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The Princess Casamassima: Realism and the Fantasy of Surveillance Author(s): Mark Seltzer Source: Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Vol.

35, No. 4 (Mar., 1981), pp. 506-534 Published by: University of California Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3044622 . Accessed: 15/05/2013 19:55
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ThePrincess Casamassima: Realismand the Fantasyof Surveillance


MARK SELTZER

thespymania here,"GeorgeR. Sims do not suffer from VVE The Myson the London underworld, in his monograph observes teries ofModernLondon: in this"freeland" it is "not our custom to take violentmeasures"againstthe secretagentsof the nether fromviolence thatSims celebrates, however, world.The freedom and the "spy and disavows, carriesa riderthathe at once suggests of mania" reappearsin a somewhatdifferent guise: "The system knownto the police-and I doubt if thereis one in our terrorist midstwho is not-is shadowed." London's "freedom"is guaranof an unlimitedpolicingand by the dissemteed by the existence An intense ination of elaborate methodsof police surveillance. watchfulness the spy mania thatSims has discounted, generalizes a more subtle and and for the violence of the law is substituted more extensive mode of powerand coercion:a power of observaand a seeingthatoperatesas a moreeffective tionand surveillance, in Sims'saccount,theagents Nor is it merely, meansof overseeing. who are shadof secretsocietiesand criminalsof the underworld London itselfis conowed by this-perfect of observation. system life is riddled with sugas a secretsociety, and everyday stituted
? 1981 by The Regents of the University of California 0029-0O564/81/01065+29$00.50

observation is as perfectas can be....

every foreign anarchist and

[506]

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gestionsof criminality and encompassed by an incriminating surveillance: In the'busesand thetrams sitside and thetrains thesilent passengers byside,and no mantroubles But themysteries abouthisneighbour. of modern vehicleand in the London are represented in the crowded packedcompartment. The quiet-looking woman sitting opposite youin theomnibus to disknows thesecret thatthepolicehavebeenseeking coverformonths. The man who politely raiseshis hat becausehe touches youas he passes from his seatwould, if thetruth wereknown, be standing in thedockoftheOld Baileyto answer a capitalcharge.

The melodrama ofthesecret crime and thesecret "side lifepasses, by sidewithall thatis ordinary the and humdrum in monotony of everyday existence." Andsincethere ofmodare "no mysteries ernLondonmore terrible than itsunrecorded ones," "silence" can onlyimply a morenefarious criminality; and not to havebeen brought to bookbythepolicecan onlyinvoke a suspicion ofmysteries moreinsidious and ofa criminality morethreatening in its apparent innocence and ordinariness.' If Sims's vision oftheLondonstreets is marked bya fantastic paranoia, it is also a remarkable pieceofpolicework, an attempt to "book"London's unrecorded mysteries and to supplement the official policerecord through an unrestricted laypolicing. Discovering mysteries everywhere, Simsplacesall of Londonundersuspicionand undersurveillance. Nor is Sims'svisionuntypical of the manner in whichLondonis seen and recorded in the late nineteenth century. The extensive documentation that accummulates about Londonfrom the mid-century on displays an interesting paradox.On theone hand,from George W. M. Reynolds's The
Mysteries ofLondon (1845-48) to Sims'sThe Mysteries ofModern

London(1906), London wasreproduced as an impenetrable region ofmystery; on theother, as this proliferating literature itself testifies, London was subjected to an unprecedented and elaborate scrutiny and surveillance. The senseofthecity as an areaofmystery incites an intensive policing, a policework notconfined to the institutions of the law (although the expansion of the London policeand detective forces was "a landmark in thehistory of ad10, 8.
1

The Mysteries of ModernLondon (London: C. Arthur Pearson, 1906), pp. 81,

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but enactedalso through an "unofficial" literature ministration")2 of tourists from the "upperworld"and by thereports ofdetection: urban sociology, of an exploratory particularby theinvestigations ly the work of Henry Mayhew,Charles Booth, and B. Seebohm of the city,and Rowntree.It is playedout also in the "discovery" novelists. by the realistand naturalist its underworld, to theliterature of Loncontribution eccentric HenryJames's his vision of the don explorationis The Princess Casamassima, "sinisteranarchic underworld"of London. "Truly, of course," in hisprefaceto thenovel,"thereare London mysJamesobserves of dark arcana) foreveryspectator."The teries(dense categories of London, PrincessCasamassimais a novel about the mysteries societies, and it is also a novel about spectaabout spiesand secret an obligingly about seeing and being seen. Jamesoffers ,torship, proceededquite simpleaccountof the novel's origin: "thisfiction yearof a long residencein London, from duringthe first directly, "The attentive exthestreets." thehabitand theinterest ofwalking
ploration of London," he suggests,". . . fullyexplains a large part"

open," and this of the novel; one walked "withone's eyesgreatly theurgentapsolicitation, provoked"a mystic intenseobservation It is the into be interpreted."3 peal, on the {partof everything, betweenthe and spectatorship, sistent betweensecrecy conitinuity to inabysmal"of London and the urgentsolicitation "mysteries thatI want to focuson in thisstudyof The Princess terpretation, I wantto exploretwoquestionsthat More precisely, Casamassima. thiscontinuity poses. First,what does it mean to walk the streets function of London at thistime,and how does thisstreet-walking as a metonymy forthe waysLondon is seen by Jamesand his conSecond, how do the contentand the techniquesof temporaries? in James'snovel reproducethe London spymania representation and the coercivenetworkof seeing and power that characterize the literature of London mysteries? located have traditionally Critics of The PrincessCasamassima in James's activities of London anarchist its,politics representation and havelargely bypointthenovel'spoliticaldimension dismissed
2 Francis Sheppard, London 1808-1870: The Infernal Wen (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1971), p. 36. 3 The Princess Casamassima (New York: Scribner's,1908), I, xxi, vii, v. Subsequent to the novel and to the preface are to this edition (Vols. V and VI of the references New York Edition) and are given in parenthesesin the text.

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The critical ing to James's lack ofknowledge about theseactivities. impulsehas been to rescuethe significance of the textby redirecting attention away fromits ostensible politicalsubjectto its techniques,and thesetechniques have been seen to be at odds withthe novel'spoliticalreferences. ManfredMackenziehas recently summarizedthisdepoliticization of the text, claimingthatJames, "because of his prioror primary . .. cannotparAmericanassociation ticipatein anyconventional modesof Europeansocial power,only in 'seeing,'or 'knowledge,' or 'consciousness.' "14But can "seeing" and "power" be so easily opposed in this literature, and are the politics of The Princess Casamassimaseparable from its techniques,from itswaysof seeingand waysof knowing? What I hope to demonstrate is that The Princess Casamassimais a distinctly politicalnovel but thatJames's analysis of anarchist politicsis less significant than the powerplay thatthe narrative techniqueitself enacts.This is not to saythatthepoliticsof thenovel are confined to itstechniques:theinstitutions of thelaw and itsauxiliaries, primarilythe prisonand thepolice, function as explicittopicsin the text. But beyond these explicit and local representations of policing power,thereis a more discreetkind of policing that the novel engages, a police workarticulated precisely along thenovel's line of sight.

If a relationbetweenseeing and power becomes evidentin the literature of the London underworld, it assertsitselfnot because the writer because he acknowledges therelationbut, rather, worksso carefully to disavowit. Sims,forinstance, deniestheexistence of a "spymania" on two counts: first, by separating police an exerciseof power,and second,by attempting from surveillance to drawa line betweenhis own actsof espionageand thoseof the thathe does not require a police escortin his police. Sims insists
4 Communities of Honor and Love in Henry James (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1976), p. 3. Cf. Lionel Trilling, The Liberal Imagination (New York: Viking, 1950), p. 92; Irving Howe, Politics and the Novel (Cleveland and New York: Meridian Books, 1957),p. 146; John Goode, "The Art of Fiction: Walter Besant and Henry James,"in Tradition and Tolerance in Nineteenth-Century Fiction, ed. David Howard, John Lucas, John Goode (London: Routledge, 1966),p. 280; and Lyall H. Powers, Henry James and the Naturalist Movement (East Lansing: Michigan State Univ. Press, 1971), p. 119.

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wanderings through the London streets:"I have never asked for in myjourneyings theirassistance into darkplaces."5Nevertheless, he is uneasilyaware of the incriminating and cast of his prowling publicationof the London netherworld. In his earlierHow the Poor Live and Horrible London (1883), he notes that "it is unpleasantto be mistaken, in underground cellarswhere the vilest outcasts hide from thelightof day,fordetectives in searchof their prey.""Techniques of "disinterested" are information gathering unpleasantly mistaken forexercises of social control. to defendhimselffromanother Sims attempts Additionally, kind of "mistake," a misreading thatwould similarly put his motivesin question.He introduces his textwitha seriesof disclaimers: "It is not myobject in thesepages to bringout thesensational features of police romance"; my task "has for its object not the gratifying of a morbidcuriosity, but the betterunderstanding of plain unvarnished tale," his account,again, everywhere takesthe formof what he protests against.If he will reveal onlythe truth, it is because the "truth is stranger thananywritten tale could ever hope to be"; and he proceedsto detailtheunderworld of East London as "the romances of the 'Mysterious East.' "7 His motives and, by implication, the motivesof his audience cannot be separated from a morbidcuriosity-mongering. Sims'sworks sensationalize the beneaththe humdrum mysteries surfaceand positlurid secrets to be detected;theyinciteand cultivate a fascination withthe underworldthatconverts it into a bizarrespeciesof entertainment. On theone side,putting the underworld into discourse takesthe form of a certaindetective work,on the other,the purveying of a sensational entertainment. It is betweenthesetwo poles-policing and entertainment-that Sims wishesto situatehis texts,disclaiming both his (mis)identification as a detective and his exploitation of an intrusive voyeurism. Sims triesto open up a narrowspacecalled "things as theyare"-to evade the chargeof violatingwhat he seesand reports. But thisspace is erodedfrom bothsides: watching cannotbe freedfrom an act of violation,from a conversion of
6 Cited by Jack Lindsay, Introduction to Jack London, The People (1903; rpt. of 1st ed., London: Journeyman Press, 1977). p. 7. 7 The Mysteries of Modern London, pp. 9-14.

things as they are." But if Sims seeks to tell "only the truth ...

6 The Mysteries of Modern London, p. 12.

of the Abyss

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dictment.9 Greenwood's gesture towardjustification is a momentary confession on his own partof the "powerofwriting" thathe exercises; his documentation of London mysteries, in Low-LifeDeeps and in his earlierThe WildsofLondon (1874), is also a kindof victimization.More often, however, thevictimization is less explicit;the function of supplying an entertainment is moreobvious than any
9 Low-Life Deeps: An Account of the Strange Fish to be Found There (London: Chatto, 1881), p. 95.
8 Ibid., P. 12.

theobjects ofhisinvestigation as he expresses into, it,the"victims ofmycuriosity."8 The doublebindin which and thealibis Simsfinds himself, he offers toextricate in other recur himself, frequently representationsof the London underworld. This literature is always, in effect, playing on thetwinsenses to book,"making of "bringing itdifficult to disentangle andforepublication from incrimination, grounding thepoliceworkalways in theretailing latent of London mysteries. James in hisLow-Life Greenwood, Deeps: An Accountof theStrange Fish to be Found There(1881),feels compelled,like Sims,to offer into the apologiesforhis intrusions in underworld: "The extraordinary endurance ofpopular interest the 'Ortonimposture' . . . will perhaps as sufficient be regarded forherereproducing themost conwhatwasperhalps justification clusive evidence oftheman'sguiltat thetime, to or sincebrought light."Greenwood, however, does morethanreproduce the evidenceandrespond, after thefact, topopular demand. His owninvestigations havein factproduced theconfession, and its accom,panying popularity. Greenwood hasbrought,Orton to bookin the I haveindicated: doublesense that "I amgladtoacknowledge that theconfession of 'brother Charles' wasobtained byme,themore so wlhen I reflect on thevastamount ofpatience and,perseverance it wasfound necessary to exercise in order to bring theindividual in question to book."The impostor Ortonis turned over,in a single gesture, to thereading,public and to thepolice.Andwhat follows Greenwood's self-congratulatory acknowledgment of his is Orton's agency signed confession-the signature juridically reproduced at thecloseof Greenwood's chapter-serving bothas an entertainment in thepopularinterest and as an instrument ofin-

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. . . for of "mysteries we recall, speaks James, overt policeaction. is most theunderworld that anditis as a spectacle every spectator," formulation-"mysteries James's represented. Further, frequently rather than"spectators forevery mystery" every spectator" . . . for The exerts. powerthatthespectator -points to theconstitutive whathe seesand and not merely watcher reproduces, iproduces, entertainment. on stage as a theatrical putstheunderworld in Daniel Joseph The "staging" oftheunderworld is evident is an unselfconscious Kirwan's Palace and Hovel (1870).Kirwan anddesires interesting." "tosee something simply seeker, curiosity forexa seriesof underworld "scenes," he records, Presenting in the is typical den,and his account ample,a visitto a thieves' inencounter a potentially threatening to convert wayit manages is immediately tobe entertained toa moment oftheater. His desire himself presents Kirwan interrogates gratified: eachofthethieves forKirperforms and eachin turn entertainer, as an out-of-work withexcuses, theperforwan'samusement. Crude and prefaced have readily the criminals mancesare clearlyextemporized; and have assigned, has implicitly adoptedtherolesthatKirwan to see. The underto produce thespectacle he wants cooperated theater. appearsas a sortof underground world, quite literally, Kirwan, like as well. Andtheplayis a power sense playin another and protected mosttourists regions, is accompanied of thenether the thecue for hassuipplied and thedetective bya policedetective, the"master that thevisitors, Before admitting results. performance addofthemansion" it is "bizness orpleasure," whether hasasked by "hif youmust 'elp yourself." "O, pleasure hits business ingthat of poverty all means," replies.'O The displacement the detective marked, andcrime isclearly intopleasure, intotheater, ofbusiness and theperformers themselves to theroles to confine are willing confineof a beggars' operain orderto escapea moredefinitive ment. Sims'sThe MysThe metaphor of thetheater also pervades "behind teries is to takethereader London.His intent ofModern thescenes": of a houseis setupon thestage, "Whentheinterior thefourth maysee wallis always downin order thattheaudience whatis goingon. In reallifethedramas inwithin thedomestic
Abelard-Schuman, 1963),p. 27.
10 Palace and Hovel; or, Phases of London Life, ed.

A. Allan (1870;rpt.London:

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that no wi,th terior areplayed wallup.... careis taken the'fourth I am goingto takethe shallhavea free entertainment. passer-by fourth wall downto-day."" Indeed,thisis not "freeentertainment"but the basisof a literary industry; poverty, conspiracy, at onceopenedto thepubare purchasable criminality spectacles, " 'Do show mesomecases anddistanced as theater. lic andreduced of unmitigated is a request said to havebeenmadeby a misery,' reof sensation," Mrs.Bernard young ladyin search Bosanquet The recordsin herstudy of theslums, Rich and Poor (1896).'2 be thatof James's who "likedseeing questmight easily Princess, and exploring queertypes socialcorners" out-of-the-way (II, 234). if But Sims'sfantasy of disclosure-his taking downof the theatrical it refers also fourth wall-has an immediate reference, offantasy. ofSims's to another sort The source well passage might and Sonin which be thefamiliar in Dickens's passage the Dombey "a author whowouldtakethehouse-tops off imagines goodspirit . . . and showa Christian people whatdarkshapesissuefrom -their homes."13 amidst Thereis,however, a more immediate source thanthisfantasy of a providential a possible supervision, source that makes thenexus ofpolicing unmistakable andentertainment I "If we could fly havebeen tracing: out of thatwindow handin hand, hover overthis great city, gently remove theroofs, andpeep in at thequeerthings which aregoing on,thestrange coincidences, the plannings, thecross-purposes, thewonderful chainof events withitsconventionalities . . . it wouldmakeall fiction, and forein A. ConanDoyle'stale,"A Case of Identity," Sherlock Holmes, the "policeromance" thatSimsbeginsby disavowing, precisely thatmostinsistently and precisely the form manifests the twin and supervision, ofvision of spectatorship operations and incrimthattheliterature of the underworld ination, engages. The imand disclose theunderworld pulseto explore in det&ctive fiction from a fantasy becomes of surveillance; indistinguishable and in ofthedetective, thefigure seeing becomes themodeofpower par excellence.
Rich and Poor (London: Macmillan, 1896), p. 5. 13 Dombey and Son, New Oxford IllustratedDickens (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1950), ch. 47. 14 A. Conan Doyle, The SherlockHolmes Illustrated Omnibus (New York: Schocken, 1976), p. 31.
12

seen conclusions, most stale and uniprofitable."114 The speakeris

11 The Mysteriesof Modern London, p. 141.

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In "The Adventure of theCopper Beeches,"Watsonconfesses to an uneasinessabout sensationalizing the netherworld similar to thatfoundin Simsand Greenwood. Holmes'salibi is exemplary. he main"you can hardlybe open to a chargeof sensationalism," do not treatof tains,"forout of thesecases ... a fairproportion crime,in its legal sense,at all." Holmes, as everyone knows,reand betweenhis own activities peatedlyacts to marka separation thathis inthoseof thepolice detective, and he claimsrepeatedly terest is in thosematters "outside the pale of the law."15 But his investigations appear less to stand"outside" the law than to operate as a moreefficient of thelaw. If Holmes's policingis extension of policing it registers an expansionand dissemination extralegal, an extension techniquesand of the apparatusof incrimination: whichplaces evenwhatis avowedly legal withinthe boundariesof a generalized powerof surveillance. Crime,in Holmes's sense,has been redefined to includean expandingrangeof activities, moving towardtheplacingof every lifeundersuspicion aspecit of everyday and under investigation. and supervision is enSuch a dreamof absolute surveillance acted by the literaturethat the sensationalaccountsof London mysteries popularizeand supplement:the sociologicalstudiesof the underworld thatbegan accumulating with in the mid-century the work of the local statistical societies,Thomas Beames's The RookeriesofLondon (1850),and HenryMayhew's London Labour and the London Poor (1851-61) and culminatingin Charles Booth's vast Life and Labour of the People of London (18891903). The sociologist London as a regionof mystery also represents to be deciphered, as a largelyunexploredand unknownterritory; the intentis to "map" the netherworld,to 'place it within the confines of the "knownworld."As Asa Briggssuggests, "therewas a dominating emphasison 'exploration.'The 'dark city'and the 'dark continent' were alike mysterious, and it is remarkable how of the unknowncitywas comparedwiththe oftenthe exploration explorationof Africaand Asia."L6 Willia-mBooth's In Darkest England (1890), forinstance, opens withan extendedanalogybetweentheexploration forthesourcesof the Nile in Africa and the
16 Victorian Cities (London: Odhams Books, 1963), p. 60.

15 Ibid., pp. 156-57.

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exploration in London. forthesources ofpoverty and criminality of the Londonslums,The JackLondon,in his study Similarly, Peopleof theAbyss Londonand co(1903),equatesinvestigating lonialexploration: "But 0 Cook,O ThomasCook & Son,pathand trail-clearers finders . . . unhesitatingly and instantly, with ease and celerity, couldyousendme to Darkest InnerAfrica or most buttotheEastEnd ofLondon... youknow Thibet, notthe As thereference to Cook indicates, of the city exploration appearsas a s,pecialized and exoticspecies of tourism evenas it a "colonial"attitude displays toward theunderworld. The secretray of a London'sWorkman's H. J. Pettifer, Association, articulatedin 1884one form that this colonialtourism wastaking: the urbansociologists, whoin theabsence ofinstitutional refunding quiredsubstantial wealth personal toundertake their "had studies, beentalking oftheworking classes as though weresomenewthey found or extinct race, animal."'8 Reducedto thestatus of thecolonizedprimitive or "natural the"strange curiosity," fish" of London's"low-life deeps"are collected as exotic"specimens." Muniforinstance, in The Princess ment, Casamassima, compares CaptainSholtoto a "deep-sea fisherman....He throws his netsand haulsin thelittle fishes-the little pretty shining, wriggling fishes. Theyareall for[the sheswallows Princess]; 'emdown."Hyacinth and Muniment arespoken ofas ifthey were"a sample outofyour shopor a little dogyouhad forsale." "You see youdo regard me as a curious animal," Hyacinth complains to thePrincess. Sholto and thePrincess sharea "taste forexploration" and an appetite forqueer types; Sholtohunts theslumsas he does the imperial territories, backtrophies bringing and specimens forthePrincess (I, 258-59, 229,292). There is a morethanmetalphoric resemblance between this colonialattitude toward theslumsand thelarger movements of in the period.WilliamBooth,the founder colonization of the Salvation worked to establish Army, "missions" in darkest England,and thelarger he proposed program calledfortheestablishment ofa series ofcolonies-"The City Colony, theFarmColony,
17 The People of the Abyss (London: Arco, 1962), pp. 17-18. 18 Transactions,National Association for the Promotion of Social Science (NAPSS), 1884, as cited by Philip Abrams, The Origins of British Sociology: 1834-1914 (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1968), p. 51.
"17 way.

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been systematically penetrated.19 The statistical and mappingof thecityin thelater inscription and is partof what nineteenth century has been well documented, of the problemof the ci,ty.20 mightbe called a professionalization Socielty in 1834 to Charles From the formation of the Statistical Booth's Life and Labour, London was meticulously explored, The intent, as Philip Abramshas documented, and systematized. of observed, was, in part,to put on record"the mode of existence different families-meals and menus, clothing and furniture, householdroutinesand divisionof tasks,religiouspracticesand and recordingin detail of the recreation":in short,a scrutiny with life of the underclasses.21 There is a preoccupation everyday and enumerative statistical withthe laboriousaccumulation grids, of averof detail,withthe deployment of a comprehensive system constructs an interpretive matrix ages and norms. The investigator in thecity, from theavercovering virtually every area and activity and thecubic feetof air circulated age traffic on theLondon streets of criminals, in the London tenements to a detailedclassification and otherdeviants fromthespecified norm.2 For the delinquents, as forJames'sHoffendahl, "movingever in a drystasociologist, air" in was classified tisticaland scientific "humanity, his scheme, and subdividedwitha trulyGermanthoroughness" (II, 137, 55).
19 General [William] Booth, in Darkest England and the Way Out (London: International Headquarters of the Salvation Army, 1890), pp. 90-93, 16, 91. 20 See, for instance: Asa Briggs, Victorian Cities, p. 99; G. M. Young, Victorian England: Portrait of an Age, 2nd ed. (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1953), p. 56; Ruth Glass, "Urban Sociologyin Great Britain: A Trend Report," CurrentSociology, 4, No. 4 (1955), pp. 5-19. 21 The Origins of British Sociology,p. 61. 22 See, for instance: Henry Mayhew,London Labour and the London Poor, 4 vols. (London: Griffin, Bohn, 1861-62); The Origins of British Sociology, pp. 13-30; Journal of the StatisticalSociety,published from 1838, and the Journal of the Royal StatisticalSociety,published from18&7;Annals of the Royal StatisticalSociety,18341934 (London: Royal StatisticalSociety,1934).

And and theOver-Sea Colony"-todeal withthesocialquestion. difappears also in a somewhat thecolonizing of theunderworld that the form. Booth complains ferent, and morecomprehensive, in theheart of our capital. . . "colonies of heathens and savages they weredrawing unpreceattract so little attention," butin fact as The secret dentedattention. worldof London has become, and evenas the cityconBoothlateradmits, an "open secret," enigma, theenigma has tinues to be spoken ofas an impenetrable

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In the "amateur" of Simsand in the fictive investigations detective workof Holmes, it is thepotential of the significance and surveilmost trivial detailthatinstigates a thorough scrutiny lance;in thesociological study, we perceive a morediscreet and morecomprehensive no area of thecityunsurveillance, leaving The professionalization charted. of thecityproceeds as a tactful and tactical an elaborate colonization of the territory, enabling regularizing and policing of thecity. Crucially, whatthesociologicaldiscourse establishes is a normative a system ofnorms scenario, and deviations thateffectively a highly "imposes specific gridon thecity is imposed, "subordinating in itsuniversality irall petty regularities" andholding forth thepossibility ofthat "oneglorious
the commonperception of delinquents."23 A regulative vision of

principleof universaland undeviating regularity" thatthe sociologistsenvisioned.24 As the BritishsociologistFredericJ. Mouat observedin 1885,statistics have passed froma merelydescriptive stageand become prescriptive: "statistics have become parliamentary... and administrative."25 The articulation of thesociologicaldiscourse of thecityis coextensive with, and opens thewayfor, theemergence and dispersal of agenciesof social training and social control:themultiplication of workhouses and reformatories, of vocationalinstitutions and of institutions for delinquents,the expansion of the metropolitan police and the penal apparatus.26 The nominal function of these institutions is to train, to educate,to correct, to reform; but clearly, theireffect is to imposea generaldisciplinary and supervisory authority over areas of urban life thatheretofore have evaded scrutiny and control. There is an insistent continuity betweenthetheo23 Michel Foucault, Surveiller et punir (Paris: Gallimard, 1975); my citations are to the English translation by Alan Sheridan, Discipline and Punish (NeNw York: Pantheon, 1977), p. 286. 24 Herbert Spencer, Social Statics (London: J. Chapman, 1851), p. 293; Henry Thomas Buckle, History of Civilization in England, 2 vols. (New York: D. Appleton, 1558-61), II, 472. Spencer and Buckle are cited by Alexander Welsh, The City of Dickens (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971), pp. 49, 50. 25 "The History of the Statistical Society of London," Jubilee Volume of the Statistical Society (London: Stanford,1885), p. 52. 26 In addition to the sources already cited, see: T. F. Reddaway, "London in the Nineteenth Century-II: The Origins of the Metropolitan Police," The Nineteenth Century and After, 147 (1950), 104-18; Wilbur R. Miller, Cops and Bobbies: Police Authorityin New York and London, 1830-1870 (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1977); Leon Radzinowicz, A History of English Criminal Law and its Administrationfrom 1750, III (London: Stevens, 1956).

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retical preoccupationwith normativescenariosand the instituof thatnormative vision.And it is not surprising that tionalization themodel whenthesociologist proposesa model forurbanreform, the is thatof the mosthighly regulated and supervised institution, prisonand reformatory: "In a well-regulated reformatory may be combinedwith seen the effect of moral and religiousdisci(pline, and inand a properunion of industrial good sanitary conditions, tellectualediucation, upon wayward, ignorantand hardenednatures.Such an institution is a typeof thegreatworkbeforeus, for which might not, with there is nothingdone in a reformatory proper appliances, be effected for societyat large."27It is the conprison, withitsroutines, timetables, withits all-encompassing that servesas the ideal model for the city. trol and suipervision, a regulative The regulativevision of the city institutionalizes supervision.
00:

The mostevidentfeatureof the discourses of the citythatI a "spy mania," have been tracingis an insistentwatchfulness, whichappearsat once as a formof entertainment and as a ipolice action.The twinsitesof thisobsessive surveillance are the theater and the prison.The PrincessCasamassima invokesthisdiscursive scenario.Jamesrecalled his initial sense of the novel as a selfimplicating network of watchers:"To find [Hyacinth's]possible I had onlyto conceivehis watching adventure interesting thesame the I public show, same innumerableappearances, had watched and of his watching myself, verymuch as I had watched" (I, vi). This specular relation is reproducedthroughout the novel, exin the figures plicitly of the,police spyand secret agent,whosedisguisedpresenceis alwayssuspected, but also in themoreordinary exchanges of sightin thenovel. In The PrincessCasamassima, seeing and beingseen alwaysimplicitly involvean actual or,potential power play. Hyacinth,typically, promises"himselfto watch his playmate[Millicent]as he had never done before.She let him know,as maywell be supposed,thatshe had her eye on him,and it mustbe confessed thatas regards theexercise of a right of supervisionhe had felthimself at a disadvantage eversincethe nightat
27 G. W. Hastings, Transaci ons, NAPSS, 1857.

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the theatre" of supervision" (II, 65). Seeingmakesfora "right and a powerofcoercion;it is thenexusof seeingand powerthatI now wantto examinein The PrincessCasamassima. Hyacinth dates his "disadvantage"from the "night at the and it does not take much interpretive theatre," pressureto see thata pervasive theatricality runs through the novel. The governingmode of interaction between characters a seriesofperinvolves formances: the characters of watchengagein the "entertainment ing" (I, 307) as theyare alternately such recruited "forsuipplying entertainment" (I, 210). Munimentcommandeers Hyacinth"for Rosy'sentertainment" (I, 253), as Hyacinthis broughtto Medley by thePrincessbecause his "naivetewould entertain her" (II, 19). The Princess especially is repeatedlyreferredto in theatrical as an "actress" terms, on the "mise-en-scene of life" (I, performing 268), and her imitationof a small bourgeoiseprovidesHyacinth with "the most finished entertainment him" she had yet offered (II, 186). The insistenttheatricality of the novel refersless to any "dramatic analogy"thanto thereciiprocal watchfulness thatinvests in relation the novel. What the theater scenes in the novel every enactis an indifferent of audience and play as objects interchange of observation. The theateris the privileged point of vantagefor an "observation of the London world" (I, 189),and if,as Hyacinth notes,"one's own situationseem[ed] a play withinthe play" (I, and spectacle.It is in the 208), it is because one is both spectator theater that Hyacinthdiscovers thathe is being watched,thathe has been spotted bySholtoand thePrincess, herself "overshadowed by the curtainof the box, drawn forward with the intentionof shieldingher fromthe observation of the house" (I, 205). Hyacinth,in the balconyand not in the box, is not shieldedfromoband his vulnerableposition indicatesthat,despitethe servation, exchangesof performance betweencharacters, there is a certain asymmetry in this "entertainment of watching."Hyacinth,"lacking all social dimensions was scarcely a perceptible (person," and he is gratified that Sholto should "recogniseand notice him" in the theater"because even so small a factas thiswas an extension ofhissocialexistence" (I, 192). The underclasses "exist"onlywhen theyhave become the object of regardof the upper classes.But thereis a counterside to thisvisibility. For if to be seen is to existt,

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in thegaze of the it is also to be objectified, and imprisoned fixed, It a "favourable other. is to be reducedto the statusof specimen" (1, 257), to "studiesof the people-the lowerorders"(I, 305). In ,thelargestsense,to be seen is to be encompassed by a rightof To escape supervision, cultivatea styleof secrecy, characters adopt disguisesin order to see withoutbeing seen; and, indeed, seeingwithoutbeing seen becomesthe measureof power in the novel. Hyacinthinsistently promotes the secretlife,at timeswith "I don't understand a certainabsurdity: everything you say,but I understand everything you hide," MillicenttellsHyacinth."Then I shall soon become a mystery to you, for I mean fromthistime in concealment. forth to cease to seek safety You'll knownothing about me then-for it will be all under your nose" (II, 332). If seeing is power, secrecyassumesa paramountvalue, and if beneathevery a secrettruth to allow the "truth" surface is suspected, to appear is consummately to disguiseit.28 and power is most The relationbetweena theatrical secrecy evidentin James'srepresentation of the secretsociety.Invoking Sims's paranoid vision of London conspiracies, the secretsociety appears as an almostprovidentialpower because it is both pervasively presentand invisible: "the forcessecretly arrayedagainst the presentsocial orderwere pervasiveand universal,in the air one breathed, in thegroundone trod,in the hand of an acquaintance thatone mighttouchor the eye of a stranger thatmightrest a momenton one's own. They were above, below, within,without, in everycontactand combination of life; and it was no disproofof themto sayit was too odd they shouldlurkin a particular imiprobable form. To lurkin improbableforms was precisely their strength" (II, 275). The spymania is universal;the secretsociety, arrayed in improbabledisguises, exercises a potentially unlimited a surveillance, potentially unlimitedsupervision. There is anotherspeciesof theater in The PrincessCasamassima thatmakesevenmoreexplicitthenexusof seeingand power: the scene of the prison. Hyacinth'smeetingwith his motherin Millbank prisonappears as anotherinstanceof reciprocalwatchfulness:"theyhad too much the air of having been broughtto28 Mackenzie discusses the "secret society" in Communities of Honor and Love in Henry James, pp. 8-18.

supervision.

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the gether simplyto look at each other" (I, 51). Mrs. Bowerbank, "scene" and jailer, scriptsthe encounter, staginga confrontation "a desire tto managingthe action as an entertainment, expressing more lively" (I, 52). She worksto directan make the interview and finally movesto "abbreviate occasion "wantingin brilliancy" The is a theater of power. Further, the scene" (I, 53, 56). prison thejailer'svisitto Pinnie setsthenovel in motion;thenovelopens under the shadowand gaze of the prison,"in the eye of the law" orb ofjustice" (I, 8). And whatis most (I, 7) and under"thesteady of is notmerely herrepresentation about Mrs.Bowerbank striking and her "official "the cold lightof the penal system" pessimism"' observation of Pin(I, 14), but the way in whichher unrelenting nie and Hyacinthis experiencedas an accusationof guilt and as, of the law" (I, 11) imprisons an arrest by ithelaw. This "emissary of is "unable to rid herself Pinnie in her gaze,and the dressmaker the impression thatit was somehowthe arm of the law thatwas out to touch her" (I, 13). When Hyacinthis produced stretched forthejailer's "inspection," he asks: "Do you wantto see me only to look at me?" (I, 18). But "only" to be seen is alreadyto be inscribedwithina coercivepower relation,to be placed under surveillanceand under arrest.Mrs. Bowerbank's presencetransforms house into a prisonhouse. The jailer appears as the dressmaker's an "overruling providence"(I, 46); her tone "seemed to referitself to an iron discipline" (I, 14), and Pinnie can only respond "guiltily"(I, 8) to her questioning. Pinnie debatestakingthe "innocentchild" to the prison,and "defendedherself as earnestly as had been of a criminalcast" (I, 11, 30). Inif her inconsistency dicted by Mrs. Bowerbank'sobservation, she attempts to shield herself, imaginingthe "comfort to escape fromobservation"(IL herself from ithe"case" "as a fugitive 40), and distracts takesto bypaths" (I, 22). Pinnie, however,is not merelyvictimized and incriminated by the turnkey's legal eye. The jailer's visitdisseminates an array of inquisitoriallooks, recriminations, and betrayals, as the law stretches to include each character.But the characters are not merelyvictims;theyin turn become "carriers"of the law. The and moreinsidiouspowerof thelaw thatMrs. Bowmore discreet is thepower to reproduceand extendtheappaerbankrepresents and incrimination ratusof surveillance into situationsthatseem radicallyremotefromcrime,in the legal sense.The distribution

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those worksnot only to victimize of mechanisms of incrimination to make its victims it stretches out to touch,but moresignificantly also its disseminators. The openingscene of the novel is a concise instanceof this of the plot of the opening "spreading"of thelaw, and a summary of the displacement and extensionof the section is a summary techniquesof penalitythat Mrs. Bowerbankincarnates.Pinnie, of the law: forinstance, by thisemissary is not only incriminated The jailer "would emissary. she herself becomesMrs.Bowerbank's and Pinnie undertakes to "look forthelittle like to see" Hyacinith, boy," realizingat the same time thatto make Hyacinth"visible" is also to bringhim to judgment:as she expresses it, "if you could only wait and see the child I'm sure it would help you to jiudge" (I, 3, 15). To iproduceHyacinthis to bringhim to the law, and to produce him and proceedsto exercise Pinnie both undertakes a disciplinary of herowvn. As she obeysMrs.Bowerbank's authority she displacesthe injunctiononto injunctionto supplyHyacinth, places Millicentunder his playmate, Millicent.She simultaneously "to see if herinjunction the discipline of herobservation-waiting would be obeyed"-and links this injunctionwith an appropriof guilt-"you naughty littlegirl" (I, 5). atelyreducedattribution Millie, in turn,replieswith a "gaze of deliberation"and with a refusalto "betray" Hyacinth;to this extended arm of the law: "Law no, Miss Pynsent, I neversee him" (I, 6, 5). When Hyacinth apears,Pinnie repeatsher accusationof Millicent:"Millicent'Enning'sa verybad littlegirl; she'll come to no good" (I, 16). Hyaand triesto exculpatehis friend froma betrayal in cinthprotests he is his further the which displacereply suggests implicated; that obsessively in mentsof guilt and responsibility proliferate "thathe had thisopeningscene: "It came overhim," he observes, of his untoo hastilyshiftedto her shouldersthe responsibility seemlyappearance,and he wishedto make up to her forthisbetrayal"(I, 17). and displacements of criminality and incriminaThese shifts of thepowerofwatching extension and tion indicatea generalized police work policing in the novel. In The PrincessCasamassima, a contagionthatJamesimagesas the transmission of is contagious, a certain "dinginess"fromone characterto another: Hyacinth too many smutches "hated people with too few fair interspaces,

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had twoor three ofthese Millicent andstreaks. Henning generally her doll,intowhomshe was from whichshe borrowed at least, It was contagious. always rubbing hernoseand whosedinginess sheshould haveleft hermark underhisown wasquiteinevitable to tellhimabout forcoming herreward nosewhenshe claimed onto has shifted him" (I, 17). If Hyacinth the ladywho wanted Millicent the blameforhis "unseemly appearance," leadingto of blameand guiltcorof her,theshifting Pinnie'saccusations ofthe thestigma of"dinginess," responds totheshifting ofa mark and undersceneplaysout,in an anticipatory The opening The Printhattraverses thediffusion of penality stated fashion, It is theprison that themodelforthe cessCasamassima. provides confineThe first of theprisonis isolation, contagion. principle stands as thecentral butwithin prison ment, thenovelMillbank ofthisspread of criminality; instance theprison and centering
and she wonand wicked, to Miss Pynsent's lookedvery sinister eyes, in the a prison should dered havesuchan evilair ifit waserected why precisely, against vice interest of justiceand order-a buildedprotest, her as about as bad struck and villainy. This particular penitentiary and wrong as those in it; it threw a blight on thefaceofday, whowere theriver and theopposite bank, with making seemfouland poisonous a protrusion unsightly gasometers and deof long-necked chimneys, ofrubbish, weartheaspect of a region at whose thejail expense posits had beenpopulated. (I, 42) slums.

in the most banal and "innocent"excation of thesereferences,

by thecordon sanitaire of the Vice and villainy are notconfined thesurrounding disperses prison; rather, theprison infects area, The prison spreads whatit osilts "evilair,"and blights thecity. andis erected to delimit. The atmosphere tensibly protests against of theprison from thelocal siteof theprison intoevery extends area of thenovel,and there is no escapefrom thecontagion of as Pinnienotes, "effort of mitigation every . . . only criminality; jusinvolved hermoredeeply" (I, 8). "He had not donehimself to plead guilty to having beenabsurd";"Hyatice";"sheseemed "likesomeflushed cinth's terrible young capcross-questioning"; forhis life"; "he wentbail formy tiveundercross-examination one might these quotations indefinitely, and sincerity": multiply their localconitexts I abstract them from because it is themultipli-

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a generalcontext of policing changesin thenovel,thatestablishes in The PrincessCasamassima. The veryordiand incrimination of narinessof the allusionsindicatesthe extentto whicha fantasy the novel. supervision and police workinfiltrates asksMr. Vetch, "What do you mean,to watchme?" Hyacinth than the fiddler's paternaloverand the questionalludes to more thatMr. Vetch is a (policespy seeingof Hyacinth.The possibility has earlierbeen considered;the mannerin which the possibility thespymania thatthenovel is dismissed extends rather thanlimilts reproduces:Hyacinth"neversuspectedMr. Vetchof being a governmental agenit, thoughEustachePoupin had told him thatthere werea greatmanywho looked a good deal like that:not of course disguises ... becamea very familiar mentalagentin extraordinary and thoughhe had nevercaughtone of the intypeto Hyacinth, in the act therewere plentyof personsto famousbrotherhood in athe had no hesitation on the face of the matter, whom, very the character"(I, 108). The secretagent lurks in imtributing and as in Sims's fantasies of the anarchicunderprobable forms, world,apparentinnocenceinvitesa suspicionof concealed criminality.This passage denies suspicionand the purpose of incrimthe character of the police spy indisinationeven as it attributes at one time or another,to The attribution attaches, criminately. in the novel. To Captain Sholto,forinvirtually everycharacter or stance: "Perhaps you thinkhe's a spy,an agent provocateur somethingof the sort." But Sholto's form is not improbable more" (I, 214). It attaches enough,a spy "would disguisehimself who is suspectedof being "an agent on the also to the Princess, wrongside." The Princess,Madame Grandoni tells the Prince,is "much entangled.She has relationswithpeople who are watchedby the police." "And is she watchedby thepolice?" "I can't tell you; it's verypossible-except thatthe police here isn't like that of other countries"(II, 310). Indeed, the police here are not like theyare Justpriorto thisdiscussion, the elsewhere-theyare everywhere. left the have house at and Paul Muniment Madeira CresPrincess cent on a conspiratorial missionthat remainsa narrative secret. observer comThe spiesare themselves spiedupon,as thenarrative had been followed, it shouldbe recorded, they ments:"Meanwhile,
with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. .
.

. The govern-

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a person who, in Madeira at an interval,by a cautious figure, when theycame out of the house,was stationedon the Crescent, at a considerabledistance.On theirapotherside of the street, a little,still howeverkeeping them in pearinghe had retreated of the obthe identity initially withholds sight" (II, 301). James under surveillance.His serverwho has placed the conspirators takesa curiousform:"The readerscarce of thatiden'tity revelation thathis designwas but to satisfy nevertheless, need be informed, his wifewas walkingwith" (II, kind of person to the himself as thereaderof thefigure's ofanyneed to inform 301). The disavowal The identity only points to the reader'sinitial misidentification. passage invitesa "confusion"of domesticsuspicionsand police surveillance, and indicatesthe extentto which all actionsin the in the novel have come to resemblea police action.All characters novel are "in dangerof playingthespy"(II, 348). thespymania,fromthe infection There is no space freefrom retreat, provides country-house of penality.Medley,the Princess's Hyacinththat "I've been no escape. The Princessthereinforms enoughto tellyou that.I wantto see more you.I'm frank watching -more--more!" (II, 36). And if Hyacinthceases "to be insignifhis icant fromthe moment"the Princesssees him,he experiences (II, as a subjectionto "cross-examination" accessionto significance both in thePrinsurveillance shadowsHyacinth, 35). A dispersed and in the supervision of his conduct "under cess's watchfulness the eye of the butler" (II, 41). iMedleyis, forHyacinth,the "real real nature,but natiure in the general itselfparticipates country," police action: "Never had the old oaks and beeches. . . witnessed seriesof confidences since the first pair that such an extraordinary dells slopes and ferny soughtisolationwanderedover the grassy eye of natureand the albeneaththem" (II, 46). The witnessing lusion to the providential of the Garden indicatethe supervision "naturalization" of mechanisms and poof surveillance thorough licing in The PrincessCasamassima:natureitselfappears to supplementthe policing function.Mrs. Bowerbankearlycomments on Florentine's that "if she lived a death by asserting imipending month[she]would violate (as Mrs. Bowerbankmightexpressherlaw of nature"(I, 14). James'sparenthetical established self)every mode of calls attentionto the jailer's characteristic interpolation her linkingof "nature" and the "law," her naturalizexpression,

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ing of the penal apparatus. In The Princess Casamassima,the is not confinedto the nominal power of vision and supervision by the "eyesof theworld"(II, agenciesof thepolice: it is enforced to distinguish betweenthe "eye of day 401). It is finally imipossible and the observation of theipolice"(II, 410).

techniquesof policing The spymania and the incriminating but contagiousin The Princess and surveillance are not confined and disciplineit imCasamassima; the prisonand the supervision plies reappearat every turnin thenovel. I have indicatedthe proposal of the prisonas a model forthe cityat largein the workof theLondon sociologists, and I now wantto takeup thesignificance Michel of this equation froma somewhatdifferent perspective. of therise of disciplinary practices, Foucault,in his recenthistory Surveilleret punir, describesthe extensionof social mechanisms of surveillanceand discipline into all areas of modern society. of Westernsociety More specifically, he tracesthe reorganization aroundthemodel of the "punitive city":"near at hand,sometimes at the verycenterof citiesof -the nineteenth century [stands]the of the ipower at once materialand symbolic, monotonousfigure, figure of thissocial reto punish"-the prison.The architectural a circularbuilding, is Jeremy Bentham's Panopticon, organization a centralobservation tower.The divided into cells, surrounding a controlling network of seeingand Panopticonoperatesthrough being seen: the inmate"is seen but he does not see"; "in the cen'traltower, one sees everything withoutever being seen." The inmate is trappedin a "seeingmachine,"trappedin a stateof conin himself scious and constant as a result,he "inscribes visibility; the powerrelation"in which he is caughtup, and "becomesthe principleof his own subjection."29 London's Millbankprison was derivedfromBentham'spanin six pentagonal opticon scheme.Convictswere accommodated locus of a provrangesthatsurrounded a centralwatchtower-the as the idential supervision that doubled also, and appropriately, in prisonchapel.JamesvisitedMillbankon a Decembermorning 1884 to collectnotes for The PrincessCasamassima.His descrip29 Discipline and Punish, pp. 116, 200, 202, 207, 202-3.

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tion of theprisonin the novel emphasizes the powerof watching of that the Panopticon employs.He recordsthe "circularshafts cells" ranged about a centralobservatory, the "opand, further, at the of lookingat captives portunity through gratedpeeipholes," women with "fixedeyes" thatPinnie is "afraidto glance at" (I, 47); the inmatesare dressedin "perfect of hoods" (I, 46). frights where"all conThis last detail recallsthepracticeat Pentonville, tactwithotherhuman beings,excepttheprison staff, was forbidin order to preventidentification narrow eye-slits by their fellows."30

den, and when convicts left their cells .

. they wvore masks with

The Panopticon effects an exemplary conjunctionof seeing and power,theconjunctionthatextendsfrom theprisonthrough"The ipanoptic out The PrincessCasamassima. schema,"Foucault Foucault discussesthe dispersal of this schema in nineteenthitspenetration into thefactory, century society, theworkhouse, the theschool,into,in fact, reformatory, all thoseinstitutions which, as we have seen, the urban colonizersdeployedand cultivated. And the panoptic techniqueinfiltrates further, "tiny,everyday" social practices, traverses and embracesthose"minutesocial disciplines" remotefromthe scene of the prison.Confiscating apparently and absorbing"thingsof everymoment,"an everyday panopticism is " 31 finally universalized: "Police powermustbear 'overeverything.' One finalinstitutionalization of the panoptic technology remains to be considered.It has recently been suggested that Foucault'shistory a radical revisionof our senseof mightunderwrite the "politics"of the novel, and the problemthat I want now to take up, and whichhas been implicitall along,concernsthe relation betweenthesedisciplinary techniquesand the techniquesof thenovel,and moreparticularly of therealistand naturalist novel, which appears on the scene at the same time as the disciplinary takespower.32 Foucault suggests thatthe novel "formspart society
31Discipline and Punish, pp. 207, 213, et passim. See also Jacques Donzelot, La Police des familles (Paris: Les Jlditions de Minuilt,1977). 32 I am indebted especially to Leo Bersani, "The Subject of Power," Diacritics, 7, No. 3 (1977), 2-21; D. A. Miller, "From roman-policierto roman-police: Wilkie Collins's The Moonstone.,"Novel, 13 (1980), 153-70; and Miller's "The Novel and the Police," Glyph 8: Johns Hopkins Textual Studies (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1981). See also: Paul Foss, "The Lotteryof Life," in Michel Foucault: Power.
310 Sheppard, London 1808-1870: The Infernal Wen, pp. 375-77.

details, ". . . was destined to spread throughout the social body."

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ofconstraint bywhichtheWest compelledthe of thatgreatsystem In what way may the everyday to bring itselfinto discourse."-" a sysin, and even to promote, realistnovel be seen !toparticipate temof constraint? It has been observedthat "excellenceof vision is the distinmarkof realism."34 "To see" is the dominant verbin the guishing de l'oeil" as Balzac expressedit3realisttext-"la gastronomie concernedwith seeing,with a and realistfiction is preeminently in detail. The of this realist"seeing"to theoverseeing proximity problemseeingand police workof detectionbecomesexplicitly of realismthat of course,in thesubgenre atic,and is mostevident, of detection.36 In detective we have alreadyglancedat, the ficition fiction,the relation between seeing and policing is taken for visionis therangeof granted;literally, therangeof thedetective's his power.That,poweroperatesby placingthe entireworldof the and invokesthe posand under surveillance, textunder scrutiny in which everything may be sibilityof an absolute supervision, deand "policed," and in which the most trifling comprehended Realisticfiction, tail becomespotentially in a more incriminating. morecomprehensive discreet deploys manner, and, forthatreason, the techniques of surveillance and dea similartacticof detection; of the realistic novel. Emerson, the techniques intectiontraverse in treatment notes "how realisticor materialistic stancingSwift, his fictitious persons of his subject" the novelistis: "he describes merelyliteralizes as if forthe police."37Indeed, detectivefiction withseeingand itsfascination therealistrepresentational scrutiny, of detail,and laysbare theipolicing of the tellingsignificance wi,th
ed. Meaghan Morris and Paul Patton (Sydney: Feral, 1979); Jeffrey Truth, Strategy, Mehlman, Revolution and Repetition: Marx/Hugo/Balzac (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1977), pp. 123-24; and Lennard J. Davis, "Wicked Actions and Feigned Words: Criminals, Criminality,and the Early English Novel," Yale French Studies, 59 (1980), 106-18. 33 "The Life of Infamous Men," in Michel Foucault: Power, Truth, Strategy, p. 91. 84 Mehlman, Revolution and Repetition, p. 124. 85 Balzac, dted by Donald Fanger, Dostoevskyand Romantic Realism (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1965), p. 30. 36 On the detectivestory,see D. A. Miller, "From roman-policierto roman-police: Wilkie Collins's The Moonstone," and Pierre Macherey,A Theory of Literary ProWall (London: Routledge, 1978), pp. 18-36. duction, trans. Geoffrey 37English Traits, in The Selected Writingsof Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. Brooks Atkinson (New York: Modern Library, 1950), p. 647.

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writes "We novelists," Zola,"are therealthat is therealist project. passions."38 theexamining magistrates ofmenand their novelist reThe juridical expression oftheaimsoftherealist GeorgeEliot'sstatement cursfrequently. There is, forinstance, "as if to write obligation in AdamBede (ch. 17) of thenovelist's I werein thewitness-box narrating on oath,"and myexperience to Pierreet Jean, to Guyde Maupassant's avowal, in hisipreface tell "la verite, The conet toutela v6rit6."39 rienque la verite, also in attacks on the vergence of theliterary and thelegalrecurs oftherealistic novel;thus W. S. allegedillicitness and "illegality" in the realist and naturalist Lilly,writing in 1885,asserts that, there is filth (l'ordure). Those novel,"everywhere at thebottom which from time to time bring proceedings in thecourts ofjustice an experimental it to the surface-like an abscess-aremerely thepublic."40 chapter, before novelunfolding itself, chapter after as a legalaction. The realist The realist novelis seento proceed ofeveryday life. novelist is theexamining magistrate toThere is a complementary fiction: in realistic movement ward in precise detail, and toward a documentation ofphenomena a supervision As Zola concisely expresses it, of those phenomena. method . . . is to study phenomena "thegoal of theexperimental in order share, with other colonizto control them."4' The realists "things as ersof theurbanscene, a passionto see and document of a fantasy of surveilthey are,"and thispassion takestheform of everyday lifeunderscrulance,a placing of thetiniest details in thisfantasy ofsurveillance a tiny. Is it notpossible to discover text therealist and a society increaspointofintersection between
38 1tmile Zola, "The Experimental Novel," in Documents of Modern Literary Realism, ed. George J. Becker (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1963), p. 168. 39 Adam Bede, ed. Stephen Gill (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1980), ch. 17; Pierre et jean (New York: Scribner's,1936), p. xxxvi. 40 "The New Naturalism," in Documents of Modern Literary Realism, p. 277. Perhaps the most extraordinaryindictment of the realisitand naturalist novelists occurs in Max Nordau's influential Degeneration (New York: D. Appleton, 1895). Nordau classifiesthese novelists,preeminently Zola, in accordance with the classification of criminal types developed by the criminologistCesare Lombroso, accuses them of "crime coummitted with pen and crayon" (p. 558), and calls for the institution of a "critical police" (p. 535) to return them to the law; at the same time, however, Nordau notes the resemblance between the realist text and the "police reports" (p. 489). 41 "The Experimental Novel," p. 176.

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and of discipline,regularization, inglydominatedby institutions of the "police"? supervision-bythe dispersednetworks There are a numberof waysin which the relationbetween an the novel and the law can be explored.There is, forinstance, of character betweenthe realisttypologies resemblance intriguing crimiby the late nineteenth-century and the typologies prroposed thatConrad exchiefly Cesare Lombroso,a resemblance nologists, ploitsin The SecretAgent,anothernovel of the London spymacontrol one mightnote the encompassing nia.42More generally, doctrine realistand naturalist overcharacter and actionwhich-the suggested, of "determinism" secures.As Leo Bersanihas recently the realist'smethodworksto reduce "the eventsof fictionto a parade of sameness.For example,it would not be whollyabsurd as soon as its ,that a Balzac novel becomesunnecessary to suggest expositionis over. The entirework is alreadycontainedin the merely repeatin diaof the work,and the characters presentation about themin logue and actionwhathas alreadybeen established portraits Their lives mirrorthe expository narrative summnaries. The linear order of the novel."43 made of themat the beginning and 'progression of the realisticnovel enables the novel to "progIndeed, it is as a ress" only in a directionalwaysipreestablished. to break attempt his every thatHyacinthexperiences "repetition" withhis originsand "antecedents," to breakwithhis "naturalist" to and heredity.His recruitment determinants of environment as as "the idea of a repetition," itself assassinate 'theduke presents in his person,of the imthe "horrorof the public reappearance, bruedhandsof hismother"(II, 419). This "youngman in a book" realin the "advancedand consistent an interest (I, xiv) expresses a keyword in the novel,beists" (I, 315), but this "consistency," repetition. comesanothername foran entrapment in a (narrative) control and in itspredictive "ty,pes," ofconsistent In itsfixing masthe realistictextgains a thorough over narrative possibility, of inteland theiractions-a twinmastery overitscharacters tery has been reThe PrincessCasamassima and supervision. ligibility excursioninto the realisticor naturaliprimary gardedas James's
42 On Conrad's use of Lombroso see John E. Saveson, "Conrad, Blachwood's, and Lombroso," Conradiana, 6 (1974), 57-62. 43 Baudelaire and Freud (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1977), p. 121.

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movingtheroofs"and viewingthe "qiueerthings whichare going on." In The PrincessCasamassima, such omniscient vision is attributedto the masterrevolu-tionaries: "They know everythingeverything. They're like the great God of the believers:they're searchers of hearts;and not onlyof hearts, but of all a man's life -his days,his nights, his spoken,his unspokenwords.Oh theygo dee,pand they go straight!" (II, 383). Hoffendahl's God-likepower is also thepowerof theomniscient narrator, a powerof unlimited
overseeing.

ofsubjects and in itsdescripistic mode.4The novel, in itschoice and realists; tivemethod, displays an affinity withtheconsistent ofsurveillance which, certainly, it everywhere displays that fantasy I havebeensuggesting, But liesat theheart oftherealist project. thesubject in many we notice that this surveillance becomes ways and notmerely and sucha foregrounding themodeof thenovel, thatI within limits of thenovel's tactics ofsupervision indicates, will attempt and demystification of to describe, James's exposure the therealist maniaforsurveillance, and his attempt to disown policing that it implies. by Perhaps themostpowerful tactic of supervision achieved the traditional of realist novelinheres in itsdominant technique the narration-the style of "omniscient narration" whichgrants narrative voicean unlimited authority overthenovel's"world," a worldthoroughly known and thoroughly mastered by thepannarraoptic"eye"of thenarration. The technique of omniscient tion,as is frequently noted, givesto thenarrator a providential vision ofthecharacters and action. It is thefantasy ofsuchan ablifting solutepanopticism that we havepreviously traced in Sims's of thefourth of "rewall,and in Dickens's and Doyle'sfantasy

But if Jamesinscribes in his textan imageof comprehensive and providential supervision, the narrative methodof the novel have departsfromthispanoptictechnique.As a numberof critics shown,and as Jamesasserts in his prefaceto the novel, The Prin44 Lyall H. Powers, in HenzryJames and the Naturalist Movement, claimns that James had, by the mid-1880s,"made his peace" with the naturalists: "He had by this ,time come dose to sharing fully the aesthetic persuasions of the RealistNaturalist group" (p. 41). It is, rather,James's attempts to disaffiliate himself from the realist and naturalist "group," and from the politics that their method implies, that I am emphasizing here.

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Nineteenth-Century Fiction

cessCasamassima marks caa technical turning pointin James's reer:a turning awayfrom the style of omniscient narration towardsthe technique of the "central consciousness" recording or ''central That technique intelligence." theauthority displaces of thenarrative voiceand disavows anydirect interpretive authority overtheaction. It can be said thatin The Princess Casamassima, omniscient authority is heldup to scrutiny, and indicted, in being transferred to,or displaced upon,themasters oftherevol,ution. Can -this be so easily supervisory power, however, disowned? In hisipreface, James imagines hisobservation of theunderworld as a form ofespionage: hisvision ofLondonis that of"thehabitual observer . . . thepedestrian prowler" (I, xxi-xxii). But at the sametime, he disclaims anyviolation or manipulation of thefigureshe "merely" observes: "I recallpulling at no wires, knocking no closeddoors, applying for no 'authentic' information" (I, xxii). It is Hoffendahl, in thenovel, whois thearch"wire-puller": "he hadin hishandinnumerable other threads" (II, 55). Andit is this puppeteering that James disavows. But having deniedsucha maniipulative power, James proceeds toreclaim what hehasdismissed: "To hauntthegreat city and bythishabitto penetrate it,imaginatively, in as many placesas,possible-that was to be informed, that wastopullwires, that wastoopendoors"(I, xxii). James distinguishes his "imaginative" penetration of thecity from themanipulative vision and supervision oftheconspiratorial plotters. The implication is clear:James wouldclaimthat hisimaginative is not an act of supervision, wire&pulling ,that his deep searching ofhearts, ofspoken and unspoken words, that hisseeing and "haunting" ofthecity can be distinguished from thepolicing and spymaniathatthishaunting of thegreat cityso closely resembles. It is just sucha separation between "mere"seeing, consciousness, and knowledge and an exercise of power which I have beenquestioning. James offers thealibiofa "powerless" imaginationto extricate himself from thecharge of participating in the spymaniawhich thenoveleverywhere engages. ButJames would haveno need to insist on the distinction if it werenot already jeopardized, alreadythreatened by the compelling resemblance between hishaunting andperpetual prowling and thesurveillance and policing from which he woulddisengage himself.

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It becomesclear that the attempton the part of the writers can be exercise we have examinedto disownthe policingthatthey and comprehensive policyof seen as a "cover"fora morediscreet displacing and it is as such a ruse thatI thinkJames's supervision, superworks.The recessionof narrative of power and authority "shiftappearsas one further visionin The PrincessCasamassima and, culpability, ing of the shame,"a displacingof responsibility, of The shifting criminality. whichthenovel provides, in the terms to an uneasinessconcerning makes reference authority narrative of the story novel is systematically the shameof power.If James's betweenseeing and power, thiscontinuity a criminalcontinuity of the disowned.If Jamesworkstowarda demystifying is finally work is finally ipolice remystified, realist'policingof the real, this as the "innocent"workof the imagination. recuperated of thenovel Fromone point of view,it is the incompatibility and the subjectof powerwhichis the "message"of The Princess of aestheticand political Casamassima:it is the incompatibility claims thatleads to Hyacinth'ssuicide. Criticsof the novel have with approval or disapprobation, restatedthismessage,insisting, lpreocto technical its politicalreferences thatthe novel sacrifices underobservesthat-the Jameshimself cupations.In his preface, (I, vi). The world of London "lay heavyon one's consciousness" and the us to read "conscience"for"consciousness," phraseinvites in miniaturewhat has been seen as James's registers substitution in The Princess Casamassimaof itheordeal of consubstitution of social consciousness (thatis, the work'stechnique)formatters science(its politicalsubject).Thus it has been argued that"Hyawhichconis the mirror cinthRobinson'ssensitive consciousness trolsthe shape" of the novel,thatJames's"ignorancein the face him" of the reality, the greatgreyBabylon,whichwas nearest-to it with a compelledhim to distortthatrealityby circumscribing and that, finally,this "controllingand bizarre consciousness," means that The Princess Casamassima's technicalpreoccupation "themeis not politicalat all."45As Leo Bersanipointsout, "it has
45 The quotations are from,respectively: J. M. Leucke, "The Princess Casamassima: Hyacinth's Fallible Consciousness," in Henry James: Modern Judgments,ed. Tony Tanner (London: Macmillan, 1969), p. 184; John Goode, "The Art of Fiction: Walter Besant and Henry James," pp. 280, 279; J. A. Ward, The Search for Form (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1967), p. 115.

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critics that been decidedby 'politically conscious'Anglo-American Jamesis a nonpoliticalnovelist."46 Criticsof The PrincessCasathe disconand of James's workgenerally, have restated massima, a breakbetween tinuity whichJameshimself proposed,enforcing techniqueand subject,betweenwaysof seeingand the subjectof power. It is maintainedthat"in his quest fora quintessential social realitythatwas also an alien reality, Jamesmust necessarily have foundhimself recoilingupon the merelypsychological and even epistemological, the merelyimaginative-upon fantasy."47 But if James'sonly "political novel" advertises a radical conflict betweenpoliticsand the novel,thereis, working againstthissimple polarization, a criminalcontinuity betweenthe techniquesof the novel and thosesocial technologies of powerwhichinherein these techniques.It is in the rigorouscontinuity establishedin James's novelsbetween seeing,knowing, and exercising powerthat the politicsof the Jamesiantextappears,and it is thiscontinuity thatI have been tracing in The PrincessCasamassima. University of California, Berkeley
46 "The Subject of Power," p. 10. 47 Mackenzie, Communitiesof Honor and Love in Henry James,p. 22.

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