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Topic 2 - Merits of Graphic Presentations and its Importance

Graphic Presentation Graphic presentation enjoys numerous forms of expression ranging from the written word to the most abstract of drawings or statistical graphs. When expressed in other than the written word, it affords an important medium of expression which, in health education helps to clarify literally, verbally, or statistically presented health information. The purpose of this medium is to enliven and delineate information by presenting it in concise manner and in such form or pattern as will be helpful to understanding. While this medium may be used alone in advanced study in many fields, it is, more often than not, used in support of, or in clarification of, data that are otherwise presented. The purpose of the chart is to provide a concise summary or to compare, to contrast, to suggest relationships, or otherwise to explain. It is not a substitute for data; that is, it does not take the place. Thus it is a symbolic form which, while representative, is explanatory. It may vary in pattern from the simple to the complex depending upon its type, colour arrangement, and the amount of detail that it presents. Its value in health education, as in genera usage, is usually in direct proportion to its simplicity. The graph is a chart form that is used to present statistical data and to present the relationships between variables. While the terms "chart form" and "graph" are at times used interchangeably, the fact that use of the graph is restricted to the presentation of numerical data sets this form apart from other graphic forms which, though enjoying broader scope as to presentation, are limited in their possibilities for presenting quantitative data. It is this distinctive function of the graph that tends to set it apart from the chart, although it remains a chart form. As with the chart, it is simplest form that serves the intended purpose and is usually productive of best results. Definitions of Graphs and Charts A graph or chart is an instrument to present statistical information in symbolic fashion. The chart is used to represent numerical data as well as material in abstract form. In addition a certain type of chart may be considered a picture of a portion of the earth's surface. Historically speaking, graphs probably had their origin in pictures. Many old paintings and engravings represent saints and royalty in large figures with halos surrounding them whereas persons of less importance are represented in smaller size. In other words, a persons social status was conveyed to the reader by means of a graphical technique.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Graphic Presentations Advantages: Simplicity in reading the data. It is an efficient method of showing large numbers of observations. The results are more easily remembered. A visual impression is more permanent than sets of figures of words. Completeness in presentation. Complex relationships can be demonstrated easily and quickly so that the whole situation is presented simultaneously. Clarity and emphasis in presentation. By the use of colour and other devices, one can emphasize certain places. For example, a rising death rate might be pictured in red to bring out the aspect of danger involved. Popular appeal. One need not consult surveys or psychological test results to learn that the table of statistical data may be quickly skipped over but a lively chart will attract and a certain amount of learning.

Disadvantages: A sacrifice in precision. A graph can be used only to show large or crude variations in the date. Lack of flexibility in the event new combination of the data seems appropriate. This follows as a result of the first disadvantage and is one of the reasons why it may be advisable to present the original data in a table or text accompanying the graph. Distortion of the situation may result from the desire to oversimplify the material. This may be intentional or otherwise. Construction of a graph or chart may be difficult or costly. This should only apply, however, to large scale drawings which are employed as posters to educate the lay public or similar groups.

The Data or Tabular Chart The data chart is used to present data in summary or tabular fashion. It is, in fact, a table that brings together data that are arranged in such fashion as to simplify their interpretation or make possible their further delineation in chart or graph form. The preparation of a table or data chart is a necessary first step in the preparation of other more vivid and refined charts which will further speed up the interpretation and enhance understanding of the basic data.

The Gantt Chart A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart, developed by Henry Gantt in the 1910s, that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project. Some Gantt charts also show the dependency relationships between activities. Gantt charts can be used to show current schedule status using percentcomplete shadings and a vertical "TODAY" line as shown here. Although now regarded as a common charting technique, Gantt charts were considered revolutionary when first introduced. In recognition of Henry Gantt's contributions, the Henry Laurence Gantt Medal is awarded for distinguished achievement in management and in community service. This chart is also used in information technology to represent data that has been collected.

The Tree or Stream Chart In its simplest form, this chart may consist of the outline of a tree with the trunk and branches appropriately marked to indicate source or origin and growth and development of any kind, e.g. the "family tree". As such, it is sometimes described as a pictorial growth Chart. In its complex form, it may, through careful and detailed drawing, delineate the multiplicity of operations involved in the production and transportation of food, water, or medical supplies.

The Organization Chart The purpose of the organization chart is to depict the structure of an organization. It may be used to indicate the administrative or functional relationships of component parts of the structure or both. The organization of a municipal, country, state or federal

official health agency is usually shown in this form of chart. It is one of the simplest of the chart forms and is commonly used by many agencies in organizational planning.

The Flow Chart The flow chart or flow diagram is used to depict the movement or flow of functions, materials, or services of an organization, or to illustrate the directions of flow of interagency responsibilities. The qualities of the organization chart and the flow chart are sometimes combined to produce an organization and flow chart. Such a chart may serve the dual purpose of showing the manner of agency organization and the flow of functions or services from its component parts.

Company Online Product Process Flowchart

The Bar Chart or Graph The bar chart or graph is without doubt the most commonly seen of the many chart forms used in presenting the relationships between variables. Among its many, patterns are the simple bar and the compound, multiple, relative, and pictorial bars, all of which may be structured in either the vertical or horizontal planes. Varicoloured and multicoloured bars may be used depending upon the number of variables shown. Hatching may also be used to have an advantage in most bar chart forms; but in paper charts, this is time consuming activity which, if not carefully done, may result in optical illusions and resultant confusion rather than clarity. Both colouring and hatching are effective and are readily accomplished when the board is, used to present the bar chart or graph. Bar chart or graph forms enjoy popular usage in health literature. Especially is this the case when birth, death, or morbidity rates are under consideration since comparisons of birth and death rates, case incidence and fatality rates, or specific morbidity and mortality rates are readily visualized with the help of these graphic presentations.

Histogram or Column Diagram This is a graph on arithmetic paper for presenting data in frequency distributions. The height of each interval is indicated by a column. It should be used only when the data on the horizontal or x-axis are measured on an interval or ratio scale. If data have been grouped into intervals unequal in size (such as 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-24 years of age), this type of graph is the one most suitable. If the graph is one involving rates, such mortality or morbidity, the occurrence of unequal intervals does not require a histogram. The conversation to a common base for comparison purposes has already been accomplished in the obtain rate because the denominator takes this factor into account. In construction of the histogram, it is preferable to convert frequencies in each interval into percentages. Thus, comparisons of the height of a column in one distribution are not influenced by the total numbers of observations and enable comparisons between histograms. It also overcomes the objection of divining the frequency of larger intervals into fractions of a unit.

Component Band Chart A variation of the bar chart is extremely useful when two or more sets of percentages are to be compared by graphical means. When only one set of percentages from nominal scale data is under study for comparisons within the set, earlier discussion indicated preference for the pie chart. When there is more than one set, however, the comparison, between two pie charts is not easily made. In its place, a convenient graph is the component band chart.

Pictorial Statistics This is popular variation of the bar chart. Instead of using a plain column, the length of the bar is composed of a series of small identifying symbols. Each symbol may be used to represent a fixed number of items. The number of items is determined by the variable being graphed and this in turn determines the length of the bar. Some general rules in their construction are as follows: Use descriptive and suggestive symbols when possible. For public health work, some recommended symbols are figures of a man, woman, child, bed, wheelchair, nurse, doctor, coffin, etc. (For a complete listing of all symbols see catalogue from pictograph corporation. No address is available, however, it may be out of business.

There should be legend explaining the number of units for which each symbol stands. The number of units for which a symbol stands should be in round numbers, 5,10,25,50,100, etc. It is permissible to split a symbol into portions to show a number less than one unit. Represent differing amounts by varying the number of symbols instead of the size of the symbol, Distortion will result if the size of the symbol is changed. Each symbol should be the same size - called isotype. The space between symbols must also be constant.

The Line Graph This graph makes possible the presentation of data with a high degree of accuracy. In fact, careful work and use of the proper coordinate paper makes it possible to show the exact reproduction of numerical data, a quality not given to all forms of graphic presentation. Since different types of lines may be used in tracing the data, two or more illustrations, may be presented on the same graph. However, the graph is easily overburdened. The compilation of more than two or three records on the same graph is not advised.

The Pie Chart or Graph This circular presentation enjoys general usage and is probably familiar to all educational workers. Its purpose is to present percentage or fractional differences within a single geometric pattern. Its used as a mnemonic device aids in the retention of information. The use of this form is effective in presenting quantitative data in an interesting and colourful manner. When a single circle is used it is called a simple pie chart or diagram. When two or more concentric circles are used, it is described as a concentric pie. In the latter case, its possibilities are further enhanced, although the degree of abstraction is increased as circles are added, as the number of pie slices or sections is increased, and as a variety of the hatching styles are used in the same pie. It must be emphasized that the pie diagram should not be used haphazardly. Since fraction or percentage differences are to be distinguished, numerical values must be clearly shown and superfluous words should not be allowed to clutter up the pie. Colour may be used to advantage for identifying one or more of the pie slices.

Frequency Polygon This is actually a type of graph which comes under the classification of the arithmetic scale line graph. It is used, to present data in the form of frequency distribution. This type of graph is the only one suitable if one wishes to compare two frequency distributions. Even thought the size of the intervals may be unequal, (indicating, the histogram) When two (or more) frequency distributions are to be compared the frequency polygon is needed. If the intervals are of unequal size, one must modify the level of the point which is plotted in accordance with the rules for the histogram.

If more than one line is placed on a single graph, one can distinguish between the lines by colour, or making one of the lines broken, one solid, one dotted, etc. These different types of lines should be explained in a legend or key. As in a histogram, the frequency polygon is best plotted when the data in the intervals of the frequency polygon is being employed is compare the shape of two frequency distributions, the use of percentages is mandatory. Since the two frequency distributions may have differing total numbers of observations, a valid comparison of the shapes of the frequency polygon can be made only when the vertical scale is in percentage form. Some authors recommend that at each end the line be brought down to zero at the, middle of the adjoining intervals. This is to show that, the total area or percentages under the curve are equal to unity. In some cases where the frequency distribution has values starting at zero because of the scale of measurement, this creates a ridiculous situation and can be avoided by omitting these terminal lines.

Scatter Diagram This is a special type of graph often useful to the research worker in pointing out relationships or associations.

How to use the charts Construct or select charts that rate high on each at the following criteria: Is the material closely related to the topic to be discussed? Is the material interesting? Is the material useful in attaining an objective of the program? Can the material be understood? Make sure that the letters, figures, pictures and other material on the charts are large enough to be seen by all members of the group. Place charts at a height where they can be seen by every members of the audience. Make sure that all charts are accounted for and arranged in the right sequence. Check the lighting on the charts. Low foot lighting is often best. Keep, the first page of the chart covered until readily to present it.

When presenting charts, the following suggestions should be kept in minds: Present all of the material on the chart before discussing the information on the page. This will give the learners an over view of the material on the page before discussing the parts. Use a pointer to indicate the item being presented. Stand at one side of chart; never block its view. Keep eyes on audience as much as possible. Glance at chart only briefly. Avoid too much leader talk. Try to get learners to think and to discuss.