions in post!classical Latin.
Any current history of the Romanian language will analyse all the other
situations.

Thracian and Illyrian

Romanisation proceeded rapidly along the Adriatic coast, consequently


the Illyrian language and its speakers vanished from documents beginning
with the 2nd century A.D. After approximately this time limit, Illyria had
purely geographic, not ethnic or linguistic, connotations. In change,
Thracian continued to survive for many centuries on, even if under a
powerful pressure of Romanisation. We wrote elsewhere on this topic
(Paliga 1996). During the last decades, the Bulgarian School of Thracian
Studies insistently advocated the survivial of Thracian until at least the
arrival of the first Slavic groups in mid!sixth century A.D. Romanian
archaeologists have also lately argumented that scattered Thracian speakers
may have survived in the remote, non!Romanised areas of Moldavia (where
the Carpians were located) and northern Transylvania. The answer to the
question ‘until when was Thracian still spoken?’ is indeed difficult, but we
may surmise that it was still a vivid tongue in the 6th–7th centuries A.D.,
possibly later in more and more isolated areas. If we accept the idea that
Albanian is basically a neo!Thracian, not a neo!Illyrian, idiom as formerly

21# As far as our analysis is correct, there is ONE example only: r!covin! v.
r!cuin!.
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considered22, then we may hypothesise, with fair correctness, that Thracian
still survives – in a peculiar way – under the label Albanian. If such a view
is not considered too audacious, then the best formula would be: Thracian
still is a vivid idiom under the name Albanian, and through the numerous
indigenous elements of Romanian, some of them preserved or borrowed in
the neighbouring languages (Bulgarian, Serbian, Ukrainian, Hungarian
mainly). Interdisciplinary research is called to offer better and clearer
answers to our hypothesis briefly sketched here.

Latin and the Romance languages in general offer a rich material of


analysis, represented by both literary and vernacular inscriptions, continued
– with a relative hiatus in post!classical times – by various inscriptions
spread all over the former Roman Empire. Both Thracian and Illyrian, on
the other hand, offer scarce written material, mainly represented by personal
and place!names, approximately spelled by the Greek and Latin writers. We
may have no reasonable doubts that many such names were deformed, and
therefore the etymological analysis is difficult. Fortunately some of these
ancient names have been preserved down to the modern languages of
Central and Southeast Europe: Romanian, Albanian, Bulgarian and other
South Slavic languages (Macedonian, Serbian!Croatian, Slovene). By
permanently comparing the ancient written forms, more or less approximate
in their spelling, with their certain, possible or at least probable counterparts
in the modern languages of the area, we may reconstruct a probable or
possible Thracian form. The general comparative analysis at Indo!European
and Pre!Indo!European level also offers precious hints for a reasonable
reconstruction. We may never have the illusion that such a reconstruction is
perfect, or that the author uttered the ultimate word.

22#It should be clear that habitational continuity on the territory of Albania cannot be
doubted, whereas the linguistic tradition is another issue, as in many other cases.
Speaking of the Neo!Thracian character of Albanian we do not either invoke or
suggest a habitational discontinuity on the territory of Albania, once with hot political
debates. Anyway, the suggested Neo!Illyrian character of Albanian cannot be invoked
any more with scientific arguments.
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An answer to the question whether South Slavic (preponderently
Bulgarian, possibly also Serbian) may have had a direct Late Thracian
influence or an indirect Thracian influence via Proto!Romanian is closely
connected to the already noted question ‘until when was Thracian spoken?’.
Theoretically, and the Bulgarian linguists have tried to argument this, the
first Slavic speakers who settled in both North Danubian and South
Danubian regions may have met the less and less numerous Thracian
speakers. We cannot have an accurate reconstruction of this co!habitation as
the Slavic ethnogenesis itself is still surrounded by enigmas and
contradictory views 23, but we may surmise with fair probability that certain
(late) Thracian speakers may have met the first Slavic groups in their
expansion towards south. And indeed some northern Thracian groups (the
Costobocae or some others) had a certain contribution to the Slavic
ethnogenesis. These North Thracian groups must have had a certain
contribution to the Carpathian Kurgan Culture of the 4th century A.D., and
contemporary with &ernjahov Culture, followed by the typical Slavic
Prague Culture (PraAská kultura). We assume that the thesis of a an old and
‘pure’ Slavic ethnicum should be abandoned, in favour of a more flexible
view of a new ethnic group, in full making after the 3rd century A.D., more
probable beginning with the end of 4th century. This would be in full
accordance with the historical, linguistic and archaeological data: a period
of radical ethno!linguistic changes, which resulted in the new groups of the
early Middle Ages 24. If this interpretation may gradually impose as the
rational and documented hypothesis, then the Slavic ethnogenesis itself was
marked, to a certain extent, by a North Thracian influence and also by an
Early Romance, or Proto!Romanian, influence. In such a situation, the
numerous Romanian!Slavic parallels cannot be simply interpreted as ‘Slavic
borrowings in Romanian’, but as a complex, century!long period of
cohabitation, in which the Latin, Thracian and various satem!based elements

23# A brief survey of the Slavic ethnogenesis may be found in our A Brief History of
the Slavs. When this work is being prepared for print, available in electronic PDF
format.
24# It may be surmised with certainty now that the Slavic ethnogenesis began in the

4th, more probably 5th, century A.D., and was still in progress in the 6th century,
when the Slavs began to penetrate the Balkans, and reaching the Near East.
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of the idioms spoken in what is sometimes labelled Barbaricum interacted
and resulted in the linguistic and social groups of the Middle Ages. From
this perspective, the situation in Southeast Europe was not different from its
West European counterpart, but just marked by the local conditions, or
spiritus loci.
Summing up, it is indeed feasible now to admit that Thracian still was a
vivid idiom in the 6th century A.D., and which survived some time later; and
that its modern and contemporary survivor is Albanian, with a specific
structure but also with an important Romance vocabulary; Thracian also
survives in the quite numerous indigenous elements in Romanian, mainly,
but also in the Thracian elements of Bulgarian and Serbian; it influenced
flection of Romanian and other neighbouring languages, and may be also
held responsible for specific folk beliefs.
I. I. Russu (1969) brought forth convincing arguments – based on
Thracian and Illyrian personal! and place!names – that Thracian and Illyrian
must have been closely related languages, presumably mutually intelligible,
at least along their linguistic border. As approximate as may have been the
spellings in ancient authors, some forms witness a clear similarity,
sometimes identity, and this cannot be the mere result of hazard. As the
Illyrian inventory is still less numerous than the Thracian inventory, we
shall concentrate on a reasonable reconstruction of Thracian phonetics. As
Illyrian was an extinct language in the 2nd century A.D., we have all the
reasons to admit that the possible Illyrian elements, mainly in Albanian,
some in Croatian and Slovene, must have been preserved via
Proto!Dalmatian, to a less extent via West Proto!Romanian25.

25#Even if superfluous, we stress the difference between habitational continuity


and linguistic tradition. Southeast and Central Europe has been continuously
inhabited since Upper Palaeolithic, while the linguistic tradition has changed
several times, of course always preserving certain elements of the substratum
idioms.
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Tentative Phonetic Reconstructions

Reichenkron (1966), Russu (1967, 1981) and what we may label the
Bulgarian School of Thracian Studies (especially Georgiev 1960, 1964 and
Duridanov 1960, 1969), the results of which were also used in Poghirc
(1969), represent three, mutually irreconcilable, methods of phonetic
reconstruction. Nevertheless they do not have the same convincing force.
We plainly assert that the attempts of our Bulgarian colleagues have been
the most coherent and, even if debatable in some details, may be the best
starting point for further discussions. In Romania, both Poghirc and Brâncu!
(1983, 1991) adopted the general conclusions advanced by the Bulgarian
colleagues. The following lines will show the common points we share and
divergences, where we clearly separate. As shown below, our Bulgarian
colleagues have repeatedly disconsidered the major Pre!Indo!European
influence in Southeast Europe and Asia Minor (in Hittite, Greek, Thracian
and Illyrian); hence, a series of repeated and repetitive errors, amplified by
some other errors in detailed analyses, among these the ignored reality that
Thracian had a velar spirant (currently labelled ‘laryngeal’), still surviving
in Proto!Romanian, and the traces of which may be identified. The huge
number of forms labelled ‘et. nec.’ in DEX, and other reference books,
clearly shows that the approach should be finally based on analysing the
Pre!Indo!European component of Thracian too; and to balance it with the
Indo!European component.

Vocalism

Reconstructing a plausible Thracian vocalism means (1) an analysis of


the Thracian names preserved in the Greek and Latin writers, and (2) an
analysis of all possible modern forms preserved in Romanian, Albanian and
Bulgarian. By continuously comparing the two main sources of information,
we may get to a point of plausibility and even certainty, in many cases. This
has been the method adopted by all the linguists who approached the topic.
We cannot make any exception indeed, just to add new – hopefully
convincing – connections and interpretations. We would just note that
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Dimitrov (1994) recently proposed a reconstruction of ‘Palaeo!Balkanic
vocalism’ (Paleobalkanskijat vokaliz!m), bringing a fresh trend in Bulgarian
linguistics against the older tentatives of Georgiev (1960, 1964). The
following lines will discuss the main issues of Thracian phonetic
reconstruction.

It is highly probable that Thracian had a neutre vowel as proved by


Romanian ! 26, Albanian ë and Bulgarian (, as suggested many years ago by
Poghirc (1960 in SCL, pp. 279 ff.). He noted that in some Greek authors B
and 1 alternate, and concluded that the writer was compelled to note a
phoneme absent in Greek. He further argumented his hypothesis in Poghirc
1969: 320. It may be surmised that the existence of this neutre vowel in the
three modern languages cannot be the result of mere hazard. There are no
arguments, which may support the idea that Thracian had two such neutre
vowels, like the opposition ! – î in Romanian, even though such a
possibility cannot be excluded. The oldest Romanian text would rather
suggest that both ! and î/â derived from one initial neutre vowel. It is true
that Portuguese unstressed e notes the same vowel as Romanian î/â, but this
cannot be an argument that both languages developed this phoneme in
identical situations. On the other hand, we may assume that some Thracian
dialects had both $ and ", a tendency which later gradually generalised in
Romanian. This is a mere assumption, based on the comparative analysis in
the lexicon.

Thracian ! and % (short v. long) had an interesting evolution. Several


examples show that % changed first to ô, then to u (in some dialects also o)
in the North Thracian (Daco!Moesian) areal only, as proved by the parallel
evolution NFl M%risia > Mure), but Marica in Bulgaria, and NFl
D%nubius/D%nuvius > Dun!re (with a specific suffix in Romanian). In both
cases, Thr. % > Rom. u. This phonetic phenomenon does not seem to be

26# Romanian ! represents a closed neutre vowel, noted $ in phonetic


transcriptions. In most cases, it reflects an unstressed Latin a, in some other cases it
interferes with the other neutral vowel â, î, which also reflects Latin a, but also all
the other Latin vowels in unstressed position and/or in closed or nasal position (e.g.
vînt, fîntîn! etc.)
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identifiable in the south Danubian region (mainly in Bulgarian), but seems
to have also occurred in Albanian, another proof that modern Albanian must
reflect a more northern, Thracian influence (similarly in Georgiev 1960;
other such examples in Lexicon A). In some Romanian dialects, the
evolution Thr. % > ô resulted in o, which parallels the evolution to u, as
proved by the parallel mum! but NM Codru Moma, in which Moma is the
parallel of mum! ‘mother’.
In other quite clear cases, Thr. deva, dava, dova ‘fortress’ (one of the
typical terms for this semantic sphere) > Rom. NL Deva; in Moldova, there
seems to be a compound *mol!dova, the second part of which is the
Thracian term. Vowel o may reflect a local or regional, dialectal reality, and
not the proof that Thr. a > Rom. o, as this is an isolated example. And the
first part of the compound, mol! seems to parallel the more frequent form
mal. If our analysis is correct, in Eastern Thracian a > o. There is no clear
proof that this was a general tendency of all East Thracian dialects.
It is indeed difficult to reconstruct other details of Thracian vocalism. We
may just surmise that the alternating a/! and o/u in stressed/unstressed
position reflect a substratum influence in Romanian. Also, the alternating o/
oa27 and e/ea in various, including anticipating, positions (e.g. oa in prefinal
syllable of feminine nouns). And also, the alternating e/i, which may also
reflect a later evolution in colloquial Latin, not necessarily in Thracian.

Consonantism

The same difficulties referring to a plausible reconstruction of Thracian


and Proto!Romanian vocalism are when attempting to reconstruct Thracian
consonantism. The main, essential difficulty consists in the impossibility for
the ancient Greek and Latin writers to note the specific Thracian phonemes,
e.g. @, #, C, A, possibly also ts (Rom. '), dz . Additionally, as we now firmly
believe, Thracian also had a velar spirant (currently labelled ‘laryngeal’),

27#Dialectally, diphtong oa notes an open vowel (ò or !), while ea either a specific


semi!vowel e (e#) or semi!vowel y (i"). It is indeed hard to believe that some of these
tendencies, at least, do not reflect the indigenous influence.
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noted *X in the main lexicon, which survived in Proto!Romanian too. It
seems now clear that Proto!Romanian inherited these phonemes from the
substratum language. It is true that other Romance languages also witness
these or some of these sounds, but in each case the historical analysis is
called to determine the historical background in which they developed as
the situations were not identical (cf. Poghirc 1969: 320 sq.). We shall try to
only point out some relevant data.
• Romanian h led to long debates regarding its origin. Starting from
ancient place!name Carsium > Hâr)ova (with Slavic suffix, Poghirc, loc.
cit.) assumed that the evolution c(k) > h witnesses a specific phoneme in
Late Thracian, therefore firmly rejecting the hypothesis that Rom. h is a
Slavic borrowing. This is indeed true, as languages do not borrow
phonemes, but words, and if a specific sound is absent in a given language,
it is replaced by its proximate equivalent. It may be further surmised that
Proto!Romanian indeed had phoneme h, as proved by some common
Romanian and Albanian elements with h, which cannot be explained as
borrowings: Rom. h!mesit – Alb. hamës, Rom. hututui – Alb. hutoj, Rom.
leh!i – Alb. leh. We would even add the parallel Rom. hotar – Alb. hatër
‘limit, margin, fronteer’. 28 If so, and tens examples prove this, the ancient
form of Hîr)ova, spelled Carsium in Latin, must have been *Xars!, in which
X notes the velar spirant.
If our analysis is correct, Thracian had a velar spirant (or ‘laryngeal’), the
evolution of which was zero, f, v and h in Romanian, and f, v, h and possibly
th in Albanian. In some verbal derivatives, Romanian also has ) alternating
with the more frequent f/v/h < Thr. *X. This hypothesis was suggested by
Hamp in 1973, unfortunately it remained isolated. We simply believe that
Eric P. Hamp was right. Proto!Romanian indeed inherited a velar spirant
from the substratum Thracian language, and later lost it by changing its
original sound into f, v and h. In some circumstances, it was probably lost. If
this be accepted, the whole history of the Romanian language should be

28#In Albanian, there are in fact wo words which merged into one form: (1) ‘limit,
margin’ (Rom. hotar) and (2) ‘pleasure’ (Rom. hatâr), the latter one being a
Turkish borrowing. Romanian discriminates the two forms.
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re!written, as this has radical and essential consequences in understanding
Proto!Romanian phonetic inventory.

• Intervocalic b, v and l in the Latin elements, on the one hand, and in


the Thracian elements, on the other hand, also led to hot debates. We
showed that the tendency of intervocalic weaker and weaker b/v was
gradually manifest in colloquial Latin, and ONLY in colloquial Latin. It was
an error to automatically extend this tendency to the indigenous Thracian
elements. There is NO argument at all which may prove the contrary,
despite the frequent (but erroneous) theory that the phonetic evolution of
both Latin and indigenous must have been identical in Proto!Romanian. The
facts do not support this view. Many indigenous elements have been ignored
or automatically included in the large category ‘unknown origin’ (a very
frequent label in DEX) on the grounds that these forms still preserve
intervocalic b, v and l. There are obvious examples, some long included in
the usual list of indigenous elements, which prove that – in the case of the
Thracian elements of Romanian – the preservation of intervocalic b, v and
l is regular, not exceptional. The same about the sequence !br!: Rom.
abur ! v. Alb. avull, NFl Rom. Ibru, NFl Bulg. Ib!r, S.!Cr.29 Ibar. Other
examples in Lexicon A further argument this situation. To add that
intervocalic b/v is preserved in numerous examples currently unexplained,
e.g. a )ov!i (indigenous in Reichenkron 1966). The indigenous character of
c!ciul! (Alb. kësulë) is known for long, and also clear the indigenous
character of bal! and balaur.
• Indo!European sequence sr! followed by a vowel changes into str!. This
is a specific evolution in Thracian, e.g. IE *sreu! ‘to flow; river’ > NFl Thr.
Strymon > Bulg. Struma; and the same evolution in NFl Rom. Strei and
Strem'. The consequence in linguistic analysis is that Romanian sequence
str may reflect either this sequence in Indo!European or the evolution IE *sr
> Thr. str.

29# We preserve the traditional abbreviation ‘S.!Cr.’ for Serbian!Croatian, formerly


Serbo!Croatian.
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• The vowels e and i palatalise the preceding consonant in certain
circumstances, e.g. if not aspirated (see below). This is a typical
phenomenon in the satem languages, therefore in Thracian as well. The
major difficulty again consists in the impossibility to correctly reconstruct
the original form, if only based on the ancient spellings, approximate as they
were. Therefore, a comparison with the situation in Romanian and Albanian
is imperious. It seems that IE *kw!e/i! > Thr. @, e.g. IE *kwo! > Thr. @ot!,
probably in ND Kottys 30, with a real pronunciation *@ot!is, @ot!iC, cf. Rom.
ciot, ciut, ciut!, ciung.
• Thracian probably preserved a series of aspirated consonants, which did
not palatalise before e/i, cf. NL, NM, ND German (but also S.!Cr. Derman,
a secondary patalalisation), NP Rom. Gherman. See also grui, gurgui etc.
• It is not certain whether Thracian had apical consonants like Albanian
th (E) and dh ('). Albanian might have developed them in the couse of
historical evolution, or they may have been present in some Thracian
dialects only. Even if Romanian does not witness such phonemes, this is not
a decisive argument that they were also absent in Thracian and/or Illyrian,
or – at least – in some dialects. In some cases at least, Albanian th and dh
may also reflect an initial velar spirant (laryngeal). We assume, with
arguments, that when Rom. f corresponds to Alb. th (as in f!rîm! – thërimë),
Rom. f and Alb. th reflect the evolution of an initial velar spirant (laryngeal).
If this theory may prove correct, then Alb. th and dh may be later
developments of earlier phonemes. In certain circumstances, they continue
the original velar spirant *X.

30# Goddess Cotys, Cottys, Kottys is typical for the Thracian beliefs. Ancient
spelling reflects a most probable pronunciation *@ot! (see Lexicon E).
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Indo!European Sonants F G H I

The evolution of Indo!European sonants is a chapter apart in the


historical evolution of Thracian. The probable situation, based on several
clear cases, is summarised below:

PIE% Thracian% Slavic% Lithuanian% Latin% Greek


__________________________________________________________
G5 5 ur5 5 ir, ur5 5 ir5 5 5 or5 5 ,J, J,
F5 5 ul5 5 il, ul5 5 il5 5 5 ol, ul55 ,K, K,
H55 um 5 5 =5 5 im5 5 5 em5 5 ,
I5 5 un 5 5 =5 5 in5 5 5 en5 5 ,
__________________________________________________________

We may note the symmetrical evolution. Thracian had similarities with


Lithuanian, on the one hand, but also with Germanic, being therefore a
typical situation in the vast Indo!European area. Our reconstruction is based
on plausible or probable data, e.g. IE bhG!, zero grade of *bher! ‘to bear, to
carry’ > Rom. burt! ‘belly; stomach’, cf. German Ge!burt ‘birth’ etc. North
Thracian dialects underwent a process of de!nasalising H > u, as in sut!.
We could not identify a clear example for IE *I, but – if comparative
analysis is correct – it must have had the same evolution as IE H.

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A General Tableau

Thracian must have had a phonetic inventory specific to a satem idiom.


Even if some detailed evolutions are not clear, our reconstruction may be
labelled as probable or, at least, possible. The table below shows a probable
situation in ‘Classical’ and Late Thracian:
# b5 d5 g 5v 5 gh5 #5 z5 A5 dz
5 p5 t5 k 5f5 kh5 @5 s5 C5 ts(')5 (h31)
# velar spirant *X > Rom. f, v, h, ) 32; Alb. f, v, h and th.

NOTE 1. Phonemes gh and kh do not palatalise before e/i. See above


discussions regarding the Thracian and possibly Proto!Romanian laryngeal.
NOTE 2. Understanding the evolution of velar spirant (laryngeal) *X in
the indigenous elements of Romanian (and Albanian, of course) is crucial in
understanding one of the most interesting peculiarities of the substratum
language of Romanian. Generally, the laryngeal theory had and has its
adepts and enemies, so a large acceptance seems at least naïve.
Nevertheless, the arguments presented and discussed in the main lexicon
will hopefully incent for a larger debate. See the discussions under burduf –
a burdu)i (v. burt!), ceaf!, f!rîm!, puf!i/puh!i, vatr!, v!taf etc. In all these
cases, f, h and v are contextual realisations of the original velar spirant *X.

Thracian had therefore a phonetic inventory close to Baltic, with


Lithuanian closest, but also to Slavic. This cannot be surprising as Baltic,
Slavic and Thracian belong to the same satem branch of the Indo!European
family. Hence sometimes the difficulty in identifying a firm answer to the

31# It is not cetain whether ‘Classical’ Thracian had phoneme h, but it is certain that
it later developed from an original velar spirant, concurrently with f, v and ).
32# Rom. f and ) alternate, which is a specific phonetic phenomenon when an

original velar spirant (laryngeal) was present, e.g. burduf – a burdu)í; v!taf – a
v!t!)í etc. Otherwise, h and f may alternate, as in ceaf! – Ceahl!u, a puf!i – a
puh!i (for which see Finnish puhua ‘to speak’) etc.
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question whether a given example is indigenous Thracian in Romanian or a
Slavic borrowing, e.g. balt! – Sl. blato, gard – Sl. grad( etc. We should
note also, as stated elsewhere with further arguments, that a certain northern
Thracian influence may be identified in Proto!Slavic (or Pre!Expansion
Slavic, PES), and also noting that Slavic got its contours after the 4th century
A.D. 33

33# PES = Pre!Expansion Slavic is a term we used in Slavisti@na Revija a long


time ago, and – we believe – it reflects a linguistic and historical reality in the 4th–
5th centuries A.D., when we may really speak of Proto!Slavic or, in our
terminology, Pre!Expansion Slavic, or PES.
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Slavic Phonetic Inventory

We cannot insist on the complex problem of Slavic ethnogenesis, not


even on the vast problems connected to Proto!Slavic. For our purpose only,
it is relevant to point out that, within the 5th and 7th centuries A.D., East
Romance!Proto!Romanian, Late Thracian (the last remnants of Thracian
speakers) and Slavic interfered for some time; and there was at least a
century!long cohabitation of Slavic and Dalmatian along the Adriatic coast.
It is yet relevant to pinpoint some basic elements of the first reconstructable
Proto!Romanian, Late Thracian and Slavic34 contacts.

Vocalism

The main features of Slavic vocalism are the following (see mainly
Olteanu et al. 1975: 38 ff.):
• Vowels o and u have a round, labialised pronunciation.
• Vowel L is a diphtong (e#a or ja).
• There were two nasal vowels, = and (.
• There was no opposition between long and short vowels, as in Greek,
Latin and, we think, Thracian.
• Pre!yotation was early known, i.e. a weakening of both anterior and
posterior vowels, which leads to false diphtongs: ja, je, ju, jen, jon. Vowels y
(M) and ( do not weaken, they are always strong.

Neutral vowels, though different in pronunciation, were specific to both


Slavic and Thracian. Otherwise the vocalic systems of the two linguistic
groups were different, though of course within the specific limits of any

34# For a certain period, perhaps the best term would be Pre!Expansion Slavic
(PES) we once analysed and argumented. This may be dated, with fair accuracy,
from the 5th to the 6th century A.D.
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satem language. Bonfante (1966, in the Romanian version 2001: 175–195)
assumes that the phonetic system of Proto!Romanian decisively influenced
the Slavic phonetic inventory, and re!modelled it to the forms known from
earliest written documents. The data presented in this volume offer further
arguments, which support Bonfante’s hypothesis 35.

Consonantism

Early Slavic consonant system had again some common points with
Thracian and Proto!Romanian. Thus, the usual voiced/voiceless pairs b/p, d/
t, g/k, v/f, z/s, were complemented by the palatal fricative and aspirated
consonants A/C, dz/c and @ as well as dental compounds Ad/Ct. Nasals and
liquids m/n and l/r do not have specific features.

Interferences between Proto!Romanian, Thracian and Slavic

It is worth noting that, by the mutual influence of the Romance and


indigenous elements, preponderently of Thracian character as long as the
Illyrians were completely Romanised as early as the 2nd century A.D.,
Proto!Romanian got its originality in the 5th century, a conventional limit
between the Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages. Linguistically, the 5th
century may be the reference point from which we may speak of
Proto!Romanian, which gradually developed by natural evolution of
colloquial Latin and indigenous Thracian. Initially, there was no Slavic
influence. Some linguists formerly believed that earliest Slavic elements
in Romanian may be dated in the 6th or 7th century A.D. There is no
argument which may support the idea that Slavic influence in
Romanian may be dated earlier than the 11th century A.D., more

35# Giuliano Bonfante’s views on Proto!Romanian, as stated in Studi Romeni,


are further argumented here. On the other hand, we delimit from Bonfante’s theory
regarding the ‘mythic sounds’ (i.e. laryngeal) in the Indo!European languages. We
firmly believe that a velar spirant (currently labelled laryngeal) was still a vivid
phoneme in Late Thracian and, very probably, in Proto!Romanian.
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250
Colloquial Latin. Phonetical Evolution. Grammar
_________________________________________________________________________
probable 12th century. Gh. Mih$il$ has lately advocated that earliest Slavic
influence in Romanian began in the 12th century. In change, as Giuliano
Bonfante convincingly argumented, Proto!Romanian must have had an
important role in contouring the Proto!Slavic phonetic inventory. In clearer
terms, we also believe that, on the one hand, the theories of a massive Slavic
influence upon Romanian were largely exaggerated, and – on the other hand
– we also believe that East Romance, based on colloquial Latin and an
important Thracian influence, had an important role in contouring
Proto!Slavic. This may radically change the views regarding the Slavic
ethnogenesis. As far as linguists, historians and archaeologists are prepared
for reconsidering the social, political and linguistic tableau of those years,
then we may have a clearer view of the realities of those times.
In the following examples, the abbreviation Rom. refers to the
Proto!Romanian phase.

Treatment of Proto!Romanian Vowels 36

• Rom. a and ! have a different treatment. Slavic languages generally


preserve a not changed to o, and ! is reflected as a: NFl Aborna < *Abarna
or *Aborna; Thr. NFl M%risia > Bulg. Marica, but, from a similar etymon,
Rom. Mure), with a specific North Thracian (Daco!Moesian) evolution % >
u, which must have ended in the 5th–6th century. Numerous examples show
that Rom. a (and generally Pre!Slavic a) is not automatically changed to o,
as often generalised without arguments. Also ban, which we consider an
indigenous elements, does not alter a to o. The word is specific mainly to
South Romanian and South Slavic, which may be a hint it had been the
specific organisational term of the Thracian groups along the Danube. Rom.
Cr!ciun > Kra@un, therefore ! > a (unstressed). The evolution !
(unstressed) > o is met in some other cases, notably st!pân > stopan, but â

36 Of course, if we accept the idea that Thracian still was a vivid idiom in the
5th–6th centuries A.D., then the title of this chapter should be Treatment of
Proto!Romanian and Late Thracian Vowels. For further examples, see the
Addenda, Lexica A, B and D.
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251
Pars secunda
_________________________________________________________________________
(< !) in stressed position is reflected as a in Slavic. The treatment of
Thracian and/or Proto!Romanian a/! in the Slavic borrowings must reflect
chronologically discriminated periods of borrowing and, perhaps, dialectal
evolutions difficult to reconstruct now.
In other cases, Rom. a > o: NL Augusta > Ogosta; Asamus > Os!m (both
in South Slavic). It is not clear why only some forms follow this evolution.
These may be dialectal or local evolutions and/or chronologically
discriminated borrowings. Any attempt for clearer conclusions is not
possible in our view. Future research is called to clarify such details.
Anyway, Thr. Alutus > Rom. Olt is a special case in Romania, and the only
which would suggest a Slavic phonetic influence. The difficulty is important
only if we are certain that Thracian indeed had a, not a specific phoneme
impossible to note in the Greek and Latin authors. If a phoneme like $, the
difficulty consists in re!drawing possible evolutions of phonemes we can
only reconstruct.
• Vowel e is generally preserved, disregarding the accent, cf. Nera,
Neseb!r, Senj etc. In Peperuda < Rom. P!p!rud!, unstressed e in preserved
in Bulgarian, while Romanian has a normal ! in unstressed position.
• South Slavic i may reflect either an etymological i, as in Drinja@a, or an
original e, as in Naissus (in post!classical times pronounced as *NeC!us),
Ib!r < ancient Hebrus etc.
• Vowel o is preserved, e.g. NL Orga, So@a < Isontius (in this latter case,
post!classical pronunciation was probably *Ison@). We could not identify
situations of evolution to u, but such an identification is indeed difficult as
we do not know post!classical pronunciation.
• Vowel u had a different treatment. It was either preserved, as in NL
Lug, but there are at least two clear situations of evolution u > Sl. (, cf.
colloquial Latin *kumátra (classical commatrem) > Rom. cum*tr! > Sl.
k(motra and Rom. sut! > sl. s(to. In place!names, initial u is sometimes
voiced to v, as in Urbanus, Urpanus > Vrba, but in this case, or other
similar cases, folk etymology had its role: vrba ‘willow’. NL Urbanus,
Urpanus is related to the Romanian forms with root or!, ur!, oar!.

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Treatment of Proto!Romanian Consonants 37

Proto!Romanian consonants reflected in South Slavic (or generally


Slavic) borrowings do not raise difficult problems, at least if we hope to
have solved the long debated issue of intervocalic b/v and l in the Latin
elements v. the indigenous (Thracian) elements. Some convincing examples
show that these were generally preserved in the oldest borrowings.
Examples which confirm this assertion: ban, in our view an old term in
the sphere of social organisation (together with Rom. st!pân > Sl. stopan(
and Rom. giupân/jupân > Sl. Aupan) was borrowed as ban. Other examples:
baci (ba@) > ba@, ba@a, ba@o (also attested as place!name); colib! > koliba
(with intervocalic b and l, a detail which seemingly impeded its being
accepted as an old term in Romanian38); bordei > bordei, bordel, bordelj;
Albona > Labin, with metathesis alb > lab etc.
• C (k) and g was preserved as such or palatalised in some circumstances.
Colloquial Latin and Proto!Romanian *kumatra > k(motra; colib! > koliba;
Coll. Lat. *calende (calendae) > kol=da, with evolution a > o and nasal en
reflected by = in Slavic; Cr!ciun > Kra@un; Cebrus > Cib!r, with
palatalisation c(k) > c(ts), but Kebros > Kerbovo, without palatalisation;
Cataracta > N)dra; Clissa > Klis; Thr. and Coll. Lat. *German
(place!name, mountain name and personal name, cf. Rom. Gherman) >
Bulg. German, but S.!Cr. Derman, with a secondary late palatalisation; NFl
Struga < NFl Thr. *Struga (cf. Struma, Strei, Strem', all witnessing the
specific Thracian evolution from IE *sreu! to Thr. *str!). Initial, archaic C
(k) palatalise as in Celeia > Celje; civitatem > Cavtat (Croatian), Nedad
(Slovene); Crexa, Crexi > Cres.

37 #
See other examples in the Addenda, mainly Lexica A and B.
38# Rom. colib! or Slavic koliba obviously derive from the same etymon. The
closest source is Greek or we may assume a Thracian origin in both Greek,
Romanian and Slavic. A definite answer may be given only after a careful analysis
of possibly similar situations.
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253
Pars secunda
_________________________________________________________________________
• Consonants d and t behave similarly, i.e. are preserved or are palatalised
in some circumstances, as in k(motra, vatah/vatak, vatra, bordej/bordelj,
Dodola, Peperuda, T!Aa/TundAa (with a probable original phoneme A in
Thracian), Timok, Timava, Trojan etc. In NFl So@a, phoneme @ may be
original or a result of a palatalisation. Ancient spelling Isontius is not
relevant, as phoneme @, as other specific Thracian and /or Illyrian phonemes,
could not be accurately noted. Also in Bra@ < Brattia phoneme @ seems to
reflect an original sound. A secondary palatalisation is in Okocjan < *Sant (<
sanctus) Cantianus; sequence t + i/j > c(ts). In Matereia > Modrejce, the
group !ter! closed to !tr!, then was voiced to !dr!. An interesting case is
Dalmatia > Dlamoc > Glamo@, with evolution t + i > c(ts)/@.
• The evolution of f and v puts some interesting problems, with the
essential note that, in some cases, they may also reflect the contextual
realisation of the former velar spirant (or laryngeal). Consequently, v may
reflect (1) the voiced initial IE phoneme w, (2) voiced Latin u (w), and (3)
contextual realisation of Thracian velar spirant *X as in vatr!, v!taf etc.
Consequently colloquial Latin v is preserved in NL Cavtat (Croatian), but
Slovene Nedad < Lat. civitate(m) (Rom. cetate etc.). In NFl Dunav, final v is
NOT etymological, but an adaptation to a current flectional category in
Slavic. Phoneme f is preserved NL FruCka (Gora) < Franca (villa), cf.
Rom. frânc ‘a person belonging to a West Romance group’ (now obsolete,
current as personal name only). In the Dalmatian area, f > p, e.g. NL Plomin
< Flanonae. Latin p may be voiced to v in some circumstances, e.g. NL
Levrera (Lo*inj island in the Kvarnerian group) < Leporaria, with a
probable phonetic evolution *Leprera > Lebrera/Levrera.
• Consonants s, z, C !i A require a specific note. It is certain that both C and
A did exist in East Romance, mainly as a substratum influence. The major,
essential difficulty consists in the impossibility to have been noted by Greek
and Latin spelling. Consequently the only possibility to reconstruct a
plausible phonetic tableu is a comparative method based on a larger
Indo!European context and the possible relics in Romanian, Albanian and
South Slavic mainly. Thus it is highly probable that A in Aupan" is the
evolution of Proto!Romanian # > A (spelled j in Romanian). With this in
mind, there are entirely expected evolutions, e.g. NL Clissa > Klis, Asamus
> Os!m. In NL KljuAica, A probably reflects a voiced C as the etymon is
colloquial Latin clusus < claudo, claudere ‘to shut, to close’. In NFl LaCta,
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Colloquial Latin. Phonetical Evolution. Grammar
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phoneme C is presumably original and preserved as such from the
substratum language.

It should be remembered that some phonetic evolutions in the substratum


elements are divergent in Romanian v. South Slavic, which – in its turn –
had a complex co!habitation of several substratum groups, mainly Thracian
and Illyrian, but also ancient Macedonian, to a less extent Celtic. We have of
course concentrated on the Thracian substratum elements, but a minimally
coherent view of the complex topic circumscribed by formulas like
‘indigenous/substratum heritage’ cannot ignore a larger comparative view,
as we have tried to briefly suggest here.
Then, we should always remember that, by mid!sixth century A.D., there
was a newer, and again complex linguistic and social reality, in which East
Romance cohabitated with last Thracian groups, and also with the first
Slavic groups. This means, beyond any doubt, influences and interferences,
folk etymology and all the main or secondary aspects of social life and
communication. For sure, the indigenous elements were integrated in East
Romance over a long period of time, anyway considerably longer than the
interval 106–272 A.D. when the official Roman administration withdrew
from Dacia. An interdisciplinary research is imperious in such complex
situations.

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255
Addenda
Addenda / Introduction
__________________________________________________________________

The Addenda

The addenda refer to relevant data to the main dictionary, and reflect various
previous studies, revised and updated:
Lexicon A (quoted as such in the main dictionary) reflecting the main Pre-
Slavic place-names in ‘continental South Slavic’, i.e. Bulgaria, Serbia,
Montenegro, Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia and Slovenia, of Thracian and
Illyrian origin. They are often similar or even identical to the Romanian
forms of Thracian origin: Rom. Strei, Strem! may be compared to Bulg.
Struma and Thr. Strymon; and many such examples. Most of them are
indeed of Thracian or Illyrian origin, some of them are of Latin or Proto-
Romanian origin and, all in all, are relevant to the global data in the main
dictionary. The initial version of this lexicon represented a chapter in our
doctoral thesis Influen!e romane "i preromane în limbile slave de sud
(1996), revised and updated several times ever since.
Lexicon B (quoted as such in the main dictionary) refers to the archaic
place-names in the Adriatic Islands. By their archaic character, these com-
plement the data in both ‘continental South Slavic’ and Romania. It was also
included as a chapter in our thesis above mentioned.
Lexicon C is a minimal list of some archaic personal names, of Thracian or
Illyrian origin, as identifiable in Romanian, Bulgarian and Serbian.
Lexicon D refers to the archaic place-names in the Czech Republic and Slo-
vakia. It also complements the data in both the main dictionary and
Lexica A and B. Its first version was presented at the Etymologické Syn-
posion in Brno, Czech Republic, September 2002.
Lexicon E is a glossary of Thracian and Phrygian god-names, and comple-
ments and data in the main dictionary, and is indeed relevant to those
items referring to mythology and religion. As hopefully clearly pre-
sented, some Romanian forms derive from their archaic, Thracian source.
Its initial version was prepared for the Orpheus, Sofia.

I also added a brief list of the Pre-Indo-European and so-called Proto-


Boreal roots referred to in both the main dictionary and Lexica A, B, C and
D, and also in the glosssary of Thracian and Phrygian god-names. As ana-
lysed and stated elsewhere, ‘Proto-Boreal’ is a linguistic term coined by
Nikolaj Dmitrievi! Andrejev, who aimed at identifying an archaic common
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259
Addenda / Introduction
__________________________________________________________________
heritage of Proto-Indo-European, Proto-Uralic and Proto-Altaic, represented
by 203 basic roots. This is a mezolithic linguistic stage of the cultures de-
veloped between the North Pontic Steppes and the Baltic, and a common
heritage of the Indo-European, Uralic and Altaic languages. Pre-Indo-
European is a long!used term referring to the languages once spoken in
South-East, Central and West Europe prior to the arrival of the Indo-
Europeans.
These glossaries are of course abridged and selected according to their
being relevant to the data presented in the main dictionary, and also in the
Lexica A, B, C and D.
For the numerous references to the Romanian forms see the main lexicon
above.

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260
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
__________________________________________________________________

Lexicon A. Pre-Slavic Place!Names in the Balkanic Peninsula

Aborna, a tributary of river Nadi!a, or brook’); Adour (southern France)


Slovenia. Certainly Pre-Slavic (Illy- < Lat. Aturus, the latter of presuma-
rian), from *Abarna (cf. Ill. Abar- bly Celtic origin, etc. The hypothe-
nos) or *Aborna, Alburna, Albruna, sis of a Turkish influence cannot be
cf. ancient Albarna > Aubarne accepted.
(France). The root *ab!, *alb! is Ajtos, NL, the field neighbouring
presumably Preie. (Bezlaj). It must the gulf of Burgas, today in Bul-
be *AL!, *AR! as in Lat. altus. garia; < Lat. Aetos, reflecting an in-
digenous (Thracian) word, possibly
Abrnca, tributary of river Reka,
of Preie. origin, maybe the same
Slovenia. Explained from *Apnarica root as in Ada.
< Pre-Slavic (Ill.) apno < IE *ap! Algunja, NL; Algun!tica, NFl, Ma-
‘water’. cedonia. Pre-Slavic of Thracian ori-
Abtat, NL Bulgaria. Ancient Abru- gin, cf. Lat. alga, Lith. alksna ‘a
tus (cf. Abrud in Romania). The marsh, a moor’, NFl Lith. Alga. The
phonetic evolution is not clear; per- Thracian reconstructed form is
haps we must start from a local pro- *Alg!on (Duridanov 1975: 131). We
nunciation, not from the official one may also refer to Preie. *AL!, *AR!.
recorded in documents.
Arbe", also Rbe", tributary of river
Ada, NFl, tributary of Tisa at the Nadi!a, Slovenia. Pre-Slavic Arba,
Hungarian!Serbian border. An at- Arva, cf. It. Erbezzo < Lat. *her-
tempt has been made to explain the bidia < herba. In the Slovene area,
form from S.!Cr. ada < Tk. ada ‘an it may be an Illyrian river!name, ini-
island’. Nevertheless there are other tially borrowed by the Romanised
similar forms for which this origin is
population, or a Latin river!name.
unacceptable, e.g. Adda (Lombar-
As the root ar! is present in other
dia) < Lat. Adua (cf. Av. adu ‘a river
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261
Addenda
__________________________________________________________________
river!names as well, I rather incline baci) is difficult to admit. It is rather
to the hypothesis of an Illyrian riv- an indigenous Illyrian element,
er!name (similarly in Bezlaj). Cf. which leads to the conclusion that
Arda, Dunav(a), Rab. both Thracian and Illyrian had a
similar word preserved in both
Ar"ar, NL (Moesia Sup., today in
Thracian and Illyrian area. Simi-
Bulgaria), NFl < Ad Ratiaria(m)
larly, cf. NP Thr. Batsinis, f. (De"ev
(from ratis ‘a raft’).
1957: 46) and NP Ill. Bato, m., Bat-
Arda, NFl, Bulgaria, tributary of
ina, f. (Russu 1969: 175). Cf. next
Marica. Thracian, from an IE root
entry.
akin to O.Ind. árdati ‘to flow’, Gr.
Ba"a, tributary of rivers Idrji-
ardo ‘to spill’ or Preie. root *AR!
ca!So"a, Slovenia. Certainly Pre-
(analysed by Chantraine 1950: 56
Slavic (Bezlaj). There are other
sq.). See also Hristov (1964: 123).
similar names in Slovenia: Ba"ica, a
Cf. Arad in Romania.
water!spring; Ba"ki Potok, NFl,
Av!"ek, tributary of river So"a,
tributary of Mirna. Cf. previous en-
Slovenia, region of Av"e. Frl. Ause,
try and Rom. baci.
Ausa, It. Aussa, ancient Alsa, name
of a rivulet or brook in the delta of Bader, NL, Macedonia, near Skopje.
river So"a. Pre-Slavic, Illyrian, Ancient Bederiana, reflecting a
eventually Celtic. Thracian place!name (Duridanov
1975: 19; Franck 1932: 6). Cf. NP
Ba", Ba"ka, NR, Serbia < Rom.
baci ‘the chief shephard’, of indige- Thr.!Dac. Bedarus, Baedarus. Cf.
nous Thr.!Dac. origin, possibly also Badica (infra) and Rom. bade.
via Hung. bács ‘id.’, which is also Badica, NFl, Slovenia, tributary of
borrowed from Romanian. There are river Rabojesca. Cf. Rom. bade,
several place!names Ba", Ba"a in b!di"!, a term to address a male per-
Slovenia, also considered Pre-Slavic son, in modern dialectal Romanian
(Bezlaj 1961 and 1969). For Slove- used by the beloved girl. Considered
nia, the Romanian origin (from “unclear” by Bezlaj, probably Pre-
Slavic. As the relation to Rom. bade
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262
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
__________________________________________________________________
is obvious, it may be questioned Banja Luka, NL, Bosnia; ‘the plain
whether it is a Proto!Romanian ele- of the ban’. Luka is Slavic; ban is
ment in Slovene or whether a simi- Pre-Slavic, Thr.!Dac., via Romanian
lar and related (“urverwandt”) word in S.!Cr.. See the discussion in
to Rom. bade existed in Illyrian too. Paliga 1987 b. See Baniski Lom,
Cf. Ba#, Ba#a, supra. Banj.
Baniski Lom, NFl, Bulgaria, tribu- Bar, NL, a harbour in Muntenegro –
tary of river Rusenski Lom. Basic Lat. Barium. Cf. NL Bari (Italy) –
meaning: ‘The Lom of Ban’; ban is Lat. Barium, in both cases of Illyrian
an indigenous Thr.!Dac. element origin. Probably Preie. *B!R!, *P!R!,
(Paliga 1987 b), and Lom is a “topo- cf. Bîrg!u, Parîng in Romania.
nymical relic” (see below s.v. Lom). Barba"ina, NFl, tributary of Vi-
Cf. Banja Luka, infra. pava, Slovenia. Pre-Slavic, cf. an-
Banj, NFl, tributary of Lahinja, cient Barbanna > fr. Barbanne. In
Slovenia. River! and place!names Slovene, an Illyrian origin may be
having the root ban! are unclear, cf. surmised, probably a root *barb!
NL Bane and its relation to ban ‘a ‘mud, a marsh’ (Bezlaj) or the same
local leader’ (archaic, presumably root as in Bar, Baredine.
Thracian or Thraco!Illyrian word, as Baredine, NFl, tributary of upper
considered by Bezlaj). Ban was ana- Mirna, Slovenia. Pre-Slavic and
lysed elsewhere (Paliga 1987 b); the Pre!Roman, Veneto!Illyrian *bar-
word must be of indigenous, Thra- radjo!, of unclear meaning, proba-
cian origin. The Illyrian language bly akin to Bar, Barba#ina (supra)
might have had a similar word. Both and next entry.
the Romanian and south Slavic
Bargala, NL, Macedonia. See Bre-
forms should be explained from ei-
galnica.
ther Thracian and/or Illyrian. See
Barman, NFl, tributary of Rezijanska
next entry.
Bela, Slovenia. Pre-Slavic, Illyrian
*borm! ‘a water!spring’ (Bezlaj). Suf-

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263
Addenda
__________________________________________________________________
fix !man is specific to some Thracian colloquial Latin or Romanian”). On
and also Illyrian place!names, e.g. the other hand, NFl Bojana, origi-
German; other examples in Romania. nating in the lake of Skadar and
flowing into the Adriatic, is named
Batava, NFl, tributary of upper
in Albanian Bunë (gheg dialect) <
Ba"a, at Podbrd, Slovenia. Pre-
*Buanë. Ancient form: Livia
Slavic and Pre!Roman, cf. Batavi,
Barbenna. Starting from this form,
Batavia, Patavium (today Padua).
Skok (1: 183) tries to explain the
Bate, NL, Slovenia, at the border modern form via a series of phonetic
with Italy. Pre-Slavic, Illyrian, cf.
changes: (1) dissimilation r!n > !n;
NPp Venti and alb. vend, vënd ‘a
(2) !enna > !anna; (3) fall of in-
place, a locality’, NL Ill. Avendona
ter!vowel b, as in Romanian and Al-
(Bezlaj 1961: 151).
banian; (4) a > o. Therefore the
Batuje, NL, Slovenia, Ajdov#"ina.
phonetic evolution would be:
Ancient Batavia. (Bezlaj 1969: 25).
Barbenna > *Babanna > *Baiana >
Cf. NFl Batava, supra.
Bojana. Nevertheless the situation
Be"ej, NL in the region of Ba#ka, of these forms is even more compli-
Serbia; akin to the latter, see under cated if we take into account the
Ba#, Ba#ka. Bulgarian personal names Bojan(a),
Bled, NL, Slovenia. Pre-Slavic considered as derived from root boj!
*peld!, *beld!, Illyrian or Celtic, ‘a battle, a war’ (BER 1: 71). Riv-
unclear meaning (Ramov# 1936: er!, place! and personal names of the
26). Might continue Preie. *P!L, type Bojan, Bojana are attested all
*B!L!. over the south Slavic area (e.g. NL
Bojana, NL, near Sofia – Lat. pop. Slv. Bojanci, Bojanja vas, Bojanji
*boiana acqua (classical boviana vrh), as well as Romania, NL Boian
acqua) ‘water for cattle’. The same (districts of Cluj and Sibiu) and
etymon, directly or via Romanian, is Boianu Mare (Bihor, absent in Ior-
acceptable for NL Bojana, in Vito#a, dan 1963), also Boi"a (Hunedoara,
Bulgaria (BER 1, 71: “Pre-Slavic Sibiu), but also Boura (Suceava),

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264
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
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Boureni (Dolj, Ia$i). For Romanian, Barba#ina (supra) does not support
it is acceptable to explain the forms Skok either. For root boi! in Roma-
as derived from *bovus (classical nian names, see also Constantinescu
bos, bovis), respectively from bobu- 1963: 24 and 207, and Iordan 1963:
lus > bour. It is difficult to state 387, 440, 450. For the situation of
whether all the south Slavic forms bovinus (< bos) in colloquial Latin
Bojan(a) may be explained from see REW 110/1247. Summing up, it
*bovus (bos, bovis). As shown may be surmised that the various
above, for the river!name from the forms having the root boj! in south
Croatian!Albanian border, Skok as- Slavic languages reflect both an old
sumes a direct preservation of a Pre- Romance (Proto!Romanian) influ-
Slavic Illyrian form. On the other ence, and (possibly) also the adop-
hand, the forms of this type inter- tion of a Pre-Slavic Illyrian root (the
fere, at the level of folk etymology, case analysed by Skok). The inter-
with the place!names derived from ference with the Slavic root boj! ‘a
boj$ ‘a battle, a war’, attested all battle, a war’ is also possible. The
over the Slavic area (%milauer 1970: case of Rom. boier ‘a rich person’
40) and Romania, e.g. NL Boina (later with social and political con-
(Cara$). Newer investigations seem notations) was analysed in Paliga
to reject Mareti&’s hypothesis (1886: 1990, reprinted in Paliga 1999.
II, 89), who assumes that NP S.!Cr. Bojanci ('rnomelj), Bojanja vas
Bojan might be a hypocoristic of (Metlika), Bojanji vrh (Grosuplje),
Bogoslav, Borislav etc. Every case NL, Slovenia. See Bojana.
should be therefore analysed sepa- Bol, NL near Split. Lat. vallum;
rately, taking into account possible same case in Lexicon B, III, 3.
interferences. I assume that the riv-
Bosna, NFl, NR ! Med. Lat. Bosnia,
er!name analysed by Skok also un-
reflecting an indigenous (Illyrian or
derwent an interference!adaptation
Thracian) element from IE *bhog!! ‘a
at popular level. See also NL Bujan,
in Tropoja, Albania. The case of
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265
Addenda
__________________________________________________________________
rivulet, a brook; flowing water’, cf. might be Preie.
Gm. Bach ‘a marsh, a moor’). Brenta, a waterfall of river Volar-
Bosut, NL, Pann. Inf. < (Ad) nica, Slovenia. Pre-Slavic, etymon
Bas(s)ante (see also Skok 1917: unclear, cf. Slv. brenta, Cr. brenta,
133, n. 23). Istr.!Rom. brente ‘Butte’ (Bezlaj).
Bo!ana NL near Biograd, Adriatic Brinjek, a water!spring and other
coast. Related to Bo%ane (Lexicon 13 place!names of the type Brinje,
B, I, 5); Illyro!Romance, etymon Brine in Slovenia and Croatia. Pre-
unclear. Slavic and Pre!Roman relic *brina
Bra"ana, NFl, tributary of Mirna in ‘juniperus’, Frl. brene, brena
Istria, Slovenia. Certainly Pre- (Bezlaj).
Slavic, either Pre!Roman (Illyrian) Brioni, O. S.!Cr.. Brijúni, It. Brioni
relic, or a Roman personal name. Cf. < Postcl. Lat. Brivona, of Illyrian
ancient Brattia, Bratia (Bezlaj) and origin, etymon unclear.
NI Bra#, in Lexicon B.
Bri!e, NL, Zagorje region, Slovenia;
Bregalnica, NFl, tributary of Bri!"e, NM, Slovenia. The moun-
Vardar. Ancient Astibos. The riv-
tain!name is attested in 888 A.D. in
er!name is derived from NL Bar- the Med. Lat. spelling Broxias. Pre-
gala, a locality on Bregalnica, in- Slavic, probably Illyrian *Broskja >
digenous Pre-Slavic of Thracian *bry%#e > Bri%#e; there is no early
origin, IE *bhergh! ‘a peak, a hill’, document for the place!name, but
with a phonetic adaptation after Sl. the relationship with the moun-
br&g' ‘a hill, a mountain’ (etymo- tain!name is obvious (Ramov# 1936:
logical substitution).
36).
Bregana, NFl, tributary of Sava,
Budva, NL (Montenegro) < Buthua,
Slovenia. Pre-Slavic, cf. Brege, NFl
Buthoe. The spelling must reflect an
(Baden), Ill. Berginium, Celtic
indigenous place!name. Cf. Buda
*briga ‘a hill, a mountain’ (Bezlaj).
(part of Budapest) and other similar
Cf. Bîrg!u in Romania. Both forms

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266
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
__________________________________________________________________
or identical forms in Central and Cf. Rom. cetate (NL Cetate, Ce-
Southeast Europe, e.g. NFl Buda, tatea, in some regions of Romania),
and several place!names Buda in alb. qytet ‘township’.
Romania. Kiss 1980 assumes that Celje, NL, Slovenia. Lat. Celeia,
Buda (in Budapest) reflects a Hun- Med. Lat. Cilia. Cf. Kilia, NL, Bul-
garian personal!name, but this a fre- garia and Chilia, a branch of the
quent cliche regarding many proba- Danube Delta.
bly or possibly Pre!Hungarian Cerej, NFl, tributary of river Koren,
place!names. Slovenia. Lat. cerasus ‘cherry!tree’.
Burgás, NL, Bulgaria; Tk. Burgaz. Cètinje, NL, Montenegro. Consid-
Probably from Gr. ()*+,- ‘a ered derived from a river!name
tower’, related to NL Burgos *Cetina, related to NFl Cètina, flow-
(Spain). In both cases a Germanic ing into the Adriatic near Omi#.
influence may eventually be possi- Pre!Latin, probably Illyrian, etymon
ble: *burgs ‘a fortress’, Gm. Burg unclear.
‘township’. The Pre-Slavic origin is
Cib$r, NFl, NL: Gorni Cib!r, Dolni
certain, but we should hesitate
Cib!r on the river Cibrica, tributary
whether the Germanic origin is to be
of the Danube. Ancient Cebrus,
considered. Possibly they are related
Greek spelling /01*2- (See also
forms, preserved independently in
Papazoglu 1969: 60).
the two linguistic areas.
#adra, NFl, tributary of Tol-
Buzet, S.!Cr.. Blzet, NL, Croatia. minka, Slovenia. Probably from
Ancient Piquentum > Romance Lat. cataracta, with the evolution
*pilgent! > Sl. *b$lz.t' > Blzet, Bu- Lat. c > Slv. # and t > d.
zet (Ramov% 1936: 31). #edad See Cavtat.
Cavtat, Cr., #edad, Slv. (It. Ragusa Cuculka, NFl, Vardar basin, Mace-
Vecchia; ancient Epidaurum), NL
donia. NM Cucula, Veles region,
(Adriatic Coast) < civitatem (Civitas
Macedonia. Probably Pre-Slavic
Epidauriensis)(Ramov# 1936: 34).
Thracian or borrowed from Arom.

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267
Addenda
__________________________________________________________________
"u"ulc! ‘a peak’ (Duridanov 1975: Drani"a, NFl, tributary of Bregal-
109). The Romanian root "u"! may nica, Macedonia. Pre-Slavic Thra-
be of Pre!Indo!European origin cian, cf. NFl ancient Dramatica, NR
transmitted to Romanian via Thra- Drama (ancient Macedonia). Cf.
cian. Cf. 3u"ora in Romania. NFl Pol. Drama, Oder basin, IE
*drem! ‘to go, to run; a road’, Gr.
Dalmacija, NR ! Lat. Dalmatia
dromos. Cf. NFl Slv. Dramlje,
(NR), NPp Dalmatae, Delmatae.
Dramlja (Duridanov 1975: 169). Cf.
Further discussions in Paliga 1988 a.
Drava, Dreta, Drina.
A probable Preie. relic. The modern
form is bookish. Cf. Duvno and Drava, NFl (S.!Cr., Slv.), tributary
Glamo#. Cf. Deal(u), Ardeal in Ro- of the Danube. Ancient: Lat. Dra-
mania. vos, Dravus, Gr. 4*5)2-, Illyrian of
Dav"a, Dav%ki potok, NFL, tributary Thracian origin, IE *drowos ‘flow-
of Sel#ka Sora. Probably related to ing water’. Cf. Dreta, Drina and an-
cient NL Drobeta, today Turnu
NL Av#e in So#ka Dolina; initial d!
Severin on the Danube in Romania.
may be explained as in other exam-
ples in Friulan, e.g. Frl. Damar < Ad Dreta, NFl, tributary of Savinja,
Amar, Delés < Ad Alesso, Deveà < Slovenia. Unclear, probably related
Aveaco, Darte < Arte etc. Further to NFl Cr. Dretulja. Slovene forms
discussions s.v. Av%#ek, supra. in !ija (Litija, Medija) are Pre-
Djovlenska (D’evinska) reka, NFl, Slavic. Cf. NFl Slk. Drietoma, Drie-
Bulgaria, tributary of V!#a, near tomica, Pre-Slavic too; suffix !oma
Devin; the old name was D’ovlen is Pre-Slavic as well, cf. Celtic
(Djovlen). Pre-Slavic Thracian, !amo, !ama. The place!names of this
non!attested in the antiquity, from type are usually Pre-Slavic (Bezlaj).
IE *dhewina ‘a spring, a wa- Drina, NFl, at the border between
ter!source’, cf. Gm. Tau, Eng. dew. Bosnia and Serbia; in the Antiquity
Dramlje, Dramlja, NFl, Slovenia. it represented the border between
See Drani#a. the Thracians and Illyrians. Lat.

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268
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
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Drinus, Gr. Dril6n < Illyrian and/or yond any reasonable doubt – of di-
Thracian. Another river Drin, art. rect Thracian origin, as no neigh-
Drini flows in Albania, but in oppo- bouring form preserves the
site direction. This latter form was comp(und. At the same time, these
also spelled Drinus in the antiquity. forms put an interesting problem of
Both forms are related to Drava < phonetic evolution: Thr. 7 > Rom. u.
IE *drowos ‘water, flowing water’. Similarly see NFl Rom. Mure;
Probably related to Drid (Lexicon against B. Marica (see discussion
B, III, 1) and also Drencova and s.v. Marica). The evolution Thr. 7 >
Dridu in Romania. Rom. u is specific to the indigenous
Drinja"a, NL (at the confluence of (Thracian) forms only and reflects
the Drina and Zadar) < Ad Drinum. an evolution in late north Thracian
Cf. Drina. (Dacian) dialects which is absent in
south Thracian. All the Slavic forms
Dunav (S.!Cr.), Dunava (B.), Du-
reflect, without exception, a borrow-
naj (in the other Slavic languages;
ing from Proto!Romanian (or a late
in Slovene the meaning is ‘Vienna’,
phase of Thracian?), after the evolu-
whereas the bookish form Donava is
tion 7 > u was closed. Nevertheless
used for the river!name); Rom.
all the Slavic form reflect not the
Dun$re(a), see in Romania, Hu.
original Romanian !ar!form, but an-
Duna. The usual Latin spelling was
other regional or dialectal form
Danuvius, Danubius (with 7); the
Greeks used the spelling 89:*2- *Duna!. Cf. NP Rom. Dun!, pre-
Latin spelling presumably recorded sumably an initial regional equiva-
a Celtic form. Romanian has pre- lent for NP Dun!reanu < Dun!re
‘inhabitant of the Danube region’
served a compound *Dan!ar!,
whose second element ar is also at- (till now this personal!name is usual
tested in other European forms, e.g. in Romanian). The phonetic evolu-
NFl Aar, Aare, NL Aarhus (a port in tion Thr. 7 > Rom. u cannot be ex-
Denmark), O. Dan. aar ‘a river’. In plained via Slavic or Hungarian, de-
spite some attempts in this sense.
Romanian, the river!name is – be-
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269
Addenda
__________________________________________________________________
Duvno, NL, Dalmatian coast. An- as reflecting the wars of Charle-
cient Delminium. The place!name is magne in Central Europe. Ancient
presumably related to Dalmacija Almus, of Illyrian origin.
and Glamo# (Skok 1917: 128). Cf. Gabernica, NFl, tributary of Sava,
Rom. Deal(u), Ardeal in Romania. Slovenia. Related to gâber, gáber
Erma, NFl, Bulgaria; two riv- ‘Carpinus Betulus (hornbeam)’. In
er!names. Thracian, non!attested, Slovenia only, there are about 60
but with clear parallels, e.g. NFl place!names with this root, cf. Mac.
Hermos, Ermos (Greece, Frigia and (ancient) grabion ‘(piece of) oak’,
Moesia), possibly IE *sermo!s, with Neo!Epirotic grabos, NPp Ill. Gra-
s > h, specific to Greek (Georgiev baei, Dalmatian Gravosium < Ill.
1960 a: 53) or another etymon, pos- *grab! ‘oak’ < IE *grebh!, *gerebh!,
sibly Preie. root *AR!, *ER!, ana- in various names of plants and trees.
lysed in Chantraine (1950: 56 sq.). Galjevica, NFl, tributary of Ljubl-
See also Hristov (1964: 193). janica, Slovenia. Probably from Lat.
Et$r (upper course), Jantra (lower Gallus. The forms gal! are generally
course), NFl, Bulgaria. Thracian, unclear, probably all Pre-Slavic
ancient <=*)-, >?@:*AB, Latris, (Bezlaj). The root *gal! may reflect
Latron. Unclear etymon (Georgiev Preie. *G!L!, *K!L! ‘rock, stone;
1960 a: 30–31). Cf. toponymical rocky’. Cf. Gala"(i) in Romania.
root *ad!, *at! in Romania, in which German, NM, Macedonia and NFl
case the forms may be Preie. Germanska reka. Pre-Slavic Thra-
Fru!ka Gora, NM, Srem area < cian *german! < IE *gwhermo!
Lat. Franca (villa), O.Sl. frog' ‘a ‘warm’, cf. NL Germisara (Geoagiu
Frank’ (Lat. Francus > Rom. frînc). B)i), NL Thr. Germania etc. (Duri-
Fru%ka Gora means ‘Frank Hill’, by danov 1975: 127–128). Cf. NL Thr.
translating (calquing) the second Germania, Germanos, Germas
element of the compund form. The (various spellings for the same
mountain!name should be explained place!name), on upper Strymon, as

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270
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
__________________________________________________________________
well as a homographic form, today Glina has been influenced, by folk
Saparevska Banja (De"ev 1957: etymology, by glina ‘mud’; there are
102). A god!name German is re- numerous place!names Glina in the
corded with the south Slavs. Slavic!speaking area; NL Glina in
German, NFl, western Bulgaria. Romania is considered a Slavic
Pre-Slavic Thracian, related to NM place!name or maybe it continues an
German, supra. indigenous Thracian (possibly
Giman, NL near Dubrovnik. Proba- Celtic) place!name adapted under
bly Lat. (praedium) Geminianun; Slavic influence.
same case seemingly in Cman Grpe, NL near Split, Croatia. Re-
(Lexicon B, II, 8). lated to Grpe (Lexicon B, I, 4), both
Glamo", NL, NR, Croatia. Formerly from Preie. *K!R!, *G!R! ‘stone,
Dlamo"; attested in 1078 as Dla- cliff’, as in Alb. Karpë and NM
noce < Dalmatia. The shift from dl! Carpa"i.
to gl! is recorded in Croatian dia- Ib$r, NFl, Bulgaria. The upper
lects, e.g. dlijeto > glijeto (s. dleto) Marica is thus called, whereas the
‘chisel’ (Skok 1917: 128–129). Cf. lower course is Poibrene. Ancient
Dalmacija and Duvno. D1*2-, Hebrus, the name of mod-
Glana, NFl (Carintia, Slovenia), a ern Marica. Other similar forms,
tributary of Krka!Drava. The book- also as relics: Ibar, tributary of Mo-
ish, literary form is Glina. Attested rava in Serbia; Ibr, tributary of Te-
in 983: iuxta flumen Glana. Pre- terev, Ucraine, near Kiev (possibly
Slavic, with numerous parallels in of Thracian origin too). IE root
European river!names: NFl Glan *eibhro!s ‘to flow, a water source’.
(Salzburg, Austria; sec. VIII: Cf. NFl Ibru, Romania, re!analysed
Glane); NFl Chiana (Etruria, Italy) by Fr)*il) (1987: 118 sq.).+
< Glanis; Glan, a water!source in Idrijca, NFl, tributary of So"a,
Scotland; Celtic *glano!s ‘bright, to Slovenia. Pre-Slavic, Pre!Roman, cf.
shine’ < IE *glan!. Literary form NSt Idrie, NFl Idrica, NFl Itter, Eu-

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271
Addenda
__________________________________________________________________
ter (Germany). Probably Preie., cf. Thracian, cf. Thr. /01*2-,
Romanian forms in ad!, at!. /E@1*2-. The explanation from
Ig, Iga, NFl, NL, Slovenia; several Rom. cerb ‘a stag, a buck’ cannot be
accepted (Zaimov 1959: 92 and
forms. Pre-Slavic and Pre!Roman,
184).
no clear etymon (Bezlaj). Cf. NM
Igman NM, Bosnia. The ultimate Kilia, NL (Bulgaria) < Coelia. Cf.
origin may be Preie. *AK!, *AG! NL Kellai (Greece) < Cellae. Cf.
‘prominent; a peak’. Cf. Ig, Iga and Celje, supra and Rom. Chilia, a
branch of the Danube Delta.
the Romanian forms in ig!.
Klis, NL (near Solin, Adriatic
Isk$r, NFl, Bulgaria ! ancient spell-
Coast) < Clissa. Illyrian of probable
ing Skios, Oiskos, Iskos, reflecting a
Preie. origin, root *K!L!, *G!L!,
Thracian form derived from IE
zero grade *KL!, *GL!.
*eis! ‘to flow, a river’. (See also Pa-
pazoglu 1969: 59). Klju%ica, NFl, tributary of Ziljica,
Slovenia. From colloquial Lat.
Jadran (S.!Cr.., Slv.) ‘Adriatic Sea’
clusus < claudere. The place!names
< Lat. (mare) Adriaticum. It is often
derived from this word are very fre-
surmised that the ancient name
quent in the Romance area, e.g. It.
Adriaticum is related to NFl Adda
Chioso, Chiusa, Chiusaforte. Cf. NL
(Lombardia), see s.v. Ada.
Cluj, in Transylvania (Paliga 1992 a,
Kapela, NM, Croatia < Lat. capella. with further references and Cluj in
Katun, NL, Istria, Croatia < Rom. Romania).
c!tun ‘a small, isolated village, a
Knin, NL, Croatia; O.Cr. *T$nin' <
hamlet’ (cf. Alb. katun). We may
Tininium. Unclear etymon, probably
also admit that the form directly re- an approximate spelling for an in-
flects a Pre-Slavic Illyrian word via
digenous Thraco!Illyrian form.
a Romance!Dalmatian intermediary.
Kobarid, NL, Slovenia, reg. Tol-
Kerbovo, NL, Bulgaria, between
min. Ancient Caporetum (Bezlaj
Topolnica and Smole#kata reka, reg. 1969: 25).
Pirdopsko. Probably Pre-Slavic
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272
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
__________________________________________________________________
Kodrjana, NFl, tributary of Kozi- Kolpa, Slv.; Kupa, S.!Cr., NFl,
ca!Arbe", Slovenia. From NP Lat. tributary of Sava, Slovenia. Ancient
Quadratus or Istro!Romanian kodru Kolapis, /,F5(E-, /,F2G. Proto-
‘forested hill’, Rom. codru, Alb. type *Kol-ap-is, kol! having unclear
kodër (Bezlaj). Quadratus was origin, probably Preie., while *ap! is
sometimes invoked for explaining IE: ‘water’ (Ramov# 1936: 25;
the Romanian and Albanian forms. Bezlaj 1956–1961). Cf. Rom. forms
This hypothesis cannot be accepted C!lan, C!lata (Romania), Preie.
any more. Rom. codru and Alb. *K!L!, *G!L!.
kodër reflect indigenous Thracian Koper, NL, Slovenia, a port on the
forms together with the form Adriatic Coast (It. Capo d'Istria) <
Kodrjana. IE *k7dh! ‘to cover, to Lat. Capris, from capra ‘goat’. Cf.
protect’. Kopranj (Lexicon B, II, 13), Kopara
Kokodiva, Kukudiva, NL, Bul- (Lexicon B, II, 15) and NSt Capra
garia, north from Varna. The first in Romania.
part of the compound probably re- Koro!ka, Koro!ko, NR, Slovenia,
flects Preie. *K!K!, *G!G! ‘to swell; Gm. Kärnten. Lat. Carinthia. The
round’, whereas the second part re- root kar!, kor! is Pre-Slavic, ulti-
flects Thr. deva, dava ‘a fortress’ mately of Preie. origin. Cf. Carpa"i,
(Duridanov 1986: 27 sq.). Cf. alb. karpë ‘a cliff’, Preie. *K!R!,
Plovdiv, infra, and NL Rom. Deva
*K!L!.
in Romania.
Kostol, Kostolac, Several
Kokra, NFl, tributary of Sava,
place!names in South!Slavic. From
Slovenia. Pre-Slavic; Bezlaj as-
Lat. castellum. (Trajanovski 1979:
sumes it is related to Krka (cf. NFl
10).
Gr. Korkoras). It rather reflects
Preie. *K!K!, *G!G! as in Romanian Kotor, NL, Montenegro, It. Cattaro
Gagu, Gugu, Goga. < Lat. Catera, Cathara, Cat(h)arum,
of Illyrian origin: Ill. *katar! ‘a for-
tress’; cf. S.!Cr.. kòtar ‘a region’
__________________________________________________________________
273
Addenda
__________________________________________________________________
(equivalent for srez), probably from mov# 1936: 25; see also Skok 1917:
IE *k7dh! ‘to cover, to protect’ the 121).
presumed origin of Rom. codru Kupa, see s.v. Kolpa.
‘dark forest’ and Alb. kodër. Cf. Labin, NL, south of Istria, Croatia <
Kodrjana supra. Albona; Latin spelling for an in-
Krajna, NR, Croatia ! Lat. Carnia, digenous Illyrian place!name, of IE
reflecting an indigenous Pre-Slavic, or Preie. origin (see also Skok 1917:
Illyrian, name, ultimately of Preie. 128). Preie. root would be *L!P!,
origin, root *KaR! ‘stone, cliff’; cf. *L!B! as in Rom. L!pu;.
Kranj, Koro%ka, Kràs. The associa- Labuta, Labota, Labotnica, NFl,
tion with Sl. (u)krajiti is a folk!ety- tributary of Drava in Slovenia. Pre-
mology of “etymological substitu- Slavic, seemingly related to Labin
tion”!type. See Romanian forms in (see preceding entry) or possibly of
car! (Carpa"i, Cara;, C!rand etc.) Celtic origin, albanto, albento
in Romania. ‘bright, shining’ < IE *albh!. The
Kranj, NL (Slovenia) < Carnium, approach to labod, lavud ‘a swan’ is
Carnia. Illyrian, ultimately of Preie. a folk!etymology (“etymological
origin, cf. Kras, Koro%ka, Krajna. substitution”, cf. Ljubljana, infra).
Compare with Carsium > Hîr;ova Lanja, NFl, tributary of Karnahta,
(on the Danube in Romania) with Slovenia. Pre-Slavic, cf. Frl. Làgna,
the evolution c/k > h, to date not It. NFl Anio, Agno, Agnone. Similar
explained satisfactorily; Poghirc names in Etruria, Lombardia, Ven-
1969: 360 considers the latter an ice, South Tirol, Latium, Campania
indigenous Thracian place!name. etc. In Slovenia, the name may be
Krka, NFl (Trebinje) < Corcoras, Pre-Slavic or, eventually, a Friulan
Korkoras. Attested in 799 A.D. as influence. Cf. Anie; in Romania.
Corca. Pre-Slavic, Illyrian, ulti- La!ta, NFl, tributary of So"a,
mately of Preie. origin. Cf. Koro%ka, Slovenia, and some other
Kranj, Krajna, Kras. (Bezlaj; Ra- place!names of this type, e.g. La%ta,

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274
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
__________________________________________________________________
La%te, also la%ta ‘stone’; these forms Naissus/Ni% and Scupi/Skopje.
must be related to north Italic lasta Ljubija, NL, NFl, tributary of Sav-
‘a slab’, NL Lasta, Laste, Lasturo, inja, Slovenia. Pre-Slavic, of unclear
NFl Lástego. Cf. Basque arlasta, origin (Bezlaj). Cf. Thraco!Illyrian
arralasta. Root *lassa, probably of forms in lab!, leb!. See next entry.
Preie. origin (Bezlaj). Cf. Rom.
Ljubljana, NL; Ljubljanica, NFl,
lespede ‘a stone slab’.
Slovenia. Probably Pre-Slavic, re-
Lika, NFl, NR, Croatia. The name lated to the preceding, from *La-
of the region derives from the riv-
blana, by substitution and folk ety-
er!name of Illyrian origin < IE *leik! mology (Sl. ljubiti). Cf. NL Labin,
‘to shine’; cf. Rom. a lic!ri ‘to glit- supra and Rom. L!pu;. In the antiq-
ter, to twinckle’, licurici ‘glow uity, the divinity of the Ljubljanica
worm’, both of Thracian origin. is attested as Laburus, and Anony-
Lim, NFl, tributary of Drina, with mus Ravenniensis named the rivers
the source in the Albanian Alps. Cf. of Ljubija and Ljubljanica as Lebra
Alb. lumë, lymë ‘a river’. A borrow- and Elebra respectively (Bezlaj
ing from Albanian is unlikely. The 1961: 149; Russu 1969: 218).
river!name rather preserves an in- Logatec, NL, Slovenia. Pre-Slavic,
digenous Illyrian name, co!radical probably Illyrian, ancient Longatici
with the Albanian word too. (Ramov# 1936: 27).
Lipljan, NL, Bulgaria, Lomsko re- Lom, NFl, NL (Pann. Inf., Serbia; a
gion; NL, Kosovo. Ancient Ulpiana, port on the Danube) < Almus, Latin
by substitution and association with spelling for an indigenous Thracian
Sl. lipa ‘lime tree’ (Duridanov 1952: form < IE *olmo!s! ‘an elm (tree),
9; Trajanovski 1979: 10; see also the tree Ulmus’. Cf. alb. lumë, pl.
Papazoglu 1969: 171). The Bulgar- luménj ‘a river’, lym ‘silt’. If this
ian place!name is located in the an- approach is correct, the etymon may
cient region of the Dardanians, be- be Preie. *AL!. (Further discussions
ing one of the three important Dar-
danian centres together with
__________________________________________________________________
275
Addenda
__________________________________________________________________
about this root in Rostaing 1950: witnessed by Rom. mum! ‘mother
41–52). (in Romanian tales)’ (typical mytho-
Lug, NL, Croatia. Attested in 1331: logical term) and a mura ‘to pickle’.
extra Lugum. Probably Pre-Slavic, Medija, Medijski Potok, NFl, tribu-
unclear etymon, possibly Latin lucus tary of Sava, Slovenia. Pre-Slavic,
‘(sacred) meadow’ (Skok 1920: 130) cf. Frl. Medée. The modern form
or rather an Illyrian origin. does not allow the reconstruction of
!man. A suffix specific to some in- the prototype. Cf. NL Rom. Media;.
digenous Thracian elements Medulin, NL, Istria, Croatia < Lat.
(Poghirc 1969: 363), cf. Barman, Mutila, a spelling for an indigenous
German, Igman and Rom. forms in Illyrian form.+
!man e.g. Caraiman (Romania) etc. Mesta, NFl, Bulgaria. Thracian.
It should be carefully discriminated Ancient Nessos, an aquatic divinity,
against the Turkish forms in !orman. NFl Nessus, Nesos, Nestos etc. (See
Marica, NFl, Bulgaria. Related to also Papazoglu 1969: 178). The evo-
lution m > n in archaic place!names
Thr. *M7risia < IE *m7!ro!/
is normal, cf. ancient Mesembria >
*mo!ro! ‘a sea, still water’. Cf.
Neseb!r (in Bulgaria). IE root
M7risia > Rom. Mure;. The Bulgar-
*ned!, O.Ind. nádati refers to the
ian and Romanian river!names are,
noise of flowing water, nada!h ‘a
beyond any reasonable doubt, co!ra-
dical, both of Thracian origin, but river’. Nevertheless Preie. *N!S!, in
witnessing a different treatment: 7 > place!names like Nis(s)a (analysed
a in Bulgarian, but 7 > u in Roma- by Chantraine 1950: 222 sq.) is also
nian. A similar treatment in Dunav, possible. As Preie. *N!S! is well
Dunaj, Dun!re, supra. The phonetic documented in other cases, we may
treatment 7 > *ô > u against 7 > a eventually surmise that in this case
represents an opposition north- (and maybe others) there was in in-
south, i.e. Daco!Mesian v. Thracian terference of both Preie. and IE ele-
respectively. The same evolution is ments.

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276
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
__________________________________________________________________
Mirna, NFl, tributary of Sava. Pre- are also attested: Morava, a river in
Slavic, possibly related to Nera, the Vardar basin and mountain!name
Neretva, Ner, ancient Naron etc. if in Macedonia (Duridanov 1975:
the alternance n/m may be admitted 159); NFl Morava, the natural bor-
or a relationship with the forms de- der between Moravia (Czech Re-
rived from IE *mar!/ *mor! (Lat. public) and Slovakia, Marica (Bul-
mare, NFl Morava, Marica etc.). garia), Mure; (Romania) etc. They
Pre-Slavic origin is certain. The generally are Pre-Slavic relics
modern form was probably due to (Pre!Romance Thracian in Roma-
the association, by folk!etymology, nia), reflecting the old European riv-
with Sl. mir' ‘peace’. er!names of IE origin. (See also Pa-
Modrejce, NL, Slovenia. Ancient pazoglu 1969: 190). Suffix !ova is
Matereia (Bezlaj 1969: 25). Cf. Mo- Slavic.
tru in Romania. Mo!un, NL, several locations in
Mogren, NL near Budva, Montene- South Slavic. Mo#nje, NL, Slovenia.
gro. Related to Mugranj < malum All reflect Lat. mansionem, a term
graneum (Lexicon B, I, 2). mirroring transhumance specific to
Mora", NM, Macedonia. Pre-Slavic the Romance (Proto!Romanian)
Thracian, derived from river!name groups (Bezlaj 1969: 25). Further
Mora"a, related to NFl Morava. examples in Lexicon B.
Morane, NL, near Skopje. Attested Mura (S.!Cr., Slv.), NFl, tributary
in 1300 as Tmorane (< *T'mor!) of Drava. Pre-Slavic, Illyrian and/or
and suffix !ane, cf. NM ancient Thracian, co!radical with Morava,
Tmaros, Tmarus, NM Tomór, Alba- Marica, Mure;. Vocalism u, instead
nia. Cf. Tmor, infra. of *o, as in Morava, is considered a
substitution by Bezlaj (1961: 149,
Morava, NFl, Serbia. Ancient spell-
comparing it to NFl Venetian Mare).
ings: Gr. H@*+2-. Lat. Margus,
reflecting an indigenous Thracian Nevertheless, if we consider a North
Thracian form, then vocalism u is
form. Similar co!radical river!names

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277
Addenda
__________________________________________________________________
normal; see the discussions s.v. (Populus)’, thus ignoring other ob-
Dunav/Dunaj and Marica. If indeed viously related forms, may not be
of Thracian origin, then the problem accepted. The S.!Cr. form reflects a
of Thracian elements in Slovene borrowing from Romanian, cf. NFl
should be analysed more seriously. N!ruja, Romania. See following
Murva, NFl, Dalmatia, near Omi#. entries.
Attested in 1251: aqua que vocatur Nerav, NL, Macedonia; NFl
Murva. Related to Mura (Skok Neravska reka, Vardar basin. Re-
1920: 133). lated to Nera, Neretva etc. (Duri-
Muzge, NFl, tributary of Krka, danov 1975: 128).
Slovenia. NL Muzge (several loca- Neret, NL, Macedonia. Pre-Slavic
tions in Slovenia and Croatia); cf. Thracian, related to NFl Nera,
NFl Pol. Muzgawa, NL Moskva. Neretva.
Surely Pre-Slavic, etymon unclear Nèretva, NFl, Serbia. Ancient spell-
(Bezlaj). ing Naron, I@*AB reflecting a
Nadi%a, NFl, tributary of Tera!So"a, Thracian and/or Illyrian form. Cf.
Slovenia; Frl. Nadisòn, It. Natisone. NFl Neretva (homophonous riv-
Ancient Natiso. In Slovene, proba- er!name in Volhinia), Nera (see also
bly via Friulan intermediary or pre- Skok 1917: 119–120, 132, n. 16 and
serving a Pre-Slavic Romanised 134, n. 28; Skok assumes that a
form. folk!etymology was common al-
Nebula, Nibeljski Potok, NFl, ready in the Antiquity by approach-
Slovenia, tributary of Nadi!a. Cf. ing this form to NP Nero, Neronis;
Frl. Nevolaè, Nuvolàe, possibly nevertheless river!names having the
from Lat. Nubilius. Surely Pre- root ner! may be fairly well ex-
Slavic, etymon uncertain. plained without referring to the em-
Nera, NFl (Rom., S.!Cr..). Related peror Nero and a possible folk!ety-
to Neretva. The hypothesis of a mology in the antiquity).
Hungarian origin, from nyár ‘poplar

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278
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
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Neseb$r, NL, Bulgaria. Thr. Me- derived from IE *(s)naw! ‘to flow’.
sembria. The second element, bria, (See also Papazoglu 1969: 60, 171
is present in other Thracian and 191–192); in the Antiquity,
place!names. The first element, Naissus was one of the three great
mes!, is etymologically unclear, but Dardanian centres, together with
specific to Thracian names (De"ev Scupi/Skopje and Ulpiana/Lipljan).
1957: 296). It might be Preie. *N!S!, Ni!ava, NL, on the Ni#, Serbia. Re-
*M!S! ‘curve; to bend’; cf. Rom. lated to NFl Ni%. The suffix is
Nistru, nisetru. Slavic.
Nevlica, NFl, tributary of Kamni#ka Norin, NL, on the Neretva, Croatia.
Bistrica, Slovenia. Related to NFl Ancient Narona; related to Nera,
Nevlja, at the Bulgarian!Serbian Neretva (Skok 1917: 120!121).
border, to NFl Nevlja (Russia), NFl Ogosta, NL (Bulgaria) < Augusta.
Neva, NFl Nevajärni (Finland). The Omi!, NL, Dalmatian coast; It. Alm-
root is specific to many European issa, ancient Dalmisium. S.!Cr. form
river!names < IE *snau!, *snaw! ‘to may be explained as a dissimilation
flow’ (Bezlaj 1961: 151). from Dalmis! > *almis! > omi%, as-
Nevlja, NFl, at the Bulgarian!Ser- sumed to be specific to the Roman-
bian border, Caribrod region; see ised Illyrian speakers, known later
Nevlica. as Dalmatian. Though the name is
Nevlje, NL, Slovenia. See Nevlica. surely Pre-Slavic, such an explana-
Nin (It. Nona), NL, south of Zadar, tion seems rather found faute de
Adriatic coast < Aenona. See the mieux. The form might be Pre!In-
toponymical root an!, in! in Roma- do!European, root *D!L!, *T!L! as
nia, and its derivatives. in Dalmatia and Rom. deal (see
Deal, Ardeal). See also Lexicon B,
Ni!, NL, Serbia. Ancient spellings:
II, 3; II, 8.
Gr. I5E9(9)2-, Lat. Navissum,
Navissus, Naissus, Naessum. All Opajska reka (*Opaja), NFl, tribu-
reflect an indigenous Thracian form tary of P"inja, Vardar basin. Pre-

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279
Addenda
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Slavic Thracian *Apaja (*Opaja) < Panega, rarely Paniga, Paneg,
IE *ap! ‘water’. Cf. NFl Opawa, Panig. NFl, Bulgaria, tributary of
Poland, of Baltic origin. Related to Isk)r. Thracian. Initial phonetism
NL Opila, Kratovo region, Macedo- was k > g (*panek, *panik). The
nia and Opave, De!evo region, Ser- evolution i > e is specific to Roma-
bia; place!names should have de- nian, which leads to the basic idea
rived from river!names (Duridanov that the form was transmitted to
1975: 136). Bulgarian via Romanian (Pro-
to!Romanian). IE root *pani!ko ‘a
Opave, NL. See s.v. Opajska reka.
moor, marsh’ (Georgiev 1960 a: 59).
Opila, NL. See s.v. Opajska reka.
Cf. Pan(n)ysis, Pannisis, Panysus,
Orga, NL, Bulgaria, Tolovica re- Thracian name of the river Kam"ija,
gion. Pre-Slavic, Thracian. Cf. O. Prus. pannean ‘a pond, marsh’.
Thracian place!names in or!, org! The root pan! may also be of Preie.
(De"ev 1957). The root *or!g! is origin (analysed by Chantraine
Preie. (further discussions in Ro- 1950: 232 and Mu$u 1981: 321–
staing 1950: 70–71 and Mu$u 1981, 332). I am rather inclined for a
s.v. Orbis, Orion, Oreste). See also Preie. origin.
the numerous Romanian forms in Peneda, NL, Istria, Croatia. From
oar!, or!, ur!. Lat. pinetum (Ujevi& 1956: 93) or
Os$m, NFl (Bulgaria) < Asamus. related with Panega.
Cf. Some; in Romania. Pirin, NM, Bulgaria. Explained
Otljanska reka (*Otlja), NFl, tribu- from Thracian *Pheruna ‘a cliff,
tary of Opajska reka. The upper rock’; the root *p(h)er! is attested in
course is in the vicinity of the Alba- several place!names (De"ev 1957).
nian village of Strima, whereas the The explanation from ND Sl. *Pe-
lower course is near Otlja. Pre- run' cannot be accepted. The root
Slavic Thracian or Illyrian *Atula, *p(h)ar!, *p(h)er! is probably Preie.,
*Atulas, IE *ad! ‘water, flowing wa- cf. Parma, Parnassos etc. and NM
ter’or Preie. *AT!, *AD!. Rom. Parîng.
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280
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
__________________________________________________________________
Plovdiv, NL, Bulgaria. Thr. Pulpu- bly of Preie. origin (Ramov# 1936:
deva, the equivalent (calque) of the 27; Kiss 1980). Cf. Pirin.
Greek form Philippopolis ‘Philip’s Postojna, NL, Slovenia; one of the
township’. This place!name has longest caves of the world. Lat.
been recently analysed by Duri- Arae Postumiae ‘Postumius’s al-
danov (1986: 25–34 and 1989: 19– tars’. The modern Slavic form
22). By relating this form to Koko- should be also explained by a
diva, Kukudiva (supra) and bringing folk!etymology substitution, cf. Slv.
forth various arguments regarding postojna ‘a kind of vulture’.
the phonetic evolution, Duridanov Ptuj, NL, Slovenia. Pre-Slavic of
concludes that it is a Daco!Moesian Illyrian origin, attested in the antiq-
form, borrowed by the Bulgarians uity in Latin spelling Poetovio >
“directly from a late phase of Thra- Ill.!Rom. *Petojo > Sl. *P'tuj$ >
cian”. See also Deva, Deda, Deta in Slv. Ptuj (Ramov# 1936: 34).
Romania.
Pula, O.S.!Cr. Pulj, NL, a town!port
Podkra!"e, a water!source in in Istria, It. Pola < Lat. Pola, a
Bohinjska Bistrica, Slovenia. Slavic
spelling reflecting Ill. root *pol!,
prefix pod! and a Pre-Slavic root
possibly of Preie. Origin, root *P!L!
*kras ‘a cliff, stone’. Place! and ‘cliff, stone; a peak’. See also Pe-
mountain!names in kras, cras are leaga, Pele; in Romania.
frequent in south Slavic. They gen-
Pulj See Pula.
erally are of Pre-Slavic origin,
Raba (Gm. Raab), NFl (a river flow-
mostly Illyrian (Bezlaj). The root
ing at the border of Hungary, Slove-
*KR!, zero grade of *K!R! is Preie.
nia and Austria, tributary of the Da-
See Kranj, Koro%ka (supra) and the
nube; the main course is in Hungary)
forms in car! in Romania.
< Ar(r)abo, Latin spelling of an in-
Pòre", NL, Istria, It. Parenzo < Ill. digenous river!name, Illyrian and/or
*Parent!, ancient spelling Paren- Celtic < IE *orobh! ‘red, reddish’or
tium. The root *par!, *per! is proba- rather Preie. *R!B!, *R!M!, hence
__________________________________________________________________
281
Addenda
__________________________________________________________________
maybe also Sl. ryba ‘fish’. Cf. NFl (supra) and Arad (Romania).
Raba, tributary of Wis,a (Vistula) in Resava, Resovska reka, NFl, Bul-
Poland and Rebra (Romania). See garia, at the border with Turkey.
also Rama, next entry. Probably Thracian, cf. NFl Thr. Resos
Rama, NR, Bosnia and the homo- (Troada), IE *res!, O. Nordic ras ‘a
phonous NFl, tributary of Neretva. water!flow’ (Georgiev 1960 a: 39).
Pre-Slavic, probably Illyrian, even- Rgotina, NL (Timok valley) < Ar-
tually Thracian. The ultimate origin gentares (argentum ‘silver’).
may be < IE *rem! ‘to stay’ or, as I
Ri%ana, NFl; flows into the Adriatic
am rather inclined, Preie. *R!B!,
Sea near Koper, Slovenia; It. Ri-
*R!M! as in Raba (preceding entry). sano. Pre-Slavic, Illyrian, cf. alb.
• A certain hesitation between b and rjedh < IE *reg! ‘to flow, flowing
m was reported in some (few) cases; water, river’.
cf. Buz!u and Timi; in Romania. If
Rodopi, NM, Bulgaria < Thr.
so, the relations between Raba and
*Rud!uphe ‘red river’, the name of
Rama might be viewed in this per-
Dospatska reka, extended for the
spective.
mountain!name. See also Hristov
Ra!a, NFl (Istria) < Arsia, Arsa.
(1964: 123).
Latin spelling for an indigenous Illy-
Rovinj, NL, Croatia, Istria. Ancient
rian river!name; cf. NFl Aar, Aare,
Ruginium.
Dan. aar ‘river’; see s.v. Dunav,
Dunaj, Dun!re (Ramov# 1936: 24; Rosica, old Rosita, tributary of Jan-
Bezlaj). tra, Bulgaria. Related to NM Rosita,
Bulgaria and to other forms spread
Ra%anj, NL, Knja!evac region, Ti-
all over Europe: O. Prus. Rossitten,
mok valley. Ancient Arsena, etymon
Latvian Rasite. Etymon unclear;
unclear; the Latin spelling undoubt-
edly reflects an indigenous Thracian suffix !ica is frequent in Slavic riv-
place!name (Franck 1932: 6). May er!names, cf. Marica etc.
reflect Preie. *AR!, *AL! as in Arda

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282
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
__________________________________________________________________
Rosita NM See Rosica. Setole, NL on the Poroj river, Vardar
Rusenski Lom, NFl. See Lom. basin. Pre-Slavic Thraco!Illyrian,
Sava, NFl, tributary of the Danube related to Lith. sietuva ‘a hollow in
at Belgrade. Ancient spellings: Gr. a river bottom’. Cf. NL JK:2)E5,
J52)2-, Lat. Savus < Ill. *savas Dalmatia (Duridanov 1975).
‘river’ < IE *sowos ‘flowing water’. Sisak (#tokavian), Sisek (kajkavian),
Cf. NFl Savu, Romania; NFl Sava NL, near Zagreb. Lat. Siscia, Gr.
(Russia, of Ossetic origin). Siskia < Celtic *Se(q)!sq!ya < IE
Savinja, NFl, tributary of Sava. see *se(q)!sq!a ‘sedge (Carex)’. See also
Sava. Skok 1917: 128.
Sefto(v)ite d!be, Seftovi #ukari, Skomlja, NFl (tributary of the
NL, Bulgaria, Panagjursko region. Dunube in Bulgaria), NL (Lomsko
Probably Pre-Slavic Thracian, cf. region). Thracian (Daco!Moesian)
NP Thr. JK)=5-, JK):2- (Zaimov *Skambla < IE *(s)kamb!, *(s)komb!
1977: 58 and 161). Cf. NP Rom. (Duridanov 1952: 13, 94).
Safta, fem., S!ftoiu (family name). Skopje, NL, Macedonia. Pre-Slavic,
Senj, NL, Croatia, Adriatic coast, It. ancient Scupi, JL2)(2E, capital of
Segna, Gm. Zengg < Lat. Senia. Cf. Dardania. Related to NFl Skoplje,
NL Siena < Lat. Saena (Etruria), Bosnia; NFl, NL Uskoplje, near Du-
Sena (Iulia). See also Skok 1917: brovnik; NFl Uskoplje, Hercego-
128. vina, Trebinje region (Duridanov
Serava, NFl, tributary of Vardar. 1975: 19; see also Papazoglu 1969:
Pre-Slavic Thracian (eventually Illy- 171; one of the three major Darda-
rian), related to NFl Saar, Baltic Se- nian centres together with Naissus/
ria, Rom. Siret, Siriu etc. It is possi- Ni% and Ulpiana/Lipljan).
ble that Slavic root s&r! ‘grey’ influ- Slan, Slano, NL. Several locations
enced the modern form by folk!ety- with this name on the Adriatic coast.
mology (Duridanov 1975: 86). Usually explained as derived from
Lat. salinae. Probably related to NL

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283
Addenda
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Sali, in the island of Veli Otok Split, NL, Adriatic coast; It. Spa-
(Skok 1920: 149); see Lexicon B. lato. Ancient Latin spelling Spala-
Smèderovo, Smèderevo, O.S.!Cr.. tum, Greek spelling N9(5F5:2-,
Smederov grad, NL, Serbia, port at with the basic meaning ‘thorny
the Danube; explained from bush’, probably a folk!etymology in
O.S.!Cr.. *Smeder < Rom. Sîmedru, Greek, or – in Latin – another
S!medru, Sumedru < Late Latin folk!etymology by relation with
San(ctus) Demetrios. Suffix !evo, palatium. The place!name must re-
!ovo is Slavic. Meaning: ‘the town flect an indigenous Illyrian form.
of St. Demetrios’; cf. NL Sîngiorz Phonetic evolution: Spalatum >
(Romania) < San(ctus) Giorgios etc. Speletum > Split. (Ramov# 1936:
Cf. Mkocjan, infra. 26; Popovi& 1960: 53, 171, 389;
Skok 3: 312; Kiss 1980: 583).
So"a, NL, Slovenia, at the border
with Italy; It. Isonzo < Lat. Isontius, Srem, NFl, NR; the most important
Sontius, reflecting an indigenous town of the region is Sremska Mitro-
vica. Lat. Sirmium, reflecting an Illy-
Illyrian place!name of IE or Preie.
origin. rian form from IE *ser!mo! ‘river’.
(See also Papazoglu 1969: 59). Cf.
Solkan, NL, Slovenia, near Nova
NFl Siret, NFl Siriu, Romania.
Gorica. Ancient Silicanus (Bezlaj
1969: 25). Strima, NL, Bulgaria. Related to
NFl Struma.
Sotla, Slv., Sutla, Cr., NFl. Pre-
Strjama, NFl, Bulgaria, tributary of
Slavic, Thraco!Illyrian *Sontula,
Marica. Thracian, cf. NFl Lith. Ser-
*Aesontula (Bezlaj 1961: 149).
mas, NL pol. Orem (Gm. Schrimm),
O. Ind. sárma!h ‘water flow’. The
evolution IE *sr! + vowel > Thr.
str! is typical. Cf. Struma, Struga
and Rom. NFl Strei, Strem"; also

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284
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
__________________________________________________________________
next entry. (Cf. also Papazoglu Thracian and/or Illyrian form, cf.
1969: 59). Lith. skardùs ‘hill!side’. Cf. Mkar
Struga, NFl, tributary of Savinja, (Lexicon B, II, 2) and Rar, main
Slovenia; another homophonous riv- lexicon.
er!name, tributary of Krka, Slove- &emnica, &evnica, NFl, tributary of
nia. Pre-Slavic, Thracian, IE *ser! Crna, Vardar basin. The suffix is
‘to flow; river’, zero grade *sr! with Slavic. There are seemingly two old
the specific evolution IE *sr!e! > roots which interfered in these
forms: one related to the Illyrian
*stre!. Related to NFl Struma. Cf.
river!names Semnus, Semirus, Lith.
NFl Rom. Strei, Strem" and strugure
‘grape’, strung! ‘a pen, a sheep- Semena, IE *sem! ‘to pour, to flow’;
fold’. The forms with the root str! the other related to NFl Sava, alb.
very probably reflect the indigenous she(u) ‘a marsh, a moor’ (Duridanov
Thracian influence, but the primitive 1975: 222).
root should be carefully analysed as &kocjan, NL, Slovenia. Pre-Slavic
both IE *str! and IE *sr! + vowel of colloquial Latin origin *Sant
(sanctus) Cantianus > *%'nt
resulted in Thr. *str!.
koc$jan' > Slv. Mkocjan (Ramov#
Struma, NFl, Bulgaria. Thracian,
1936: 27). Cf. Smederovo, supra and
ancient Strymon, IE *sreu! ‘to flow’. Sîngiorz (< Sanctus Georgios) in
The evolution IE *sr! + vowel > Romania.
Thr. *str! is typical. Cf. NFl Rom. &tip, NL, on the Bregalnica river, Ma-
Strei, Strem". Derived forms: NFl cedonia. Pre-Slavic, ancient Astibos.
Strumica, Strume%nica, Bulgaria. Etymon unclear (Duridanov 1975:
See above Strima, Strjama, Struga.
21). The place! and river!names with
Su%id, NL, Slovenia, near Kobarid. the root *AS! may be Preie. (further
Ancient Silicetum (Bezlaj 1969: 25).
discussions in Chaintraine 1950;
&ar, S.!Cr.., Mac., NM. Ancient Mu$u 1981; Paliga 1989 d). Cf. As!u,
spellings: Gr. JL@*P2B Q*2- Lat. Asuaj, S!sar in Romania.
Scardus, reflecting an indigenous
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285
Addenda
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Tavor, Taor, NL, Macedonia, near mava, supra; NFl Timi; (Romania,
Skopje. Pre-Slavic, of Illyrian ori- two rivers with this name, one in the
gin, ancient Taurision > Sl. *Tavr' Romanian Banat, the other in the
(Duridanov 1975; Franck 1932: 6). Bucegi Mts.), NFl Eng. Thames etc.
A homophonous place!name is in Tmor, NL, Adriatic coast near Du-
the U!ice region, Serbia. Preie. brovnik. See the discussion s.v. Mo-
*T!R! as in Tarcea, Tarc!u (Roma- rane (< Tmorane). Cf. NM Tomór,
nia). Albania.
T$%a, upper course; Tund%a, lower Tolmin, NL, Slovenia; NFl Tol-
course; NFl, Bulgaria. Thracian, minka. Certainly Pre-Slavic, Ill.
frequently attested in the antiquity *Tilmon!, related to other place! and
beginning with the 3rd century B.C.: river!names, cf. Frl. Talm, Ligurian
S5T2-, S2BU2-, Tonzus, Tontus, Talamone, It. Talamona, Sp. Tala-
Tountza. Etymon unclear (Georgiev mon, Fr. Talamon etc. Medieval at-
1960 a: 27!28; see also Papazoglu testation in 1146: Tulminium.
1969: 192). Probably Preie. relic (Bezlaj; Ra-
Timava, NFl, Slovenia; It. Timavo, mov# 1936: 26), root *T!L!. Cf.
Frl. Timàu. Pre-Slavic, related to Talma in Romania.
NFl Timok (infra), Timi; (Romania), Trakana, NFl, tributary of Stara
Tynne (Great Britain), Thames (with Reka, Vardar basin; Trakanska
non!etymological th), etc. reka, NFl, tributary of Bregalnica,
Tìmok, NFl, tributary of the equally in the Vardar basin; NL
Dunube at the Serbian!Bulgarian Trakanje, same region. All these
border. Lat. Timachus, a spelling forms are Pre-Slavic of Thracian
reflecting an indigenous Thracian origin from a prototype *Trakana,
form < IE *tem!ak!wa. Another ho- !nja < IE *trek! ‘to pull, to run, to
mophonous river!name is in the flow’. Probably related to NL
Vardar basin, tributary of Pari#tica TrakaniV, Serbia (Duridanov 1975:
181). Possibly related to Thrax,
(Duridanov 1975: 152). Cf. NFl Ti-
Thraex ‘Thracian’, in which case we
__________________________________________________________________
286
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
__________________________________________________________________
should consider Preie. root *T!R!, as Vardar, NFl, the most important
in Tarc!u, Tarcea (Romania). water!flow of Macedonia; flows into
Trakani' See Trakana, above. the Aegean near Thessaloniki. An-
cient Greek spelling Y5*P5*E2-,
Trògir, NL, Dalmatia; It. Trau. An-
reflecting an indigenous Thracian
cient spelling: Lat. Tragurium, Gr.
Tragourion, of Illyrian origin. river!name derived from IE
Probably related to NL Tergeste > *sword(o)!wori ‘black water’. The
Trieste > Trst, infra. usual ancient name of the river was
Trsat, NL, Istria < Lat. Tarsatica, Axios (Duridanov 1975: 30–36; the
author comprehensively analyses the
presumably reflecting an indigenous
Illyrian form. river!names of the Vardar basin).

Trst, NL; It. Trieste < Lat. Tergeste, V$"a, NFl, Bulgaria, tributary of
a spelling for an indigenous Illyrian Marica. Probably Pre-Slavic Thra-
form also reflected in Alb. treg and cian, unclear etymon. Seemingly
O.Sl. t'rg' ‘a market township’. related to Vin#a (infra) and Vin"a,
The Illyrian or Thraco!Illyrian ori- Vin"u in Romania; Preie. *W!N!,
gin of t'rg' is probable. *V!N!.

Una, NFl, tributary of Sava; O.S.!Cr. Velèbit, NM, Croatia. Pre-Slavic,


Un < Lat. Oeneus, Gr. WEBK2-, re- reflecting an indigenous Illyrian
flecting an indigenous Illyrian riv- form, cf. Gr. >ZF[15:2- ‘abrupt’. In
er!name presumably of Preie. origin; S.!Cr.., the word underwent a proc-
cf. Gr. 2XB2- ‘wine’, a Preie. “techni- ess of folk!etymology: vele!bit ‘big
cal” term (Chantraine). The primitive shelter’.
meaning should have been ‘sacred Veleka, NFl, Bulgaria, at the border
liquid’; Preie. root *AN!, *AIN! in with Turkey. Unclear, possibly Pre-
words with chromatic meanings: Slavic Thracian, IE *welika ‘curved,
‘bright; to shine; white’. See also root bent’. The local denomination Kriva
an!, in! (Romania). reka ‘curved, meandering river’,
probably a loan!translation (a

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287
Addenda
__________________________________________________________________
calque), supports this hypothesis Vídin, NL, Bulgaria. Ancient spell-
(Georgiev 1960 a: 37). Interferes ing: Lat. Bononia, Gr. Bonvnia,
with Slavic root vel! ‘big, great’. probably of Celtic origin as showed
Veles, NL, near de Skopje. Ancient by other place!names like Bologna,
Bylazora. The phonetic evolution is ancient Bononia; Boulogne, ancient
not clear. In any case, the explana- Bononia. These three forms, in Bul-
tion from ND Veles, a divinity of the garia, Italy and France, may show
Old Slavs, cannot be admitted the great Celtic expansion in the an-
(Franck 1932: 6). It may be sur- tiquity. Nevertheless the modern
mised that, starting from the ancient form seems rather to reflect an in-
form and the shift b > v, a chain of digenous Thracian word *ud! ‘wa-
folk!etymologies played their role, ter’, cf. NFl Vedea, NL Videle, in
ultimately the association with the Romania. Cf. Vit.
root *vel! ‘big, great’. Vin"a NL Serbia. Must be related to
Ve!ala, NFL, tributary of Vardar. NFl V!#a (supra), NL Vin"a, Vin"u in
Pre-Slavic (Thracian and/or Illyrian) Romania. Famous for the epony-
mous Neolithic culture.
*Vesala, *Vesalus < IE *wes! ‘wet,
water’, cf. alb. vesë ‘a drizzle’ Vipava, NFl, tributary of So"a,
(Duridanov 1975: 49). Cf. NFl Slovenia; Frl. Vipàu, It. Vipacco.
Vaslui, Vi;eu in Romania and Wis\a Pre-Slavic, Illyrian, related to NP
(Poland). Vippius, Lith. ùpe, upis ‘a wa-
Vidbol, Vitbol, NFl, tributary of the ter!flow’.
Danube. Probably Pre-Slavic Celtic, Vit, NFl, Bulgaria. Thr. *utus < IE
cf. NL Vindobona hence Sl. *Ved- *ud!os ‘water’. Recently re!ana-
bola > B. Vidbol, under the influ- lysed by Dimitrov (1994: 98) from
ence of NL Vidin and NFl Vit (Geor- the perspective of “Paleo!Balkanic
giev 1960 a: 53–54). See Vedea, Vi- vocalism”. Cf. Vidbol, Vitbol, Vidin.
dele, Vidu, Vidraru in Romania. Vito!a, NR, Sofia region. Ancient
Skombros, Scopius. The modern

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288
Lexicon A: Pre-Slavic Place-Names
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form is Pre-Slavic, either of Thra- nymical root oar!, or!, ur! in Roma-
cian origin, cf. NP Thr. Bit(h)us, nian.
with the evolution b>v, or derived Vukovar, NL, near Osijek. There is
from Rom. vit! ‘a cow; pl. cattle’ a long and complicated history be-
with the suffix !o% (BER 1: 155). Cf. hind this form. The second part of
NP Pol. Witosz, NL Pol. Witoszyn. the compound reflects Hu. vár ‘a
We may also surmise an interference fortress’, while its first part seem-
at colloquial level. ingly reflects an association with
Vogljana, NL, Slovenia. Probably S.!Cr.. vuk ‘a wolf’. The river Vuka
from Aquilania, in any case Pre- (ancient Ulca, cf. alb. ujk, ulk ‘a
Slavic (Bezlaj 1961: 149). wolf’) flows in the vicinity. In the
Vrbas, NFl, Bosnia. NFl Ill. Urpa- Middle Ages the place!name was
nus, Urbanus, NL Urbate (Russu Castrum Vlcou ‘the fortress of Vlk
1969: 259). The etymon suggested (Wolf)’, which is a re!adaptation
by Dickenmann (1939: 28) and Kiss (calque) of the old meaning of Thra-
(1980) IE *wrbhas ‘a willow’. Nev- co!Illyrian origin, from IE *w]kwos
ertheless these Illyrian forms rather ‘a wolf’ > Thr. *(v)ulk! ‘a wolf’.
seem to reflect the Preie. root *OR!/ This form, and others, would sug-
*UR! ‘huge, big’ analysed by Ro- gest that Rom. NP Vîlcu, Vâlcu is
staing (1950: 70–71) and Mu$u indigenous, rather than borrowed
(1981: 199 sq. and 250 sq.). Thra- from Slavic.
cian also witnesses forms with the Zadar, NL, Dalmatian coast. An-
root or!/ur! (see De"ev 1957: 343– cient: Gr. Iader(a), Lat. Iader(a), of
345 and 348). The form clearly un- Illyrian origin. In colloquial Latin,
derwent a process of folk!etymology the word was pronounced *Zadar,
and “etymological substitution” in *Zadra seemingly from IE *yeudh!
Serbian!Croatian, in relation indeed ‘agitated, impetuous’. It is not clear
with vrba ‘a willow’. Cf. the topo- whether there is a relationship with

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289
Addenda
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NFl Iader, today Idro, near Thessa- Related to NFl Glane, France, of
loniki. See also Skok 1917: 124. Celtic origin (Duridanov 1975: 184).
Zgon, NL, Montenegro. Related to Zrin, NL, Croatia, south of Sisak.
Zgon in the Adriatic Islands, see Pre-Slavic, unclear etymon, proba-
Lexicon B, II, 6. Etymon unclear, bly Illyrian *ger! ‘a hill, a moun-
Pre-Slavic. tain’ < IE *gwer! ‘a hill, mountain’.
Zletovska reka (< *Zl.tava), NFl, The form witnesses an old satem
tributary of Bregalnica, Vardar ba- phonetism or a secondary palatalisa-
sin. Pre-Slavic Thracian *Zlent!us, tion. The explanation from Sl.
*Zlenta < IE g!hlend(h)! ‘to shine’. *z'r&ti ‘to see, to notice’ cannot be
accepted.

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290
Lexicon B: Pre-Slavic Elements in the Adriatic Islands
__________________________________________________________________

Lexicon B. Pre!Slavic Elements in the Adriatic Islands

Skok (1950) analysed in details the Pre!Slavic place!names in the four


groups of islands located along the Adriatic coast. Some major names are
also analysed in Kiss (1980; namely Bra!, Cres, Hvar, Kakan, Olib/Ulib,
Osor, Rab and Vis). As Skok’s analysis clarifies and complements the gen-
eral view of the Pre!Slavic place!names on the continental (Balkanic) area,
as summed up in the previous Lexicon A, I have summarised Skok’s data,
and have also added some cross!references. I have also included some
place!names along the Adriatic coast as they best reflect the principle of re-
peatability.
Recurrent forms. Some forms, sometimes with parallels in vocabulary,
occur at least twice, some very frequently. A brief presentation of these
forms may be useful for the reader. Some have also parallels on the conti-
nental area. The phonetic evolution is generally specific to Dalmatian with
several Italian (Venetian) and Romanian influences.
!
Banàostar, Banuàstar, Brnistrova; dial. banestra, brnistra < Lat. genista
‘Genista tinctoria; dyer’s greenwood’. The first two forms have the suffix
!arius, the latter has Slavic suffix.
Kampèlje < campellus, dim. from campus. Cf. Kampor.
Kampor < campus, with plural ending !ora after tempus, !ora. Cf. Rom.
cîmp ! pl. cîmpuri.
Kanajt, Kanîtalj (Kanikalj) < cann"tum and cannetulum – canna ‘reed’.
Ko!ljin, Ko!ljun < Coll. Lat.*castellione ! castellum ‘castle’.
Marta, dial. mrta < Gr.!Rom. myrta ‘myrtle’. Cf. Mr!a.
Mostir < monasterium.
Mo!nje, Mo!un(a); dial. mo#un < mansione ‘a halt place’.
Mr"a, Mr"ara, Mr"ica < myrtearia ‘a land where myrtle grows’; cf.
Marta, mrta.
Mun#el, Mu#el, Moncel < monticellus, dim. from mons, montis ‘a moun-
tain’. Cf. Rom. Muscel (e.g. NL Cîmpulung Muscel), muncel ‘a small hill’
Omi!alj < Ad musculum, Coll. Lat. *amusc(u)lu. Musculus is a diminutive
from mus, muris ‘a mouse’, but later got other meanings like ‘mollusc’;

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291
Addenda
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‘muscles’; ‘a siege hut’, then ‘hut’ in general. The place!names preserve this
latter military meaning. At colloquial level this form was confounded with
muscus, !i, dim. *musculus ‘moss’. Rom. mu$chi ‘muscle(s)’ and ‘moss’ re-
flects this confusion.
Plaj < Gr.!Rom. plagium < Gr. plagios ‘a hill!side, side’. Very frequent in
south Slavic and Romanian (plai), and presumably largely spread in collo-
quial Latin. It. spiaggia ‘a beach’ has the same origin. There is no reason-
able argument supporting the hypothesis, largely spread in Romanian lin-
guistics, that Rom. plai is of Slavic origin.
Plantur, Prantur, Promentur, Prmantur < promontorium.
Prsur, Prasurina < frixorium ‘a cooking place’; derived from frigo, !ere,
frixi, frixum/frictum ‘to roast, to fry’, with the specific Dalmatian evolution f
> p, as in Plomin < Flanonae etc.
Sakatùr < siccatorium ‘a place for drying’ ! siccus ‘dry’.
Silba, Sirba < silva; cf. Rom. selb% (dial.) ‘a forest’.
Slana, Slano < sal, salis, salem (ac.) ‘salt’. Cf. Slan(o), Lex. A.
Sut, in compound forms Su!, St!; sut < sanctus. Stomorina < Sancta Maria;
Supetar < Sanctus Petrus; Sudùjan, Sudùjma < Sanctus Dominus; Su$u-
ra$ < Sanctus Georgios; the latter is equivalent to NL Rom. Sîngiorz.
Trtu!a < tortuosa ‘tortuous’.
Val, Vala (especially in compund forms), Valun, Valunta (with augmenta-
tive suffixes) < vallis ‘a valley’; sometimes with augmentative suffixes !at,
!unta.
!
% I. Kvarnerian Group (Kvarnerski oto!ki skup, pp. 11 sq.) made up of five
big islands, named in the Antiquity (Insulae) Flanonae or Sinus Flanaticus, in
Italian (dialect spoken in Venice and Tuscany) Fianona, and in S.!Cr. Plomin-
ski zaliv or U Plominu. NI Cr. Plomin reflects the Latin form Flanonae, with
the evolution f > p (other examples below). NI Kvarner reflects It. (Venetian)
Quarnero. The navigable zone of this group is named Canale della Morlacca;
morlacco reflects Byz. Gr. maurovlahos ‘black Vlach’.
! The Kvarnerian Group is made up of the islands Krk, Cres and Lo#inj
(“prava kvarnerska = Kvarnerian proper”) and other two islands: Rab and
Pag. The islands Cres and Lo#inj are also named Opsara, and Krk is also
named Vekla.

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292
Lexicon B: Pre-Slavic Elements in the Adriatic Islands
__________________________________________________________________
% 1. Krk (pp. 21–34). Named in the antiquity splendidissima civitas Curic-
tarum, NPp Curicti, an Illyrian group, NL ill. Curicum, of Pre!Roman ori-
gin, Preie. *K!R!. Krk is also the name of the most important locality of the
islands.
& Brgud, Brgudac < Virgultum.
& Galun < Lat. galla ‘a swelling (on a tree!branch), a prominence’ (in
place!names the terms refers to an elevated place, a hill), with an augmenta-
tive suffix (cf. Valun, Valunta, infra).
& Kampelje, ac. pl. < campellus, dim. from campus ‘field’. Recurrent.
& Kanajt < cann"tum, dim. from canna ‘reed’.
& Karkarula < Lat. calx, calcis ‘heel’ with diminutival suffix in colloquial
Latin: *calcalulla.
& Ko#ljûn < Coll. Lat. castellione, dim. from castellum ‘castle’. Recurrent.
& Kras < Illyro!Liburian carsus. Cf. Kranj, Krajna in Lex. A.
& Mun'el < Coll. Lat. monticellus, dim. from mons, montis. Recurrent.
& Negrit < niger, in coll. Latin *nigritus. Rom. Negru, fem. neagr%.
& Ogrul < Coll. Lat. *agerullus, dim. from ager ‘field’, in competition
with campus. Attested in 1453: basilica S. Nicolaus de Ogrul(l)o.
& Omi#alj < Coll. Lat. *amusclu = Ad musculum (locus). Recurrent.
& Plaj < Gr.!Lat. plagium. Recurrent. Frequent also in Romanian
place!names (plai).
& Punat, gen. Punta < Lat. pons, pontis.
& Spena < spina, the plant Rubus (‘bramble, raspberry’).
& Tôrkul < torculum ‘twisted object’ (torquo ‘to spin’). See also torcu-
larium ‘(wine) press’.
& Turnac, diminutive of dialectal form turanj < turris ‘a tower’.
& Valunta < Coll. Lat. vallata ‘a valley’ (Class. Lat. vallis), with augmenta-
tive suffix.
! Skok assumes that NL Vrhure and Fare!a reflect old Romanian phone-
tism. The former is the plural form (vîrfuri) of vîrf ‘a peak’ of Slavic origin,
the latter is the reflex of Lat. filex, filix ‘a fern’, with specifically Romanian
rotacisation in inter!vowel position (Lat. l > Rom. r).
% 2. Cres (pp. 34–44). Ancient Crexa, Crexi, Krepsa. S.!Cr. may be ex-
plained as secondary palatalisation, as in Cavtat (supra, Lexicon A). The
place!name is Illyrian of “Mediterranean” origin. See also Ramov" 1936: 26.

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293
Addenda
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The same origin for a small island of the Cres!Lo"inj group, Osor, ancient Ap-
saros, Apsoros, Apsouros (further discussions in Skok 1917: 125–126).
& Kormat < corr(mare in the participle (corrimatus), derived from rimor,
!ari and rimo, !are ‘to rummage’: the place where the see “rummages” the
shore. Cf. Maskatûr, infra.
& Krnjacol < cornu with double suffix: !aceus and !olus, Coll. Lat. *corna-
ceolus.
& Maskatûr < morsicatorium – morsico, !are ‘to bite by tearing’: the place
where the sea “bites” the shore. Cf. Kormat, supra.
& Merag, Romance, of unclear origin, probably related to Merek (infra).
& Merek, gen. Merga < mergus ‘an ember goose’.
& Mugranj < malum graneum (granatum) ‘pomegranate’. Cf. Mogren, near
Budva.
& Pin (Mali i Veli) < pinus ‘a pine!tree’.
& Porozina, It. Faresina < Gr. pharos ‘lighthouse’, borrowed in southeast
Europe with the suffix !ensis or !inus. The evolution f > p is specific, cf.
Flanonae > Plomin etc.
& Prantur, Plantur < promontorium. Recurrent.
& Punta Kri)a, Christian!Romance, ‘bridge of the cross’ < Lat. Pons (Acc.
pontem) crucis.
& Sis, a hill on the island < Coll. Lat. *susum = Class. Lat. sursum
‘high!up’; cf. Rom. sus. The evolution u > i is specific to Dalmatian, e.g.
Lat. murus ‘a wall’ > S.!Cr. mir.
& Slana < salis, ac. sale(m) ‘salt’. Recurrent, cf. Slan, Slano in Lexicon A.
& Stivan < Sanctus Jo(h)annes, compound with sut < sanctus, recurrent.
& Valun < vallis, with augmentative suffix (cf. Galun, I, 1).
& Vanula, Romance, unclear etymon, cf. Valun.
!
! Some place!names are considered Pre!Slavic (Pre!Croatian), Romance or
Illyro!Romance: Baldarin, Kaldonta, Mezulin (maybe a diminutive from
dialectal form mezul < mediolus ‘middle’ (adj.) [cf. Rom. mijlociu, adj.
‘middle’, miez ‘a core, a kernel’], as in )mulj ‘a cup, a recipient’), Ridulje
and Ul. Kru#ija reflect It. corsia ‘a corridor, a passage’, and Tarej, with
metathesis (from *Tajer), reflects It. tagliere. Dialectal form kapartûr re-
flects Lat. coopertorium ‘a cover, a shelter’.

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294
Lexicon B: Pre-Slavic Elements in the Adriatic Islands
__________________________________________________________________
% 3. Lo!inj (pp. 44!54). It. Isola dei Lussini. The name is Pre!Slavic, ety-
mon uncertain.
& Arbit < prob. Coll. Lat. *arbutus, arbitus, dim. from arbor ‘a tree’.
& Kanîtalj, with t/d. Probably of Italian origin, etymon unclear.
& Lakunj < prob. Lat. lacuna – lacus.
& Levrera < Leporaria ! lepus,!oris ‘a hare, a rabbit’.
& Margarina, related to dial. mrgar < Coll. Lat. *mulgare (mulgeo,!ere) ‘to
milk (a cow)’.
& Ma)ova < Maius.
& Mortar, related with NI Murter. The suffix !er is Italian!Venetian < Lat.
!arius.
& Nembi, pl. < Neumae < Gr. neuma ‘a sign, a symbol’.
& Orjule < Auriola – aureus ‘(of) gold, golden’.
& Orser (Veli i Mali), related to NL istr. Vrsar < Lat. Ursaria, presumably
via a Venetian dialect.
& Skopalj < probably scopulus ‘a reef, a small island’.
& Susak, Gen. Suska < Gr.!Rom. sansacus, Gr. sámpsychon ‘the plant
Origanum’.

! The following place!names are considered Pre!Slavic, Romance, without


a clear etymon:
& Artatore, Balvanida, *ikat, *irka, Kambonara, Limaran, Mara!ol,
Samu!el (< ? Sanctus Monticellus), Sunfarni, Tomo)ina, Torunza, Unijama.
Kavuada, Kavada reflect Ven. cavare ‘to extract, to dig’, and Sidro < Isidor.
% 4. Rab (pp. 55–67). Ancient Arva, Arba. Illyrian < Preie. *AR!b/w! The
adjectives Ven. arbascio, It. rascia, Sp. raja, Pg. rasa ‘thick cloth, Rab
wool’ are derived from the place!name.
& Banjol < Balneolae, derived from balnea ‘bath(s)’; cf. NL Baia Mare
(lit. ‘great bath’), Baia Sprie in Romania.
& Barbat < barbatus, cf. Rom. b%rbat ‘a man’.
& Bru#kit < bruscetum ‘the plant Ruscus aculeatus; butcher’s!broom’.
& +ifnata, *ihnata < Gr.!Rom. siphonata < Gr. sipho, !onis ‘a conduit, a
tube; a water source’.
& Frkanj. Pre!Slavic, unclear etymon, possibly derived from frico, !are or
related Sicilian fragaggya, Napolitan fragale ‘a group of small fish’.

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295
Addenda
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& Fu)a < Lat. fodio, !ere ‘to dig’. The evolution di! > ) is normal.
& Grpe. Pre!Slavic, Preie. *K!R!, *G!R! ‘stone, cliff’; related to NL Gripe,
near Split, and with other numerous place!names in Southeast Europe and
Romania.
& Kampîna < campanella, dim. from campus ‘a field’. Cf. NL Rom. Cîmpina.
& Kamplaka, Kaplaka < caput + lacus, Coll. Lat. *cap!lac ‘the lake (pond)
at the end’ (e.g. ‘end of the island’ etc.).
& Kâmpor < campus, pop. pl. *campora, after tempus, pl. tempora. Recur-
rent. Cf. Rom. cîmpuri.
& Kanîtalj, Kanîkalj, gen. Kanîklja < cannetulum ‘small reed’, dim. from
canna ‘reed’.
& Karara < carraria ‘a road’. Cf. Rom. c%rare ‘a road, path (in a forest)’.
& Kom(o)r!âr < commerciarium. “The former hypothesis, Campus Martius
‘field of Mars’ is not acceptable” says Skok (p. 61).
& Ko#ljun < castellione, colloquial form derived from castellum. Recur-
rent.
& Krklant < circinatus ‘round, circular’.
& Miral, colloquial form derived from mirare (Lat. clasic miror, !ari, depo-
nent). The meaning of the place!name is ‘a place to contemplate’.
& Mo#una. In the local dialect, there is mo#un < Coll. Lat. mansione(m) ‘a
place for rest’. Recurrent.
& Mun'el < Coll. Lat. monticellus, dim. from mons, !tis ‘a hill’; recurrent.
& Palît < paludem ‘a marsh, a moor’. Related to NL Poljud, near Split and
Rom. p%dure ‘a forest’, with metathesis.
& Pa#turân, with suffix !an from Lat. pastor (pastorius, pastoricius).
& Plaj < Gr.!Rom. plagium. Recurrent. Cf. Rom. plai.
& Prsur < frixorium, derived from frigo, !ere, frixi. Recurrent.
& Prvorâda < Pulveraria – pulver ‘powder’.
& Sakarata (Sv. Grgur Sakarata) < siccarius ‘a place where grains are
dried’, cf. Pg. siqueiro ‘id’. Grgur reflects Christian!Romance Gregorius.
& Sarakin < Saracenus, pl. Saraceni, an ethnic group of Arabia Felix.
& Silba, Sirba, NI Silba < silva ‘a forest’. Recurrent. Cf. Rom. dial. selb%
‘a forest’.
& Sut < sanctus. Recurrent.
& Suvid < sanctus Vitus. Cf. sut.

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296
Lexicon B: Pre-Slavic Elements in the Adriatic Islands
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& Val < vallis ‘a valley’, frequent, recurrent; cf. Romanian place!names
with the component Vale, art. Valea from vale < Lat. vallem (acc.).
& Valsabâna, Valsalbana < vallis Silvania ‘valley of (god) Silvanus’.
& Vidilaka < Coll. Lat. *valle de laco ‘valley of the lake’.
% 5. Pag (pp. 67–77).
& Bo#ane, pl. < ancient Bassiana, Ill.!Rom. Related to NL Bo#ana, near
Biograd, on the continental coast.
& *a#ka < ancient Cissa, Illyro!Romance.
& Karin (Sv. Karin) < Quirinus.
& Lakljan < Liciniana (urbs, civitas) – Licinius. Cf. Lipljan (Lexicon A)
and Pov(l)jana, infra.
& Lun < leo, leonis ‘a lion’.
& Makar < ancient Muccurum, Illyro!Romance.
& Maun, Pre!Slavic and Pre!Illyrian, probably Preie.
& Movra < Maurus.
& Mrtva < myrta, pl; recurrent.
& Novalja < navalis – navis ‘a ship’.
& Povjana and Povljana < Pauliana (urbs, civitas) – Paulus, Christi-
an!Romance name. Cf. Lakljan, supra.
& Sakrât, Sakarata, same origin as the homophonic form in the island of
Rab (supra, I. 4).
& ,krda < ancient Skirda, Illyrian, probably from IE *(s)ker! ‘to bend, to
curve’.
& Tov(e)rnele < Coll. Lat. *taverna (clas. taberna) ‘a hut’, with the di-
minutive suffix !ella.
& Vir. Attested in 1345 as Ura. Preie. The evolution is normal: urceus >
vr!, hortus > vrt. Cf. Vrbas < Urpanus, Urbanus, in Lexicon A and the nu-
merous Romanian forms in or!, ur! of Thracian origin (see main lexicon).
! Skok (p. 71) also records the dialectal form hripa < Pre!Latin (Preie.)
grippus, greppus, crepus ‘a cliff, a rock’. Equally sut < Lat. sanctus.
!
% II. Archipelago Zadar!&ibenik. (Pag. 78 sq.). 15 islands. Only the name
of Veli Otok is Slavic, all the other forms are Pre!Slavic.
% 1. Olib, Ulib (pp. 79!85). Late antiquity forms Aluip, Allybum, Luibo,
which reflect either Lat. alluvium or rather an Illyrian word of Preie. origin

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297
Addenda
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(*AL!) influenced by folk!etymology by the Latin form. Some dialectal
forms should be mentioned, e.g. mo#una < mansione(m) ‘a place for rest’;
lokva ‘moorish pond’ < lacuna – lacus.
& Fu'in. Pre!Slavic, unclear etymon.
& Parsurna – prsur < frixorium. Recurrent.
& Sambare < Sanctus Bartolomeus or Sancta Barbara.
& Stivan < Sanctus Johannes.
& Stomorini < Sancta Maria. Cf. Rom. Sînt%m%rie.
& Tale. Related to Taline (infra, II, 10).
% 2. Silba (pp. 85–89). Lat. silva. A recurrent place!name in the Adriatic
islands. Cf. Rom. dial. selb%.
& Karf, probably related to NI Krf. Pre!Slavic < Preie. *K!R!.
& Marta < myrta.
& Mostir < monasterium.
& ,kar. Similar place!names also in the islands of Olib, Krk and Pag.
Pre!Slavic Illyrian. Cf. ,ar in Lexicon A.
% 3. Premuda (pp. 89–93). Ancient Pyrótima; Tab. Peut. records the form
Palmodos, Palmodon, possibly derived from palma ‘a palm’ and ‘a
palm!tree’, but cannot explain the meaning. Another possibility is a Preie.
relic, from *Pamodos. Prefix pre/pri! might be explained as influenced by
Latin primus. Undoubtedly Pre-Slavic.
& Bale, probably related to NL Bale in Istria < vallis ‘a valley’ or from Ital-
ian.
& Krijal < Cyriacus.
& Martovna < marta, myrta ‘myrtle’.
& Omi#, related to the homophonic form in the island of Veli Otok (II, 8);
Pre!Slavic Illyrian, cf. Omi# in Lexicon A.
% 4. Molat, Ist and &karda (pp. 94–99). NI Molat, It. Melada is related to
NI Mljet, Pre!Slavic, explained from Lat. mellatus – mel, melis ‘honey’. NI
Ist is of Illyrian origin, cf. Bast (ancient Biston), in Croatia; Bistue, in Bos-
nia. ,karda, ancient Skardon (oros), Ill. skerd!.
& Banàostar, Banuàstar < genista ‘the plant genista, mainly dyer’s green-
wood or the genista sagitalis’. Recurrent.

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Lexicon B: Pre-Slavic Elements in the Adriatic Islands
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& Bargùlje, related to NL Brguli (Kotor), Brgule (Serbia), dial. brgulja < It.
bergolare < verbulare ‘to chatter’. Rom. a bîigui ‘to talk slow and meaning-
lessly’ seems related to these forms.
& Bavkul. Unclear, same name in II, 13.
& Funestrala, dim. from fenestra ‘a window’.
& Klunda < columna.
& Maknare < machina cu suf. !aria ‘a machine = a mill’.
& Pendùlj < pendulus ‘suspended, pending’.
& Prasùrina, Padruara, related to Prsur (Rab) < frixorium. Recurrent.
& Sakatûr < siccatorium. Recurrent.
% 5. Sestrunj and Rivanj (pp. 100–103). Sestrunj might be explained from
extraneus ‘an outsider, a foreigner’; Rivanj is unclear; the explanation from
Ripanium (ripa ‘a river!side’) cannot be accepted. Pre!Slavic anyway.
& Idula; an identical place!name on the island of Ugljan. Unclear, Pre-
Slavic, probably related with Gr. NM Ida.
& I). Unclear, Pre!Slavic (It. Eso). See below, II, 7. Perhaps same etymon
like Ia$i, Romania.
& Klis, cf. NL Klis near Split. Unclear, Pre!Slavic.
% 6. Ugljan, Uljan (pp. 103–109). Explained from Gellianum (NP Gellius)
with the prefix u!, as in Skopje, Skoplje – Uskoplje (cf. Lex. A, s.v. Skopje).
Cf. Jakljan < Liciniana, near Dubrovnik.
& Brga!elj, Celto!Illyrian briga ‘a hill, a mountain’ with the diminutival
Latin suffix !cellus, as in monticellus.
& *eprljana, *eprljanda, Pre!Slavic, unclear etymon.
& Zgon, related to NL Zgon, in Montenegro. Unclear, Pre!Slavic.
% 7. I' Mali i Veli (pp. 110–113). Probably Pre!Romance, “Mediterranean”
(Preie.), maybe related to Gr. nêsos and Lat. insula. See also II, 5, above,
and NM, NL Ia-i, Ie-(i) in Romania.
& Br#anj < versare with suffix !an.
& Ko#ljin < castellione. Recurrent.
& Mun'el < monticellus.
& Parda, unclear, Pre!Slavic.
& Rava, Preie. Similar place!names are spread over south Italy, while the
western Romance language preserve forms with the general meaning ‘a
stone, a cliff’.

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299
Addenda
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& ,ipnate < siphôn, !ône ‘a water!spring’ and Lat. suf. !atus. Recurrent.
& Trtu#a < tortuosa. Recurrent.
% 8. Veli Otok (pag. 114–125). The only Slavic name in the area; neverthe-
less it calques Late Latin Insula Maior (year 1289); It. Isola Grande/ Longa/
Grossa.
& Birbinj < verbena ‘a sacred reed’.
& Garmenjak < Pre!Slavic garma ‘a hollow in a cliff’, seemingly of Preie.
origin, root *K!R!, *G!R! ‘stone, rock’.
& Krbu#'ak, derived from krbun < carbone with Slavic suffix.
& Krknata < circinatus – circinus < circino ‘to make a circle’.
& Lokajne < lacuna ! lacus.
& Magr! in NL as Magrovica < Megarus, Preie. or from Gr. megaron ‘a big
house, a palace’.
& Me)anj < medianus, “but the name does not seem to have a logical moti-
vation within the local configuration” (Skok). cf. Medija, Medulin (Lexicon
A) and Media- (Romania).
& Mostir < monasterium. Recurrent.
& Mrtovnjak – mrta < myrta. Recurrent.
& Omi#. Similar NL on other islands too; all are Pre!Slavic, ancient Alm-
isium, a spelling for probably Illyrian forms (supra II, 3 and Lexicon A).
& Ozdren < consuere ‘to sew’ with epenthetic !d!, as in French cozdre,
same origin.
& Padrare < petraria ‘rocky place’.
& Sakarun, Saharun, Sakaron < siccus with an augmentative suffix; recur-
rent.
& Sali < sal, salis ‘salt’. Recurrent.
& Savar < Gr. sauros ‘green lizard’.
& Stivan, Sustipan < Sanctus Ivan (Johannes).
& Sustipanja (Luka) < (vallis) Sancti Stephani; sut, su! ‘saint’ is recurrent
on the Adriatic Islands.
& Tela#'ica < Tilagus, Preie. root *T!L! in numerous place! and moun-
tain!names. See tulei, Tulcea in Romania; Tilovo in Bulgaria.
& Utra, unclear, Pre!Slavic, probably Preie. *AT!, *AD!, *UT!.

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300
Lexicon B: Pre-Slavic Elements in the Adriatic Islands
__________________________________________________________________
& .man, maybe from Lat. medianus > M)an > .man, with metathesis or
related to NL Giman, near Dubrovnik, explainable from Lat. (praedium)
Geminianum. See Me)anj, supra #8.
% 9. The Kornat Group (pp. 125–132). Represented by the islands Kornat,
.ut and Sit, all of Pre!Slavic origin. Kornat is explained by Skok from Lat.
incoronata or, perhaps more attractively, from the participle corrimare ‘to
press, squeeze’, (insula) corrimata. Rom. a curma ‘to stop’ would be de-
rived from the same etymon. • Nevertheless it is doubtful that Rom. a curma
might derive from the etymon suggested by Skok; it is rather an indigenous
Thracian element. On the other hand, the Latin origin of the Adriatic
place!name is probable. We suggest a colloquial Latin form cornatus <
cornu ‘(animal) horn’ or another colloquial form derived from cornus ‘cor-
nel tree’. • .ut has been explained from Lat. junctus ‘matched (to), related
to’. • Sit reflects Lat. situs ‘a place, a location’.
& Aba, Pre!Slavic, etymon unclear. Related to Abatuta?
& Balabra, Pre!Slavic, etymon unclear. Cf. Rom. palavre, pl. ‘gossips, non-
sense talk’, a p%l%vr%gi ‘to talk nonsense, to gossip’.
& Dragunara < draco, !onis ‘a dragon, devil’ with suffix !arius, !a. Rom.
drac ‘devil’ is derived from the Latin form.
& Klint, isolated form, probably Romance, etymon unclear. Cf. Klis, supra,
II, 5.
& Lavdara < lapidaria ‘a quarry’.
& Lavsa, Lavca < Celto!Illyrian lausiae (lapides lausiae) ‘a schistose rock,
a slab’.
& Opat < hospitalis (probably); the word was initially specific to the Chris-
tian vocabulary.
& Panitula < pane ‘bread’ with diminutival suffix.
& Purara (Vela i Mala) < pirus ‘a pear tree’, with suffix !arius, frequent in
colloquial Latin.&
& Trtu#a < tortuosus. Recurrent.
& .akanac < )akan < Lat. diaconus.
% 10. Pa!man (pp. 133–139). From Lat. Postumius with suffix !anus: Pos-
tumianum praedium. In 1067 attested as Flaueyco < Flavi vico, with ( > ey,
specific to Dalmatian. Cf. Postojna, Lex. A.
& Banj < balneae.
& Jota, unclear, Pre!Slavic.
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301
Addenda
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& Kotul, locally also *avata, *avatul. Pre!Slavic, etymon unclear. Cf.
Rom. cot, art. cotul ‘elbow’, including meanings applied to curved realities
such as cotul rîului ‘a river bend’ (lit. ‘river!elbow’).
& Mrljane < (praedium) Marinianum; related to NL Marjan, near Split.
& Nevijane, Nevidane < Naevidius with suf. !anus: (praedium) Naevidia-
num.
& Ri!ul < ericius ‘hedgehog’ with diminutival suffix Coll. Lat. *ericiullus;
Rom. arici, art. ariciul.
& Taline, related to NL Tale, island of Olib (II, 1). Pre!Slavic, etymon un-
clear, probably Preie. *T!L!. See Tela#'ica (above, # 8) and tulei, Tulcea
(Romania).
& Tkon, dial. Kûn < *Tuconum, by metathesis from Cotunum, Cotonum.
% 11. Vrgada (pp. 139–144). Pre!Slavic, Preie. *OR!, *UR! ‘big, huge’, as
in Vrbas (Lexicon A) and the Romanian forms in oar!, or!, ur!. The con-
temporary form seems deformed or influenced by Venetian dialects. The
form Lapkat is attested in the 17th century. Named Insula rubricata ‘red is-
land’ in the antiquity.
& Sudùjan, Sudùjma < Sanctus Dominus (!na); Recurrent, a compound
with sut < sanctus.
! Skok also records the local form gljendura < Arom. gl'indur% < glandula
‘a tonsil, a glandule’.
% 12. Murter, Morter (pp. 145–149). Cf. Kvarner. Italian origin: mortaio
< mortarium ‘a recipient for mixing or pounding’.
% 13. (irje, dial. also (iràje (pp. 150–154). probably from Gr. gyros
‘round’; this word was borrowed by southeast Romance idioms, cf. Rom.
giur > jur ‘around’.
& Bavkul, related to an identical place!name in Molat (II,4). Probably Old
Dalmatian, etymon unclear.
& Kakan < Apparently Lat. cygnus ‘a swan’. Kak! is witnessed in Thra-
co!Illyrian place!names; the similarity to Lat. cygnus, cycnus might be for-
tuitous and/or a folk!etymology. Cf. Kuknara (infra, III. 1). May reflect
Preie. *K!K!, *G!G!.
& Kopranj < caprula, dim. from capra. Cf. Koper, Lex. A.

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302
Lexicon B: Pre-Slavic Elements in the Adriatic Islands
__________________________________________________________________
& Logorun, cf. NL Logorun near Split. Formally, it seems to reflect Gr. la-
garos ‘mild, delicate’, but there is no reason for this meaning. Perhaps same
root as in Logatec (Lexicon A).
& Mrtovac < mrta < myrta. Recurrent.
& Tijat, prob. of Latin origin with suf. !at; etymon unclear.
% 14. Zlarin Group (pp. 154–156). The islands of Zlarin, Krbela (Vela i
Mala) and Krapan (Krapanj, Krapjun). • Krbela < curvus, with diminutival
suffix. • Krapan, Krapanj, Krapjun, eventually from Gr. kópranon ‘mud, a
moor’ or rather Preie. *K!R!. • Zlarin is surely Pre!Slavic, etymon unclear,
perhaps related to NFl Zala (Hungary) and NFl, NL Zal%u, Z%lau (Roma-
nia).
& Tmara, unclear, probably Gr. tomárion ‘a cut (off), a slice’. See also be-
low under # 15.
% 15. Kopara (pag. 156–159). From Lat. Capraria < capra. Ultimately
same etymon like NL Koper, Slovenia (Lexicon A) and NSt Capra (Roma-
nia).
& Movar, gen. Movra < Maurus.
& Stùpin < Ill. Stelpona, Stolpona, with suf. !ona as Albona, Skardona, Ae-
nona, Narona, Salonae > Labin, Skradin, Nin, Norin, Solin, respectively.
& Tmara, related to the homophonous form under # 14.

% III. Central Dalmatian Group (pp. 160 sq.). Represented by the islands
*iovo, ,olta, Bra!, Hvar and Vis.
% 1. )iovo (pp. 161–167). Italian Bua, Boa, Bova < bos, bovis. The Croa-
tian form is unclear as it is radically different from Italian.
& Artatur, Romance, etymon unclear, with suffix !atore > Cr. !atur.
& Bosiljina < NP Bosilj < Gr. Basilios < basileus.
& Drid, Pre!Slavic, etymon unclear. Cf. NL Rom. Dridu. The etymon may
be Thr. dru ‘wood; a tree’ or the same root as in Drina (Lexicon A) and NL
Thr. Drobeta, Drubeta (today Turnu Severin in Romania on the Danube).
Both place!names must be Thraco!Illyrian.
& Kluda (cf. NL Klunda, in Silba) < columna.
& Krknja# (Veli i Mali) < circinus with suf. !aceus ‘round, circular’. Cf.
Krk, Kranj in Lex. A; some place!names with root *Kra!, *Kr! may be
Preie.

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303
Addenda
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& Kuknara < Reflects maybe cycinus (cycnus, cygnus) ‘a swan’ or rather
related to NI Kakan < Preie. *K!K!, *G!G!.
& Supetar < Sanctus Petrus. Recurrent.
& Melevrin, Pre!Slavic, Romance, etymon unclear.
& Mendulovac < mendula < amygdalis, with Slavic suffix.
& Merara, possibly from Lat. morum ‘mulberry’ with suf. !ara, Cr. dial.
murva.
& Rina (Vela i Mala) < arena ‘sand, sandy land’ Dial. Rom. arin% ‘sandy,
dusty land’.
% 2. &olta, dial. also &ulet (pp. 167–171). Explained from Lat. solutus <
solvo, !ere ‘to solve’; this may simply be a folk!etymology. The form rather
reflects an Illyrian place!name, possibly of Preie. origin.
& Ka#jum, Ka#ljum < castellione – castellum. Recurrent.
& Stomorina < Sancta Maria. Recurrent.
% 3. Bra" (pp. 171!181). Ancient Brattia, Illyrian, related to NFl Brenta
(north Italy), Illyrian!Messapic brendon ‘a horned (animal), a stag’. Cf.
Russu 1969: 102; the etymon is probably ie. *bhred!, *bhredh! ‘to pass a
ford, a ford’.
& Bol < vallum. A similar place!name is located near Split.
& Brkàta < verticata – vertex, !icis ‘a whirl; a peak’.
& Kobila < caballaria – caballus.
& Ko#tilo < castellum. Cf. NM Rom. Co$tila, isolated form in Romania;
influenced by a Slavic pronunciation?
& Lovre!ina < NP Lovre! < Laurentius.
& Mo#nje < mansione(m). Recurrent. Cf. NL Mo#nje, Lex. A.
& .ukovic < )uka ‘a broom’ < Lat. juncus ‘a rod, a twig’.
& Sutivan, Sùpetar, Sumartin < Sanctus Johannes, S. Petrus, S. Martinus,
respectively. Recurrent forms. Cf. Rom. Sîmpetru (< Sanctus Petrus).
& ,krip, probably related to NL Gr. Skirphai < skir(r)os ‘uncultivated
land’; skiron ‘crust’.
! Skok also records the dialectal form pu! < puteus ‘a pit, a well’. Rom.
pu/ is of the same origin.
% 4. Hvar, dial. Fôr (pp. 181–191). Ancient Pharos, Pharia, Greek!Ro-
mance. See also Skok 1917: 122.
& Marginski < mrgin < marginem. Cf. Rom. márgine.

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304
Lexicon B: Pre-Slavic Elements in the Adriatic Islands
__________________________________________________________________
& Moster < monasterium; cf. Mostir. Recurrent forms.
& Motokit < *monte acutu (mons acutus) ‘a sharp peak’. A similar
place!name is located in Dalmatia.
& Su'uraj. The first part of the compound is su(t) < sanctus (recurrent in
Adriatic place!names); second part is unclear.
% 5. Vis (pag. 192!197). Ancient Issa, Preie. Recurrent forms in the Ae-
gean!Mediterranean area.
& Komi)a, Pre!Slavic, etymon uncertain, possibly Nikomedia, NPp
Nikom"d"s.
& Kostirna < cisterna ‘a water tank’.
& Kumpris < cypressus ‘cypress’.
& Nevaja < novalia, pl., sg., novalis (terra) ‘uncultivated land’.
& Promentur < promontorium. Recurrent.
& Seket, Seged < siccus plus suffix. Place!names derived from siccus are
recurrent. Cf. Szeged in Hungary.
! Skok also records the dialectal form prîtôr ‘a recipient’ < *praejectorium
– praejaceo ‘to stretch ahead’, “unique in the Romance languages”.
!
% IV. South Dalmatian Island Group: Kor"ula, Mljet and Lastovo, and
Elaphite Group (elafitske otoke): Lakljan, &ipan, Lopud, Kolo"ep, Lok-
rum and Daksa.
! 1. Kor"ula (pp. 198–208). O.Cr. Krkar, It. Curzola. probably related to
Gr. Korkyra or of Greek origin proper.
& Brkata < verticata; cf. homophonous place!name in the island of Bra#.
& Brnistrova < brnistra < genista. Recurrent.
& Kampu# < campus + !uceus (dim. suffix). Recurrent.
& Ko!ara < cotiaria ! cos, cotis ‘hone, whet stone’; cotoria, cotaria ‘rocky
place’.
& Mirje < mir < m0rus ‘wall’, with û > i, specific in Dalmatian.
& Mrtinjak < mrta < myrta. Recurrent.
& Petrara < petraria – petra. Cf. Romanian place!names Petro$ani,
P(i)etro$i1a (the latter with Slavic suffix).
& Pupnata < pampinata – pampinus ‘vine offshoot’.
& Sutvara < Sancta Barbara; place!names in su(t) < sanctus are recurrent.
& .jan < Junianum; cf. .njan, near Split.

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305
Addenda
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& .ukova < )uka < juncus.
% 2. Mljet (pp. 209–219). Ancient Melít". Malta had the same name in the
antiquity. Preie. *M!L!, associated by the Greeks by folk etymology (“ety-
mological substitution”) to m"li, melitos ‘honey’. Most Pre!Slavic
place!names are concentrated in the western part of the island.
& Brnjestrova < brnjestra < genista. Recurrent.
& Lâgo < lacus (a small island).
& Lèngac, Pre!Slavic, probably Ill. lanca ‘a river meadow’, with a > e, as
in Dalm. chesa < casa.
& Ogiran < aggerarium – aggeries, Class. Lat. congeries ‘a heap’.
& Pètro (Veliki i Mali), gen. Petrála < petrarius (mons).
& Pìnjevci < pinj < p(neus – pinus ‘a pine’.
& Pola!e < palatium. A Roman fortress was attested in the antiquity.
& Pôma, dial. also Pômena, Pomina < palma ‘palm’ and ‘palm!tree’.
& Pòmjenta, Podumjenta < fundamentum, with Lat. f > Dalm. p.
& Pôntu (od Lenge) < pons, pontis (ponte).
& Prò)ura < Rom.!Dalm. Proxura < frixorium (frigere). Recurrent.
& Sovra, Sôbra < prob. Gr. sauros ‘a kind of fish’.
! Skok records the dialectal form tinjal < tinellum (Cat. tinell, Sp. tinelo)
‘a living!room’ (for servants).
% 3. Lastovo (pp. 219–229). Ancient Ládesta, Ládeston, then Lasta. Ven.
Punta di Laesta. Ilyrian, with suffix !est, as in Bigeste, Ateste (> Este),
Tergeste (> Trst). The modern S.!Cr. form cannot be explained directly, but
via a Latinised form *Lasta, with a Slavic suffix.
& Bi#evo < prob. Romance Busi, difficult to analyze: genitive!locative or
plural?
& Dô, unclear.
& Duvna < domina. Cf. Rom. doamn%, of the same origin.
& Mr!a, Mr!ara < myrtearia. Recurrent.
& So)anj, unclear, Pre!Slavic.
& Stomorine < Sancta Maria, recurrent.
& Su2ura2 < Sanctus Georgios; cf. Rom. NL Sîngiorz.
& Ubli, unclear, Pre!Slavic, probably Preie. via Illyrian.
& .aplo (two other similar forms in the islands of Pag and Molat). Pre-
Slavic, etymon unclear.

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306
Lexicon B: Pre-Slavic Elements in the Adriatic Islands
__________________________________________________________________
% 4. Lakljan (Jakljan) (pp. 229–233). Plinius named the island Elaphites,
pl. Elaphitides < elaphos ‘a stag’. Hence the whole group of islands is
named Elaphite Islands. The origin is Lat. (insula) Liciniana (< Licinius),
hence Croatian Laknjan > Lakljan and, by metathesis, Jakljan.
& Olipa < Lat. alapa ! ala ‘a wing’, Dubr.!Rom. álepa, Rom. arip%.
% 5. &ipan (pp. 233–238). The largest island of the Elaphite Group. Cer-
tainly Pre!Slavic. Attested in 1222 Juppanae; 13th century, Cuppana, Zup-
pana, Giuppana; 1370: ,ipan. The expected form should be *.ipan; the
evolution ) > # is unclear. Skok suggests that the etymon might be Gr. gy-
panon ‘eagle nest’. In fact the etymon must be )upan, Rom. giupîn, jupîn,
analysed in Paliga 1987, reprinted 1999. See the main dictionary under
jupîn, st%pîn and ban.
& Biga < Lat. biga ‘ox cart’, cf. also alb. bigë ‘a branch, a twig’.
& Lava < labes ‘abrupt hill!side’.
& Prtu#a, Romance, etymon unclear, cf. Trtu#a < tortuosa.
& Sekanja, Pre!Slavic, probably Romance, etymon unclear.
& Sutulija < Sanctus Helias.
% 6. Lopud (pp. 239–242). From Gr. elaphópos, !podos, colloquial Gr.
*elaphóda ‘stag!legged...’.
& Igo < Gr. aigialós ‘sea!shore’.
& Mr!ica < mr!a < myrta. Recurrent.
& Skùpio, gen. Skupjela < scopellus < Gr. skópelos ‘a small island, a reef’.
& Sutmiho < Sanctus Michaelis.
& ,unj, also P#unja < Apscium, Acscium (*Ap#un, *Ak#un).
% 7. Kolo"ep, dial. also Kalamota, It. Calamotta (pp. 242–246). Lat. Ca-
lameta ‘reed!land’ < calametum – calamus ‘reed’. The expected form
should have been *Kolope!, by metathesis Kolo!ep. The place!name un-
derwent a folk!etymology by asociation to kolo and !ep.
& Lovret < Lauretum.
& ,umet < prob. Lat. juncetum ‘reeds’.
% 8. Lokrum and Daksa (pp. 246–249). Certainly Pre!Slavic. the former is
attested in 1115 as Lacromono; in 1200 as Acrumina, as La! was assimilated

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307
Addenda
__________________________________________________________________
to the Italian definite article. Et.: prob. Lat. acrumen, It. agrume ‘a sour
fruit’, via a Venetian intermediary. Daksa may reflect Lat. axis, Coll. Lat.
axa, with preposition de.
& Bòbara < (insula) barbaria.
& Superka < Sancta Petr(onill)a.
& Supetar < Sanctus Petrus. Recurrent. Cf. Rom. NL Sîmpetru, Sînpetru.

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308
Lexicon C: Archaic Personal Names
__________________________________________________________________

Lexicon C
Archaic Personal Names in Romanian and South Slavic

The modern anthroponimical system crystalised along the Middle Ages


on the basis of Christian names. As compared to place-names, by definition
a static component of onomastics, personal names are, by contrast, the mo-
bile factor, always exposed to changes and distorsions, intentional or not, by
their being recorded in documents, often according to the local habit, spell-
ing or political and/or administrative influence. This is why archaic personal
names are more difficult to analyse, quite rarely approached in linguistic
research and, if approached, with frequent misinterpretations. If we refer to
the archaic personal names in southeast Europe, there seemingly is only one
study dedicated to this topic: Duridanov (1960) analysed the Thracian (sub-
stratum) origin of some Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian and Romanian personal
names. Several years later, the same author drew some parallels between
Thracian and Baltic personal naming.
Yet the analysis is possible in the context of southeast European personal
naming and, in a larger context, we may analyse them just like the Celtic
names in English, e.g.: Alasdair, Gaelic; Arthur, ‘a bear’ or Irish ‘stone’;
Bridget, Brigid, f., Celtic ‘power’, also the name of the goddess of fire;
Dilys, f., Gaelic ‘reliable, constant’; Dougal, Celtic ‘black stranger’ (Gaelic
Dùghall); Ena, f., ‘wonderful, delicate’, interfering with a hypochoristic
form derived from Eugenia; Gwyneth, f., Gaelic ‘blessed’; Kevin, ‘wel-
come on birth’ etc.
Zaimov (1988), in a work dedicated to Bulgarian personal names, regularly
avoids any references to Romance (i.e. Romanian) forms, further suggesting
explanations within Bulgarian. Thus NP Bg. Bade, Bado is not referred to
Rom. bade, NP Badea, B!descu but Sl. badati (p. 11); NP Bg. Brad is not ex-
plained via Rom. brad ‘a fir-tree’, hence NP Brad, Br!dean(u), but from O-
brad or from Bradi-slav (p. 32); NP Bg. Ve"in is not referred to Rom. vecin ‘a
neighbour’ (Lat. vicinus), NP Vecinu, but as derived from Veko, Vetko and suf-
fix -in (p. 49); NP Bg. Dajna, Dajno, Dojna, Dojno are not referred to Rom.
dain!, doin! ‘a typically Romanian folk-song’, NP Doina (p. 78 and 91; see

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309
Addenda
__________________________________________________________________
also Paliga 1994 with further references on this archaic, probably Pre-Indo-
European; see the main lexicon).
Such etymological analyses, and there are some other attempts, lead to
even more difficult approaches as obvious relationships are denied in favour
of more facile, but erroneous, explanations, perhaps starting from the usual
point in the 1970’s and 1980’s that such an attitude in ‘politically correct’.
Yet other attempts may prove useful. Grkovi! (1983: 88–89) convincingly
proved that there must be some Thracian-Illyrian relics in Serbian-Croatian
personal naming. Unfortunately the author quotes only one example: the
‘anthroponimical root’ Vata- in Vata#. This must be surely analysed together
with the S.-Cr. forms vatah, vatak, Rom. v!taf, v!ta$ (see further discus-
sions in Paliga 1996: 34 ff., and the study Herrscherschaft.. in this volume).
In another study, Grkovi! (1986) also analysed some Serbian personal
names of the 14th century: some are of Romanian origin or, in any case, non-
Slavic, rather of indigenous Thracian and/or Illyrian origin: Ban (derived
from ban analysed on another occasion, see Paliga 1987), Bata#, Ba", Bu-
kur, Burja (labelled as ‘Illyrian relic’, cf. Ill. Burnia), Viganj etc. Given the
large distribution of these forms all over southeast Europe, it is often diffi-
cult to determine an accurate chronology, but they clearly reflect an archaic
heritage.
" In the given context we assume that a certain reference point may be of-
fered by the substratum elements in Romanian and the neighbouring lan-
guages, such analysed in various linguistic studies such as Poghirc (1969),
Russu (1981, who also analyses the personal-names derived from some ba-
sic roots) and Brâncu# (1983), critically adding the data in Duridanov
(1960) and Zaimov (1988, but considering the data mentioned above), than
paralelling Romanian, Bulgarian and Serbian-Croatian names as in Iordan
(1983), we may attempt to a more realistic database, many years after Duri-
danov’s attempt, and with inevitable new data. References to the Thracian
forms follow De$ev 1957.
Even a brief and limited comparison of modern (Romanian, Bulgarian,
Serbian-Croatian, Slovene) and Thracian-Illyrian forms allows to trace the
contours of an archaic structure of personal naming. In some instances, the
basic meaning of the root was always clear as they were/are obviously re-
lated to elements of vocabulary. Consequently the personal names were al-
ways synchronised with the general evolution of vocabulary. There still are
a few roots which may be assumed to reflect archaic forms as they have
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310
Lexicon C: Archaic Personal Names
__________________________________________________________________
been preserved exclusively as place-names and/or personal names. I would
quote examples like Rom. Mu$a - Bg. Mu#o or Strug - Strugo, where the
semantic association is difficult or impossible at the level of common
speakers. Duridanov and others showed that some Thracian and Illyrian per-
sonal names have obvious correspondences with modern forms in Roma-
nian, Bulgarian, Serbian, Croatian and Slovene. It is difficult to assume that
these similarities are a mere result of hazard. Ultimately there is no linguis-
tic or historical impediment, as such a linguistic analysis is in full agreement
with historical and archaeological data: Thracian still was a vivid tongue
when the Slavs began to expand. It is also possible that some nothernmost
Thracian (Dacian) groups also had a certain role in the Slavic ethnogenesis,
for which see Paliga 2001 (Sketching a History of the Slavs). And this ar-
chaic character is again, and even more relevant, proved by the archaic
place-names analysed in this volume.
The lexicon below is, beyond any doubt, a draft. It will be amplified by
future research. We assume that the archaic heritage in the sphere of per-
sonal names is much more important in southeast Europe as long assumed
by some linguists. As a simple mention, there are tens, maybe hundreds of
parallels in Romanian: Thracian elements of the current vocabulary – per-
sonal name(s). If such a view is adopted, it is obvious that the lexicon may
be considerably larger. The following examples are therefore just a first syn-
opsis of a complex and rich reality.

Lexicon of Archaic Personal Names

Arda, f., Ar!o, Ardju, m. Same as only Bulgarian, Zaimov assumes the
in NFl Arda, see above Lexicon A. forms may be derived from badati.
(Zaimov). Both Romanian and Bulgarian
Ba"a, S.-Cr., Rom. Baciu, relate to forms obviously reflect Rom. bade
Rom. baci ‘a leader of shepherds’. ‘an epithet for an older male per-
See above NFl, NL Ba"a in Lexicon son’, perhaps initially a term refer-
A. Cf. NP Thr. Batsinis, NL ring to a local leader, NP Badea,
%&'()&*)&. B!descu etc.
Bade, Bado, Bulg, Rom. Bade, Balo, Balov, Balaurov, Bg., Rom.
Badea, B#descu etc. Referring to Bal#, Balaur, bal!, balaur(e) ‘a
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311
Addenda
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dragon, a mythological fantastic fig- pared with Thr. NPp Bottiaioi, Bot-
ure’, cf. NP Thr. Balas, Bales. Zai- tiaei, NP "#$%&'(! < *"#$(!, *Bo-
mov also suggests this approach. tas. Cf. Alb. NFl Bota. If this may
The Thracian origin of this root prove true, then an approach to
seems certain. Rom. bot ‘a muzzle’, NP Bot, Botu,
Ban, Bg., bano ‘the elder brother’. Botea, Botescu cannot be avoided. •
See the discussion regarding the es- This may be a lingustic interference,
sential terms referring to social and in which the archaic Thracian forms
political organization (Paliga 1987). were remodelled under the influence
Be$o, Be$ko, masculine, Bg.; Be$a, of Rom. bot. See many such exam-
S.-Cr. Duridanov refers to Thr. NP ples in the Lexicons A and B above.
!"#%!, Bessius (De$ev 57), NP Alb. Brad, Bg. Zaimov assumes a deri-
Besa, f., besë ‘an oath, creed’. vation from O-brad or Bradi-slav.
Bico, m., Bica, f., Bg. Duridanov Yet everything rather shows a sim-
explains the forms as derived from ple derivation from Rom. brad ‘a
NL Thr. %)+,)--&)&., NP Bitimas, fir-tree’, NP Brad, indeed of Thra-
Biti-centus, Biti-tralis. In Bulgarian, cian origin as accepted by all lin-
sound c (ts, spelled in Romanian as guists now.
/) may be explained from a late Brakov, Bg., Rom. Brac#u. Cf. ND
Thracian form where t + i/j > ts (c). Thr. %0&11&., NP Thr. %0,23..
Cf. NFl, NL Alb. Bica. See Lexica A, B for other forms
Biso, m., NFl Bisov, Bg.; S.-Cr. with radical bra- in place-names. •
Bisa, f. ‘Undoubtedly Pre-Slavic’ Root bra- may have of course have
(Duridanov), cf. NP Thr. Bisa, other origins as well, but we refer to
!$#-%&'(, m., compound with only the archaic heritage of south-
Bisi-, !$#"-)*+$(, NP Ill. Bisena, east Europe.
Alb. NP Bisa, f., NL Bisa. Bukur, Bg., S.-Cr., Rom. Bucur, cf.
Boko, m., Boka, Bok’a, f., Bg. a se bucura ‘be glad’, Alb. bukur
Duridanov rejects an approach to ‘beautiful, pretty’. (Grkovi! 1986:
Cz. Bok, Bo"ek, and suggests an ap- 48). Beyond any doubt an archaic
proach to Thr. NPp Costo-bocae, root, spread all over southeast
!"#$"-%&'"(, Sa-boces, )*-%&'"(. Europe. The ultimate origin may be
Cf. NFl, NL Bac!u, Romania. Pre-Indo-European.
Boto, Bo%o, m., Bota, f., Bg. Duri- Buro, Bg., Burja, S.-Cr., Rom.
danov assumes a relation with Rom. Buru. Cf. NP Thr. Burus, "#)'&#!,
NL Boteni, Bote$ti, further com- Ill. Burnia, radical bur-; this root is

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Lexicon C: Archaic Personal Names
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also well attested in Thracian (below), also with clear Thracian
(Grkovi! 1986: 49). parallels. As largely presented on
Buzo, m., Buza, f. Buzatov, Bg.; another occasion (Paliga 1994 with
S.-Cr. NP Buzo, m., Rom. Buzatu, further references) radical dad-/did-/
Buzea (Rom. buz!, Alb. buzë). Cf. dod-/dud-, well attested in Roma-
NP Thr. %43(5., %43(&., %3(&.. nian, Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian
NL Byzantion is reportedly derived personal names, also with clear
from this personal name. Cf. NFl Thracian precursors (see forms in
Rom. Buz#u. Duridanov accepts the De$ev), is closely related to dain!,
Thracian origin of all these forms, doin!.
but reconstructs a basic meaning Dajna, Dajno, Dojna, Dojno, Bg.
‘he-goat’ < IE *bhug+o-, unconfirmed See under Dajo. Cf. Rom. doin!,
in a larger comparative context; dain!, NP Doina (Paliga 1994, and
Romanian forms indicate a basic the previous entry).
meaning ‘lip’, hence also ‘a limit’. Dajo, Dae, Daj"o, Bg.; Daja,
The same origin is in NFl, NL Dajko, S.-Cr. Duridanov considers
Buz#u. them related to NL Rom. Daia,
Capov, Bg., Rom. &ap, &apu, D#e(ti, all of Thracian origin, cf.
&ap#u. Cf. Rom. 'ap ‘a he-goat’. Thr. NP Daus, NPp Daci, Dacisci,
Bulgarian forms reflect a borrowing Greek spelling ,'-$ (oldest spelling
from Romanian, but a direct bor- of the ethnic group of the Daci). See
rowing directly from Thracian also above under Dada, Dade.
is possible, if indeed there was a di- Dako, Bg.; Dako, Daka, S.-Cr.,
rect interference between the late Dacu, Rom. Duridanov considers
Thracian speakers and the Slavic this form as directly reflecting the
groups in expansion after the begin- ancient ethnic name NPp Dacus,
ning of the 6th century A.D. This is Daci, ,'.-$ etc. ‘the Dacians’ (i.e.
now the already largely accepted the northern branch of the Thraci-
hypothesis of the Bulgarian schools ans, in north Danubian region). Cf.
of Thracian studies. Alb. NFl Daka. This is another ar-
Dada, Dado, Bg. and dada ‘elder gument that both Dacus and Thrax,
sister’, S.-Cr. Dade, dial. dada Thraex have been continuously pre-
‘mother’. Duridanov compares these served until the modern and con-
forms with Thr. NP Dada, Dadas, temporary times; see also above,
well attested in Thracian personal Lexicon A under Trakana. Further
naming. Cf. daj-, did-, dod-, dud- discussions on the Thracian root

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313
Addenda
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dak-/dek- in Paliga 1994. See also vocalic b/v is regularly preserved in
under Geto, Geta below. the Thracian elements of Romanian,
Dardan, m., Dardana, f., Bg. From so the suggested etymon does not
NPp Thr. ,'&/'+-$ pl, Dardanos, seem plausible; I am inclined to re-
sg.; cf. NP Ill. Dardana, f., Alb. NFl fer again to the root *DA-, *DE-,
Dardha, dardhë ‘a pear, a pear-tree’, *DI- as in Daia, Dako, Daina etc.
from Thraco-Illyrian *darda. (see above).
Deko, m., Deka, f. Cf. NP Thr. Dito, m., Dita, f., Bg. Cf. NP Thr.
Dece-balus, Dece-neus. Cf. Dako Ditas, Dita and Alb. NP Dito.
above. Dodo, m., Doda, Dodina, f., Bg. NP
Dida, f., Dido, Didjo, m., Bg. NP s. Doda (referring to a Romanian),
Rom. Dida, Didu. Cf. NP Thr. Dida, Rom. NP Doda, Dodu, Dodea. Cf.
Didas, Didis, Didila, NP Alb. Dido, Bg. doda ‘elder sister’, cf. Rom.
NFl Didha. The parallel forms in dod!. Cf. Alb. NP Dodë, NFl Doda.
Romanian, Albanian and Bulgarian, (Duridanov). Cf. Dada, Dajo, Dako,
on the one hand, and Thracian, on Dida, Dudo.
the other, cannot be ignored. The Dudo, m., Duda, Dudeva, f., Bg.
sequence d + e/i in Romanian may Cf. Rom. Dudea, Dudu and Thr. NP
pose specific problems only if we ,-%/"(, Dudis, Alb. NP Duda. Cf.
analyse it in the light of the Latin Dodu.
elements, where the result would Du)o, Duné, m., Duna, Du)a, f.,
have been dz > z. If we assume a Bg. NP S.-Cr. Dunja. Cf. Thr. NP
Thracian origin, then the sequence Dunas, Dunis, Alb. NFl Duna < IE
seems natural, cf. Deva. *dhen- ‘to run; to flow’ (Duri-
Dilo, m., Dila, f., Bg. Cf. NP Thr. danov).
6)775., 6)7)-(,7-)., 6)7)-840)., Duro, Durko, Dur"o, m., Dura, f.,
Alb. NP Dilo, m., Dilë, f. Bg., S.-Cr. NP Dura, f., Durad, m.
Dio, Dijo, m., NFl Dieva, NL Cf. Thr. NP. ,-%&'(, ,-%&'-)*&$(,
Diovo, Bg. S-cr. NP Dija, f. Cf. NP Durises, Durisses, Alb. NP Dura.
Thr. Dios, Deios, Dius, explained by All seem related with (but not bor-
Duridanov from IE *diwios ‘refer- rowed from) Lat. durus (Duri-
ring to the sky, divine’ > Thr. *div- danov), indeed reflecting and pre-
therefore with the fall of intervocalic serving the Thracian name.
b/v which is a specific Romanian Eto, m., Eta, f., Bg. Cf. Thr. NP
evolution in the Latin elements, but Epta-, e.g. Epta/poris, Epta-kenthos,
preserved in NFl Alb. Diva. • Inter-

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314
Lexicon C: Archaic Personal Names
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also Eti-centus; cf. Alb. NFl Eta, NP Cf. Thr. NP Gil-, -geilos, e.g. 0$2-
Jet, m., Jeta, f. (Duridanov). 8%&$(, !-%&-1*$2-( (cf. NP Rom.
Geko, m., Geka, f. Cf. Thr. NP end- Burghele, Burghelea) cf. also
ing in -gekos, e.g. 0$12$-1".-(, m., 7!1$22'(, Np Ill.5 0$22-(, Alb. NP
Alb. NP Gjek, m. Gjile, f. (Duridanov).
Gera, Geran, Bg., Rom. Ghear#, Gito, m., Gita, f., Bg. Cf. Thr. NP
Gheran < ghear!. There are many 0$3$(, f., Alb. NP Gjitë, NFl Gjita
Thracian forms in ger- (De$ev (Duridanov). See above under Geta,
1957), see above in Lexicon A under Geto.
German. It is probable that some Gruia ( < grui ‘a small hill’) - Bg.
Thracian roots continue with some Gruja, Gruev. Cf. NL Thr. Gur-
modern and contemporary forms, bikon. The Thracian root gur-, gru-
but it is impossible to state whether may ultimately reflect Pre-IE *K-R-/
ALL these forms may ultimately *G-R- ‘a hill, a mountain’, with an
reflect Thr. ger-. impressive heritage all over south-
Geto, m., Geta, f., Bg. Cf. Thr. NP, east Europe and further in the Medi-
NPp 0*3'(4,5 0*3"( etc. and Alb. NP terranean basin.
Gjet, NFl Gjeta (Duridanov). If this Gu!o, m., Bg., S.-Cr. Gudan. Cf.
parallel is accepted, then all the Thr. NP Gudila, Gudilas, probably a
three basic Thracian ethnonyms simple graphical variant of Kutilas,
seem preserved until the contempo- 8-%3$2'(, -"( < IE *ghodh, *ghed-
rary times: Thrax/ Thraex, Dacus, ‘to tie, to fix’ (Duridanov). Cf. Rom.
Getas. See under Trakana (Lexicon NP Gudea, gudura.
A) and Dako above. Jata, f., Bg., also NFl Jata. Cf. Thr.
Gigo, m., Giga, f. NR Gigin, Gig- NP 79%(, 79"(, 73$(. NFl Cz. Jate#
ina, district of Burel, Bulgaria. Rom. seems Pre-Slavic (Duridanov).
NL Ghighiu, Ghigoe$ti. Cf. Thr. NP Ka"ul(a), -ov, Bg., Rom. C#ciul#,
0*$16+, 0$16+, and Alb. NFl Gjiga -escu derived from c!ciul! ‘a fur-
(Duridanov). The ultimate root may cap’. Cf. NP Thr. Cutiula, 8-9"2'(.
be Pre-IE *G-G- ‘great, big’.
Kodo, m., Koda, f., Bg. Cf. Thr. NP
Giko, m., Gika, f., Bg. Alb. NP
8-/$(, 86/$+-(, maybe a dialectal,
Gika, Gjikë, NFl Gjika. Cf. Thr. NP
Daco-Mysian variant of 8-3$(, Koto
0$."+-3$"+-(, 0*$.'$-3$"+-( (Duri-
says Duridanov. Yet an approach to
danov).
Rom. coad! ‘a tail’, radical cod-,
Gilo, m., Gila, f., Bg. Rom. NL
e.g. NL Codea, Codlea. But this
Ghilea, Ghile$ti (< personal name).
may simply be an etymological sub-
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315
Addenda
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stitution as often in personal names, wood’ – ‘Christmas’ is also in Italian
and not rarely in place-names too. ceppo, and reflects the traditional
Koto, Koté, m., Kota, f., Bg.; S.-Cr. creeds around the winter solstice
NFl Koti, Rom. Coteni, Cote(ti. (more in Frazer’s The Golden
Duridanov compares these forms Bough, chapter referrring to fire
with Thr. NP 8-3$(, 8-33$(, Cotus creeds). This word of Thracian ori-
etc., Alb. NP Kotë; he seemingly gin is spread on a large area in cen-
ignores the possible derivation from tral, east and southeast Europe, di-
Rom. cot ‘an elbow’, hence NP Co- rectly from Thracian in Romanian,
teanu, Cotescu, NL Coteni etc. See possibly also in Bulgarian and Ser-
above under Kodo, Koda, and below bian, via Romanian in Hungarian,
under Kuto, which may ultimately Ukrainian and Russian. See Cr!ciun
support Duridanov’s hypothesis. in the main lexicon.
There may be, as often, a reconfigu- Kuto, Ku%o, m., Kuta, f., Bg., Alb.
ration of these archaic forms by NFl Kuta, NL Kuta (north Alba-
folk-etymology, and therefore such nia). Compared by Duridanov with
an explanation should not be re- NP Thr. 8-%3-%(, Cutius, Cutiula
jected de plano. etc. See above under Koto.
Kra"un, S.-Cr., Slv. Rom. Cr#ciun, Magul(ev), Bg., Rom. M#gur#,
obviously in relation with cr!ciun M#gurescu, Alb. magullë. Cf. NL
‘Christmas’, also dialectally ‘a piece Thr. Magaris, near Serdica (today
of wood, a log’; closely related to Sofia). The Bulgarian form rather
Alb. kërcú ‘a log, a piece of wood’. reflect Albanian phonetism.
Romanian form was often explained Melko, Bg., Rom. Melcu, Melcea
from Lat. creatio, which is not satis- (< melc ‘a snail’). Cf. NP Thr. Mel-
fying etymologically or semanti- gis, Melgidianus and many other
cally. The basic meaning of the Thracian forms with root mel-. Pos-
word must have been ‘wood, piece sibly related to Rom. mal ‘a river-
of wood, a log’, as in Albanian and side’, Alb. mal ‘a hill’, Pre-IE *M-L-
dialectally in Romanian, therefore ‘a hill, rock’. The snail was perhaps
the forms must be of Thracian ori- interpreted as a ‘small, moving
gin, a hypothesis with more and hill(ock)’, and thus the relation ‘hill,
more supporters (thus in Mu#u hillock’ – ‘snail’ proves its archaic
1973: 50 sq., with a history of the character.
problem; also Brâncu#i 1983: 137). • Moga, Mogo$, Bg., Moga, S.-Cr.,
The semantic parallel ‘piece of Rom. NP, Moga, Mogo(, Mo-

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316
Lexicon C: Archaic Personal Names
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go(escu. Compared by Duridanov supra.
with NP Thr. Mogita, NP Celtic Mu$a, Bg., Rom. Mu(a, Mu(ea,
Mogitu-maros; he equally rejects the Mu(u (cf. mu$at ‘beautiful’,
approach to Sl. mog9, root mog- mu$e/el). The basic, archaic mean-
‘can, be able to’. His hypothesis is ing of Romanian root mu$- seem-
supported by the probable parallel ingly was ‘beautiful’. The relation
form Muga, below. with mo$ ‘an old man’ is not clear,
Mo$te, Mo$to, Bg., Rom. Mo((u), unless we assume an archaic Pre-
Mo(tea < mo$ ‘an old man’; the Indo-European origin, and a possi-
feminine moa$! has developed the ble relation ‘to bend, curve’ – ‘to
particular meaning ‘midwife’ < ‘old shine, bright’, which is confirmed by
woman’. There are numerous Thra- recent research: light is composed of
cian forms with root mos-, mus- e.g. CURVED components. See also un-
NPp Moesi, NR Mossynos, NP der Mo#te above.
:-%#$(; it is difficult to assume that Neno, Nenko, Nena, Nenka, Bg.,
all these forms have the same origin S.-Cr. Also Nono, Nonko, Nona,
and meaning, but most of them must Rom. Nanu, Nanc#, Nenea, Ne-
belong here. Cf. Mu#a, Mu$ea, be- nescu etc. Compared by Duridanov
low. The ultimate origin may be Pre- with NP Thr. ;"+'(, Nonnus,
IE *M-S- (1) ‘to curve, to bend, to Nonna, Ill. Nena-lava. Further dis-
bow’, and/or also *M-S- (2) ‘to cussions about this root in Paliga
shine, bright’. It is not clear whether 1996, chapter dedicated to social
the parallel meanings ‘to bend, to and family relations. • The expected
curve’ and ‘to shine’ may be archai- phonetic treatment in Romanian
cally related. More on this topic in would be with a closed vowel in the
Paliga 1989 c and in Thracian and sequence vowel + n, but there are
Pre-Thracian Studies. also exceptions, this case too. For
Muga, Bg., Rom. Muga (cf. mugur sure, some place- and personal
‘a blossom’). There are numerous names follow other rules of phonetic
Thracian forms with root muk-, evolution, presumably because they
mug-, recently re-analysed from the persisted as such over a longer pe-
perspective of the Thracian heritage riod of time.
in Romanian by Stelian Dumistr&cel Pato, Pa%o, Bg. Compared by
(Anuarul Institutului de Istorie $i Duridanov with NL Cr. Patkovac
Arheologie „A.D. Xenopol”, Ia#i, and NL Rom. P!te$ti (< NP
25, 1/1988: 391-408). Cf. Moga,

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317
Addenda
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P!tescu), then with Thr. NP <'3'(, nas) < IE *weg+ ‘vigorous, robust’.
<'3"(, NP Ill. Patulus. Zajko, m., Bg. Compared by Duri-
Strugo, Bg., Rom. Strug, danov with NL Rom. Z!ice$ti (< NP
Strugaru; cf. strugure ‘a grape’. Zaicu) and Thr. NP ?'$.', ?'$.*-
Seem closely related to NFl Struga, /*+9"(, Zaece-thures.
see Lexicon A. Beyond any doubt, Zané, Zano, m., Zana, f., Bg.
ar archaic Thracian root well pre- Compared by Duridanov with Thr.
served until modern times. NP Zanus, Zania,5 7%2-%-)'+"(,
Toko, Toké, m., Toka, f., Bg.; 7%2-%-)'+$(, Ill. Zanatis, Alb. Zana,
Toko, S.-Cr. Compared by Duri- NFl Zana < IE g+en- ‘to give birth
danov with Thr. NP =-.-(, =-.6( to’. Other arguments and discus-
and personal names ending in sions about the relationship between
!3-."(, !3-.-(. these forms and Rom. zîn! ‘a fairy’,
Tu%o, m., Bg. Compared by Duri- Sân-ziene ‘holy fairies’ in Paliga
danov with NL Cr. Tuti:, S. Tutin (1989 b, with further references).
then Thr. NP Tutius, =-%3*+"(, Cf. Zino, Zina, below.
=-%3', Ill. Tutia. Zino, m., Zina, f., Bg. Compared by
V#taf, Vato, V#to, Bg., Vata$, Va- Duridanov with Alb. NP Zina, f.,
tavala, S.-Cr., Rom. V#tafu, NFl Zina and Thracian NP ?$+',
V#tavu. Cf. v!taf. Grkovi! (1983: ?*$+"(, Zines etc. Presumably re-
88-89), referring to S.-Cr. form, lated to Zane, Zano above.
considers it Thraco-Illyrian. Zura, f., Bg. Compared by Duri-
Vezo, Vezenko, m., Bg. Compared danov with Alb. NP Zura, NFl Zura
by Duridanov with NFl Alb. Veza, and Thr. NP Zura, m., ?-%&"(,
Vegja and NP Thr. >%*)$+'( (*Vezi- ?%&$(, ?-%&--.

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318
Lexicon D: Archaic Place-Names in Czech and Slovak
__________________________________________________________________

Lexicon D: Archaic Place!Names


in Czech Republic and Slovakia

Beskydy Unknown origin. The re- fered by the Romanian toponymy.


lationship with Albanian bjeshkë Brno Unknown origin, sometimes
‘mountain pasture’ (as !afa"ík sug- connected to brn#t ‘to tingle’; (about
gested), therefore a Thracian wind) ‘to whistle, to whizz’, which
place!name, seems to have a major is – as often in the case of archaic
impediment: there is no similar place!names – a fortuitous similarity
place!name in the neighbouring area (many similar examples are ana-
(Skok’s basic principle of repeat- lysed by Skok 1950 and Bezlaj in
ability), so it is at least doubtful the case of South Slavic toponymy).
whether we may explain a Czech!S- • Presumably reflects Preie. *B!R!,
lovak place!name via an Albani- *P!R! ‘stone; cliff’; adapted to the
an!related form. • The place!name, Czech spirit in accordance with zrno
together with its related forms etc. • There are numerous Pre!In-
(Ukrainian Be!"ady, Polish Bieszc- do!European place!names derived
zad) is seemingly Pre!Slavic, with- from this root; other examples in
out a clear etymon. The proto!form Paliga 2000.
would be *Besk#d$. A solution may !ech Bla#ek and Klain (2002)
be offered by further comparing have recently reviewed all the hy-
Czech Beskydy to the Romanian pothesis regarding this place! and
form pisc ‘a (mountain) peak’, also ethnic name, otherwise difficult to
frequent in place!names in moun- explain. I should add that identical
tainous locations. The root may or similar place!names are in Tran-
*pesk!, *besk! ‘a peak’. On the at- sylvania and East Carpathians. NL
tested alternance p/b in Thracian, Cehu Silvaniei ‘the Czech of Silva-
see Paliga 1987. !afa"ík’s compari- nia’ (Romanian ceh, cehu is pro-
son seems correct, and may be ac- nounced as in Czech proper); NM
cepted with the additional data of-

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319
Addenda
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Ceahl%u in the East Carpathians, main idea presented here: $ech! is
also not satisfactorily explained so not an isolated root, but a well and
far. If the archaic alternance h/f is largely reprsented root, presumably
accepted, and is indeed documented of Thraco!Illyrian origin, with the
in some cases of Romanian words of basic meaning ‘neck’, hence ‘hill
Thracian origin, than the relation neck, hill in general’.
might be to Rom. ceaf% ‘back side
Dyje A river at the Czech!Austrian
of the) neck’, Albanian qafë, same
border; German Thaya. Pre!Slavic,
meaning as in Romanian. The primi-
tive meaning seemingly was ‘neck’, perhaps from IE *dh&! ‘rapid, quick
hence ‘hill, elevated location = move, flow’. Possibly related to
mountain’. The ultimate origin is British NFl Tyne.
uncertain, possibly Pre!Indo!Euro- Hron A trbutary of the Danube in
pean. If so, it may lead to the con- Slovakia. Pre!Slavic, ultimately of
clusion that the modern Czech lands Preie. origin, root *G!R!, *K!R! ‘a
reflected to archaic Neolithic and stone, a cliff’, presumably via Thra-
Chalcolithic influence from the cian, Celtic or Germanic, less
south, at least in some cases. There probably via Illyrian as formerly
are numerous place!names of this held by some linguists. But the idea
type in Romania, especially in the that the Illyrians came from more
mountainous Transylvanian Carpa- northern regions is still occasionally
thians, and they have reflection in considered. • Earliest attested form
the current vocabulary, so the prin- is Gran (1075, 1124, 1217); closest
ciple of repeatability seems assured. related form must be Slovenian
• The alternance f/h in Romanian Kranj.
witnesses the existence of a former Chanava A region in Slovakia be-
laryngeal *X in Thracian; its result tween the Slaná and the Rimavská
in Romanian in zero, f or h. • There Sobota. Obscure. The Hungarian
are therefore several place!names form in Hanva, obscure as well.
with the root $ech!, spread also – Kiss 1980: 263 assumes that the
beside the Czech area and Romanian Slovak form would be borrowed
– in Ukrainian, Polish, Slovene and from Hungarian, but this detail –
northern Greece. This stresses the
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320
Lexicon D: Archaic Place-Names in Czech and Slovak
__________________________________________________________________
doubtful or debatable – does not Named in German Riesengebirge
clarify the topic. and Oriás!hegység lit. ‘huge moun-
Ida NFl Slovakia; NL Ve"ká, Malá tains’ in Hungarian. The approach to
Ida. Must one of the numerous Pre- Czech krk must be a folk!etymol-
Slavic, probably Pre!Indo!European ogy. The genuine relationship
river!names, cf. Greek Ida, a loca- should be the numerous forms, all of
tion on the island of Crete, Greek Pre!Slavic, presumably Pre!In-
spelling Id!, Gr. id!, Dorian id" ‘for- do!European origin in South Slavic:
est, forested land’. Chantraine, I, Slovenian NFl Krka (< Corcoras,
455 considers it a Pre!Hellenic term. Korkoras), then Kranj, Koro!ka,
• May be akin, also as an archaic Serbo!Croatian Krajna etc. Cf. an-
Preie. heritage, to NFl Ada (Lexicon cient Carsium, today Hîr'ova, in
A). The reconstructable Preie. root Romania, on the low Danube. The
*AD!, *ID! is identifiable in some change c(k) > h has not been satis-
other Preie. place!names. factorily explained; it may be due to
a laryngeal in Thracian, impossible
Ipe" (Slovak), Hungarian Ipoly,
to note in Greek or Latin. • The form
German Eipel A river at the Slo-
seems closely related to NL Krknja!
vak!Hungarian border. Attested in
(Veli i Mali) in the island of %iovo,
the early Middle Ages as Ipul. Kiss
Central Dalmatian Group of the
(1980: 291) considers the form re-
Adriatic Islands; Skok 1950: 160 ff.
lated to Bulgarian Ib%r, Serbian
assumes that the origin may be Lat.
Ibar; we may also add Romanian
circinus ‘round, circular’ + suffix
Ibru; the assumed IE root would be
!aceus. Just like Krkono!e, the ety-
*eybhros. • The form is undoubtedly
mological family seems the large
Pre!Slavic and Pre!Hungarian, but
group derived from Preie. *K!R!; I
the best connection may be Rom.
assume Skok would agree with this
NL Ip, definite article Ipu, Ipul, as
hypothesis, as he himself postulates
the earliest Medieval form shows for
it for many other examples. Other
the river as well. The ultimate origin
discussions in Paliga 2000; see main
may be Pre!Indo!European.
lexicon, also Lexica A and B.
Krkono#e A major mountainous
chain at the Czech!Polish border.
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321
Addenda
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Labe, German Elbe Beyond any rived from Latin mater ‘mother’,
doubt, an old river!name, currently though such an origin may not be
explained from IE *albho!s ‘white’. excluded. On the other hand, both
In Medieval Latin, Polabi got the north Hungarian and Romanian
meaning ‘the Slavs along the Elba’. forms