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Lab2A:RobotDCMotor

Characterization,modeling,andsimulation

ECEN2270

ElectronicsDesignLaboratory

DiscussionItems
Labreports:mustbeuploadedviaD2Ldropbox bythe deadline
Onereportpergroup,includebothnamesonthefrontpage Attendanceisrequired!!!!!!!

TakeawayfromLab1demos
Donotrushthroughthelab;takethetimetounderstandwhatyou aredoingandwhy Makesurebothpartnersknowandunderstandallaspectsofthe lab;donotsplitportionsofthelabbetweenpartnerstorush through ReviewcarefullytheLectureslidesandtheLabTasks,includingthe statementsonwhattoincludeinthefinalreport DosotodaybeforestartofLab2tomorrow!

ECEN2830

ElectronicsDesignLaboratory

Lab2,PartA
Broaderobjectives:workingwithaload
Understandthephysicalbehavioroftheload:DCmotor DevelopinganelectricalmodelfortheDCmotorasaload Experimentallyfindingmodelparameters Performingdesignandsimulationusingmodels Hardwareimplementation,verification,andtesting

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ElectronicsDesignLaboratory

Robotplatform

TwoDCmotors,eachdrivingawheel

DCsupply 10<VDC <+10V

wheel IDC
motor shaft wheel shaft

VDC

+ _

Optical encoder: 12 pulses permotor shaft rotation

DCmotor
12 3 4

64:1 gear

1EncoderpowersupplyVCC=+710V 2Encoderground 3EncoderoutputpulsesA,frequencyfenc 4EncoderoutputpulsesB,frequencyfenc

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ElectronicsDesignLaboratory

DCMotorbasics:TorqueT
righthandrule _ IDC VDC +
Vectoralignedwith theconductorof lengthl,direction alignedwith currentdirection

Armature winding

IDC

Force[N]

F I DC l B
Current[A]

Magnetic fluxdensity vector[T]

Torque[Nm]

T kI DC

k =motorconstant[Nm/A]

Diagramfrom:http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/electricmotors.html ECEN2830 ElectronicsDesignLaboratory 5

DCMotorbasics:ElectromotiveForce(EMF)
Faradayslawofinduction righthandrule _ IDC VDC +
Rateofchangeof magneticflux throughthe armaturewinding

Armature winding

IDC

VEMF
InducedEMF[V]

d dt

VEMF k
InducedEMF[V]

Speed[rad/s]

k =motorconstant[Nm/A],[V/(rad/s)]
Diagramfrom:http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/electricmotors.html ECEN2830 ElectronicsDesignLaboratory 6

DCmotorequations
Electricalmodel(armaturecircuit)

VDC RM I DC

VEMF k
Mechanicalmodel

dI DC LM VEMF dt

d TJ B Tload dt T kI DC
Tload Tint Text

J =momentofinertia B =frictioncoefficient

Loadtorqueisacombinationofinternal gearboxloadandexternalload

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ElectronicsDesignLaboratory

DCmotorequivalentcircuitmodel
IDC + VDC _ VEMF = k + T = kIDC J 1/B Tload LM RM

VDC RM I DC

dI DC LM VEMF dt

VEMF k
Requiresmeasurementof inputterminals,VDC andIDC

d TJ B Tload dt T kI DC Tload Tint Text


Combinedinternal gearandloadtorque

Considerhowtomeasureallcircuitparametersfromthemodel

frequency inrad/s useopticalencoder


ECEN2830 ElectronicsDesignLaboratory 8

Opticalencoder

Encoderoutputpulses,frequencyfenc [Hz]is proportionaltospeed

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ElectronicsDesignLaboratory

Speedconversions
Example:wheelspeedis1 rotationpersecond:1rps
n =60rpm =2 rad/s=6.28rad/s nm =64*60rpm=3840rpm fenc =12*nm/60=768Hz

n =wheelspeed,rotationsperminute[rpm] n/60=wheelspeed,rotationspersecond[rps]

2 f enc 12 64

=wheelrotationalspeed[rad/s]=2n/60 Usedinmodelequations nm =motorshaftspeed,nm =(gearratio)*n =64n[rpm] fenc =frequencyofencoderpulses[Hz]=12*nm/60=12*64*n/60[Hz]

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ElectronicsDesignLaboratory

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Opticalencoder:direction
counterclockwise
Encoderpulse outputA Encoderpulse outputB

clockwise
Encoderpulse outputA Encoderpulse outputB

InLab2,onlyoneencoderpulseoutputisneeded Optionalextracreditusesbothpulsestodeterminedirection

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ElectronicsDesignLaboratory

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Encodercircuit

+VCC=+5V GND PulseoutA PulseoutB


LEDs Photo transistors Logicinverters(shape thesensedsignalsinto squarewaveoutput pulses) Encoderconnector (encoderinternallyuses a+5Vpowersupply; externally,wecan supplyanysupply voltagebetween7Vand 10V)

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ElectronicsDesignLaboratory

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Inputandoutput portsdefined

DCMotorSpicemodel

Internaltorqueload fromgearbox,Tint

Modelparameters tobedetermined byexperiments: RM,k,J,B,Tint


ECEN2830

Encodermodel:correctspeedtofenc frequencyconversionhasalready beendone,noneedtochangeanythinginthispartofthemodel

DownloadthemodelfromtheLab2website Onlyeditthemodeldesignatedparameters
ElectronicsDesignLaboratory 13

TestingSpicemodel
Externalloadtorque Text attachedhere

Simulationsetupto 1. Startmotor:bringupVDC,overfirst1ms

Externalload mustsinkto ground

2. Pulseloadtorque:0A(noload)forfirst50ms,1Afornext50ms 3. Stopmotor:bringdownVDCfrom100msto101ms,10Vto0V

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ElectronicsDesignLaboratory

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MotorSimulationResults

Considerwaveformsandmodelineachmode:motorstart,loadchange,motorstop
IDC + VDC _ VEMF = k + T = kIDC J 1/B Tload LM RM

VDC RM I DC LM

dI DC VEMF dt

VEMF k
ECEN2830

d B Tload dt Tload Tint Text T kI DC TJ


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ElectronicsDesignLaboratory

Findingmodelparametersfromexperiments
RM fromlockedmotortest k fromspeedasafunctionofvoltage,unloadedmotor B andTint frominternallosses,unloadedmotor J fromatransient:considerpoweronorofftransient
IDC + VDC _ VEMF = k + T = kIDC J 1/B Tload LM RM

VDC RM I DC LM

dI DC VEMF dt

TJ

d B Tload dt

VEMF k

T kI DC

Tload Tint Text

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ElectronicsDesignLaboratory

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Lab2objectives
PartA MeasureDCmotorcharacteristics DevelopaSpicecircuitmodelfortheDCmotoranddetermine modelparametersbasedonexperiments Validatethemodel:compareexperimentalandsimulationresults PartB UseDCmotorSpicemodeltodesignaspeedsensor(tachometer) circuitthatoutputsvoltageproportionaltowheelspeed Build,testanddemothespeedsensorcircuit

ECEN2830

ElectronicsDesignLaboratory

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