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IGCSE PHYSICS: 1.1 Movement and Position
Section 1: Forces and motion b) Movement and position plot and interpret distance-time graphs know and use the relationship: average speed = distance moved / time taken describe experiments to investigate the motion of everyday objects such as toy cars or tennis balls know and use the relationship: acceleration = change in velocity / time taken a = (v – u) / t plot and interpret velocity-time graphs determine acceleration from the gradient of a velocity-time graph determine the distance travelled from the area between a velocity-time graph and the time axis.
average speed = distance time In physics speed is usually measured in: metres per second (m/s)
h Question 1 Calculate the average speed of a car that covers 500m in 20s.p.28 m/s and 1 m/s = 3. average speed = distance time = 500m / 20s = 25 m/s (about 60 mph) 2 .07/09/56 also: distance = speed x time and: time = distance speed distance speed time Speed Conversions 1 kilometre per hour (km/h) = 1000 metres per hour but 1 hour = 3600 seconds therefore 1 km/h = 1000m ÷ 3600 s 1 km/h = 0.6 km/h Also: 100 km/h = approx 63 m.
0 x 108 m/s 330 m/s Distance-time graphs 3 .03 s average speed 20 20 m/s 40 m/s 1500 m/s 40 km/h 40 3. How far will a sound wave travel in one minute? distance = speed x time = 340 m/s x 1 minute = 340 m/s x 60 seconds = 20 400 m (20.20 s 2h 8 min 20 s 3.4 km or about 13 miles) Complete distance 60 m 1400 m 300 m 80 km 150 x 10 km 1 km 6 time 3s 35 s 0.07/09/56 Question 2 Sound waves travel at about 340m/s through air.
In the graph opposite: slope = 150m / 10s = 15 m/s = speed Question 1 Sketch on the same set of axes distancetime graphs for: (a) a car moving at a steady speed. distance time The slope or gradient of a distance-time graph is equal to the speed. distance lorry time 4 . (b) a bus moving at a steady speed greater than the car.07/09/56 The slope or gradient of a distance-time graph increases with speed. (c) a lorry increasing in speed from rest.
7 m/s 600 to 1200s. Lorry X: Moving quickest speed = 45000m / 1800s = 25 m/s Lorry Y: speed = 36000m / 1800s = 20 m/s Lorry Z: Moving slowest 0 to 600s. speed = 16. speed = 10000m / 600s = 16. 72 A speed of 20 m/s is the same as ______ km/h which is 40 approximately equal to ______ mph.07/09/56 Question 2 Describe the motion of the three lorries X.7 m/s average speed = 20000m / 1800s = 11. slope The _________ of a distance against time graph can be used to calculate ________. The greater the gradient of the line the speed higher is the speed. WORD SELECTION: slope 40 speed higher distance horizontal 72 metres 5 . Y and Z shown in the graph below. stationary 1200 to 1800s.1 m/s Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: distance divided by time and can be Speed is equal to ________ metres measured in _________ per second. The line will be ___________ horizontalwhen __________ the speed is zero.
Calculate its average velocity (a) downwards and (b) horizontally.07/09/56 Velocity The velocity of a body is its speed in a given direction. Question A stone dropped off the top of a cliff falls down by 20m in 2s. The airplane opposite may loop at a constant speed but its velocity changes as its direction of motion changes. (a) average speed downwards = 20m / 2s = 10m/s Therefore velocity downwards = 10 m/s (b) average speed horizontally = 0m / 2s = 0m/s Therefore velocity horizontally = 0 m/s Acceleration acceleration = velocity change time taken a = (v – u) / t a = acceleration in metres per second squared (m/s2) v = final velocity in m/s u = initial velocity in m/s t = time taken in seconds (s) 6 .
time (s) velocity (m/s) 0 0 1 8 2 16 3 24 4 32 7 . Change in velocity: = final velocity – initial velocity =v-u 3. Speed and velocity: Often. Circular motion at a constant speed: Acceleration is occurring because the direction of motion is continually changing and hence so is velocity. 4. 2.07/09/56 Why is acceleration measured in m/s2 ? acceleration = velocity change time taken velocity change is measured in m/s time taken is measured in s therefore acceleration = m/s ÷ s = m/s2 Other notes: 1. but not always. Deceleration: This is where the speed is decreasing with time. Question 1 Complete the table below for an airplane accelerating at 8m/s2. speed can be used in the equation.
3m/s2 for 60 seconds from an initial velocity of 5m/s.3m/s2 x 60s = 18m/s therefore final train velocity = 5m/s + 18m/s = 23 m/s Question 4 Calculate the deceleration of a car that slows down from 18m/s to rest in 3 seconds.6 m/s2 and so deceleration = 6 m/s2 Note: Deceleration is the negative of acceleration. a = (v – u) / t = (0m/s – 18m/s) / 3s = -18 / 3 (notice minus sign) acceleration = . 8 . a = (v – u) / t = (25m/s – 5m/s) / 4s = 20 / 4 acceleration = 5 m/s2 Question 3 Calculate the final velocity of a train that accelerates at 0.07/09/56 Question 2 Calculate the acceleration of a car that changes in velocity from 5m/s to 25m/s in 4 seconds. a = (v – u) / t becomes: (v – u) = a x t = 0.
zero A person walking northwards will have _______ velocity in a westwards direction. Acceleration is measured in metres per second ______. velocity constant velocity or zero acceleration time 9 . slowing Deceleration occurs when a body is _________ down. for example: a body circle moving in a ________. WORD SELECTION: speed zero slowing direction squared circle velocity Velocity-time graphs The slope of a velocity-time graph represents acceleration.07/09/56 Answers Complete Velocity (m/s) Initial (u) 0 0 30 20 0 Final (v) 45 24 90 5 60 . It is possible for a body to be accelerating even when its ______ speed is not changing provided its direction is. velocity change divided by the time Acceleration is equal to ________ squared taken.-60 Time (s) 15 3 10 3 20 Acceleration (m/s2) 3 8 6 -5 -3 Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: direction Velocity is speed measured in a particular ______________.
acceleration = gradient = y-step ÷ x-step = (12 . area equals distance travelled time Question 1 Sketch the velocity time graph of a car accelerating from rest to 15m/s in 3 seconds and then remaining at a constant speed for one more second.0)m/s ÷ (4 – 0)s = 12 / 4 acceleration = 3 m/s2 distance = area under the graph = area of triangle = ½ x base x height = ½ x 4s x 12m/s distance travelled = 24m 12 8 4 area velocity (m/s) 1 2 3 4 time (s) 10 .07/09/56 velocity The area under a velocity-time graph represents distance travelled. velocity (m/s) 15 10 5 1 2 3 4 time (s) Question 2 Calculate the acceleration and the distance travelled after 4 seconds from using the graph opposite.
07/09/56 Question 3 Calculate the acceleration and distance travelled using the graph shown below. 11 .4)m/s ÷ (10s) = 12 / 10 Acceleration = 1.2 m/s2 Distance travelled: This equals the area below the graph = area of rectangle + area of triangle = (10s x 4m/s) + (½ x 10s x (12 – 4)m/s) = 40m + 40m Distance travelled = 80m Question 4 Calculate the distance travelled over 15 seconds and the deceleration during the final five seconds using the graph below. Acceleration: Acceleration equals the slope of the graph = y-step ÷ x-step = (16 .
PhET .NTNU Football distance-time graphs . velocity. Ladybug motion in 2D . velocity.PhET . 4. circular or elliptical motion. (see page 3) Copy figure 1. and acceleration in the "Arena of Pain". Give the equation for acceleration in both words and symbol form.5 from page 3 and explain how the speed of the car can be calculated from this graph. (see page 5) Explain how a velocity-time graph can be used to find acceleration and distance travelled. 2. circle). velocity.Learn about position.eChalk Motion graphs with tiger . Give the equation for average speed and state its unit.PhET .NTNU Motion graphs test .Learn about velocity and acceleration vectors.NTNU BBC AQA GCSE Bitesize Revision: Speed. (see page 12) Explain the difference between speed and velocity. and see how the vectors change.Learn about position. and record and playback the motion to analyze the behavior Motion with constant acceleration . Maze Game .4 m/s2 but deceleration = negative of acceleration Deceleration = 4 m/s2 Online Simulations The Moving Man . Set the position. simple harmonic. 3. 6. Motion in 2D . Move the ball with the mouse or let the simulation move the ball in four types of motion (2 types of linear.NTNU Displacement & Velocity-time graphs with set accelerations . Try to make a goal as fast as you can.07/09/56 Distance travelled: This equals the area below the graph = area of rectangle + area of triangle = (10s x 20m/s) + (½ x 5s x 20m/s) = 200m + 50m Distance travelled = 250m Deceleration: Acceleration equals the slope of the graph = y-step ÷ x-step = (. Answer the questions on pages 10 & 11. Move the ladybug by setting the position.Learn about position. See the velocity and acceleration vectors change as the ball moves. Move the little man back and forth with the mouse and plot his motion. State the unit of acceleration and the meaning of the symbols in the symbol version of the equation. (see page 1) Copy figure 1. 8.PhET . 5. distance and time Distance-time graphs Velocity-time graphs Acceleration Distance-time graphs (higher) Velocity-time graphs (higher) Movement and Position Notes questions from pages 1 to 11 1.netfirms Displacement-time graph with set velocities NTNU Displacement & Aceleration-time graphs with set velocities . Verify that you can do all of the items listed in the end of chapter checklist on page 10. velocity and acceleration vectors. Add more walls to the arena to make the game more difficult.NTNU Two dogs running with graphs .10 from page 7 and use it to calculate the acceleration and the distance travelled by the ball. Use the green arrow to move the ball. 7.20m/s) ÷ (5s) = . Choose linear.Fendt Bouncing ball with motion graphs . velocity or acceleration. 12 . or acceleration and let the simulation move the man for you. and acceleration graphs.