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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Transport Phenomena - Fluid mechanics Problem : Bingham fluid flow in a plane narrow slit Problem.

Consider a fluid (of density ) in incompressible, laminar flow in a plane narrow slit of length L and width W formed by two flat parallel walls that are a distance 2B apart. End effects may be neglected because B << W << L. The fluid flows under the influence of a pressure difference p, gravity or both.

Figure. Fluid flow in plane narrow slit. a) Determine the steady-state velocity distribution for a non-Newtonian fluid that is described by the Bingham model. b) Obtain the mass flow rate for a Bingham fluid in slit flow.

Solution.

Click here for stepwise solution a) Step. Shear stress distribution

For axial flow in rectangular Cartesian coordinates, the differential equation for the momentum flux is (click here for derivation) dxz P = dx L

(1)

where P is a modified pressure, which is the sum of both the pressure and gravity terms, i.e., P = p + g L cos . Here, is the angle of inclination of the z-axis with the vertical. On integration, this gives the expression for the shear stress xz for laminar flow in a plane narrow slit as (click here for derivation) xz = P x L

(2)

It must be noted that the above momentum flux expression holds for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids (and does not depend on the type of fluid). Further, xz = 0 at x = 0 in slit flow based on symmetry arguments, i.e., the velocity profile is symmetric about the midplane x = 0. Step. Bingham model For viscoplastic materials (e.g., thick suspensions and pastes), there is no flow until a critical stress (called the yield stress 0) is reached. To describe such a material that exhibits a yield stress, the simplest model is the Bingham model given below. or dvz = 0 dx if |xz| 0

(3a)

= 0 +

0 + dvz /dx

or xz = 0

dvz + 0 dx

if |xz| 0

(3b)

Here, is the non-Newtonian viscosity and 0 is a Bingham model parameter with units of viscosity. In equation (3b), the positive sign is used with 0 and the negative sign with

dvz/dx when xz is positive. On the other hand, the negative sign is used with 0 and the positive sign with dvz/dx when xz is negative. Step. Inner plug-flow region Let xz = + 0 at x = + x0. Then, from equation (2), x0 is given by 0 = (P/L) x0. Let the inner region ( x0 x x0) where the shear stress is less than the yield stress ( 0 xz 0) be denoted by subscript i. Since xz is finite and xz = (dvz/dx), the Bingham model [as per equation (3a)] gives (dvzi /dx) = 0. Integration gives vzi = C1 (constant velocity), which implies the fluid is in plug flow in the inner region. Step. Outer region Let the outer region be denoted by subscript o. For the region x0 x B, the velocity decreases with increasing x and therefore dvz / dx 0. On the other hand, for the region B x x0, the velocity decreases with decreasing x and therefore dvz / dx 0. Thus, the Bingham model according to equation (3b) is given by xz = 0 dvzo + 0 dx or = 0 + 0 dvzo /dx for x0 x B

(4a)

xz = 0

dvzo 0 dx

or

= 0 +

0 dvzo /dx

for B x x0

(4b)

To obtain the velocity profile for x0 x B, equations (2) and (4a) may be combined to eliminate xz and get dvzo P 0 = x + for x0 x B (5) dx 0L 0

Integration gives vzo = P x2 /(20L) + 0 x/0 + C2. Imposing the boundary condition that vzo = 0 at x = B then yields C2 = P B2 /(20L) 0 B/0. Thus, vzo = x P B 0 B x 1 1 2 0 L 0 B B

2

for x0 x B

(6)

Step. Velocity distribution For the inner plug-flow region, it was earlier found that vzi = C1. To determine C1, it may be noted that vzi = vzo at x = x0. Then, equation (6) along with 0 = (P/L) x0 may be simplified to give C1 = P B2 /(20L) (1 x0/B)2. Thus, the final results for the velocity profile are P B x0 1 2 0 L B

2

vzi =

for |x| x0

(7a)

vzo

x P B2 0 B |x| = 1 1 2 0 L 0 B B

for x0 |x| B

(7b)

The velocity profile is flat in the inner region as given by equation (7a) and is parabolic in the outer region as given by equation (7b). b) Step. General expression for mass flow rate Since the velocity profile is symmetric about the midplane x = 0, the mass flow rate may be obtained by integrating the velocity profile over half the cross section of the slit as shown below. B B w = = 2 v W dx vz W dx B z 0

(8a)

Rather than insert two separate expressions from equations (7a) and (7b) for vz and integrate in two regions, it is easier to integrate by parts. B B B dvz dvz w = 2W vz x | dx = 2W dx x x dx dx 0 0 0

(8b)

The first term in the square brackets above is zero at both limits on using the no-slip boundary condition (vz = 0 at x = B) at the upper limit. From equation (2), x/B = xz /B where B = P B/L is the wall shear stress. Thus, a general expression for the mass rate of flow in a plane narrow slit is B 2 dvz 2WB w = dxz 2 xz dx (8c) B 0

Step. Mass flow rate for Bingham fluid For a material with a yield stress, the lower limit of integration is reset to 0 as per equation (3a). Then, substituting equation (4a) and integrating yields B 2WB2 2WB2 1 3 1 w = ( ) d = (B 03) (0B2 03) xz xz 0 xz 2 2 0B 0B 3 2 0

(8d)

3

(8e)

Note that B = P B/L is the wall shear stress and 0 is the yield stress. Since no flow occurs below the yield stress (that is, when B 0), the above expression is valid only for B > 0. For 0 = 0 and 0 = , the Bingham model simplifies to the Newtonian model and equation (8e) reduces to the Newtonian result, i.e., w = 2 P B3 W / (3 L).

Transport Phenomena - Fluid Mechanics Problem : Bingham fluid flow in a circular tube

- Determination of shear stress, velocity profile and mass flow rate for in a circular tube rather than a narrow slit

Transport Phenomena - Fluid Mechanics Problem : Newtonian fluid flow in a plane narrow slit

- Determination of shear stress, velocity profile and mass flow rate for Newtonian fluid rather than Bingham fluid

Transport Phenomena - Fluid Mechanics Problem : Power law fluid flow in a plane narrow slit

- Determination of shear stress, velocity profile and mass flow rate for power law fluid rather than Bingham fluid

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