IGCSE PHYSICS: 1.1 Movement and Position
Section 1: Forces and motion b) Movement and position plot and interpret distance-time graphs know and use the relationship: average speed = distance moved / time taken describe experiments to investigate the motion of everyday objects such as toy cars or tennis balls know and use the relationship: acceleration = change in velocity / time taken a = (v – u) / t plot and interpret velocity-time graphs determine acceleration from the gradient of a velocity-time graph determine the distance travelled from the area between a velocity-time graph and the time axis.
average speed = distance time In physics speed is usually measured in: metres per second (m/s)
average speed = distance time = 500m / 20s = 25 m/s (about 60 mph)
also: distance = speed x time and: time = distance speed distance speed time
1 kilometre per hour (km/h) = 1000 metres per hour but 1 hour = 3600 seconds therefore 1 km/h = 1000m ÷ 3600 s 1 km/h = 0.h
Calculate the average speed of a car that covers 500m in 20s.28 m/s and 1 m/s = 3.6 km/h Also: 100 km/h = approx 63 m.
0 x 108 m/s 330 m/s
Sound waves travel at about 340m/s through air.4 km or about 13 miles)
distance 60 m 1400 m 300 m 80 km 150 x 10 km 1 km
time 3s 35 s 0. How far will a sound wave travel in one minute? distance = speed x time = 340 m/s x 1 minute = 340 m/s x 60 seconds = 20 400 m (20.03 s
average speed 20 20 m/s 40 m/s 1500 m/s 40 km/h 40 3.20 s 2h 8 min 20 s 3.
The slope or gradient of a distance-time graph is equal to the speed. (b) a bus moving at a steady speed greater than the car. (c) a lorry increasing in speed from rest. In the graph opposite: slope = 150m / 10s = 15 m/s = speed
Sketch on the same set of axes distancetime graphs for: (a) a car moving at a steady speed.
The slope or gradient of a distance-time graph increases with speed.
72 A speed of 20 m/s is the same as ______ km/h which is 40 approximately equal to ______ mph.07/09/56
Describe the motion of the three lorries X. stationary 1200 to 1800s. speed = 10000m / 600s = 16.7 m/s 600 to 1200s. WORD SELECTION: slope 40 speed higher distance horizontal 72 metres
. slope The _________ of a distance against time graph can be used to calculate ________.
Lorry X: Moving quickest speed = 45000m / 1800s = 25 m/s Lorry Y: speed = 36000m / 1800s = 20 m/s Lorry Z: Moving slowest 0 to 600s. speed = 16. The line will be ___________ horizontalwhen __________ the speed is zero.1 m/s
Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:
distance divided by time and can be Speed is equal to ________ metres measured in _________ per second. The greater the gradient of the line the speed higher is the speed. Y and Z shown in the graph below.7 m/s average speed = 20000m / 1800s = 11.
(a) average speed downwards = 20m / 2s = 10m/s Therefore velocity downwards = 10 m/s (b) average speed horizontally = 0m / 2s = 0m/s Therefore velocity horizontally = 0 m/s
acceleration = velocity change time taken a = (v – u) / t
a = acceleration in metres per second squared (m/s2) v = final velocity in m/s u = initial velocity in m/s t = time taken in seconds (s)
A stone dropped off the top of a cliff falls down by 20m in 2s.07/09/56
The velocity of a body is its speed in a given direction. The airplane opposite may loop at a constant speed but its velocity changes as its direction of motion changes. Calculate its average velocity (a) downwards and (b) horizontally.
Speed and velocity: Often. time (s) velocity (m/s) 0 0 1 8 2 16 3 24 4 32
Why is acceleration measured in m/s2 ?
acceleration = velocity change time taken velocity change is measured in m/s time taken is measured in s therefore acceleration = m/s ÷ s = m/s2
Other notes: 1. but not always. speed can be used in the equation. 4.
Complete the table below for an airplane accelerating at 8m/s2. 2. Circular motion at a constant speed: Acceleration is occurring because the direction of motion is continually changing and hence so is velocity. Deceleration: This is where the speed is decreasing with time. Change in velocity: = final velocity – initial velocity =v-u 3.
.6 m/s2 and so deceleration = 6 m/s2 Note: Deceleration is the negative of acceleration. a = (v – u) / t becomes: (v – u) = a x t = 0.3m/s2 for 60 seconds from an initial velocity of 5m/s.07/09/56
Calculate the acceleration of a car that changes in velocity from 5m/s to 25m/s in 4 seconds.3m/s2 x 60s = 18m/s therefore final train velocity = 5m/s + 18m/s = 23 m/s
Calculate the deceleration of a car that slows down from 18m/s to rest in 3 seconds. a = (v – u) / t = (25m/s – 5m/s) / 4s = 20 / 4 acceleration = 5 m/s2
Calculate the final velocity of a train that accelerates at 0. a = (v – u) / t = (0m/s – 18m/s) / 3s = -18 / 3 (notice minus sign) acceleration = .
It is possible for a body to be accelerating even when its ______ speed is not changing provided its direction is.
constant velocity or zero acceleration
.-60 Time (s) 15 3 10 3 20 Acceleration (m/s2) 3 8 6 -5 -3
Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:
direction Velocity is speed measured in a particular ______________. for example: a body circle moving in a ________. zero A person walking northwards will have _______ velocity in a westwards direction.
WORD SELECTION: speed zero slowing direction squared circle velocity
The slope of a velocity-time graph represents acceleration.07/09/56
Velocity (m/s) Initial (u) 0 0 30 20 0 Final (v) 45 24 90 5 60 . Acceleration is measured in metres per second ______. velocity change divided by the time Acceleration is equal to ________ squared taken. slowing Deceleration occurs when a body is _________ down.
acceleration = gradient = y-step ÷ x-step = (12 .
area equals distance travelled
Sketch the velocity time graph of a car accelerating from rest to 15m/s in 3 seconds and then remaining at a constant speed for one more second.
15 10 5
4 time (s)
Calculate the acceleration and the distance travelled after 4 seconds from using the graph opposite.0)m/s ÷ (4 – 0)s = 12 / 4 acceleration = 3 m/s2 distance = area under the graph = area of triangle = ½ x base x height = ½ x 4s x 12m/s distance travelled = 24m 12 8 4 area
4 time (s)
The area under a velocity-time graph represents distance travelled.
Calculate the acceleration and distance travelled using the graph shown below.
.4)m/s ÷ (10s) = 12 / 10 Acceleration = 1.
Acceleration: Acceleration equals the slope of the graph = y-step ÷ x-step = (16 .2 m/s2 Distance travelled: This equals the area below the graph = area of rectangle + area of triangle = (10s x 4m/s) + (½ x 10s x (12 – 4)m/s) = 40m + 40m Distance travelled = 80m
Calculate the distance travelled over 15 seconds and the deceleration during the final five seconds using the graph below.
(see page 12) Explain the difference between speed and velocity. velocity. velocity or acceleration. 3. Set the position. velocity. 6. Maze Game . and acceleration in the "Arena of Pain". See the velocity and acceleration vectors change as the ball moves.20m/s) ÷ (5s) = .NTNU Football distance-time graphs . velocity.NTNU Two dogs running with graphs .PhET . distance and time Distance-time graphs Velocity-time graphs Acceleration Distance-time graphs (higher) Velocity-time graphs (higher)
Movement and Position
Notes questions from pages 1 to 11
1.Learn about position.PhET . Answer the questions on pages 10 & 11.eChalk Motion graphs with tiger . Choose linear. Give the equation for acceleration in both words and symbol form. Try to make a goal as fast as you can.5 from page 3 and explain how the speed of the car can be calculated from this graph.Learn about position. 5.netfirms Displacement-time graph with set velocities NTNU Displacement & Aceleration-time graphs with set velocities . simple harmonic. Move the ball with the mouse or let the simulation move the ball in four types of motion (2 types of linear. Move the little man back and forth with the mouse and plot his motion. (see page 3) Copy figure 1.07/09/56
Distance travelled: This equals the area below the graph = area of rectangle + area of triangle = (10s x 20m/s) + (½ x 5s x 20m/s) = 200m + 50m Distance travelled = 250m Deceleration: Acceleration equals the slope of the graph = y-step ÷ x-step = (. Add more walls to the arena to make the game more difficult. and acceleration graphs. Verify that you can do all of the items listed in the end of chapter checklist on page 10. velocity and acceleration vectors.
. Move the ladybug by setting the position.PhET . Give the equation for average speed and state its unit.4 m/s2 but deceleration = negative of acceleration Deceleration = 4 m/s2
The Moving Man . or acceleration and let the simulation move the man for you. 2. 4.NTNU BBC AQA GCSE Bitesize Revision: Speed.10 from page 7 and use it to calculate the acceleration and the distance travelled by the ball. State the unit of acceleration and the meaning of the symbols in the symbol version of the equation. Motion in 2D . (see page 1) Copy figure 1. 8. circular or elliptical motion.NTNU Displacement & Velocity-time graphs with set accelerations . circle). Ladybug motion in 2D . and record and playback the motion to analyze the behavior Motion with constant acceleration . and see how the vectors change.Fendt Bouncing ball with motion graphs .PhET . 7. (see page 5) Explain how a velocity-time graph can be used to find acceleration and distance travelled.Learn about velocity and acceleration vectors.Learn about position.NTNU Motion graphs test . Use the green arrow to move the ball.