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Pre Reading II: English Debate Beningtyas Kharisma Bestari, 1106004784

Debate is a communication process in which participants argue for and against a given topic. Two sides speak alternately for and against a particular contention usually based on a topical issue. Each person is allocated a time they are allowed to speak for and any interjections are carefully controlled. The subject of the dispute is often prearranged so you may find yourself having to support opinions with which you do not normally agree. You also have to argue as part of a team, being careful not to contradict what others on your side have said. There are some preparation if we have english debate. 1. Proposition Selecting an adequate proposition is essential for meaningful debate. A proposition is expressed in a clear statement that represents the affirmative side of the controversy. An official statement of the proposition is written as "Resolved: That. . . ." Propositions may be about judgments of fact/valueor about desirability of a policy/plan of action. For example: Resolved: That UFOs are spaceships from another planet. (FACT). There are some points to consider when we decide a proposition. a. The proposition should be controversial. The proposition should be phrased so that it may give more or less an equal chance of winning. Example "Resolved: That the Hawks will win the baseball championship" may be an adequate debate topic in the beginning of the season but cannot be debated after the winner becomes obvious. b. The proposition should be neutrally worded. Example "Resolved: That Japan should ban the sale of harmful cigarettes". c. The proposition should indicate a change from the present system. In a typical setup, the affirmative side is an advocate of change and the negative side is a defender of the present or the status quo. The affirmative has the burden of proof to show that the change is necessary; the negative side opposes the change. d. The proposition should be suitable for the participants. The topic should be interesting to participants, not too easy nor too difficult both in contents and language in the process of research as well as writing and presenting speeches. In classrooms, reading

material materials from other classes may be used to decrease the students' burden of original research. 2. Research In most debates, however, you want to go beyond what you already know. You also want to find definitions, facts, statistics, and expert opinions to back up your arguments. In the beginning of preparation, you may want to conduct a broad/generic research to better understand the proposition and possible issues. Later, you want to look for specific information to support particular points in your arguments. 3. Building Cases A case is a set of arguments that supports the affirmative or the negative position. One proposition allows more than one case. For example, the resolution calling for the prohibition of cigarette smoking may be justified by a case of smokers' health risk, of passive smoking, or of fires caused by smoking. A few cases may be combined to make one case. An affirmative case may be based on an intolerable current problem or may be based on the attainable benefits currently ignored. 4. Refutation This is a unique feature of debate that is different from more or less one-way communication of public speaking. Debate, or argumentation in general, is a process of approaching the truth through defending one's own opinion, attacking the other's, and further defending one's own in light of the opposition's refutation. Refutation and rebuttal also rigorously train your critical thinking and effective communication skills. Preparation is important for effective refutation. You must anticipate the opposition's arguments and prepare against them. In a particular debate round, you must adapt the prepared arguments to the opposition's points. 5. Writing Speeches Before the round, the team must prepare the manuscript of the 1st Affirmative Constructive Speech. Individual members must practice reading such manuscripts and briefs. During the debate round, debaters must take notes while listening to speeches, write down some notes for refutation, and organize their next speech by adjusting their prepared briefs.

For debating, there are some skills that very important for debater. The skills are style, speed, tone, volume, clarity, and use of notes and eye contact. 1. Style Style is the manner in which you communicate your arguments. This is the most basic part of debating to master. Content and strategy are worth little unless you deliver your material in a confident and persuasive way. 2. Speed It is vital to talk at a pace which is fast enough to sound intelligent and allow you time to say what you want, but slow enough to be easily understood. 3. Tone Varying tone is what makes you sound interesting. Listening to one tone for an entire presentation is boring. 4. Volume Speaking quite loudly is sometimes a necessity, but it is by no means necessary to shout through every debate regardless of context. There is absolutely no need speak any more loudly than the volume at which everyone in the room can comfortably hear you. Shouting does not win debates. Speaking too quietly is clearly disastrous since no one will be able to hear you. 5. Clarity The ability to concisely and clearly express complex issues is what debating is all about. The main reason people begin to sound unclear is usually because they lose the stream of thought which is keeping them going. It is also important to keep it simple. While long words may make you sound clever, they may also make you incomprehensible. 6. Use of notes and eye contact Notes are essential, but they must be brief and well organized to be effective. There is absolutely no point in trying to speak without notes. Of course, notes should never

become obtrusive and damage your contact with the audience, nor should they ever be read from verbatim. Most people sketch out the main headings of their speech, with brief notes under each. When writing notes for rebuttal during the debate, it is usually better to use a separate sheet of paper so you can take down the details of what the other speakers have said and then transfer a rough outline onto the notes you will actually be using. Eye contact with the audience is very important, but keep shifting your gaze. No one likes to be stared at. References Opened in 18 April 2013. Time: 12.00 WIB. Opened in 18 April 2013. Time:

12.05 WIB. Fedrizzi, Mariann., Ellis, Randy. 2008. Debate 1st edition. USA: South-Western Cengage Learning.