ME2342_Sec8_ImmersedBodies

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

6 views

ME2342_Sec8_ImmersedBodies

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- airfoil.doc
- ME163_Project3
- The Basics of Flight
- sdarticle(13)
- trailing edge rotating cylinder.pdf
- Two-Dimensional Airfoil Theory
- Bird Wings
- Generalized Helicopter Rotor Performance
- Airfoil.theory.intro
- Lloyd Lif
- AeroClub Module1 Intoduction to Flight
- Active Flow Control Over a NACA 0015 Airfoil Using a ZNMF Jet
- Drag and Lift
- Airfoil
- naca 4412 yapılmış analiz.
- Effects of Surface Roughness and Vortex Generators on the NACA 4415 airfoil
- AFR_Study_Material.pdf
- Calderon PF 2014
- Air Spotter
- 1 1

You are on page 1of 31

Fluid Mechanics Section 8 Flow Over Immersed Bodies [Chapter 11 in the text book]

Paul S. Krueger Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Southern Methodist University Dallas, TX 75275 pkrueger@lyle.smu.edu (214) 768-1296 Office: 301G Embrey

P. S. Krueger ME/CEE 2342 8-1

For an object moving through a fluid at a velocity U, it is usually easier to view the objects as fixed in space and the fluid as flowing over the object at a free stream velocity U. Examples:

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

8-2

As objects move through a fluid, the fluid generates forces on the object. The forces are the combined effects of fluid pressure and shear stress on the object:

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

8-3

FL = dFy =

body

w body

FD = dFx =

P. S. Krueger

body

w body

ME/CEE 2342

8-4

1) Streamlined Body

P. S. Krueger ME/CEE 2342 8-5

P. S. Krueger ME/CEE 2342 8-6

Drag

Recall, Rather than compute drag, it is normally determined experimentally and represented as a dimensionless drag coefficient:

CD FD 1 2 U A 2

8-7

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

Understanding CD In general,

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

8-8

Effect of orientation:

In general, pressure drag dominates on bluff bodies, while shear drag dominates on streamlined bodies.

P. S. Krueger ME/CEE 2342 8-9

Reynolds Number For small Re, viscous forces dominate and CD 1/Re. For large Re, inertia dominates and CD ~ constant. Example: CD for a sphere

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

8 - 10

Why the drop in CD for Re > 105? This is because the boundary layer on the cylinder becomes turbulent before separation above this Reynolds number. Turbulence in the BL delays separation and reduces drag: Laminar BL Turbulent BL

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

8 - 11

Roughness (/l) In general, increasing will cause BLs to become turbulent sooner and increase friction drag (in turbulent BLs). This can have a positive or negative effect: Streamlined Bodies: Increasing increases friction drag, which is the dominant component of drag in this case. Hence, much effort goes into reducing for streamlined bodies (e.g., flattening rivets on aircraft). Note: if the flow is laminar, has no effect! Bluff Bodies: Increasing increases friction drag, but the dominant drag component is pressure drag. Increasing can cause the BL to become turbulent at a lower Re and actually reduce the overall pressure drag by delaying separation.

P. S. Krueger ME/CEE 2342 8 - 12

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

8 - 13

Compressibility (Ma) For Ma < 0.3, compressibility is ignored. As Ma 1, CD increases sharply due to the formation of shockwaves (wave drag). The shape of the object has a strong effect on how CD changes as Ma 1. Generally sharp, pointed objects (fighter jets, bullets) have a much smoother change in CD as Ma 1. Composite Body Drag We can approximate the drag on a object formed from the composition of several objects by adding the drag (not drag coefficients) for individual components (FD,car = FD,body + FD,mirrors + ) This is only approximate because it ignores interaction effects.

P. S. Krueger ME/CEE 2342 8 - 14

Drag Example: Estimate the wind speed U necessary to blow a golf ball off of a tee.

P. S. Krueger ME/CEE 2342 8 - 15

Sum of Moments:

But CD is a function of Re, which is a function of U. So U is on both sides of the equation and we need to use an iterative technique.

P. S. Krueger ME/CEE 2342 8 - 16

Guess:

Check:

Compute new U:

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

8 - 17

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

8 - 18

Lift

Note: Lift is perpendicular to the free stream velocity, but does not always oppose gravity. As with drag, lift can be expressed in terms of a dimensionless lift coefficient:

CL FL 1 2 U A 2

8 - 19

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

P. S. Krueger ME/CEE 2342 8 - 20

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

8 - 21

In general,

For well-designed airfoils, shape is the key factor and we will focus on that. Generating Lift When generating lift, drag is often undesirable, so shear stress is minimized. In light of this, we will begin our study of lift with potential flow (w = 0). Example: Flow over a Cylinder with Circulation

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

8 - 22

Then we can use Bernoullis equation to find the pressure on the cylinder surface:

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

8 - 23

FL = U

Interpretation 1: Addition of < 0 increases the velocity over the top of the cylinder and decreases the velocity on the bottom of the cylinder. From Bernoullis equation, pressure decreases as velocity increases lower pressure on the top and higher pressure on the bottom net lift.

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

8 - 24

Interpretation 2: Circulation moves the stagnation points so the flow is no longer symmetric about the horizontal axis. That is, the circulation has changed the flow direction near the cylinder. The equal and opposite reaction to this momentum change is lift. Schematically,

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

8 - 25

So how is circulation added to real flows? Method 1: Simply rotate an the object. In real flows, the noslip condition will cause the fluid to rotate with the object, generating the same effect observed for potential flow around a cylinder with circulation added. This effect is the reason spinning baseballs curve when pitched or golf balls hook or slice when not hit squarely.

Since this mechanism is dependent on friction between the fluid and the solid, roughness has a big effect on the results.

P. S. Krueger ME/CEE 2342 8 - 26

U/Ucyl = 2

U/Ucyl = 4

U/Ucyl = 3

P. S. Krueger

U/Ucyl = 6

ME/CEE 2342

8 - 27

Method 2: Shape the object so the flow over it tends to have a circulation component. Example: Airfoil (2D wing section)

P. S. Krueger ME/CEE 2342 8 - 28

P. S. Krueger ME/CEE 2342 8 - 29

Some Aspects of Real Wings Real wings arent 2D. Side View Top View

Note also that it is the planform area that is used in the definition of CL.

P. S. Krueger ME/CEE 2342 8 - 30

For large , the adverse pressure gradient over the top of the wing causes flow separation, leading to loss of lift and increased drag (stall). Drag: Real wings also have drag, but they are designed to minimize drag relative to lift:

P. S. Krueger

ME/CEE 2342

8 - 31

- airfoil.docUploaded bychiru1431
- ME163_Project3Uploaded byNick Renda
- The Basics of FlightUploaded bybandihoot
- sdarticle(13)Uploaded byApoorv Agarwal
- trailing edge rotating cylinder.pdfUploaded byMuthu Kumar
- Two-Dimensional Airfoil TheoryUploaded byNavaneeth Krishnan B
- Bird WingsUploaded byScipione001
- Generalized Helicopter Rotor PerformanceUploaded byjhosee001
- Airfoil.theory.introUploaded byaerogem618
- AeroClub Module1 Intoduction to FlightUploaded bysvenkatkumar908464
- Active Flow Control Over a NACA 0015 Airfoil Using a ZNMF JetUploaded byKavi Perera
- AirfoilUploaded bytrampydan
- Lloyd LifUploaded byReda Elawady
- Drag and LiftUploaded bynkchandru
- naca 4412 yapılmış analiz.Uploaded byAli Okumuş
- Effects of Surface Roughness and Vortex Generators on the NACA 4415 airfoilUploaded byprahalad_sudhakar
- AFR_Study_Material.pdfUploaded bymavrick_sen
- Calderon PF 2014Uploaded byAntonio Martín Alcántara
- Air SpotterUploaded byRiza Diponegoro
- 1 1Uploaded byapi-308221295
- Slip Flow McVeighUploaded byTubaguts1234
- ---1-February-2016-page-10Uploaded bynaninanyesh
- SAE-2013-01-0462Uploaded byPruthviraj
- Isomase Vol 26Uploaded byJohannes Angga Panjaitan
- SMac_JA_10.pdfUploaded byNamrah Khan
- Ahmed BodyUploaded byk sai krishna
- Nila Bogateanu Stere v4 Iss 1 FullUploaded byWilly Chayña Leon
- DESIGN OPTIMISATION OF SHIP HULL USING CFD ANALYSISUploaded byIJAMTES
- Newtons Second Law of Motion1 2Uploaded byBook_U
- TI01F06A00-01EUploaded byKhaled Bahbah

- E&M HomeworkUploaded byknowkenn3865
- ME2342_Sec7_DifferentialAnalysisUploaded byknowkenn3865
- ME2342_Sec6_PipeFlowUploaded byknowkenn3865
- ME2342_Sec5_DimensionalAnalysisUploaded byknowkenn3865
- ME2342_Sec4_CVAnalysisUploaded byknowkenn3865
- ME2342_Sec3_KinematicsUploaded byknowkenn3865
- ME2342 Sec2 StaticsUploaded byknowkenn3865
- ME2342_Sec1_Intro(1)Uploaded byknowkenn3865
- CH18Uploaded byOw Yong Chaan Loung
- Chapter 21Uploaded byCole Page
- CH20Uploaded byZakria Toor
- Chapter 19Uploaded byHình Chó Mô

- Indicative Bib Dark TourismUploaded bySemo Samo
- BF776Uploaded byDurah Charles
- Success Stories-Chemicals-Danisco at SAPphire 2005Uploaded bydosaplace
- White Paper Oracle BI Publisher Draft Ver1.7Uploaded byAsad Rao
- A New Transference SystemUploaded bysee_poor
- Minutes of meetingUploaded byGopalakrishnan Kuppuswamy
- peds mcqsUploaded bysvvraja
- Csc LiverpoolUploaded byfynnero
- A PROJECT ON RECTANGULAR MICROSTIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR THE FREQUENCY USED IN BLUETOOTHUploaded byVinam Tyagi
- 1_EbusinessUploaded byRob Raj
- Cheng_Multicentric Performance ArtUploaded byvarnamala
- HRUploaded byParthMair
- z80engUploaded bytienthangviet
- Ansiedade Matemática - Metodos de IntervençãoUploaded byLucas Franco Melchiades
- MSc thesis proposal presentationUploaded byVictor Ali Menta
- Reinforced Concrete Bridges.pdfUploaded bySubash Mallampalli
- Sciencescopeandsequence612 WebUploaded byArvin Zalameda
- Director Training Leadership Development in Washington DC Resume Denise Sawyer-JohnsonUploaded byDeniseSawyerJohnson
- Meng Str Curr114 FinalUploaded byJohn Banda
- FIN101_syllabusUploaded byRyan Farell
- World Health Days 2014Uploaded bySumit Roy
- The Beast Arises 9: Watchers in DeathUploaded byOlgierd Boratyński
- Carnation cultivation pdfUploaded byamar
- M4164-C 06-15_Etrinsa Technical Manual_MN031r2hq.pdfUploaded byMaria Lavinia Iordache
- Grammar of Mathematics.pdfUploaded byM2C7r6
- George BayerUploaded byCharles Barony
- ejemplo 1Uploaded byMarrozk84
- IKP20N60H3 Data SheetsUploaded bytarpino
- rtRepoUploaded byvangtrangbac_vt
- Assess the Significance of the 1968 Tet Offensive as Part of North Vietnam’s strategy in achieving victory in the Second Indochina War.Uploaded byspilsbury23294

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.