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# HW #4

Problem 6.8

a. To Find:

The diameter of the test cylinder,d
0
.

b. Given:

Load, F = 6660 N (1500 lb)

Modulus of elasticity, E = 110 GPa (16 *10
6
psi)

Yield strength, o
y
= 240 MPa (35,000 psi)

Initial length of rod,l
0
= 380 mm (15.0 in)

Elongation, Al = 0.50 mm (0.020 in)

c. Assumptions:
(i) The applied stress is in the elastic regime, i.e, the deformation is elastic. If this assumption is
valid, F/( * d
0
2
/4) < o
y

(ii) The applied force is uniaxial and tensile/compressive and in a direction parallel to the length
of the rod.
(iii) The material is isotropic and hence, the value of E is independent of the direction in which
elongation occurs.
(iv) The experiment is conducted at room temperature. This is relevant because we do not wish
to consider time-dependent plastic deformation (creep) that occurs at o < o
y
and comes into the
picture at higher temperatures.
d. Solution:

A
0
= * d
0
2
/4

4
= =
2
0
0
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
d
F
A
F
o (1)

0
=
l
l
E
A
o (2)

From (1) and (2),

|
|
.
|

\
|
t
4
2
0
d
F
=
0
l
l
E
A

l E
F l
d
A t
0
0
4
=

d
0
= 7.65 10
-3
m = 7.65 mm (0.30 in.)

Problem 6.22

a. To Find:

(a) Specimen elongation

(b) Reduction in specimen diameter

b. Given:

(a) Stress-strain behavior of the alloy is as shown in Fig. 6.12

(b) Diameter of cylinder, d
0
= 6 mm (0.24 in.)

(c) Length of specimen,l
0
= 50 mm (2 in.)

(d) Tensile force, F=5000N (1125 lb)

(e) Poissons ratio = 0.3

c. Assumptions:

(i) Fig.6.12 is an accurate representation of the stress vs. strain behavior for the given
alloy.

(ii) The applied force is uniaxial and in a direction parallel to the length of the cylinder.

(iii) The material is isotropic.

(iv) The experiment is conducted at room temperature. This is relevant because we do not
wish to consider time-dependent plastic deformation that comes into the picture at
higher temperatures.

d. Solution:

(a) Applied stress,

o =
F
A
0
=
F
t
d
0
2
|
\

|
.
|
2
=
5000 N
t
6 10
3
m
2
|
\

|
.
|
2
= 17710
6
N/m
2
=177MPa (25,000 psi)

From the stress-strain curve in Figure 6.12, at this stress, strain 2.0 10
-3
.

c = Al/l

in.) 10 (4 mm 0.10 = mm) (50 10 2.0 = =
-3 -3
0
) ( A l l c

(b)

Fig.1. The cylinder before and after (red color) elongation.

In part (a), the elongation/strain is in a direction parallel to the direction of the applied
force/stress. In a lateral direction, from equation 6.8,

c
x
= v-c
z (1)

Also, by definition,

c
x
= d/d
0 (2)

From (1) and (2),

0
c
x
= d
0
vc
z
= (6 mm)(0.30)(2.0 10
-3
)

d = 3.6 10
-3
mm (1.4 10
-4
in.)

(a) Al = 0.1 mm (4 x 10
-3
in.)
-3
mm (1.4 10
-4
in.)

Problem 6.29

a. To Find:

We are required to plot and interpret the engineering stress vs. engineering strain curve for
aluminum.

b. Given:

Diameter of test specimen, d
0
= 12.8 mm

Length of test specimen, l
0
= 50.8 mm

Load vs. elongation data for the test specimen.

c. Assumptions:

(i) Given data is accurate.

(ii) The applied force is uniaxial and in a direction parallel to the length of the cylinder.

(iii) The material is isotropic.

(iv) The experiment is conducted at room temperature. This is relevant because we do not
wish to consider time-dependent plastic deformation that comes into the picture at
higher temperatures.
d. Solution:

0

A
0
= * d
0
2
/4

A
0
= 128.61 mm
2

Stress = Load (N) / 128.61 mm
2
= Load / 128.61 MPa (1)

(Engineering) Strain = [Length (mm) l
0
(mm)] / l
0
(mm)

Strain = [Length 50.8 ] / 50.8 (2)

From (1) and (2), the stress and strain values corresponding to the given (load, length) data
points are calculated and tabulated below.

N mm MPa
0 50.8 0 0
7,330 50.851 56.9921 0.001
15,100 50.902 117.405 0.00201
23,100 50.952 179.607 0.00299
30,400 51.003 236.365 0.004
34,400 51.054 267.466 0.005
38,400 51.308 298.567 0.01
41,300 51.816 321.115 0.02
44,800 52.832 348.328 0.04
46,200 53.848 359.213 0.06
47,300 54.864 367.766 0.08
47,500 55.88 369.321 0.1
46,100 56.896 358.436 0.12
44,800 57.658 348.328 0.135
42,600 58.42 331.223 0.15
36,400 59.182 283.017 0.165

Table 1. (Engineering) Stress and (Engineering) Strain values calculated from the load and
length values.

(a)

Fig.1. Plot of engineering stress vs. engineering strain (from Table 1).

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)

Engineering Strain
(b)

Fig.2. Plot of engineering stress (o) vs. engineering strain (c) in and slightly beyond the linear
elastic region (from Table 1).

The modulus of elasticity is the slope in the linear elastic region.

E = Ao / Ac = (179.607 MPa 0 MPa) / (0.00299 0) 6 x 10
4
MPa 60 GPa

(c)

The 0.002 strain offset line (red colored line) intersects the stress-strain curve at a stress value of
approximately 280 MPa. Thus, the yield strength, o
y
280 MPa.

(d)

The tensile strength (also called Ultimate Tensile Strength or UTS ) is approximately 370 MPa
corresponding to the maximum stress on the stress-strain plot.

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012
E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)

Engineering Strain

(e)

The ductility, in percent elongation, equals the plastic strain at fracture, multiplied by one-
hundred.

The plastic strain may be estimated as follows:

Fig,3. Elastic, plastic and total strain at fracture.

In the above figure (Fig.3), the point at which fracture occurs is indicated by

The perpendicular from this point to the strain-axis (red colored line), strikes this axis at strain =
0.14. Thus, the total strain at fracture = 0.166

A line parallel to the linear elastic part of the plot passing through this point (blue line) intersects
the strain-axis at strain = 0.161. Thus, the plastic strain at fracture = 0.161.

( Elastic strain = Total strain plastic strain = 0.005)

Thus, ductility = 0.161 * 100 = 16.1 % elongation.

(f)

From Equation 6.14, the modulus of resilience,

U
r
=
o
y
2
2E

From the values calculated in parts (b) and (c)

U
r
= (280 MPa)
2
/ (2) * ( 6 x 10
4
MPa) = 0.65 MPa = 0.65 x 10
6
N/m
2
= 6.5 x 10
5
J/m
3

(a) Engineering stress vs. engineering strain curve: Fig.1
(b) E 6 x 10
4
MPa 60 GPa
(c) o
ys
= 280 MPa
(d) UTS = 370 MPa
(e) Ductility 16.1 % elongation
(f) U
r
= 6.5 x 10
5
J/m
3

Problem 6.41

a. To Find:

We are required to plot the true stress vs. true strain curve for aluminum.

b. Given:

Diameter of test specimen, d
0
= 12.8 mm

Length of test specimen, l
0
= 50.8 mm

Load vs. elongation data for the test specimen.

o
t
= F/A
i
, where o
t
is the trues stress, F is the load and A
i
is the instantaneous cross-sectional
area (Equation 6.15)

c
t
= ln (l
i
/l
0
), where c
t
is the true strain and l
i
is the instantaneous length of the test specimen
(Equation 6.16)

o
t
= o(1+c) , where o is the engineering stress and c is the engineering strain (Equation 6.18a)

Equation 6.18a is invalid once necking begins.Hence, the values of the measured diameter of the
specimen given in the question are to be used to calculate true stress, for the last four data points.

c. Assumptions:

(i) Given data is accurate.

(ii) The applied force is uniaxial and in a direction parallel to the length of the cylinder.

(iii) The material is isotropic.

(iv) The experiment is conducted at room temperature. This is relevant because we do not
wish to consider time-dependent plastic deformation that comes into the picture at
higher temperatures.
d. Solution:

Except for the last four data points,

o
t :
Using the values of o and c (Table 1/Problem 6.29) and Equation 6.18a, calculate o
t
= o(1+c)

For the last four data points,

Using the given value of the instantaneous diameter d
i
, calculate A
i
= *d
i
2
/ 4

From Equation 6.15, calculate o
t
= F/A
i

For all data points,

Using the given values of l
i
, l
0
and Equation 6.16, calculate c
t
= ln (l
i
/l
0
)

Note Equation 6.18b may be used to calculate c
t
for all but the last four data points. However,
the question explicitly asks us to use Equations 6.15, 6.16 and 6.18a. Hence, it would not be
appropriate to use 6.18b here.

The calculated values are tabulated below.

Diameter Engineering Stress
Engineering
Strain
True
Strain
True
Stress
N mm
mm MPa MPa
0 50.8 0.000 0.000 0.0000 0.000
7,330 50.851 56.992 0.001 0.0010 57.049
15,100 50.902 117.405 0.002 0.0020 117.641
23,100 50.952 179.607 0.003 0.0030 180.144
30,400 51.003 236.365 0.004 0.0040 237.310
34,400 51.054 267.466 0.005 0.0050 268.803
38,400 51.308 298.567 0.010 0.0100 301.553
41,300 51.816 321.115 0.020 0.0198 327.537
44,800 52.832 348.328 0.040 0.0392 362.261
46,200 53.848 359.213 0.060 0.0583 380.766
47,300 54.864 367.766 0.080 0.0770 397.187
47,500 55.88 369.321 0.100 0.0953 406.253
46,100 56.896 11.71 0.1133 428.270
44,800 57.658 11.26 0.1266 450.123
42,600 58.42 10.62 0.1398 481.162
36,400 59.182 9.4 0.1527 524.778
Table 1. True stress, true strain: input data and calculated values

Fig.1. True stress vs. true strain curve (From Table 1)

0.000
100.000
200.000
300.000
400.000
500.000
600.000
0.0000 0.0200 0.0400 0.0600 0.0800 0.1000 0.1200 0.1400 0.1600
T
r
u
e

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)

True Strain
Problem 6.D2 (parts a,b,c)

a. To Find:

(a) Minimum thickness of the wall of the cylindrical tube, Ax.

(b) Circumferential stress on the wall of the pressurized tube, o.

(c) Suitability of the cylinder of wall thickness Ax at 300
0
C.

b. Given:

Fig. 1. Thin-walled cylindrical tube: elevation view.

Pressure of hydrogen inside the tube, p1 = 1.013 MPa

Pressure of hydrogen outside the tube, p2 = 0.01013 MPa

Temperature = 300
0
C

Radius of cylinder, r = 0.1 m

Maximum diffusion flux = 1 x 10
-7

Concentration of hydrogen,

C
H
= 30.8 p
H
2
exp
12.3 kJ/mol
RT
|
\

|
.
| (1)
Diffusion coefficient,

D
H
= 4.76 10
7
exp
39.56 kJ/mol
RT
|
\

|
.
| (2)

Circumferential stress,
x
p r
A
A
= o
o
y
of Ni (at room temperature) = 100 MPa

o
y
decreases by 5MPa for every 50
0
C increase in temperature.

c. Assumptions:

(i) Linear concentration profile, i.e., steady state diffusion condition.

(ii) One-dimensional diffusion, i.e. diffusion occurs only along the axis parallel to the
thickness of the plate.

(iii) The relationship between temperature and yield strength is described accurately.

(iv) Material is isotropic.
d. Solution:

(a)

Using equation 5.3:

J = - D* AC
H
/ Ax

J = - D * (C
H1
-C
H2
) / (x1-x2) or - D * (C
H2
-C
H1
) / (x2-x1) (4)

x2 x1 = Ax (5)

From, (1), (2), (4) and (5):

J = [ - 4.76*10
-7
* exp (-39560 (J/mol)/RT) * 30.8 *exp (-12300 (J/mol) / RT) *
( (p1)
0.5
- (p2)
0.5
) ] / - Ax

Ax

s mol/m 10 1
1
=
2 7

(4.76 10
-7
) exp
39, 560 J / mol
(8.31 J/mol- K)(300 + 273 K)
|
\

|
.
|

( ) 01013 . 0 1013 . 1
) K 273 300 )( K - J/mol 31 . 8 (
J/mol 300 , 12
exp (30.8) MPa MPa
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

Ax = 0.0025 m = 2.5 mm

(b)

x
p r
A
A
= o =
) 0025 . 0 (
) 01013 . 0 013 . 1 )( 10 . 0 (
=
m
MPa MPa m
= 40.11 MPa

[Note If

o =
r Ap
4Ax
is used, o=10 MPa]

(c)

o
y
= 100 MPa
5 MPa
50C
T T
r
( )

Where, o
y
is the yield strength at temperature T and T
r
= room temperature .

At 300
0
C,

o
y
= 100 MPa (0.1 MPa/C) (300C 20C) = 72 MPa

The circumferential stress (40.11 MPa) is less than the yield strength (72 MPa). Hence, this
thickness is suitable.

(a) Ax = 0.0025 m = 2.5 mm
(b) o = 40.11 MPa
(c) Suitable since o<o
y