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CHAPTER 1 : TRANSPORT

1.

Table 1 shows the of types of blood cells

Type of
blood cell

Cell P

Cell Q

Cell R

Cell S

Produces
Function

Transports oxygen

Defense

antibodies :

and carbon

mechanism

- Lysine

dioxide

- Agglutinin
- Antitoxin
Table 1

(a)

( i)

Cell Q engulfs the pathogen entering the body by phagocytosis.

Complete the diagram below to show the mechanism of phagocytosis occurred


in cell Q.

(ii) Cell R destroys the pathogens entering the body by the action of antibodies.
State one

of the mechanisms used by antibodies to destroy pathogens.


(b)

(i) Based on Table 1, state two structural differences between Cell P and
Cell Q.
..
..
(ii) Based on Table 1, state two structural differences between cell Q and

cell R
..
..

(ii) State two characteristics of cell P which help it to function efficiently


..
..
(iii) Explain the role of cell Q in the transport of oxygen from the alveoli to the
body cells.
..
..
.
(c)

State the main function of cell S


..

2.

The diagram below shows the circulatory system of organism P and Q

(a)

(i)

Name the circulatory system of organism P and Q

P:
Q:
(ii)

Compare the two circulatory systems above

(b)

Explain the advantages of the circulatory system of organism P over


the circulatory system of organism Q.

(c)

By using an arrow, shows the flow of oxygenated blood in organism P


and Q.

(d)

Explain why the transportation of oxygen to body cells of a human is


faster than a fish.

3.

The diagram below shows a human leg.

R
S
T

(a)

(i)

Label structure R and S

(ii)

State the role of structure R

(b)

(i)

Name tissue T

(ii)

Explain how tissue S helps in the circulation of blood

(c )

4.

In the box provided, use an arrow to show the flow of blood.

Diagram 4 shows the mechanism of blood clotting.


Platelets in contact with
damaged tissue

Thromboplastin
Vitamin S

Ion T

Prothrombin

Thrombin

Fibrinogen

DIAGRAM 4

(a) Name Vitamin S and Ion T.

Vitamin S:..
Ion T

:..

(b) Diagram 4.2 shows a vertical section through structure W.

DIAGRAM 4.2
(i) Name structure W.

(ii) Explain how structure W is formed.

(iii) State the necessity for the formation of structure W around the wound.

(iv) The structure W does not normally formed in intact blood vessels.
Explain why?

(c)

What is the consequence if blood clot form within the unbroken blood vessel?

(d)

Haemophilia is a genetic disease in which the individual cannot produce a


clotting factor. Suggest one method to save the afflicted person from dying
due to excessive bleeding.
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5.

Figure below shows the concentration of antibodies of individual P and Q


Individual P

Individual Q

The
concentration
of antibodies
in blood
Immunity level

First injection given to both


Individual P dan Q

Time (Weeks)

Second injection given to


individual Q
Second injection given to
individual P

(a) (i) Identify the type of immunisation given to both individual P and Q
Individual P :

..

Indicidual Q :

..

(b) Explain the differences between the two graphs in relation to :(i) the changes in the concentration of antibodies in blood

(ii)

the type of injection given.

.
(iii)

the need for the second injection

(c)

An individual was involved in an accident. Explain why was he given


an antiserum instead of a vaccine.