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Aleksandar Ivic Abstract. Several arguments against the truth of the Riemann hypothesis are extensively discussed. These include the Lehmer phenomenon, the DavenportHeilbronn zeta-function, large and mean values of |_( 1 2 + it)| on the critical line, and zeros of a class of convolution functions closely related to _( 1 2 + it). The first two topics are classical, and the remaining ones are connected with the authors recent research. By means of convolution functions a conditional disproof of the Riemann hypothesis is given.

0. Foreword (Audiatur et altera pars)

This is the unabridged version of the work that was presented at the Bordeaux Conference in honour of the Prime Number Theorem Centenary, Bordeaux, January 26, 1996 and later during the 39th Taniguchi International Symposium on Mathematics Analytic Number Theory, May 13-17, 1996 in Kyoto and its forum, May 20-24, 1996. The abridged printed version, with a somewhat different title, is [62]. The multiplicities of zeros are treated in [64]. A plausible conjecture for the coefficients of the main term in the asymptotic formula for the 2k-th moment of |_( 1 2 + it)| (see (4.1)(4.2)) is given in [67]. In the years that have passed after the writing of the first version of this paper, it appears that the subject of the Riemann Hypothesis has only gained in interest and importance. This seem particularly true in view of the Clay Mathematical Institute prize of one million dollars for the proof of the Riemann Hypothesis, which is called as one of the mathematical Problems of the Millenium. A comprehensive account is to be found in E. Bombieris paper [65]. It is the authors belief that the present work can still be of interest, especially since the Riemann Hypothesis may be still very far from being settled. Inasmuch the Riemann Hypothesis is commonly believed to be true, and for several valid reasons, I feel that the arguments that disfavour it should also be pointed out. One of the reasons that the original work had to be shortened and revised before being published is the remark that The Riemann hypothesis is in the process of being proved by powerful methods from Random matrix theory (see e.g., B. Conreys survey article [66]). Random matrix theory has undisputably found its place in the theory of _(s) and allied functions (op. cit. [66], [67]). However, almost ten years have passed since its advent, but the Riemann hypothesis seems as distant now as it was then.