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CORPORATION LAW

ATTY. NESTOR M. LEYNES, III


(Based on the Outline of J. Jose Campos, Jr. and Prof. Ma. Clara L. Campos)
I. Introduction Definition and Attributes of a Corporation Kinds of Business Organizations and their Differences Sole Proprietorship Excellent Quality Apparel, Inc. v. Win Multiple-Rich Builders, Inc. , 578 SCRA 272 (2009) Partnerships Articles 1767 and 1768 of Civil Code Defect in Forming a Corporation - Pioneer Insurance v. CA, 175 SCRA 668 (1989) Corporation by Estoppel - Lim Tong Lim v. Philippine Fishing Gear Industries, Inc. , 317 SCRA 728 (1999) Joint Venture Kilosbayan v Guingona, 232 SCRA 110 (1994) Cooperatives Article 3, RA No. 6938 Jurisdiction of the SEC Union Glass v. SEC, 126 SCRA 32 (1983) Abejo v. De la Cruz, 149 SCRA 654 (1987) SEC v. CA, 246 SCRA 738 (1995) Magalad v. Premiere Financing, 209 SCRA 266 (1992) II. Classification of Private Corporations Stock v. Non-Stock Corporations CIR v. Club Filipino, 5 SCRA 321 (1962) Other Matters NDC v. Phil. Veterans Bank, 192 SCRA 257 (1990) Pioneer Insurance v. CA, 175 SCRA 668 (1989) III. Formation and Organization of Corporation Requirements in the Formation of a Corporation Steps in the Formation of a Corporation (a) Promotion (b) Drafting of Articles of Incorporation (i) Corporate Name Lyceum of the Phils. v. CA, 219 SCRA 610 (1993) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Purpose Clause Principal Office Term of Existence Incorporators and Directors; Numbers and Qualifications Capital Stock; Subscription; Payment

(c) Filing of Articles; Payment of Fees (d) Examination of Articles; Approval or Rejection by SEC
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(e) Issuance of Certificate of Incorporation De Facto Corporations: Requisites (a) User of Corporate Powers (b) Formation under apparently Valid Statute Municipality of Malabang v. Benito, 27 SCRA 533 (1969) (c) Colorable Compliance with the Legal Requirements in Good Faith Bergeron v. Hobbs, 96 Wis 641 (1897) Harril v. Davis, 168 F 187 (1909) Hall v. Piccio, 86 Phil 603 (1950) Corporation by Estoppel Empire Mfg. v. Stuart, 9 N.W. 527 (1881) Lowell-Woodward v. GR Woods, 104 Kan 729 (1919) Asia Banking Corp. v. Standard Products, 46 Phil 145 (1924) Cranson v. IBM, 234 Md 477 (1964) Salvatierra v. Garlitos, 103 Phil 757 (1958) Albert v. University Publishing Co., Inc. ,13 SCRA 84 (1965) Lim Tong Lim v. Philippine Fishing Gear Industries, Inc. , 317 SCRA 728 (1999) (4) Internal Organization: By-Laws Fleischer v. Botica Nolasco, 47 Phil 583 (1925) Govt of the Phils. v. El Hogar, 50 Phil 399 (1927) IV. The Corporate Entity The Theory of Corporate Entity Stockholders of T. Guanzon v. Register of Deeds, 6 SCRA 373 (1962) Caram v. CA, 151 SCRA 372 (1987) Palay v. Clave, 124 SCRA 640 (1983) Jardine Davies, Inc. v. JRB Realty, Inc., 463 SCRA 555 (2005) Magsaysay v. Labrador, 180 SCRA, 266 (1989) Application of Theory (a) Interlocking Directors and Same Shareholders Sunio v. NLRC, 127 SCRA 390 (1984) Laguio v. NLRC, 262 SCRA 715 (1996) (b) Corporate Officers Good Earth Emporium, Inc. v. CA, 194 SCRA 544 (1991) Intestate Estate of Alexander T. Ty v. CA, 356 SCRA 61 (2001) (c) Dealings between Corporation and Stockholder LBP v. CA, 364 SCRA 375 (2001) (d) Obligations Traders Royal Bank v. CA, 177 SCRA 788 (1989) CKH Industrial and Dev. Corp. v. CA, 272 SCRA 333 (1997)

Piercing the Corporate Veil Source: US v. Milwaukee Refrigerator Transit Co., 142 Fed. 247
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(a) Contrary to Law / Public Policy; Evasion of Liability to Government State v. Standard Oil, 142 Fed 247 (1905) Laguna Trans. v. SSS, 107 Phil 833 (1960) Marvel Bldg. Corp. v. David, 94 Phil 376 (1954) (b) Evasion of Liability to Creditors Tan Boon Bee v. Jarencio, 163 SCRA 205 (1975) Namarco v. Associated Financing, 19 SCRA 962 (1967) Jacinto v. CA, 198 SCRA 211 (1991) (c) Evasion of Liability / Obligation to Employees Claparols v. CIR, 65 SCRA 613 (1975) Indophil Textile Mills v. Calica, 205 SCRA 697 (1992) NAFLU v. Ople, 143 SCRA 125 (1986) (d) Evasion of Liability on Contract Villa-Rey Transit v. Ferrer, 25 SCRA 845 (1968) (e) Close Corporations Cease v. CA, 93 SCRA 483 (1979) Delpher Trades v. CA, 157 SCRA 349(1988) (f) As a Remedy PNB v. Ritratto Group, Inc., 362 SCRA 216 (2001) Umali v. CA, 189 SCRA 529 (1990) DBP v. CA, 363 SCRA 307 (2001) General Credit Corp v. Alsons Dev & Investment Corp. , 513 SCRA 225 (2007) Parent-Subsidiary Relationship Garrett v. Southern Railway, 173 F.Supp E.d. Tenn (1959) Koppel (Phils.) v. Yatco, 77 Phil 496 (1946) Liddell v. CIR, 2 SCRA 632 (1961) Yutivo v. CTA, 1 SCRA 160 (1961) Philvidec v. CA, 181 SCRA 669 (1990) La Campana Coffee Factory v. Kaisahan, 93 Phil 160 (1953) V. Promoters Contracts Prior to Incorporation Liability of Corporation for Promoters Contracts McArthur v. Times Printing Co., 51 N.W. 216 (1892) Clifton v. Tomb, 21 F 2d 893 (1921) Cagayan Fishing Co. v. Sandiko, 65 Phil 223 (1937) Corporate Rights under Promoters Contracts Builders Duntile v. Dunn, 229 K.Y. 569 (1929) Rizal Light & Ice Co. v. PSC and Morong Electric, 25 SCRA 258 (1968) Pioneer Insurance v. CA, 175 SCRA 668 (1989) Personal Liability of Promoter on Pre-Incorporation Contracts Wells v. Fay & Egan, 143 GA 732 (1915) How & Associates, Inc. v. Boss, 222 F. Supp 939 (1963) Quaker Hill v. Parr, 148 Colo 45 (1909)

Compensation of Promoters Fiduciary Relationship between Corporation and Promoter


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VI.

Old Dominion v. Bigelow, 203 Mass 159 (1909)

Corporate Powers General Powers of Corporation Specific Powers of Corporation Implied Powers The Ultra Vires Doctrine Republic of the Phils. v. Acoje Mining Co., 7 SCRA 361 (1963) Carlos v. Mindoro Sugar Co., 57 Phil 343 (1932) Govt. of the Phils. v. El Hogar, 50 Phil 399 (1927) Bissel v. Michigan Southern, 22 N.Y. 258 (1860) Pirovano v. De la Rama Steamship, 96 Phil 385 (1954) Harden v. Benguet Consolidated Mining, 58 Phil 141 (1933)

VII.

Control and Management of Corporation Allocation of Power and Control Citibank NA v. Chua, 220 SCRA 75 (1993) Filipinas Port Services v. Go, 518 SCRA 453 (2007) Who Exercises Corporate Powers (a) Board of Directors or Trustees Ramirez v. Orientalist Co. and Fernandez, 38 Phil 634 (1918) Lopez v. Ericta, 45 SCRA 539 (1972) Zachary v. Milin, 294 Mic 662 (1940) PNB v. CA, 83 SCRA 237 (1978) (b) Corporate Officers and Agents Yu Chuck v. Kong Li Po, 46 Phil 608 (1924) The Board of Liquidators v. Heirs of Maximo Kalaw, 20 SCRA 987 (1967) Zamboanga Transportation v. Bachrach Motor Co., 52 Phil 244 (1928) Acuna v. Batac Producers Cooperative Marketing Assoc. , 20 SCRA 526 (1967) (c) Board Committees Hayes v. Canada, Atlantic & Plant S.S. Co., Ltd., 181 F 289 (1910) (d) Stockholders or Members BOD and Elec. Comm. of SMB v. Tan, 105 Phil 289 (1959) Johnston v. Johnston, 61 OG No. 39 (1965) Ponce v. Encarnacion, 94 Phil 81 (1953) Detective & Protective Bureau v. Cloribel, 26 SCRA 295(1968) Gokongwei v. SEC, 89 SCRA 336 (1979) Roxas v. dela Rosa, 49 Phil 609 (1926) Angeles v. Santos, 64 Phil 697 (1937) Campbell v. Loews Inc., 134 A. 2d 852 (1957) Dela Rama v. Ma-ao Sugar Central, 27 SCRA 247 (1969) Gokongwei v. SEC, 89 SCRA 336 (1979) Exercise of Corporate Powers (a) Business Judgment Rule (see also Chapter VIII of this Outline) Cua Jr. v. Tan, 607 SCRA 645 (2009) (b) Theory of Estoppel Lipat v. Pacific Banking Corp., 402 SCRA 339 (2003) (c) Doctrine of Laches Rovels Enterprises Inc. v. Ocampo, 391 SCRA 176 (2002)
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(d) Doctrine of Apparent Authority Westmont Bank v. Inland Construction and Dev. Corp., 582 SCRA 230 (2009) Nyco Sales Corp. v. BA Finance Corp., 200 SCRA 637 (1991) Devices Affecting Control (a) Proxy Device State ex rel. Everett Trust v. Pacific Waxed Paper , 22 Wash 2d 844 (1945) Duffy v. Loft, 17 Del. Ch. 140 (1930) GSIS v. CA, 585 SCRA 679 (2009) (i) Who Pays? (b) Voting Trust Abercrombie v. Davies, 36 Del. Ch. 37 (1957) Everett v. Asia Banking, 49 Phil 512 (1927) Mackin v. Nicollet Hotel, Inc., 25 F. 29 783 (1928) NIDC v. Aquino, 163 SCRA 153 (1988) (c) Pooling and Voting Agreements Ringling v. Ringling Bros., 29 Del. Ch. 318 (1948) Buck Retail Store v. Harkert, 157 Neb 867 (1954) McQuade v. Stoneham, 263 N.Y. 323 (1934) Clark v. Dodge, 269 N.Y. 410 (1936) (d) Cumulative Voting (e) Classification of Shares Gottschalk v. Avalon Realty, 249 Wis 78 (1946) (f) Restriction on Transfer of Shares (g) Prescribing Qualifications for Directors; Founders Shares cf. Gokongwei v. SEC, 89 SCRA 336 (1979) (h) Management Contracts Sherman & Ellis, Inc. V. Indiana Mutual Casualty , 41 F. 2d 588 (1930) (i) Unusual Voting and Quorum Requirements Benintendi v. Kenton Hotel, 294 N.Y. 112 (1945) VIII. Duties of Directors and Controlling Stockholders Duties of Directors Strategic Alliance Dev. Corp. v. Radstock Securities Ltd. , 607 SCRA 413 (2000) Duty of Diligence: Business Judgment Rule Cua Jr. v. Tan, 607 SCRA 645 (2009) Otis & Co. v. Pennsylvania Railroad, 61 F Supp 905 (1945) Montelibano v. Bacolod-Murcia Milling, 5 SCRA 36 (1962) Litwin v. Allen, 25 N.Y.S. 2d 667 (1940) Walker v. Man, 253 N.Y.S. 2d 458 (1931) Steinberg v. Velasco, 52 Phil 1953 (1929) Barnes v. Andrews, 298 F. 614 (1924) Pool v. Pool, 22 SO. 2d 131 (1945) Foster v. Bowen, 311 Mass 359 (1942)
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Campbell v. Loews Inc., 134 A. 2d 852 (1957) Rosenfeld v. Fairchild Engine, 309 N.Y. 168 (1955)

Lowell Hoit & Co. v. Detig, 50 N.E. 2d 602 (1943) Bates v. Dresser, 251 US. 524, 64 L.Ed 388, 40 S. Ct. 247 (1919) Carag v. NLRC, 520 SCRA 28 (2007) Sanchez v. Republic, 603 SCRA 229 (2009) (a) The Self-Dealing Director Palting v. San Jose Petroleum, Inc., 18 SCRA 924 (1966) Mead v. McCullough, 21 Phil 95 (1911) Piccard v. Sperry Corporation, 90 L.O. 943 (1946) (b) Fixing Compensation of Directors and Officers Govt. v. El Hogar, 50 Phil 399 (1927) Barretto v. La Previsora, 57 Phil 649 (1932) Central Coop Exchange v. Tibe, 33 SCRA 596 (1970) Fogelson v. American Woolen Co., 170 F 2d 660 (1948) Kerbs v. California Eastern Airways, 90 A 2d 652 (1952) (c) Using Inside Information Strong v. Repide, 41 Phil 947 (1909) Taylor v. Wright, 159 P. 2d 980 (1945) Gokongwei v. SEC, 89 SCRA 336 (1979) (d) Seizing Corporate Opportunity Singer v. Carlisle, 27 NYS 2d 190 (1941) Irving Trust v. Deutsch, 79 L.Ed 1243 (1935) Litwin v. Allen, 25 NYS 2d 667 (1940) (e) Interlocking Drectors Globe Woolen Co. V. Utica Gas & Electric, 121 NE 378 (1918) DBP v. CA, 363 SCRA 307 (2001) (2) Close Corporation (3) Duty of Controlling Interest Insuranshares Corp. v. Northern Fiscal Corporation , 35 F. Supp 22 (1940) (4) Duty to Creditors IX. The Right Of Inspection (1) Basis of Right (2) What Records Covered (3) Extent of and Limitations on Right Africa v. PCGG, 205 SCRA 39 (1992) (4) Who May Exercise Right (5) Remedies Available if Inspection Refused Pardo v. Hercules Lumber, 47 Phil 964 (1924) Gonzales v. PNB, 122 SCRA 489 (1983) Veraguth v. Isabela Sugar Co., 57 Phil 266 (1932) Gokongwei v. SEC, 89 SCRA 336 (1979) Cojuangco v. Roxas, 195 SCRA 797 (1991)

IX.

Derivative Suits Nature and Basis of Derivative Suit: Distinguished from Individual and Representative Suit
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Hi-Yield Realty, Inc. v. CA, 590 SCRA 548 (2009) (2) Requirements Relating to Derivative Suits Evangelista v. Santos, 86 Phil 387 (1950) Republic Bank v. Cuaderno, 19 SCRA 671 (1967) Reyes v. Tan, 3 SCRA 198 (1961) SMC v. Kahn, 176 SCRA 447 (1989) X. Financing the Corporation Sources of Financing Capital Structure Capital and Capital Stock Distinguished Shares of Stock: Kinds (a) Common Stocks (b) Preferred Stocks (i) Preference as to Dividends Participating v. Non-participating Cumulative v. Non-Cumulative Discretionary Dividend Type Mandatory Dividend Type Earned Cumulative or Dividend Credit Type (ii) As to Voting Right Ellingwood v. Wolfs Head Oil Refining, 30 A. 2d 743 (1944) Gamboa v. Teves, G.R. 176579, 28 June 2011 (iii) Preference upon Liquidation Hay v. Hay, 230 P. 2d 791 (1951) (iv) Preferred Stockholder is Not a Creditor Augusta Trust Co. v. Augusta Hallowell, 134 Me. 314 (1938) (c) Par or No Par Shares (d) Treasury Shares (e) Redeemable Shares (f) Founders Shares Nature of Subscription Contract Garcia v. Lim Chu Sing, 59 Phil 565 (1934) (a) Pre-incorporation Subscription Utah Hotel Co. V. Madsen, 134 Pac 557 (1913) Wallace v. Eclipse Pocahontas Coal Co., 98 SE. 293 (1919) (b) Post-incorporation subscription Bayla v. Silang Traffic Co., 73 Phil 557 (1942)

The Pre-Emptive Right to Shares (a) Basis of Right


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(b) Extent and Limitations under Code (c) In Close Corporations (d) Waiver of Pre-emptive Right (e) When Issue is in Breach of Trust (f) Remedies when Denied Stokes v. Continental Turst Co., 186 NY 285 (1906) Thom v. Baltimore Trust Co., 148 AH 234 (1930) Fuller v. Krogh, 113 N.N. 2d 25 (1962) Dunslay v. Avenue M. Garage & Repair, 170 N.E. 917 (1930) Ross Transport Inc. v. Crothers, 45 A.2d 267 (1946) Debt Securities (a) Form of Borrowings (b) Bonds and Debentures (c) Convertible Securities; Stock Options Meritt-Chapman & Scott Corp. v. New York Trust Co., 184 F. 2d 954 (1950) (d) Hybrid Securities John Kelley Co. v. CIR, 90 L.Ed 278 (1946) Jordan Co. v. Allen, 85 F. Supp 437 (1949) (e) The Trust Indenture Aladdin Hotel Co. v. Bloom, 200 F.2d 627 (1953) XI. Consideration for Issuance of Shares Form of Consideration Liability on Watered Stocks Triplex Shoe Co. v. Rice & Hutchins, Inc., 72 A.L.R 932 (1930) McCarty v. Langdeau, 337 S.W. 2d 407 (1960) Rhode v. Dock-hop Co., 12 A.L.R 437 (1920) Bing Crosby Minute Maid Corp. v. Eaton, 297 P. 2d5 (1950) How Payment of Shares Enforced (a) Delinquency Sale; Requisites (b) Court Action Velasco v. Poizat, 37 Phil 802 (1918) Lingayen Gulf Electric v. Baltazar, 14 SCRA 522 (1965) Miranda v. Tarlac Rice Mill Co., G.R. No. L-35961 02 December 1932 Da Silva v. Aboitiz, 44 Phil 755 (1923) National Exchange v. Dexter, 57 Phil 601(1928) Lumanlan v. Cura, 59 Phil 746 (1934) Effect of Delinquency

Rights and Obligations of Holders of Unpaid but Non-delinquent Stock Fua Cun v. Summers, 44 Phil 704 (1923)
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Baltazar v. Lingayen Gulf Electric Power, 14 SCRA 522 (1965) Nava v. Peers Marketing, 74 SCRA 65 (1970) Certificate of Stock Makati Sports Club, Inc. v. Cheng, 621 SCRA 103 (2010) Republic v. Estate of Hans Menzi, 475 SCRA 20 (2005) Lost or Destroyed Certificate See SEC Opinion dated 28 January 1999 addressed to Ms. Ma. Cecilia Salazar-Santos

XII.

Dividends and Purchase by Corporation of its Own Shares Form of Dividends Nielson & Co. v. Lepanto Consolidated Mining Co. , 26 SCRA 540 (1968) Source of Dividends Berks Broadcasting Co. v. Crammer, 52 A. 2d 571 (1947) Lich v. United States Rubber, 39 F. Supp 675 (1941) Dividend Declaration Discretionary with Board Keough v. St. Paul Milk Co., 285 N.W. 809 (1939) Dodge v. Ford Motor Co., 170 N.W. 668 (1919) Preference as to Dividends Wabash Railway Co. V. Barclay, 67 A.L.R. 762 (1930) Burk v. Ottawa Gas & Electric Co., 123 Pac 875 (1912) When Right to Dividends Vests; Rights of Transferee McClaran v. Crescent Planning Mill, 93 S.W. 819 (1906) Cojuangco v. Sandiganbayan, 586 SCRA 790 (2009) Liability for Illegal Dividends Purchase by Corporation of its Own Shares

XIII. Amendments of Charter Amendment by Legislature Amendment by Stockholders (a) Limitations on Power (b) Grounds for Rejection of Amendment (c) Amendment Changing Stockholders Rights Marcus v. RH Macy, 74 N.E. 2d 228 (1947) (d) Effectivity of Amendment (e) Special Amendments (1) Increase of Capital Stock (2) Decrease of Capital Stock Philippine Trust Co. v. Rivera, 44 Phil 469 (1923) (3) Change in Corporate Term (f) Amendments in Close Corporations
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XIV.

Transfer of Shares Manner and Effectivity of Transfer (a) Indorsement of Stock Certificate; Registration in Corporate Books Batangas Laguna Tayabas Bus Co. v. Bitanga, 362 SCRA 635 (2001) (b) Effect of Lack of Registration Uson v. Diosomito, 61 Phil 535 (1935) (c) No Registration of Transfer of Unpaid Shares (d) Remedy if Registration Refused Rivera v. Florendo, 144 SCRA 647 (1986) Restrictions on Transfer; Close Corporations (a) General Rule: Free Transferability of Shares (b) Exceptions: In Close corporations (c) Intrinsic Validity of Various kinds of Restrictions (1) Consent Restriction (2) Option Restriction (3) Prescribing Qualifications of Stockholders (4) Redeemable Common Stock (d) Formal Validity of Restrictions Unauthorized Transfers (a) Certificate Indorsed in Blank; When Quasi-negotiable (b) Forged Transfers Santamaria v. Hongkong & Shanghai Banking, 89 Phil 780 (1951) De los Santos v. McGrath, Atty. General, 96 Phil 577 (1955) Collateral Transfers Chua Guan v. Samahang Magsasaka, 62 Phil 473 (1935) Non-transferability and Termination of Membership in Non-stock Corporations

XV.

Dissolution Cause of Dissolution (a) Expiration of Original, Extended or Shortened Term (b) Voluntary Dissolution when no Creditors Affected (c) Voluntary Dissolution when Creditors Affected (d) Dissolution by Minority in Close Corporations Financing Corporation v. Teodoro, 93 Phil 404 (1953) (e) Failure to Organize and Commence Business; Cessation of Business for 5 years Benguet Consolidated Mining Co. v. Pineda, 98 Phil 771 (1956) (defining organize)
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Chung Ka Bio v. IAC, 163 SCRA 534 (1988) (f) Involuntary Dissolution (1) Revocation of Certificate of Registration by SEC (2) Quo Warranto Proceedings Republic v. Bisaya Land Trans. Co., 81 SCRA 9 (1978) Effects of Dissolution; Winding up and liquidation (a) Loss of Juridical Personality National Abaca Corp. v. Pore, 2 SCRA 989 (1961) Paramount Insurance Corp. v. AC Ordonez Corp., 561 SCRA 327 (2008) (b) Executory Contracts (c) Methods of Liquidation (d) Distribution of Assets after Payment of Debts China Banking Corp. v. Michelin & Co., 58 Phil 261 (1933) Republic v. Marsman Development, 44 SCRA 418 (1972) Tan Chiong Bio v. CIR, 4 SCRA 986 (1962) Pepsi-Cola Products Phils., Inc. v. CA, 443 SCRA 571 (2004) (3) Distribution of Assets of Non-stock corporations XVII. Corporate Combinations (1) Purposes of Combinations; Methods (2) Merger and Consolidation (a) Nature and Distinction (b) Only De Facto Merger under Corporation Law (c) Express Authority to Merge Granted by Code; Requirements (d) Remedies of Creditors and Dissenting Stockholders; Appraisal Right (3) Sale of Substantially all Assets (a) Legal requirements (b) No Assumption of Liabilities; Exceptions (c) Remedies of Dissenting Stockholders; Appraisal Right (d) Compared with Merger and Consolidation Reyes v. Blouse, 91 Phil 305 (1952) Edward J. Nell Co. v. Pacific Farms, 15 SCRA 415 (1965) PNB v. Andrada Electric & Engineering Co., 381 SCRA 244 (2002) XVIII. Foreign Corporations Definition, Status Methods of Entry of Investment Permitted Areas of Investment (a) Partially Nationalized Areas (b) Preferred Areas; Incentives for Investment
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(c) Non-preferred Areas of Investment Legal Requirements Prior to Transaction of Business (a) BOI Certificate (b) SEC License to do Business (c) Certificate from Appropriate Government Agency Effects of Failure to Secure SEC license Marshall Wells v. Elser, 46 Phil 71 (1924) Atlantic Mutual v. Cebu Stevedoring, 17 SCRA 1037 (1966) General Garments Corp. v. Director of Patents , 41 SCRA 50 (1971) Le Chemise Lacoste v. Fernandez, 129 SCRA 377 (1984) Home Insurance v. Eastern Shipping, 123 SCRA 424 (1983) What Constitutes Transacting Business Mentholatum v. Mangaliman, 72 Phil 525 (1941) Facilities Management Corp. v. de la Osa, 89 SCRA 131 (1979) Merryl Lynch Futures v. CA, 211 SCRA 824 (1992) Pacific Vegetable Oil v. Singson, G.R. No. 7917 (1955) Aetna Casualty & Surety Co. v. Pacific Star Line, 80 SCRA 635 (1977) Topweld Manuel v. ECED, 138 SCRA 120 (1985) Antam Consolidated v. CA, 143 SCRA 289 (1980) Cargill, Inc. v. Intra Strata Assurance Corp. , 615 SCRA 304 (2010)

How Courts Acquire Jurisdiction over Foreign Corporations General Corp. of the Phils. v. Union Insurance, 87 Phil 313 (1950)

Laws Governing Licensed Foreign Corporations Merger of Licensed Foreign Corporation Withdrawal of Foreign Corporation Revocation and Suspension of License Existing Licensed Foreign Corporations XIX. Special and Miscellaneous Provisions Educational Corporations (a) Stock or Non-stock (b) Temporary Permit (c) Government Recognition (d) Special Requirement to be University (e) Incorporation under the Code (f) Educational Foundations Religious Corporations (a) Corporation Sole (b) Religious Societies Close Corporations Miscellaneous Provisions Note: Prescribed book will be the Campos
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