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# Rock Slope Stability

Analysis Method
Stability Analysis Method
Stability analysis define the geometry of blocks or of the system of
blocks isolated by discontinuity planes and exposes on the examined
excavation face or the natural slope
Sliding Analysis by using Static or Dynamic Equilibrium Method
Static limit equilibrium method :
(1) Examines kinematics possibility of sliding or topping of each block
which has a face exposed on the slope
(2) Only examines the incipience motion and does not consider the
subsequent behavior of whole system of the blocks.
Dynamic equilibrium method :
(1) Simulate the behavior of a blocky system a more realistic
hypothesis by referring to the examined physical phenomenon;
(2) For problem consists in computation of the block motion or when the
block are subjected to cyclic stresses or pulsing loads.
Static and Dynamic Equilibrium Method
Rigid block instability modes on inclined plane produces
individual block sliding and toppling
Static equilibrium problem variables Dynamic equilibrium problem variables
Static equilibrium analysis
Dynamic equilibrium analysis
Stability Chart
Safety Factor and Limit Equilibrium Method
Wsino
Wcoso
W
o
R
Assuming the shear stress t
on sliding surface defined by
Coulomb criterion
| o t tan + = c
|
o
t tan
cos
A
W
c + =
| o t tan cos W cA A R + = =
Limit block equilibrium condition
| o o tan cos sin W cA W + =
If c = 0 | o =
) (mobilized
mobitable) (maximum
t
t
= F
Safety Factor and Limit Equilibrium Method
Safety factor : a number for which the available shear strength
parameters (c - |) must be divided to reach limit equilibrium condition
Principal hypothesis :
- Failure surface simple or composite shear failure surface
- Sliding mass single or more intact stiff blocks which can move
without significant strain or failure of block rock matrix
Limit equilibrium method = overall analysis method
Solution is given for a system of blocks or for a single block by means
of overall safety factor constant on the whole examined surface

) (mobilized
e) mobilitabl (maximum
t
t
= F
Effect of Water Pressure in Rock Discontinuities
Water filling discontinuities involves a lowering of stability conditions for
natural or artificial slopes
Subvertical
discontinuity plane
V
U
V V
p
=
0 =
n
V
( )
A
U W
=
o
o
cos
( )
V W
U W cA
F
+
+
=
o
| o
sin
tan cos
A. Rock Slope Stability
Rock slide occurs at the weakness plane (discontinuities plane), cracks or
shear zone
Rock discontinuity plane with the angle of o :
Rock weight = W
Resistance force = F
R
Driving force = F
D
W
N
T
A
o
Discontinuities
plane
A
1
W
N = Wcoso
T = Wsino
Consider 1 m the slide
T = tangential component (W) at discontinuity plane
W = rock weight slides on the slide plabe A-A
1
o = slope inclination
| = internal rock friction angle
C = c (A-A
1
) ( resistant due to cohesion along the shear zone)
W
N
T
A
o
A
1
W
N = Wcoso
T = Wsino
o sin W T F
D
= =
C N F
R
+ = | tan
C W F
R
+ = | o tan cos
Stable condition : safety factor : (SF)
Hence :
If C = 0 very weak discontinuity plane
So or
W
N
T
A
o
A
1
W
N = Wcoso
T = Wsino
( )( ) m A A
C
c
0 , 1
1

=
R D
F F =
Cohesion / unit area:
o
| o
sin
tan cos
W
C W
F
F
SF
D
R
+
= =
o
| o
sin
tan cos
W
W
F
F
SF
D
R

= =
o
|
tan
tan
= SF
For non cohesive material SF is not dependence on the
height of the slope and the shape of rock mass.
When the rain occurs and the water infiltrates into
discontinuity plane pore water pressure (u)
Uplift pressure works : SF U should be considered
( )
o
| o
sin
tan cos
W
U W
SF

=
B. Rock block slide on discontinuity plane
o
W
Wcoso Wsino
a
h
u
b B
x
z
H
o

w
z
U
Bedrock
Hard rock

w
z
E
A
B C
K
J
T
o
W
Wcoso Wsino
a
h
u
b B
x
z
H
o

w
z
U
Batuan
keras
Batuan
keras

w
z
L
E
A
B C
K
J
om
a
x
om
in
e
C
L
Ne
ff
o
W
Wcoso Wsino
a
h
u
b B
x
z
H
o

w
z
U
Batuan
keras
Batuan
keras

w
z
L
E
A
B C
K
J
om
a
x
om
in
e
C
L
C
L
Ne
ff
o sin
z h
L

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
L
e
average h
ext
6
1 o o
) 1 ( m L
N
eff
average h

= o
Shear resistant (T) occurs at discontinuity plane along AK (=L),
so:
Where effective normal stress component
T
( ) C U N C N T
eff
+ = + = | | tan tan
U N N
eff
=
o
W
Wcoso Wsino
a
h
u
b B
x
z
H
o

w
z
U
Batuan
keras
Batuan
keras

w
z
L
E
A
B C
K
J
om
a
x
om
in
e
C
L
Ne
ff
o
W
Wcoso Wsino
a
h
u
b B
x
z
H
o

w
z
U
Batuan
keras
Batuan
keras

w
z
L
E
A
B C
K
J
om
a
x
om
in
e
C
L
C
L
Ne
ff
T
o cos W N =
Normal component of rock
block (W) sliding on the
shear plane
( ) ( ) ( ) | | z x h b h B b W + =
2
1
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|

=
u o

tan
1
tan
1
2
1
2
h
z
W
The weight of the sliding rock
mass block
o
W
Wcoso Wsino
a
h
u
b B
x
z
H
o

w
z
U
Batuan
keras
Batuan
keras

w
z
L
E
A
B C
K
J
om
a
x
om
in
e
C
L
Ne
ff
o
W
Wcoso Wsino
a
h
u
b B
x
z
H
o

w
z
U
Batuan
keras
Batuan
keras

w
z
L
E
A
B C
K
J
om
a
x
om
in
e
C
L
C
L
Ne
ff
T
Note:
W = weight of sliding rock mass
block
o = inclination of the discontinuity
plane to horizontal plane
u = uplift pressure
( )
o

sin
2
1
z h z
U
w

=
| = rock internal friction
C = c.A = c.L (1 m the canvas)
A = total shear plane area (1 m the canvas)
L = length of discontinuity
= unit weight of sliding rock material
z = depth of the crack
u = slope inclination
o
W
Wcoso Wsino
a
h
u
b B
x
z
H
o

w
z
U
Batuan
keras
Batuan
keras

w
z
L
E
A
B C
K
J
om
a
x
om
in
e
C
L
Ne
ff
o
W
Wcoso Wsino
a
h
u
b B
x
z
H
o

w
z
U
Batuan
keras
Batuan
keras

w
z
L
E
A
B C
K
J
om
a
x
om
in
e
C
L
C
L
Ne
ff
T
Resultant of Shear Force Resultant (F
R
):
( ) | o tan sin H T F
R
=
| o | tan sin tan H C N
eff
+ =
( ) | | C H U N + = | o tan sin
| | C H U W + = | o o tan sin cos
F
H
=N
H
tan|
H
N
H
o
Resultant of driving force (F
D
):
o o cos sin H W F
D
+ =
Safety factor (SF):
( )
o o
| o o
cos sin
tan sin cos
H W
C U H W
SF
+
+
=
Safety factor (SF):
SF = 1,0 stable condition, when it is going to slide
SF < 1,0 not stable
SF > 1,0 stable
In general SF 1,5 long time
SF 1,3 short time (earthquake load)
Special condition:
H = 0, U = 0 dry rock or good drainage
H = 0, U = 0 water fill the crack only
| = 0 and c = 0 dry rock or wet
| ~ 0 and c = 0 dry rock or wet
( )
o o
| o o
cos sin
tan sin cos
H W
C U H W
SF
+
+
=
When earthquake occurs
W
F
1
a
g
W
a m F
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
1
m = rock mass which is sliding
g = gravity acceleration
a = earthquake acceleration = k
g
.g
k
g
= earthquake coefficient
F
1
= k
g
.W
Safety factor (SF):
( )
o o o
| o o o
cos cos sin
tan sin sin cos
1
1
H F W
C U H F W
SF
+ +
+
=
D
R
F
F
SF =
C. Analysis of Plane Slides (Goodman, 1980)
A simple formulation of conditions for limiting equilibrium of a
plane slide provides useful in back calculating actual failure cases
Important step in attempting to design a new excavation in a rock
mass
Rework field data using an appropriate model rather than to
attempt a program of field tests.
Two cases of plane failure:
1. Tension crack delimits the top of the slide at a point beyond
the crest of the slope
2. Tension crack intercepts the slope face
H
Z
Z
w
o
u
Tension crack
1. Tension crack delimits
the top of the slide
H
o
u
Z
w
Z
2. Tension crack intercepts
the slope face
Z = vertical distance from the crest of the slope to the bottom of the crack
If the tension crack is filled with water to depth Z
w
, it can be assumed that
water seeps along the sliding surface losing head linearly between the
tension crack and the toe of the slope
If the slide mass behaves like a rigid body, the condition for limiting
equilibrium is reached when the shear force directed down the sliding
surface equals the shear strength along the sliding surface Failure
occurs when:
o = the dip of the sliding surface
c
j
and |
j
= shear strength intercept (cohesion) and friction angle of the sliding
surface
W = the weight of the potentially sliding wedge
A = length (are per unit width) of the sliding surface
U = resultant of water pressure along the sliding surface
V = resultant of water pressure along tension crack
( )
j j
V U W A c V W | o o o o tan sin cos cos sin + = +
H
Z
Z
w
o
u
H
o
u
Z
w
Z
( )
o sin
Z H
A

=
A Z U
w w
=
2
1
2
2
1
w w
Z V =
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = u o cot cot 1
2
1
2
2
H
Z
H W
( )
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
= 1 tan cot cot 1
2
1
2
2
u o o
H
Z
H W
Solve the above equation with the known geometry and presumed water
conditions at the time of failure to yield a value for c
j
, since this quantity
is hard to measure in the laboratory.
When the distribution of values for c
j
has been determined in this way
from case histories, that equation can be used to generate a slope chart
for design, in which H is plotted against cos o.
Multiplying the Factor of Safety (F) to the left side of the equation.
In which the tension crack is assumed to intercept the slope crest
( )
j j
V U W A c V W | o o o o tan sin cos cos sin + = +
( ) ( ) | |
( ) | o o
o | o | | o o
u
tan cos sin
cos tan sin tan tan cos sin
cos

+ +
=
F b
A c F V U F a
j
o cot 1
2
1
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
H
Z
H a
2
2
1
H b =
From Hoek and Bray (1977):
A reduction in c
j
affects steep slopes more than flat slopes.
A reduction in |
j
reduces the factor of safety (FS) of high slopes
more than low slopes.
Filling a tension crack with water reduces the stability of all heights
and angles of slopes.
Drainage is frequently found to be effective in stabilizing rock
slopes that exhibit tension cracks and other signs in incipient
movement.
8 m
5 m
3 m
45
o
A
B
C
Tension
crack
5
1
Example
The cohesion along the sliding surface is 80 kN/m
2
and internal
friction angle = 35
o
. Unit volume weigth of the rock = 24 kN/m
3
.
Due to SNI-1726-2002, the slope located at Seismic zone 3 with
peak bedrock acceleration: a = 0,15g.
Calculate the safety factor (FS)
Bedrock
8 m
5 m
3 m
45
o
A
B
C
5
1

w
z
o=21.04
Wcoso
Wsino
Bedrock

w
z
T
W
H
Hcoso
Hsino
( )
00 . 4
cos sin
tan sin cos
=
+
+
=
o o
| o o
H W
C U H W
SF
Without earthquake force:
( )
o

sin
2
1
z h z
U
w

=
o sin
3 8
= L
2
2
1
z H
w
=
B A
L c C

=
8 m
5 m
3 m
45
o
A
B
C
5
1

w
z
o=21.04
Wcoso
Wsino
Bedrock

w
z
W
H
Hcoso
Hsino
If the site located at seismic zone 3 a = 0.15g F = 2.89
( )
o o o
| o o o
cos cos sin
tan sin sin cos
1
1
H F W
C U H F W
SF
+ +
+
=
If the site located at seismic zone 5 a = 0.25g F = 2.43
Considering earthquake force:
a
g
W
a m F
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
1
F
1
F
1
coso
F
1
sino
Two blocks sliding
on a rock slope
Vertical joint
( )
( )
1 3 1
1 1
1 3
cos
sin
| | |
| |
+

=W R
( ) | |
( )
2 3 3 2 2
2 2 3 3 2 1
2
cos sin
tan sin cos
| | |
| | | |
+
+
=
R W
R W
F
W
1
= force exceeding the mobilitable resistant force
|
1
: (i = 1,2,3) = friction angle values on Plane 1,2,3
c is assumed to be 0
Safety factor of Block 2 (F
2
) =
overall safety factor
B. Lereng terbatas (finite slope)
B.1. Analisis bidang longsor datar (Culmans method)
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
o |
o |
=
sin sin
sin
H W
2
2 1
( )( )
( ) ( )
o |
o | o o
=
o
= o
sin sin
sin cos sin H /
sin / H
N
a
2 1
1
W
P
N
a
N
r
T
a
T
r
o
|
H
A
B
C

( )( )
( ) ( )
o |
o | o
=
o
= t
sin sin
sin sin H /
sin / H
T
a
2
2 1
1
W
P
N
a
N
r
T
a
T
r
o
|
H
A
B
C

Shear resistant (t
d
) at AB:
d d d
c | o + = t tan
Critical condition F=1
t = t
d
( )
( )( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
| o o o |
=
sin
tan cos sin sin
H / c
d
d
2 1
0 =
oo
o
d
c
|
.
|

\
|
| + |
= o
2
d
c
( )
4
1 H
cos sin
cos
c
d
d
d

|
|
.
|

\
|
| |
| |
=
Critical condition
F=1 c
d
= c ; |
d
= |
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
| |
| |

=
cos
cos sin c
H
c
1
4