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Composite Structures 58 (2002) 539549 www.elsevier.

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Concrete columns conned by ber composite wraps under combined axial and cyclic lateral loads
Azadeh Parvin *, Wei Wang
Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390, USA

Abstract This paper presents nonlinear nite element analysis of ber reinforced polymer (FRP) jacketed reinforced concrete columns under combined axial and cyclic lateral loadings. Large-scale control and FRP-wrapped reinforced concrete columns (762 mm in diameter and 4978 mm in height) were modeled using the nonlinear nite element analysis software MARCe. The models were capable of allowing for the degradation of the stiness under cyclic loading. The nite element analysis results indicated that reinforced concrete columns externally wrapped with the FRP fabric in the potential plastic hinge location at the bottom of the column showed signicant improvement in both strength and ductility capacities, and the FRP jacket could be used to delay the degradation of the stiness of reinforced concrete columns. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Fiber composites; Concrete; Jacketed columns; Cyclic loading; Ductility; Stiness degradation; Finite element analysis

1. Introduction When reinforced concrete columns are subjected to seismic loading, the large lateral cyclic earthquake force will degrade the concrete and the reinforcing bar very quickly, and the columns will fail prematurely. Investigations of bridge failures during the recent earthquakes, such as the 1987 Whittier, 1989 Loma Prieta, 1994 Northridge, and 1995 Kobe show that inadequate lateral reinforcement and insucient lap length of the starter bars are among the major catastrophic causes of failure [13]. The seismic loads can induce large moments and lateral forces to the bridge columns. This will result in large shear forces in the columns, which are resisted mainly through the lateral reinforcement. Properly detailed lateral reinforcement can also prevent the sudden loss of bond and buckling of the longitudinal rebars. Many existing bridge columns are designed using elastic analysis methods along with much smaller earthquake forces compared to current design codes. The lateral reinforcement in these bridge columns are poorly detailed, which results in unreliable exural ca-

Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-419-530-8134; fax: +1-419-5308116. E-mail address: aparvin@eng.utoledo.edu (A. Parvin).

pacity, insucient shear strength, and low strength at the footing-column joints. There is an urgent need to upgrade these decient bridge columns to meet the current design standards in seismic regions. Steel jacketing has been extensively used in the state of California, USA, to retrot the bridge columns and has been proven to be very ecient to increase the strength and ductility of the columns [4]. In the meantime, researchers and practitioners are looking for innovative approaches to improve the retrot of deteriorating bridges. One approach is by the use of ber-reinforced polymer (FRP), which oers ease of handling and speed of installation, durability, resistance to corrosion, and high strength-to-weight ratio among many other properties compared to steel, in particular. Recent research on one-fth scale reinforced concrete bridge columns by Saadatmanesh et al. [5,6] shows that the FRP jacket can also be used to enhance the performance of the reinforced concrete bridge columns under constant axial load and lateral cyclic loading. Their research concluded that the FRP jacket is very eective in preventing the columns from bond failure or longitudinal bar buckling. In another experimental study by the same researchers [7], reinforced concrete columns that were damaged by earthquake were repaired using FRP wraps. Their ndings indicated that this repair technique increased displacement ductility

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and strength of repaired columns. Seible et al. [8] validated the design of seismic carbon ber retrotted reinforced concrete columns through large-scale bridge column experiments and determined that carbon ber jackets provide the desired inelastic design deformation capacity levels as good as steel shell jacketing. Xiao and Ma [9] investigated a prefabricated composite jacketing system for retrotting reinforced concrete columns with lap-spliced rebars. They concluded that the FRP jacket was able to delay the premature brittle failure of the columns due to the bond deterioration of the lap-spliced rebars. Samaan et al. [10] proposed a simple analytical connement model to predict the response of FRP-conned concrete. They validated this analytical model through their own experiment as well as experiments by others and observed good correlation between the analytical predictions and experimental results. Spoelstra and Monti [11] presented a uniaxial analytical model for FRP-conned concrete. Their study pointed out the dierences in behaviors of concrete elements conned with a variety of wraps such as berglass or carbon ber. They derived relations between axial and lateral strains to trace the state of strain or to detect its failure. Xiao and Wu [12] experimentally investigated the eect of compressive strength and connement modulus of conned concrete, which they concluded as the most inuential parameters aecting the behavior of FRPconned concrete. They also proposed a simple bilinear stressstrain model for conned concrete, which they claimed to compare well with experimental results from previous studies by other researchers. Rochette and Labossiere [13] tested the behavior of small rectangular and square columns conned by aramid and carbon ber sheets. Their study showed that the ductility and strength of the concrete column subjected to axial load had increased. Their study was limited to experimentation on rectangular or square columns subjected to monotonic uniaxial compression loading and did not consider lateral cyclic load. Parvin and Wang [14] investigated the behavior of FRP-jacketed square concrete columns under eccentric loading experimentally and numerically. Their results showed that the strength and ductility of concrete FRP-jacketed columns under eccentric loading can greatly increase and that the strain gradient decreases the retrot eciency of the FRP jacket for concrete columns. As a result, when designing FRP-jacketed columns under eccentric loading, a smaller enhancement factor should be used. Their study involved nonlinear nite element analysis while being limited to square short columns subjected to eccentric loadings. Mirmiran et al. [15] developed a nonlinear nite element model using nonassociative DruckerPrager plasticity to account for conned concrete (circular and square cross-sections). They studied the eect of corner radius of square concrete sections on stress

concentration. Their model however did not allow strength or stiness degradation. They suggested, under the cyclic load, a kinetic hardening rule may be more appropriate to model stiness degradation. Most of the studies performed on FRP-jacketed columns in the reported literature concentrate on either experimental and/or analytical models. Consequently, there appears to be relatively few nite element analysis studies of FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete columns, which take into account material and geometric nonlinearities, and stiness degradation of materials, while utilizing large-scale complex models. This study lls in this perceived void in literature by proposing a highly complex nonlinear nite element analysis model for a large-scale FRP-jacketed column to study its behavior under combined axial and cyclic lateral loadings with the capability of allowing the stiness degradation for concrete behavior. A successful outcome for the proposed study would signicantly reduce dependency on costly and time consuming experimental analysis of large-scale FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete columns while maintaining a high degree of predictive capacity for the numerical models in terms of exposing the behavioral characteristics of the physical columns themselves.

2. Finite element analysis of FRP-jacketed columns In the following sections, the material modeling of concrete and FRP, as well as case studies for control and FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete column models under combined axial and monotonic lateral loads, or combined axial and cyclic lateral loads are described. Four case studies are presented. In the rst and second case studies, behaviors of the control reinforced concrete column and the FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete column under combined axial and monotonic lateral loads were investigated. In the third and the fourth cases, the same control reinforced concrete column and the FRPjacketed reinforced concrete column were studied under combined axial and cyclic lateral loads. For those cases with monotonic lateral load, initially the load corresponding to the yielding of the rebar in the column was determined. Then, this value was used to control the cyclic lateral load steps. The load versus displacement response of control columns under each loading condition were compared to the FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete columns under the same loading condition to study the eect of the FRP jackets used as external reinforcement for columns. 2.1. Finite element model of FRP-jacketed concrete column The nonlinear nite element analysis software MARCe (MARC K7.2/Mentat 3.2) was used to model

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the FRP-jacketed concrete columns [16]. The nonlinearities incorporated in the model include the material property and the structure geometry. The concrete model was three-dimensional eight-node solid brick elements and required 1176 elements in total. The nonlinear behavior of the conned concrete material was simulated by employing the MohrCoulomb yield criteria combined with the isotropic hardening rule. The MohrCoulomb yield criteria is a reasonable choice since, the concrete can ow like a ductile material under high triaxial compression, and the deviatory failure or yield stress in concrete depends on the hydrostatic pressure. The deviatoric yield function is a function of the hydrostatic stress, which is dened as: f ar1 r2 r3 q 2 2 2 r1 r2 r2 r3 r3 r1 K 0; 1 6 1 where r1 , r2 , and r3 represent the principal stresses in the concrete, coecient a depends on the angle of internal friction and cohesion, and coecient K depends on the angle of internal friction of concrete. The steel rebars were modeled by 224 three-dimensional truss elements. As described by the generalized Hook law, the FRP materials demonstrate a linear elastic behavior until failure. In this study, the FRP is considered to be an orthotropic material. The three principle material directions (direction 1 along the ber direction and directions 2 and 3 perpendicular to the ber direction) are orthogonal to each other. The stressstrain relation is given as: ri Dij ej for i; j 1; 2; . . . ; 6; 2

Simulation of the bonding force between the concrete column surface and FRP jacket was realized through the Glue sub-option of the Contact option in MARCe. The separating force between the concrete and the FRP jacket was given a large value in order to assume perfect bonding. 2.2. Case 1control reinforced concrete column under monotonic lateral loading A reinforced concrete column that is 762 mm (30 in.) in diameter and 4978 mm (196 in.) in height was modeled. The reinforcement ratio of this column was about 2.5%. The bottom of the column was xed. A uniform axial load of 2.76 MPa (400 psi) and a lateral load of 345 KN (77,563 pounds) were applied at the top of the column (Fig. 1). The concrete column was modeled by 1176 three-dimensional solid brick elements. The strength of the concrete was 27.6 MPa (4000 psi), while the modulus of elasticity and the Poissons ratio were 20.69 Gpa (3 106 psi) and 0.17, respectively. The longitudinal rebars in the columns were modeled by 224 three-dimensional truss elements. The strength of the rebar was 413.7 MPa (60,000 psi) with the modulus of elasticity of 206.9 Gpa (3 107 psi) and the Poissons ratio of 0.3. Concrete and steel materials were isotropic. Cracking was taken into account. The critical tensile strength of concrete was 4.83 MPa (700 psi) with the

where the components of tensor Dij , are dened as follows, while noting that zero components are not included:
D11 1 m2 23 1 m23 1 m23 2m12 m21 E11 ; D22 1 m12 m21 1 m23 1 m23 2m12 m21 E22 ; D12 m21 1 m23 1 m23 1 m23 2m12 m21 E11 ; D23 m23 m12 m21 1 m23 1 m23 2m12 m21 1 E22 ; D44 1 m23 2m12 m21 1 m23 1 m23 2m12 m21 1 E22 =2; D55 G12 ; and
1 1 1

3 where E11 is the modulus of elasticity for the FRP jacket along the ber direction; E22 is the modulus of elasticity for the FRP jacket perpendicular to the ber direction; G12 is the shear modulus for the FRP jacket; and m12 , m21 , m23 are Poissons ratios for the FRP jacket. The FRP jacket was modeled as a single layer and by 224 threedimensional thin-shell elements. Dierent element thicknesses were assigned based on if the jacket consisted of one or multi-layer FRP fabrics.

Fig. 1. Large-scale control reinforced concrete column.

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Fig. 2. Loaddisplacement curve of large-scale control reinforced concrete column under monotonic lateral load.

softening modulus and the crushing strain of 2.52 Kpa (365 psi) and 0.003, respectively. The monotonous lateral load of 345 KN (77,563 pounds) was added to 101 nodes on the top of the column as external point load within 48 load increments along the global Y direction. Fig. 2 illustrates the loaddisplacement curve for the node 267 on top of the column. At load increment 48, which was when the external load at each node reached 3.42 KN (769 pounds), the column failed completely. Checking the strain distribution at the bottom of column, it was found that the load increment 46 corresponded to the yielding point of the rebar. At this point, the axial strain in the rebar exceeded 0.002. When the steel rebar yielded, the largest compressive strain in the concrete was 0.0021. Further larger loading leads the concrete to crush quickly. The lateral displacement at the yielding point of the rebar was 44.7 mm (1.76 in.). This value is used to control the lateral loading steps in the cyclic lateral loading.

2.3. Case 2FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete column under monotonic lateral loading The large-scale reinforced concrete column given in Fig. 1 was wrapped with the FRP jacket at the bottom height of the column. The jacket was E-glass FRP with

bers along the two perpendicular directions. The thickness of the jacket was 5.08 mm (0.2 in.) with a height of 1778 mm (70 in.) (Fig. 3). The concrete and rebar were modeled as in the previous case of column without FRP. The FRP jacket was modeled by 224 three-dimensional thin shell elements. The FRP was assumed orthotropic elastic material with the modulus of elasticity along the ber direction of 48.2 Gpa (7 106 psi), the Poissons ratio of 0.24, and ultimate strain of 0.02, which was used to predict the failure of the structure. The lateral monotonic load of 629 KN (141,412 pounds) was applied to 101 nodes at the top of the column as external point load within 28 load increments along the global Y direction. A uniform concentric axial load of 2.76 MPa (400 psi) was also added on the top of the column. Fig. 4 presents the loaddisplacement curve for node 267 in the global Y direction. The rebar yielded at about load increment 20. Checking the axial strain value of the rebar at the bottom of the column shows the axial strain of the rebar is 0.002 at the load increment 19. The strain distribution in the FRP jacket indicated that the FRP failed in the longitudinal direction. At load increment 28, the largest tensile strain along the longitudinal direction was 0.0178 and the largest tensile strain along the circumferential direction was only about 0.005.

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2.4. Case 3control reinforced concrete column under cyclic lateral loading A reinforced concrete column without FRP jacket under cyclic lateral load was modeled as the control column. The nite element model of this column was exactly the same as the one under monotonic loading in case 1. The only dierence is that the lateral load was applied cyclically. The lateral displacement of 44.7 mm (1.76 in.), which corresponded to the yielding of the rebar, was used to control the loading steps. For the control reinforced concrete column, this displacement required the external lateral load at each node to be 3.29 KN (740 pounds). The load factors for the entire loading process are listed in Fig. 5. These factors were derived based on making the maximum lateral displacement at the end of each loading loop to be 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 times the critical lateral displacement 44.7 mm (1.76 in.) for the rst, second, third and fourth loading loops, respectively. The lateral displacement and external load at the node 267 was used to construct the hysteresis loops for the structure (Fig. 6). The total lateral load should be the value at the node times the number of top element nodes (101). In order to make this graph comparable to the hysteresis loops of the FRP-jacketed reinforced

Fig. 3. Large-scale FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete column.

Fig. 4. Loaddisplacement curve of large-scale FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete column under monotonic lateral load.

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Fig. 5. Lateral load factor for large-scale control reinforced concrete column.

Fig. 6. Loaddisplacement response of large-scale control reinforced concrete column under cyclic loading.

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concrete column under cyclic lateral loading, it was plotted with the same scale as the hysteresis loop of the FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete column. At load increment 74 (fourth hysteresis loop), the concrete crushed and the structure failed completely. The stiness of the reinforced concrete column degraded with the external cyclic loading as it can be seen from the change in the slope of each hysteresis loop. 2.5. Case 4FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete column under cyclic lateral loading The FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete column under cyclic lateral loading had the same model as the one under monotonic lateral loading in case 1. The yield displacement of 44.7 mm (1.76 in.) was used to control the lateral loading. For the column with the FRP jacket, this displacement controlled the external lateral load at each node to be 3.47 KN (780 pounds). The load factors for the entire loading process are listed in Fig. 7. These factors are based on making the maximum lateral displacements at the end of each loading cycle to be approximately 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 times the critical lateral displacement (44.7 mm) for the rst, second, third, fourth, and fth loading cycles, respectively. Fig. 8 shows the loaddisplacement curve for the node 267. At load increment 130 (fth cycle), the FRP jacket reached its maximum tensile strain and the col-

umn failed. Because of the connement of the FRP jacket, the stiness of reinforced concrete column did not degrade signicantly compared to the one without the FRP jacket as it can be observed by the change in the slope in each hysteresis loop. Additionally, from Figs. 6 and 8, it can be concluded that under lateral cyclic load, the FRP-jacketed concrete column strength and ductility had increased signicantly compared to the control concrete column, before cyclic capacity degradation in the neighborhood of third hysteresis loop in Fig. 6 (about 70% increase in strength and 203% increase in lateral displacement). 2.6. Assessment of validity for proposed numerical models Validation of the proposed numerical models of the concrete columns through comparison with similar columns employed in laboratory experiments as reported in the recent literature will be presented in this section. Ideally, full-scale laboratory experimentation would be desirable to validate the proposed numerical models of columns. However, in the absence of such experimentation due to constraints imposed by limited availability of well-equipped laboratory infrastructure, which can facilitate large-scale experimentation, it is still possible to make reasonably good observations pertaining to validity of the proposed numerical models. This validation would be based on comparing the

Fig. 7. Lateral load factor for large-scale FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete column.

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Fig. 8. Loaddisplacement response of large-scale FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete column under cyclic loading.

response envelopes for proposed numerical models of control and FRP-jacketed columns with those of other similar columns, for which scaled-down laboratory experimentations were reported in the literature. Initially, it will be established that columns chosen from the literature for correlating loaddisplacement envelopes are similar to the columns for which the numerical models were proposed in this study. Dierences between columns subjected to experimentation in the literature and the ones under study in this paper will be noted with the anticipation that loaddisplacement curves will project nonidentical (due to these dierences) but correlated behavior (due to similarities). Finally, reasonable level of correlation among loaddisplacement envelopes for the two experimentally tested columns, reported in literature, and the nite element analysis models of control and FRP-jacketed-columns, proposed in this study, will be noted. Two noteworthy experimental investigations that have been carried out on circular FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete columns subjected to combined axial and cyclic lateral loads were reported in recent literature [7,9]. Both of these experimental studies are based on scaled-down models. The experimental study by Saadatmanesh et al. [7] involved one-fth scale FRP-

wrapped reinforced concrete columns. Overall height of the test units was 2413 mm (95 in.). The column had the height (from the center of the pins where the cyclic load was applied to the top of footing) of 1892 mm (72 in.) and the cross-section diameter of 305 mm (12 in.) with the concrete strength of 36.5 MPa (5297 psi), the longitudinal steel rebar ratio of 2.48%, and steel yield stress of 358 MPa (51,959 psi). The unidirectional E-glass FRP jacket tensile strength and tensile modulus were 532 MPa (77,213 psi) and 17,755 MPa (2577 ksi), respectively. The jacket consisted of six layers with 0.8 mm (0.03 in.) thickness per layer in the form of a strap with 151 mm (6 in.) width and was placed butt-to-butt along the height of the column up to 635 mm (25 in.) from the top surface of footing. A constant axial load of 445 KN (100 kips) was applied on top of the column. The lateral cyclic load was modeled as a combination of load control and displacement control phases. In another experimental investigation [9], half-scale columns with 2440 mm (96 in.) in height and 610 mm (24 in.) in diameter with longitudinal steel ratio of 2% of the gross area of column section were employed. The yield strength of the steel rebar was 414 MPa (60,000 psi). The compressive strength of the concrete was 44.8 MPa (6500 psi). Elastic modulus and ultimate strength for the uni-

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directional glass ber composites were 48,300 MPa (7000 ksi) and 552 MPa (80,116 psi), respectively, and the wrapped portion of the column had a height of 1220 mm (48 in.). The wraps consisted of four layers, 3.2 mm (0.12 in.) thickness per layer, for 610 mm (24 in.) high from the bottom of footing and the remaining 610 mm (24 in.) portion of the wrapped section consisted of three layers for this case of retrotted column. The applied concentrated load was 712 KN (160 kips). The sequence of lateral load was controlled by displacement increment, which was based on the reference ductility index. The nite element analysis presented in this study involves larger column sizes: full-size models with the height of 4978 mm (196 in.) and the diameter of 762 mm (30 in.), larger axial loading of 1258 KN (283 kips), and larger lateral cyclic loading than experimental analyses performed by other researchers described above. The column had the concrete strength of 27.6 MPa (4000 psi), the rebar yield strength of 414 MPa (60,000 psi) with reinforcement ratio of 2.5%. Thickness of the Eglass FRP jacket was 5.08 mm (0.2 in.) with a height of 1778 mm (70 in.) from the bottom of column. The modulus of elasticity along the ber direction had a value of 48.2 Gpa (7 106 psi). The ultimate strain for the FRP was 0.02. A uniform axial load of 2.76 MPa (400 psi) and a lateral load of 345 KN (77,563 pounds) were applied at the top of the column. Next, load versus displacement curves of the columns investigated by two experimental studies in the literature [7,9] and the columns, for which nite element analysis models were proposed in this study, will be observed and compared to expose the degree of behavior correlation among them while noting the dierences between the same. In the experimental study performed by Saadatmanesh et al. [7], the measured maximum lateral load and the corresponding lateral displacement for one conguration of the FRP-wrapped circular column with continuous longitudinal bars were 72 KN (16.2 kips) and 110 mm (4.33 in.), respectively, versus the value of 60 KN (13.5 kips) and 70 mm (2.75 in.) for the control model (after that the control column experienced stiness degradation). This leads to an increase of 20% in lateral load and 57% in lateral displacement for the FRP-jacketed column. In the experimental investigation by Xiao and Ma [9], the maximum lateral load and corresponding lateral displacement for control model were 231 KN (52 kips) and 13 mm (0.51 in.), respectively (after that the column experienced stiness degradation). The retrotted FRPjacketed column with 4-layer wrapping exhibited maximum lateral load and lateral displacement values of 300 KN (67.56 kips) and 85 mm (3.35 in.), respectively (after that the column started degrading gradually). This results in an increase of 30% in lateral load and 554% in lateral displacement.

In the nite element analysis presented in this study, the control column maximum lateral load and corresponding lateral displacement were 337 KN (75.7 kips) and 58 mm (2.28 in.), respectively (after that the column started degrading gradually). The FRP-wrapped concrete column lateral load and lateral displacement were 573 KN (128.76 kips) and 176 mm (6.93 in.), respectively. Therefore, an increase of 70% in lateral load and 203% in lateral displacement were observed for the FRP-jacketed column under combined axial and cyclic lateral loading. In general, response prole of the nite element analysis model of FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete column under combined axial and cyclic lateral loadings as exhibited by the hysteresis loops in Fig. 6 for the control column and Fig. 8 for FRP-jacketed column correlates to those observed in the experiments by other two studies, namely Fig. 13(a) for control column and Fig. 13(b) for wrapped column in [7] and Fig. 6(a) for as-built column and Fig. 6(b) for retrotted column in [9]. For all three studies, FRP-wrapped columns performed extremely well under combined axial and cyclic lateral loadings compared to control columns with considerable enhancement in the response to cyclic loads clearly observable. The lateral strength and ductility of wrapped columns increased compared to the control columns, which means signicant improvement in the hysteresis loops of lateral load versus lateral displacement of jacketed columns. Furthermore, results of nite element analysis for the proposed column model were in good agreement with those of experimental analysis on the circular column with continuous longitudinal rebars [7] on the basis of not showing stiness degradation or pinching of hysteresis loops for the FRP-jacketed columns. Test results [9] on retrotted column exposed no stiness degradation as well except, during the last few hysteresis loops, a gradual yet insignicant degradation was observed. The gradual degradation at large displacements was most likely due to bond slip in the lap-spliced longitudinal bars. As expected, variations in slenderness ratio and rigidity of columns as well as magnitude of loadings, for the three studies being compared, likely induced a range of percent improvement values in lateral load carrying capacity and lateral displacement. Specically, there is 2070% increase in lateral load carrying capacity and 57554% increase in lateral displacement capacity. This variation in percent improvement can easily materialize due to imposed requirements to emphasize the increase of either exural strength or ductility or both for repair and rehabilitation, while noting that for structural frames subjected to earthquake loads, both strength and ductility should be taken into account. For example, one way to increase the ductility of the column is by increasing the number of wraps. One of two experimental

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studies [9] reported substantially more increase in the lateral displacement compared to lateral displacement increases in the other two studies. This dierence in increases might have been due to the fact that the FRP jacket was approximately two and half times thicker than those of other two studies. These observations based on a comparative assessment of two experimental studies and the nite element analysis in this paper suggest that the proposed numerical models are reasonably accurate and provides expected response envelopes for the loaddisplacement curves of columns. The proposed nite element analysis models of the columns is poised to provide the engineering community the opportunity to simulate high-resolution response of structural systems at signicantly reduced cost and time compared to experimental analysis of large-scale FRPjacketed reinforced concrete columns: in most cases, full-scale experimentation is not feasible due to limited resources and unavailability of large laboratory facilities and equipments.

Due to the connement by the FRP jacket at the critical section, the failure of the column, the failure mode of the reinforced concrete columns had changed. The failure of the unjacketed columns initiated from the crushing of the concrete at a relatively low compressive strain of 0.003. The failure of the jacketed columns was due to the failure of the FRP jacket. When the FRP jacket failed, the concrete crushed simultaneously. The crushing strain for conned concrete can be very large (much greater than 0.003) depending on the type of the FRP jacket. The proposed numerical full-scale column models were reasonably accurate and provided expected response proles or envelopes which clearly revealed the gain in strength and ductility of the FRP-jacketed columns as observed by other experimental studies on scaled-down columns. Although the presented nite element analysis studies were restricted to a particular column conguration, the results nonetheless provided valuable insight into the mechanisms governing the behavior of FRP-conned reinforced concrete columns subjected to combined axial and lateral cyclic loads. Extension of the results presented here to other columns with dierent size, geometry, loading conditions, and types of FRP wraps will require further research.

3. Conclusions The necessity to understand the principles and behavior of FRP-wrapped structural systems is vital in order to design systems with high performance and predictable behavior. The proposed nite element analysis study will unable the engineers to foresee the behavior of the structure before construction. Finite element study of large-scale FRP-jacketed reinforced concrete columns under combined axial and cyclic lateral loadings results in the following observations: Reinforced concrete columns externally wrapped with the FRP fabric in the potential plastic hinge location showed signicant improvement in both strength and ductility capacities. Under monotonic lateral loading, the lateral displacement of the FRPjacketed column could be four times as large as that of the column without the FRP jacket, and the strength of the column increased about 80%. Under cyclic lateral loading, the lateral displacement of the FRP-jacketed column could be two times as large as that of the column without the FRP jacket, and the strength of the column increased about 70%. The FRP jacket could be used to delay the degradation of the stiness of the reinforced concrete columns. Under lateral cyclic loading, the stiness of the unjacketed column decreased rapidly after the lateral displacement reached 1.5 times the yielding displacement. For the FRP-jacketed column, there was no signicant stiness degradation observed throughout the complete loading process.

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