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Electromagnetic fields play an important role in the conversion of electromechanical energy in the rotating machines and transformers. In this lecture some basic concepts of electromagnetic theory are reviewed, typical magnetic circuits are analyzed and other parameter, including flux linkages and inductances, are defined.

Production of Magnetic Field When a current i flows through a conductor, magnetic fluxes are generated and wraps around in a similar manner as that of direction of travel of cork-screw when turned in clock-wise direction.

The study and the design of electrical machinery include the analysis of the magnetic circuits involved in these machines. A magnetic circuit consists of a magnetic structure built mainly of high permeability magnetic material. Thus, magnetic flux is confined to the paths presented by the high-permeability material, just as the electric current is confined to the paths presented by the high-conductivity conductors of the electric circuit. Consider the magnetic core shown in the diagram of Fig 2. It has a current ( I) carrying winding of N turns that generates a magnetomotive fource (mmf) F of NI.

This mmf creates a magnetic field in the core having an intensity of H c ampereturn/meter along the length of the magnetic path. In SI units. and lc is the mean path length of the core. Hclc =NI=F= mmf (2) The core is usually made of ferromagnetic material. (4) where. The slope of this is designated as µ. thus giving relationship between B and H as B = µH (3) As seen from Fig 3. then (1) gives. the permeability of the material. 2 Page . The permeability of a magnetic material is usually given relative to the permeability of the free-space. µr is the relative permeability. the permeability of the free-space is µ0= 4π×10-7 H/m. the slope of the curve that µ is not constant and depends of the operating value of magnetic flux density ( ). or B-H curve (Fig 3). Thus µ= µ0µr. According to Ampere’s law ∮ (1) If Hc is constant. µ0. The magnetic flux density B (weber/m2) in the core is related to the magnetic field H according to the saturation curve.

The magnetic flux Φ (expressed in webers) through a given surface is found as follows: ∫ (5) and is uniform over Since the flux density in the core Bc has the same direction as the cross-sectional area. Ac. Equation (5) reduces to F = NI = H c lc NI Φ = Bc Ac = µH c Ac =µ A c NI ∴ H c = lc lc ⇒ NI = l c Φ = ℜΦ .Fig 3: Typical B-H curves of different materials.

⇒ F = ℜΦ µA c (6) ℜ = lc = reluctance of the magnetic circuit in AT/wb. Page 3 . Eq (6) is analogous to Ohm’s µ Ac law for resistive circuits.

4. 4.2. The fringing effect also disturbs the core flux pattern to some depth near the gap. The result is non-uniform flux density in the air-gap (decreasing outward).Table : Analogy between Magnetic and Electric circuits Electric circuit I=current (A) V= emf (V) R= resistance (Ω) σ = conductivity (S/m) Self study: Example 4. The effect of fringing increases with the air-gap length.1.4 Magnetic circuit Φ = flux (wb) F = mmf (AT) R = reluctance (AT/wb) µ = permeability (H/m) Magnetic Circuit with Air-gap and Flux Fringing At an air-gap in a magnetic core. the flux fringes out into neighboring air paths as shown in Figure. enlargement of the effective air-gap area and a decrease in the average gap flux density. Fig: Flux fringing at the air-gap 4 Page .

Φg = Φc. Series Parallel Magnetic Circuits 5 Page . Bg =Bc. but still Hg ≠ Hc and also Rg ≠ Rc due to change in permeability in core and air-gap. then Ag=Ac.If fringing is neglected.

000. Problems D4. The coil is connected to a voltage source. The air gap is 0.1 The magnetic circuit shown in Fig. for any closed path in a magnetic circuit.Similar to Kirchhoff’s voltage law. (ii)Calculate the magnetic flux (iii) Determine the flux linkage of the coil 6 Page . we may write. The magnetic circuit has the following dimensions: Ac=16cm2.1mm long. Around a closed path in a magnetic circuit the algebraic sum of ampere-turns is equal to the algebraic sum of the products of the reluctances and fluxes. Which states that the algebraic sum of all the magnetic fluxes flowing out of a junction in a magnetic circuit is zero. Again.5T. below has an air gap cut in the right leg of the core. similar to Kirchhoff’s current law for a junction. and the current drawn is adjusted so that the magnetic flux density in the air gap is 1. and N=350 turns. lc=40cm. for any closed path in a magnetic circuit. The relative permeability of the core is µr=50. Assume that flux fringing in the air gap is negligible. (i) Find the value of the current.

979+49. Φ (iv) Flux linkage. Bg=Bc = 1.Solution: Here.5× =2. Rt=Rc+Rg= 3. λ=NΦ =350× =0.1.5T Reluctance of the air gap.4 mWb (ii)Current (iii) Flux. Φ=BA=1. lc = 40cm=0.84 wb-t Problem 4.4m. m2. Ac=16cm2= Reluctance of the core.736=53.2 is similar to D4. Total Reluctance.715 AT/wb (i) Flux. Page .

7 .

a. N=150 turns. and it draws a current of 15A.1=0.875 mwb =2. Ac = 25cm2=25×10-4 m2. The flux linkage of the coil d.75 T Φ=BA=6. × b. A coil containing 150 turns is wound uniformly throughout the length of the core. The magnetic flux in the core b.628 m c. D4. Calculate the magnetic field intensity in the core Solution: Given. a. µr=1500 B=µH =µ0µrH =4π×10-7×1500×3581=6.2 A magnetic core is built in the form of a circular ring having a mean radius of 10 cm. The reluctance of the core Solution: Here.1m a. Determine the of the coil b.D4.53 wb-t c.75×25×10-4 wb=16. Calculate a. I =15A. The relative permeability of the material of the ring is 1500. lc= 2πr = 2π×0. b. Dr. The coil is connected to a voltage source.3 The circular ring of has a mean cross-sectional area of 25cm2. r = 10cm = 0. Ahsan 8 Page . λ=NΦ=150× d. The magnetic flux density in the core c.

c. b. Ahsan .125 inch. and an air-gap length of 0.0 inch 2.125 inch = ( ) N = 350 turn. Assume that the relative permeability of the core is and fringing of the flux in the air gap is negligible. =1.0 inch2 = g = 0. and a current of 5A is supplied to the coil. A 350-turn coil is wound around the magnetic core. µr=5000 assuming that the core has a relative permeability AT/wb Page 9 Dr. Solution: a.4 A magnetic core has a circular cross-sectional area of 2. a mean path length of 10 inch. a.5 Repeat µr=5000. I = 5A a.96 D4.D4. Calculate the reluctance of the magnetic circuit b. Find the magnetic flux density in the air gap Solution: A = 2.

Total Reluctance. Rt=Rc+Rg= Flux. c.b.96 =1.99 AT/wb =0.96 AT/wb +1. Ahsan 10 Page . =1.68 T Dr.

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