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XIANNAN LI AND MAKSYM RADZIWILL Abstract. We show that the twisted second moments of the Riemann zeta function 1 + i(an + b) with a > 0, b real, exhibits a averaged over the arithmetic progression 2 remarkable correspondance with the analogous continuous average and derive several consequences. For example, motivated by the linear independence conjecture, we show at least one third of the elements in the arithmetic progression an + b are not the ordinates of some zero of (s) lying on the critical line. This improves on earlier work of Martin and Ng. We then complement this result by producing large and small values of (s) on arithmetic progressions which are of the same quality as the best results currently known for ( 1 2 + it) with t real.

1. Introduction In this paper, we study the behavior of the Riemann zeta function (s) in vertical arithmetic progressions on the critical line. To be more precise, x real numbers > 0 and . We are interested in the distribution of values of (1/2 + i( + )) as ranges over the integers in some large dyadic interval [T, 2T ]. Here are some specic questions of interest: 2T 1 (1) How does the mean square [T,2T ] | ( 1 + i)|2 compare to T | ( 2 + it)|2 dt? 2 (2) Does the mean square of (s) distinguish arithmetic sequences? That is, does 2 [T,2T ] | (1/2 + i( + ))| depend on and ? + i( + ))B ( 1 + i( + ))|2 , where B (s) (3) What about the case [T,2T ] | ( 1 2 2 is an arbitary Dirichlet polynomial? In the special when B (s) is a mollier, the continuous average of ( 1 + it)B ( 1 + it) has been shown to be close to 1. Does 2 2 1 + i( + )? B (s) still act the same way when restricted to the discrete sequence 2 For most - but not all - values of and our results suggest that the average behavior 1 + i( + )) is similar to that of a unitary family such as L( 2 ; ). of ( 1 2 Besides being of independent interest the above three questions are motivated by the linear independence conjecture, which we approach through two simpler questions: + i( + )? (1) Can (s) vanish at many (or most) of the points 1 2 (2) Can (s) be extremely large or small at a point of the form 1 + i( + )? Are the 2 1 1 + i( + ) comparable to those of ( 2 + it) with t [T ; 2T ]? extreme values at 2 We begin with some mean square results. 1.1. Mean value estimates. The distribution of values of (s) on the critical line has been studied extensively by numerous authors and in particular the moments of (s) have received much attention. Consider a Dirichlet polynomial B (s) with, b(n) (1) B ( s) = , and b(n) dA (n) ns

n T

2010 Mathematics Subject Classication. Primary: 11M06, Secondary: 11M26. The second author is partially supported by a NSERC PGS-D award.

1

for some xed, but arbitrary A > 0. Throughout we will assume that the coecients b(n) are real. Theorem 1. Let B (s) be as above. Let () be a smooth compactly supported function, 1 with support in [1, 2]. If < 2 , then as T .

| ( 1 + i)B ( 1 + i)|2 2 2

+ it)B ( 1 + it)|2 | ( 1 2 2

t dt + OA (T (log T )A )). T

Since (s)B (s) oscillates on a scale of 2/ log T it is interesting that we can reconstruct accurately the continuous average of (s)B (s) only by sampling at the integers. The reader may be amused by examining the same statement for sin x or sin(log(|x| + 1)x), which will be equivalent to the equidistribution of certain sequences modulo 1. Theorem 1 depends on the fact that we are summing over the integers, and specically on the fact that the sequence e2 cannot be well approximated by rational numbers. To amplify this dependence, let us consider the second moment of (s) averaged over an arithmetic progression n + , with arbitrary > 0 and . In this context, our result will depend on the diophantine properties of e2/ . Let (, ) = 0

2 cos( log(m/n)) mn2 mn+12 mn cos( log(m/n))

if e2/ is irrational for all > 0 if e2/ is rational for some > 0

with m/n = 1 denoting the smallest reduced fraction having a representation in the form e2/ for some > 0. Then we have the following asymptotic result for the second moment of the Riemann zeta function. Theorem 2. Let () be a smooth compactly supported function, with support in [1, 2]. Let > 0, be real numbers. Then, as T , t 1 = dt (1 + (, ) + o(1)) + i( + ))|2 + i(t + ))|2 | ( 1 | ( 2 2 T T

In the above, o(1) denotes a quantity tending to 0 as T grows, which depends on the diophantine properties of and . Our methods allow us to prove an analogous result for the second moment of (s) twisted by a Dirichlet polynomial over an arbitrary vertical arithmetic progression. See Proposition 1 for more details. In contrast to Theorem 2, the dependence on the diophantine properties of and is nullied when B is a mollier. To be precise, let () be a smooth compactly supported function, with support in [1, 2], and dene M (s) :=

n T

Then we have the following Theorem. Theorem 3. Let the mollied second moment be dened as (2) Let 0 < <

1 2

J :=

1 + i( + ))M ( 1 + i( + ))|2 | ( 2 2

t T dt + O T (log T )1 The lack of dependence on the diophantine properties of and in Theorem 3 gives in Theorem 4 below. the non-vanishing proportion of 1 3 J =

2

1.2. Non-vanishing results. One of the fundamental problems in analytic number theory is determination of the location of the zeros of L-functions. Here, one deep conjecture about the vertical distribution of zeros of (s) is the Linear Independence Conjecture (LI), which states that the ordinates of non-trivial zeros of (s) are linearly independent over Q. In general, it is believed that the zeros of L-functions do not satisfy any algebraic relations, but rather appear to be random transcendental numbers. Classically, Ingham [3] linked the linear independence conjecture for the Riemann zeta-function with the oscilations of M (x) = nx (n), in particular oering a conditional disproof of Mertens conjecture that |M (x)| x for all x large enough. There are a number of connections between LI and the distribution of primes. For instance, Rubinstein and Sarnak [10] showed a connection between LI for Dirichlet L-functions and prime number races, and this has appeared in the work of many subsequent authors. LI appears to be far out of reach of current technology. However, it implies easier conjectures which may be more tractable. One of these is that the vertical ordinates of nontrivial zeros of (s) should not lie in an arithmetic progression. To be more precise, for xed > 0, , let

P, (T ) =

1 Card{T 2T : ( 1 + i( + )) = 0}. 2 T

Then what kind of lower bounds can we prove for P, (T ) for large T ? Recently, improving on the work of numerous earlier authors, Martin and Ng [8] showed that P, (T ) , (log T )1 which misses the truth by a factor of log T . In this paper, we prove the following improvement. Theorem 4. Let > 0 and be real. Then, as T , P, (T ) 1 + o(1). 3

The proof of Theorem 4 leads easily to the result below. Corollary 1. Let > 0 and be real. Then, as T ,

1 | ( 2 + i( + )| (log )1/2 1 C)T integers T 2T , with C an absolute constant. for more than ( 3

Theorem 4 is proven by understanding both a mollifed discrete second moment (see Theorem 3) and a mollied discrete rst moment. Our methods extend without modication to prove the analogous result for Dirichlet L-functions. The constants 1 represents 3 the limits of the current technology - see for example [4] for the case of non-vanishing of Dirichlet L-functions at the critical point. Of course, we expect that P, (T ) = 1 + O (T 1). Assuming the Riemann Hypothesis + o(1) as T . (RH), Ford, Soundararajan and Zaharescu [2] showed P, (T ) 1 2 Assuming RH and Montgomerys Pair Correlation Conjecture theyve showed [2] that P, (T ) 1 o(1) as T . Assuming a very strong hypothesis on the distribution of primes in short intervals, it is possible to show that P, (T ) = 1 O (T ) for some > 0. Note that the rigid structure of the arithmetic progression is important. Since there is a zero of (s) in every interval of size essentially (log log log T )1 in [T, 2T ] (see [7]) minor perturbations of the arithmetic progression renders our result false.

3

1.3. Large and small values. We now complement Theorem 4 by exhibiting large and small values of (s) at discrete points 1 + i( + ) using Soundararajans resonance 2 method [12]. Theorem 5. Let > 0 and be real. Then, for innitely many > 0,

1 | ( 2 + i( + ))| exp (1 + o(1))

and for innitely many , + i( + ))| exp | ( 1 2 (1 + o(1)) log . 6 log log

The o(1) in this result is independent of the diophantine properties of and . Since + i( + )) = 0 for essentially all , it is interesting to produce values we expect ( 1 2 of at which ( 1 + i( + )) is extremely small. Furthermore, the large values of 2 1 ( 2 + i( + )) over a discrete set of points above are almost of the same quality as the best results for large values of ( 1 + it) with t real. In the latter case, the best result is 2 due to Soundararajan [12]. We have not tried to optimize in Theorem 5 and perhaps the same methods might lead to the constant 1 rather than 1/ 6. 1.4. Technical propositions. The proofs of our Theorems rests on a technical Proposition, and its variant, which may be of independent interest. With B (s) dened as in (1), consider the dierence between the discrete average and the continuous average, E :=

1 + i( + ))|2 |( B )( 2

1 + i(t + ))|2 |( B )( 2

t dt. T

Proposition 1 below shows that understanding E boils down to understanding the behavior of sums of the form 1 2mn (3) F (a , b , t) := b(k )b(h) W r t + m,n 1 r 1

h,k T mk =a r nh=b r

where W (x) is a smooth function dened as dw 1 xw G(w ) W (x) := 2i () w with G(w ) an entire function of rapid decay along vertical lines G(x + iy ) x,A |y |A , such that G(w ) = G(w ), G(0) = 1, and satisfying G(w ) = G(w ) (to make W (x) real 2 valued for x real). For example we can take G(w ) = ew . Notice that W (x) 1 for x 1 and W (x) A xA for x > 1. Of course, the expression in 3 should not depend on the choice of W . In fact, F (al , bl , t) can also be written as b(m)b(n) (ma , nb )2 (4) (ma , nb ) H (t + ) mn 2ma nb

m,nT

where H(x) is a smooth function such that, H(x) = log x + + OA (xA ) OA (xA )

4

1 2

if x 1 if x 1

As seen in a theorem of Balasubramanian, Conrey and Heath-Brown [1] the continuous 1 t average over T t 2T of | ( 2 + it)B ( 1 + it)|2 gives rise to (4) with a = 1 = b . For 2 technical reasons it is more convenient for us to work with the smooth version (3). Proposition 1. Let 0 < < 1/2. For each > 0, let (a , b ) denote (if it exists) the unique tuple of co-prime integers such that a b > 1, b < T 1/2 e/ and (5) e2/ a e2/ 1 . b T (a /b )i H () = a b t T

log a b

1 + i( + ))|2 |B ( 2

H () + O (T 1 ).

>0

1 + i(t + ))|2 |B ( 2

t dt. T

r 1

b(a r )b(b r ) r

where we adopted the convention that b(n) = 0 for n > T . Then the analogue of Proposition 1 is stated below. Proposition 2. Let 0 < < 1. For each > 0 let (a , b ) denote (if it exists) the unique tuple of co-prime integers such that a b > 1, b < T 1/2 e/ and (6) Then, E = 2

>0

a e2/ e2/ 1 . b T

a (a /b )i log b F (a , b ) + O (T 1 ) 2 a b

where in the summation over we omit the terms for which the pair (a , b ) does not exist. The proof of Proposition 2 is very similar (in fact easier!) than that of Proposition 1, and for this reason we omit it. 1 + i( + )) . This question is One can ask about the typical distribution of log ( 2 out of reach if we focus on the real part of log (s) since we cannot even guarantee that + i( + ) are not zeros of the Riemann zeta-function. On the Riemann almost all 1 2 Hypothesis, using Proposition 2 and Selbergs methods, one can prove a central limit theorem for S ( + ) with T 2T . We will not pursue this application here. We deduce Theorems 1 and 2 from Proposition 1 in Section 2. We then prove Theorem 3 in Section 3, complete the proof of Theorem 4 in Section 4, and prove Theorem 5 in Section 5. Finally, we prove Proposition 1 in Section 6.

5

2. Proof of Theorems 1 and 2 Proof of Theorem 1. Set = 1 and = 0. By Proposition 1 it is enough to show that E T (log T )A . Since W (x) xA for x > 1 and W (x) 1 for x 1, we have, for T t 2T F (a , b , t) 1 +

r 1

1 r

h,k T

|b(k )b(h)|

m,nT 1+ mk =a r nh=b r

r T

c(a r )c(b r ) +1 r 2

where c(n) := d|n |b(d)| dA+1 (n). Therefore F (a , b , t) (a b ) T (log T )B . for some large B > 0. It thus follows by Proposition 1, that E T (log T )B

2

(a b )1/2+

>0

Because of (6) we have a b e . Therefore the s with (log log T )1+ contribute A T (log T )A . We can therefore subsequently assume that (log log T )1+ . In order to control a and b , when (log log T )1+ we appeal to a result of Waldschmidt (see [13], p. 473), (7) em p exp q 272 log(2m) log p log log p .

Therefore if condition (6) is satised then e2 T 1+ exp(c(log ) (log a )(log log a )) Therefore, using that (log log T )1+ we get (log a ) (log log a ) log T /(log log T ) , and hence log a log T /(log log T )1+ . Notice also that (6) implies that a b e2 , so that >0 (a b ) = O (1) for any > 0. Combining these observations we nd

0<<(log log T )1+

1+

>0

1+

Thus E A T (log T )A for any xed A > 0, as desired. It is possible to generalize this theorem to other progressions, for example to those for which 2/ is algebraic. We refer the reader to [13] for the necessary results in diophantine approximation. Proof of Theorem 2. Set B (s) = 1 in Proposition 1. Then, keeping notation as in Proposition 1, we get

1 | ( 2 + i( + ))|2

+ i(t + ))|2 | ( 1 2

t T

dt + E

(0)T log T . It remains to understand E . The main term is First case. First suppose that e2/ is irrational for all > 0. Since b(k ) = 1 if k = 1 and b(k ) = 0 otherwise it is easy to see that F (a , b , t) T log T uniformly in a , b and T t 2T . Thus, E T log T (a b )1/2

>0

It remains to show that >0 (a b )1/2 = o(1) as T . Let > 0 be given. Since a b e2/ we can nd an A such that >A (a b )1/2 . For the remaining integers

6

A notice that e2/ is irrational for each A. Therefore for each A, (8) a e2/ e2/ 1 b T

implies that a b . It follows that A (a b )1/2 once T is large enough. We conclude that >0 (a b )1/2 = o(1), and hence that E = o(T log T ) as desired. Second case. Now consider the case that e20 / is rational for some 0 . Write 20 (9) = log(m/n) with co-prime m and n and |m| minimal. Let k be the maximal positive integer such that m/n = (r/s)k with r, s co-prime. Then, 0 2 = . k log(r/s) Let d = (0 , k ). Note that d = 1 since otherwise, we may replace 0 by 0 /d and m and n by m1/d and n1/d in (9) which contradicts the minimality condition on |m|. For each divisible by 0 the integers a = m/0 and b = n/0 satisfy (8) because 2/ e = (m/n)/0 . For the remaining integers not divisible by 0 , e2/ = (r/s)k/0 is irrational, since 0 |k if and only if 0 |. We split E accordingly E = 4Re H () + 4Re

>0 0 | >0 0

H ()

The second sum is o(T log T ) as can be seen by repeating the same argument as in the rst case. As for the rst sum, we nd that for each divisible by 0 , H () = 2Re Therefore (0)T log T H () = 2 (0)T log T = giving the desired estimate for E . (m/n)i mn

(m/n)i mn

/0

(0)T log T + O

log mn T . (mn)/20

+ O (T )

>0 0 |

>0

r 1

1 r

b(k )b(h)

h,k T m,n 1 mk =a r nh=b r

2mn t +

The lemma below, provides a bound for F when the coecients b(n) are the coecients of the molliers M (s), that is b(n) = (n) 1

7

log n log T

and b(n) = 0 for n > T . Lemma 1. For any a , b N with (a , b ) = 1 and a b > 1, uniformly in T t 2T , we have that F (a , b , t) (a b ) T (log T )1+ . Proof. For notational ease, let N = T . We rst express the conditions in the sum above in terms of Mellin transforms. To be specic since W (x) = 1 2 xw G(w )

()

dw w

with G(w ) rapidly decaying along vertical lines, and such that G(w ) = G(w ), G(0) = 1, we have S= 1 2i 1 2i b(h)b(k )

(2) m,n1 h,k N 3 (2) (2) r 1 nk =b r mh=a r

1 r

G( w )

dw w

w

h,k

r 1 nk =b r mh=a r

1 t + r 2

G( w )

The sum over m, n, h, k and r inside the integral may be factored into an Euler product as 1 r 1 (k ) nw k z2 nk =b r

r 1

=

p

1+

1 p

1 1 z2 w p p

1 1 z1 w p p

Here (w, z1 , z2 ) is an Euler product which is absolutely convergent in the region delimited by Re w, Re z1 , Re z2 > 1/2 and we dene F (a b , w, z1, z2 ) =

pj ||a

1 p(j 1)w 1

1 1 pw pz 1

1+ 1+

1 p1+w

1 1 pw pz 2

pj ||b

p(j 1)w 1 1+ p

1 1 pw pz 2 1 1 z2 w p p

1 p1+w

1 1 pw pz 1

1

pa b

1 1 z1 w p p

1+

p

(w, z1, z2 ) =

8

where denotes an Euler product which is absolutely convergent in the region delimited by Re w, Re z1 , Re z2 > 1/2 and does not depend on a or b . Thus, S= 1 2i

3 (2) 3

2

with I1 , I2 , I3 specied below. Since N < T 1/2 the error term is (a b ) T provided that is chosen small enough. Writing H (z1 , z2 ) = we have (1 + z1 + z2 ) (0, z1 , z2 )F (a b , 0, z1 , z2 ) (1 + z1 ) (1 + z2 ) N z1 dz1 N z2 dz2 , H (z1 , z2 ) 2 2 log Nz1 log Nz2 (1/4)

(1/4)

I2 = and

(1/4)

(1/4)

1 1 I3 = 2 (2i)2

(0, z1 , z2 )F (a b , 0, z1 , z2 )

H (z1 , z2 )

N z1 dz1 N z2 dz2 . 2 2 log Nz1 log Nz2 Bounding the integrals is now a standard exercise. As they can be bounded using the exact same procedure, we will focus our attention to I1 (note in particular, that I3 is smaller by a factor of log T compared with the other integrals). For ease of notation, write G(z1 , z2 ) = (0, z1 , z2 )F (a b , 0, z1 , z2 ). Then I1 = log(t + ) 1 1 2 n (2i)2 n N (1 + z1 )1 (1 + z2 )1 G(z1 , z2 ) N n

z 1 +z 2

(1/ log N )

(1/ log N )

Let M = exp(B (log log T )2 ) for B a parameter to be determined shortly. We split the sum in n above to n N/M and n > N/M . If n > N/M , then shift both contours to the line with real-part (log M )1 and bound the integrals trivially. The contribution of terms with n > N/M is log T (log M )5 (log N )2 (a b ) (a b ) . (log T )1

Now, for the terms with n N/M , rst truncate both contours at height log4 T with an error (a b ) (log T )1 . Since a b > 1, we assume without loss of generality that a > 1. This in turn implies that F (a b , 0, 0, z2) = 0, so that the integrand is holomorphic

9

at z1 = 0. From the classical zero free region for (s), there exists a constant c > 0 such that ( (1 + z1 ))1 < log(|z1 | + 1) for Re z1 c(log log T )1 and |Im z1 | log4 T . We now shift the integral in z1 to Re z1 = c(log log T )1 with an error (a b ) (log T )1 and bound the remaining integral trivially by M log log T log T (log log T )2 (a b ) exp(cB log log T )(log T )1+ (a b ) . . The result follows upon picking B = 2 c

1 Proof of Theorem 3. Let B (s) = M (s) with 0 < < 2 . Inserting the bound in Lemma 1 into Proposition 1 we obtain

c

T (log T )1

>0

1 + O (T 1 ). (a b )1/2

The sum over > 0 is rapidly convergent: Because of (6) we have a b e2/ and therefore a b e2/ . It follows that the sum over > 0 contributes O (1) and we obtain E T (log T )1+ as desired. 4. Proof of Theorem 4 Recall that M (s) :=

n 1

for n T and b(n) = 0 otherwise. Dene the mollied rst moment as (10) and recall that J :=

1 | ( 2 + i( + ))M ( 1 + i( + ))|2 2

I :=

1 (1 + i( + ))M ( 2 + i( + )) 2

By Cauchy-Schwarz and 0 1, we have |I| (P, (T ) T )1/2 J 1/2 . Then our Theorem 4 follows from the following Proposition 3 and Theorem 3. Proposition 3. Let > 0, be real numbers. With I as dened in (10), and for T large, T (0) + O |I| = T . log T Proof. Uniformly in 0 t 2aT we have,

1 + it) = (2 n2aT

1 n1/2+it

10

+O

1 T 1/2

I= =

1

n2T

n1/2+i(+ )

1 M(2 + i( + ))

T T

mT

(mn)ia

=

mT

T T

log(mn) 2

by Poisson summation applied to the sum over . (T c) A T A for any |c| > T 1+ ,which is an immediate result of Note that being a member of the Schwarz class. Hence, the sum above may be restricted to || (0) when log(2T 1+ ) + O (T 1). The terms with = 0 contributes a main term of T 2 A mn = 1, and the terms with other values of mn contributes O (T ). Now consider = 0. Terms with |a log(mn) | > T 1 contribute O (T A ). Otherwise, suppose that (11) = 2 + O (T 1 ) log n0

1/2+ib n0 m|n0

(T ( log(n0 ) )) b(m)

for T large. This term is bounded by a d(n0 ) log n0 T log T n0 d(n0 ) log n0 log T

because b(m) = (m) + O (log m/ log T ) for all m, and thus, b(m)

m|n0

For a xed , the number of n0 satifying (11) is bounded by n0 T 1+ + 1. Thus the total contribution of all the terms is T n0 T

1/2+

We sum this over all the || log(2T 1+ ). Such a short sum does not aect the size of the rst term above. As for the second term, since n0 e2a , the sum over = 0 is bounded by T | | T . | a | (1 ) log T e log T

| | >0

11

Proof of Theorem 1. Appealing to a result of Balasubramanian, Conrey and Heath-Brown 2T 1 [1] to compute T |( M )( 1 + i(t + ))|2dt, we have by Theorem 3 J T (1+ + o(1)). 2 Combining this with the inequality and Proposition 3, we obtain Hence, I (P, (T ) T )1/2 J 1/2

(0) + o(1) +1 1 (0) 1 2. Letting . Now we set (t) = 1 for t [1 + , 2 ] so that for all 0 < < 2 and 0, we obtain the claim. 1 2 In order to prove the Corollary we need the lemma below. Lemma 1. We have, |M ( 1 + i( + ))|2 2 T log T T

1 + i(t + ))|2 |M ( 2

t 1 (0) dt + O T |F (a , b )| T a b >0

where a , b denotes for each > 0 the unique (if it exists!) couple of co-prime integers such that a b > 1, b < T 1/2 e/ and e2/ a 2/ 1 e b T and where F (a , b ) =

r T

1 + i(t + since the coecients of M are bounded by 1 in absolute value. Since |M ( 2 2 ))| (t/T )dt T log T the claim follows.

Proof of the Corollary. Following [4] let H0 be the set of integers T 2T at which, and let H1 be the set of integers at which the reverse inequality holds. Notice that, C0 := (1 + i( + ))M ( 1 + i( + )) 2 2

H0 1 | ( 2 + i( + ))| (log )1/2

T T

1/2

1 + i( + ))|2 |M ( 2

(0) CT

for some absolute constant C > 0. Hence by Proposition 3 and the Triangle Inequality, C1 :=

1 + i( + ))M ( 2 + i( + )) (1 2 H1

(0)T (1 C)

12

1/2

C1

Card(H1 )

1 | ( 2

+ i( +

))M ( 1 2

+ i( + ))| T

2

1/2

As in the proof of Theorem 1, by Theorem 5 and a result of Balasubramanian, Conrey and Heath-Brown, the mollied second moment is T (1 + 1/ + o(1)) as T . Thus (0) 1 C T |H1 | 1 + 1/

(0) 1 2 we obtain and letting (t) = 1 on t [1 + ; 2 ], so that Taking 1 2 the claim on taking 0.

5. Large and small values: Proof of Theorem 5 Let 0 1 be a smooth function, compactly supported in [1, 2]. Let A(s) =

n T

1 ns

and let B ( s) =

n N

b(n)ns

T 2T

1 Thus, to produce large and small values of at discrete points 2 + i(a + b) it suces to choose a Dirichlet polynomial B that respectively maximizes/minimizes the ratio R. Fix > 0. Consider the set S1 of tuples (a , b ), with 2 log T , such that

log a b

1 T 1

and a b > 1 and both a , b are less than T 1/2 . In particular for each there is at most one such tuple so |S1 | 2 log T . From each tuple in S1 we pick one prime divisor of a and one prime divisor of b and put them into a set we call S. We dene our resonator coecients r (n) by setting L = log N log log N and r ( p) = L p log p

when p ([L2 ; exp((log L)2 )] and p S . In the remaining cases we let r (p) = 0. Note in particular that the resonator coecients change with T. We then choose b(n) = nr (n) or b(n) = (n) nr (n) depending on whether we want to maximize or minimize the ratio R. For either choice of coecients we have the following lemma.

13

n T

a(n) ns

with the coecients a(n) 1. If N = T 1/2 with t 1 = dt +i(t+ ))|B ( 1 +i(t+ ))|2 D( 2 2 T T + O (T 1+(13)/2+4 )

1 D( 1 + i( + ))|B ( 2 + i( + )|2 2

= T

i m log nh T 2

=T

m,nN h T

b(m)b(n)a(h) m nh mnh

The term = 0 contributes the main term (the continuous average). It remains to bound (x) (1 + |x|)A the only surviving terms are those the remaining terms = 0. Since for which,

m log nh 1 1 2 T

which in particular implies that || 2 log T . We split our sum into two ranges, nh < T 1/2 and nh > T 1/2 . First range. In the rst range, for (m, nh) = 1, the real numbers log m/(nh) are spaced by at least T 1+ apart. Among all co-prime tuples with both a , b less than T 1/2 there is at most one tuple satisfying,

log a b

1 T 1

Grouping the terms m, n, h according to m = a r and nh = b r , we re-write the rst sum sum over the range nh T 1/2 as follows, T

=0

1 a b

1 r

b(m)b(n)a(h)

m,nN nhT 1/2 m=a r nh=b r

m nh

m T log nh 2

However by our choice of r we have b(a ) = 0, hence by multiplicativity b(m) = 0, and it follows that the above sum is zero. Second range. We now examine the second range nh > T 1/2 . The condition nh > T 1/2 and n T 1/2 imply that h > T . For xed m, n we see that there are at most T values of h such that

m log nh 1 1 2 T

14

Putting this together we have the following bound for the sum over nh > T 1/2 , b(m)b(n)a(h) m nh mnh

i m log nh T 2

T

=0 m,nN,hT T 1/2 <nh

T 1/2+3 N Then

n N

n N

|b(m)|2 m

1+

p L2

L2 p log2 p

because L2 p>L2 p1 (log p)2 log N/ log log N = o(log T ). Therefore the sum in the second range is bounded by T 1/2+4 N = T 1+(13)/2+4 . In the above lemma we take = 1/3 + 4, so that N = T 1/64 and the error term is negligible (that is T 1 ). Setting consecutively D (s) = A(s) and D (s) = 1 we get,

1 A( 1 + i(t + ))|B ( 2 + i(t + ))|2 R= 2 t 1 2 |B ( 2 + i(t + ))| T dt t T

dt

plus a negligible error term. The above ratio was already worked out by Soundararajan in [12] (see Theorem 2.1). Proceeding in the same way, we obtain that the above ratio is equal to, R = (1 + o(1)) 1+

p

b(p) p

Suppose that we were interested in small values, in which case b(n) = (n) nr (n). Then, R = (1 + o(1)) Since L = p log p L =o p log p log N log log N 1 L p log p

pS

pS

L2 pL2 +2 log T

1 + Recall that N = T 1/64 . Letting 0 we obtain the claim since R minT 2T | ( 2 1 1/2 i( + ))| + O (T ). The large value estimate for the maximum of ( 2 + i( + )) is obtained in exactly the same way by choosing r (n) = nr (n) instead.

15

6. Proof of the technical Proposition 1 Let G() be an entire function with rapid decay along vertical lines, that is G(x + iy ) |y |A for any xed x and A > 0. Suppose also that G(w ) = G(w ), G(0) = 1 and 2 G( w ) = G( w ). An example of such a function is G(w ) = ew . For such a function G(x) we dene a smooth function W (x) := Notice that W is real. Lemma 3 (Approximate function equation). We have, for T < t < 2T , | ( 1 + it)|2 = 2 2 1 mn m n

it

1 2

()

xw G(w )

dw . w

mn<T 1+

2mn t

+ O (T 2/3 ).

Remark. Of course we could work with the usual smoothing V involving the Gamma factors on the Mellin transform side. We believe the smoothing W (2mn/t) to be (slightly) more transparent. Proof. By a standard argument (see [5], Theorem 5.3), (12) | ( 1 + it)|2 = 2 2 2i

1 (2 + it + w ) ( 1 it + w ) w G(w ) gt (w ) 2

()

dw . w

1 1 + it + w )( 1 it + w )/ ( 4 + it )( 4 it ) By Stirlings formula with gt (w ) = ( 1 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 w 2 gt (w ) = (t/2) (1 + O ((1 + |w | )/t)) uniformly for w lying in any xed half-plane and + it + t large. Using Weyls subconvexity bound, on the line Re w = we have ( 1 2 1 1/3 1/3 2 w ) ( 2 it + w ) |t| + |w | . Therefore, the error term O ((1 + |w | )/t) in Stirlings approximation contributes an error term of O (T 2/3) in (12). Thus

+ it)|2 = | ( 1 2

2 2i

()

1 1 + it + w ) ( 2 it + w ) (2

t 2

G( w )

dw + O (T 2/3 ). w

1 it, it is Shifting the line of integration to Re w = 1 + we collect a pole at w = 2 1 1 1 A negligible because G( 2 it) |t| . Expanding ( 2 + it + w ) ( 2 it + w ) into a Dirichlet series on the line Re w = 1 + we conclude that

| ( 1 + it)|2 = 2 2

m,n1

1 mn

m n

it

2mn t

+ O (T 2/3).

Notice that W (x) = OA (xA ) for x > 1. Since T t 2T if mn > T 1+ then 2mn/t T . Therefore we can truncate the terms with mn > T 1+ making an error term of at most T A . The claim follows. Recall also that B (s) :=

n T

b(n) ns

16

Therefore, J :=

2 1 ) + i ( + )) B ( + i ( + )) | ( | ( 1 2 2 T 1 mn 1+ 1 mn b(h)b(k ) hk mh nk mh nk

i i(+ )

= 2

mn<T

h,k T

2mn + O T 5/6+ + T

(13) = 2

mn<T 1+

h,k T

b(h)b(k ) hk

using Poisson summation in the sum over , with fm,n,T (x) := W 2mn x +

i

x T

mn<T 1+

1 mn

h,k T

b(h)b(k ) hk

mk nh

log mk nh f m,n,T 2

i(t+ )

=2

mn<T

1 mn 1+

h,k T

b(h)b(k ) hk

mk nh

t 2mn dt t + T

1 + i(t + ))|2 2 |B ( 2

mn<T 1+

1 mn

m n

i(t+ )

t 2mn dt t + T

mn<T 1+

1 m mn n

i(t+ )

2mn t +

Therefore (14) is

as desired.

t dt + O (T 1 ) T

nk log mh 2

we can re-write the sum over = 0 so as to have > 0 in the summation, J0 = 2 b(h)b(k ) 2Re mnhk mh nk

i

log mh nk f m,n,T 2

Dierentiating repeatedly and using that W and all derivatives of W are Schwarz class, (k ) we nd that for mn < T 1+ , fm,n,T (x) T k for all x. Therefore for any xed A > 0, f m,n,T (x) A T 1 + T |x|

17

A

It follows that the only integers m, n, k, h, that contribute to J0 are the m, n, k, h, for which mh log T 1+ . 2 nk for some small, but arbitrary > 0. This condition implies that (15) mh e2/ e2/ T 1+ nk

and we might as-well restrict the sum in J0 to those m, n, k, h, satisfying this weaker, but friendlier, condition. Thus, (16) J0 = 4Re b(h)b(k ) mk mnhk nh

i

>0

mn<T 1+ h,k T

log mk nh fm,n,T + OA 2

1 TA

Now for a xed > 0, consider the inner sum over m, n, h, k in (16). We group together terms in the following way: If the integres m, n, k, h satisfy (15) then we let a = mk/(mk, nh) and b = nh/(mk, nh) so that (a , b ) = 1. We group together all multiples of a , b of the form mk = a r and nh = b r with a common r > 0. The a , b are co-prime and satisfy (17) This allows us to write (18) J0 = 4Re b(h)b(k ) mknh a b

i

>0

f m,n,T

It is useful to have a bound for the size of b in the above sum. Equation (17) implies that a b e2/ . Furthermore, since mn < T 1+ , h, k T and a r = mk , b r = nh we have a b < mnkh < T 1+2+ . Combining a b e2/ and a b < T 1+2+ we obtain b < T 1/2++ e/ . Let K := T 1/2 e/ M := T 1/2++ e/ We split the sum according to whether b < K or b > K , getting J0 = 4Re (a /b )i a b 1 r log(a /b ) f m,n,T 2 1+ = 4Re (S1 + S2 )

>0

r 1

mn T h,k T nh=b r mk =a r

where S1 is the sum over b K and S2 is the corresponding sum over M > b > K . To nish the proof of the Proposition it remains to evaluate S1 and S2 . The sum S1 can give a main term contribution in the context of Theorem 2 depending on the Diophantine properties of a, while bounding S1 as an error term in the context of Theorem 4 is relatively subtle. In contrast, S2 is always negligible. We rst furnish the following expression for S1 .

18

Lemma 4. For each > 0 there is at most one tuple of co-prime integers (a , b ) such that a b > 1 , b < K = T 1/2 e/ and such that (19) We denote by S1 = T where F (a , b , t) :=

h,k T

a e2/ e2/ 1 . b T the sum over s satisfying the above condition. Then, a b t T b(h)b(k )

r 1 (a /b )i >0

log a b

exp 1 r

2it

2 t + 2mn

F (a , b , t)dt

W

m,n1 mk =a r nh=b r

=

m,nT

and H(x) = 1 2i

()

(1 + 2w ) xw G(w )

dw = w

1 2

if x 1 if x 1

Proof Given , there is at most one b K for which there is a co-prime a such that (19) holds, because Farey fractions with denominator < K are spaced at least 2 K = e2/ T 1+2 far apart. Thus for each , the sum over a , b in S1 consists of at most one element (a , b ), S1 =

>0 (a /b )ib

a b

r 1

1 r

mn h,k T nh=b r mk =a r

h,k T mn<T 1+ nh=b r,mk =a r

>0 (a /b )ib

a b

t T

exp

2it

W 2mn dt. t +

r 1

Since W (x) xA for x > 1 and at + b T we complete the sum over mn < T 1+ to m, n 1 making a negligible error term A T A . To nish the proof it remains to understand the expression (20)

h,k T

b(h)b(k )

r

1 r

W

m,n1 mk =a r nh=b r

2mn t +

19

r

1 r

W

m,n1 nh=b r mk =a r

2mn t +

1 2

()

1 r

m,n1 nh=b r mk =a r

1 (mn)w

t + 2

G( w )

dw w

Furthermore nh = b r and mk = a r imply that mkb = nha . On the other hand since a and b are co-prime the equality mkb = nha implies that there exists a unique r such that nh = b r and mk = a r . We notice as-well that this unique r can be expressed as ((a b )/(mknh))1/2 . Therefore we have the equality, 1 r 1 = (mn)w 1 (mn)w a b mknh

m,n1 nh=b r mk =a r

We express the condition nha = mkb as ha |kb m and n = kb m/(ha ) so as to reduce the double sum over m, n to a single sum over m. Furthermore the condition ha |kb m can be dealt with by noticing that it is equivalent to ha /(ha , kb )|m. Using these observations we nd that, 1 (mn)w a b (ha , kb ) = (1 + 2w ) mknh hk (ha , kb )2 ha kb

w

m,n1 mk =b r nh=a r

r 1

2mn t +

(ha , kb ) t + H hk 2mn

An easy calculation reveals that H(x) = (1/2) log x + + OA (xA ) for x 1 and that H(x) = OA (xA ) for x 1. We conclude that equation (20) equals to

h,k T

as desired. The second sum S2 can be bounded directly. Lemma 5. We have S2 T 1/2++ . Proof Recall that the a , b are always assumed to satisfy the condition (22) Recall also that K := T 1/2 e/ M := T 1/2++ e/

20

a e2/ e2/ 1 . b T

Then, (23) S2 =

K <b <M a 1 (a ,b )=1 satisfy (22)

(a /b )i a b

r 1

1 r

b(h)b(k )

h,k T

mn T nh=b r mk =a r

log(a /b ) f . m,n,T 2 1+

e2/ N2 + 1 T 1 because Farey fractions with denominators of size N are spaced at least N 2 apart. Therefore, for a xed , using the bounds b(n) n and f m,n,T (x) T , the dyadic block with b N contributes at most, 1 1 1 (24) T 1+ 1 T 1+ 1 / 2 (a b ) r m,n,h,k (a b )1/2 2 b N b N

a 1 (a ,b )=1 a ,b satisfy (22)

We split the above sum into dyadic blocks b N with K < N < M . The number of (a , b ) = 1 with b N and satisfying (22) is bounded by

r<T

mk =a r nh=b r

because

r T 2

1 r

1=

m,h,k,n mh=a r nk =b r r T 2

d(a r )d(b r ) (T a b ) . r

e2/ N2 + 1 . T 1

Keeping xed and summing over all possible dyadic blocks K < N < M shows that for xed the inner sum in (23) is bounded by (25) T 1/2+++ e/ + T 1/2++ e/ .

1+ T + e(1+)/ M1+ + T 1+ K e(1)/

The condition (22) restricts to 0 < < 2 log T . Summing (25) over all 0 < < 2 log T and we can take , we nd that S2 is bounded by T 1/2++2+ + T 1/2++ . Since < 1 2 arbitrarily small, but xed, the claim follows. 7. Acknowledgements This work was done while both authors were visiting Centre de Recherches Math ematiques. We are grateful for their kind hospitality. References

[1] R. Balasubramanian, J. B. Conrey, and D. R. Heath-Brown. Asymptotic mean square of the product of the Riemann zeta-function and a Dirichlet polynomial. J. Reine Angew. Math., 357:161181, 1985. [2] Kevin Ford, K. Soundararajan, and Alexandru Zaharescu. On the distribution of imaginary parts of zeros of the Riemann zeta function. II. Math. Ann., 343(3):487505, 2009. [3] A. E. Ingham. On two conjectures in the theory of numbers. Amer. J. Math., 64:313319, 1942. [4] H. Iwaniec and P. Sarnak. Dirichlet L-functions at the central point. In Number theory in progress, Vol. 2 (Zakopane-Ko scielisko, 1997), pages 941952. de Gruyter, Berlin, 1999.

21

[5] Henryk Iwaniec and Emmanuel Kowalski. Analytic number theory, volume 53 of American Mathematical Society Colloquium Publications. American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2004. [6] J. P. Keating and N. C. Snaith. Random matrix theory and (1/2 + it). Comm. Math. Phys., 214(1):5789, 2000. [7] J. E Littlewood. On the zeros of the Riemann zeta-function. Proc. London Math. Soc., 1, 1924. [8] Greg Martin and Nathan Ng. Non-zero values of Dirichlet L-functions in vertical arithmetic progressions. arxiv: 1109.1788. [9] H. L. Montgomery. The pair correlation of zeros of the zeta function. In Analytic number theory (Proc. Sympos. Pure Math., Vol. XXIV, St. Louis Univ., St. Louis, Mo., 1972), pages 181193. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, R.I., 1973. [10] Michael Rubinstein and Peter Sarnak. Chebyshevs bias. Experiment. Math., 3(3):173197, 1994. [11] Ze ev Rudnick and Peter Sarnak. Zeros of principal L-functions and random matrix theory. Duke Math. J., 81(2):269322, 1996. A celebration of John F. Nash, Jr. [12] K. Soundararajan. Extreme values of zeta and L-functions. Math. Ann., 342(2):467486, 2008. [13] Michel Waldschmidt. Simultaneous approximation of numbers connected with the exponential function. J. Austral. Math. Soc. Ser. A, 25(4):466478, 1978. Department of Mathematics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1409 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 USA E-mail address : xiannan@illinois.edu Department of Mathematics, Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Bldg. 380, Stanford, CA 94305-2125 E-mail address : maksym@stanford.edu

22

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