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UPGRADATION AND RELOCATION OF KARAKORUM HIGHWAY FOR BASHA DIAMER DAM PROJECT ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB

INPUT DATA Center to center distance of Girders Center to center distance of Diaphragms Width of Top Flange of Girders Width of Diaphragm Thickness of Deck Slab Effective Depth Effective Width Length of Cantilever portion of Slab Thickness of Surfacing Cover to Main Reinforcement Unit Weight of Concrete Unit Weight of Surfacing Ultimate Strength of Concrete Yield Strength of Steel

Sg : Sd : tf g : bd : ds : de : b: Lcant : t sur : Cover : gc :

2.350 meters 9.819 meters 0.600 meters 0.200 meters 0.225 meters 0.197 meters 1 meters 1.105 meters 0.050 meters 0.020 meters 3 24.00 kN/m 23.00 kN/m
3 2 31.00 N/mm 2 410.00 N/mm

g sur :
f' c : fy :

DEAD LOAD ANALYSIS (Considering 1m strip) Self Weight of Deck Slab Weight of Surfacing

ds x gc x 1 t sur x g sur x 1

= =

5.40 KN/m 1.15 KN/m

Max. +ve Moments due to Dead Loads Max. -ve Moments due to Dead Loads

= =

2.48 KN-m 7.89 KN-m

LIVE LOAD ANALYSIS


Case 1: Contact area of track : Short dimension Long dimension Dispersed area of track : Ax Ay = ax + 2 x de = ay + 2 x de = = 1.244 meters 3.994 meters Due to CLASS 'AA' Tank Loading

ax ay

= =

0.85 meters 3.60 meters

Total load of one track with 25% impact

= 70 tons x 9.807 x 1.25/2 = 429.06 KN

ax

ay

Ax

Analysis for Maximum Live Load Moment using PIGEAUD'S CHART Short dimension of Slab Lx Long dimension of Slab Ly k = Sd - de = Ly/Lx = = = = = = = = 9.622 meters 4.942 0.639 2.051 0.006 0.20 33.12 kN-m 9.10 kN-m = S g - t fg + d e = 1.947 meters

Ax/Lx Ay/Lx
Corresponding Pigeaud's coeffecients are :

a x4

0.076

a y4 n
Mx = F ( a x4 + na y4 ) C.F My = F ( na x4 + a y4 )

Poison's ratio Moment in short direction Moment in long direction

Ay

Case 2:

Due to CLASS 'A' Truck Loading

Clear distance between the wheels (long dimension) clr w Contact area of one wheel : Short direction Long direction

= = =

0.95 meters 0.50 meters 0.25 meters

ax ay

ay ay
Dispersed area of wheels :

ax

Lx

Ax Ay

= ax + 2 x de = 2 (a y +d e )+clr w
ay1

clrw

Ly

= =

0.894 meters 1.844 meters

Dispersed Area of Wheel Unloaded Area

Ay

ay1 Ax

Total load of one wheel with 50% impact

2y

= =

11.4 tons x 9.807 x 1.5/2 83.85 KN

Analysis for Maximum Live Load Moment using PIGEAUD'S CHART (i) Considering outer to outer face of wheels including the unloaded area Lx = Ly = k = Ly/Lx = Ax/Lx = Ay/Lx = Corresponding Pigeaud's coefficients are :

1.947 meters 9.622 meters 4.942 0.459 0.947 0.035

a x4

= 0.125

a y4

Dispersed length of one wheel in long direction :

a y1
y Now,

= ay + 2 x de

= = = =

0.644 meters 0.278 meters 0.115 0.032

Half length of unloaded area between wheels in long direction :

clr w /2 - d e
= a x4 (ay1 + y) = a y4 (ay1 + y)

a x4i a y4i

(ii) Considering the unloaded area between the two wheels

Ax Ay

= a x + 2 x de = clrw - 2 x de

= = = = = = =

0.894 meters 0.556 meters 1.947 meters 9.622 meters 4.942 0.459 0.286 0.100 0.043 0.028

Lx Ly = Ly/Lx Ax/Lx Ay/Lx


= 0.153 = a x4 x y = a y4 x y

Corresponding Pigeaud's coefficients are :

a x4
Now,

a y4

=
= =

a x4ii a y4ii
Moment in short direction Mx = Moment in long direction My =

= 2*F ( a x4i - a x4ii ) / a y1 = 2*F ( a y4i - a y4ii ) / a y1

= =

18.94 kN-m 1.16 kN-m

Case 3: Due to Abnormal Wheel Load (According to NHA Requirement) Contact area of wheel : Short direction Long direction Dispersed area of wheel :

ax ay

= =

0.60 meters 0.30 meters

Ax Ay

= ax + 2 x de = ay+ 2 x de

= =

0.994 meters 0.694 meters

ax
Ay

Ax

Total load of wheel with 50% impact

ay
= =

21 Kips x 4.448 x 1.5 140.11 KN

Analysis for Maximum Live Load Moment using PIGEAUD'S CHART

Ax/Lx Ay/Lx
Corresponding Pigeaud's coefficients are :

= =

0.511 0.356

a x4
Moment in short direction

= 0.143

a y4

0.088

Mx
Moment in long direction

= F ( a x4 + n a y4 ) x C.F = F (n a x4 + a y4 )

= =

22.49 kN-m 16.27 kN-m

My

SUMMARY OF MOMENTS Negative Moments: (KN-m) Short Direction 7.89 33.12 18.94 22.49 Long Direction 9.10 1.16 16.27

Moment due to Dead Load Class AA Tank Load Class A Truck Load Abnormal Wheel Load Positive Moments: (KN-m)

Moment due to Dead Load Class AA Tank Load Class A Truck Load Abnormal Wheel Load REINFORCEMENT (a) Short Direction (i) Mu(+ve) Ku (Considering 1m strip) = 1.3 (M dead + 5 x M live /3) = M u /bd e
2

Short Direction 2.48 33.12 18.94 22.49

Long Direction 9.10 1.16 16.27

= = = = = = 140 =

74.99 KN-m 2 1.93 N/mm 0.0055


2 1077.50 mm 2 405.00 mm 2 1077.50 mm

r (reqd)
As(reqd) As(min.)

= 0.85 f' c /f y [ 1 - (1 - Ku/ 0.3825 f' c )] = r x b x de = 0.0018 x b x ds As reqd Governs

spacing reqd (According to ACI Code 318-90) Provide: 16 As(provided)

186 mm mm c/c 2 1436.16 mm

mm dia. @

(ii) Mu(-ve) Ku r (reqd) As(reqd) As(min.)

= 1.3 (M dead + 5 x M live /3) = M u /bd e


2

= = = = = = 140 =

82.02 KN-m 2 2.11 N/mm 0.0060 2 1183.69 mm


2 405.00 mm 2 1183.69 mm 169 mm

= 0.85 f' c /f y [ 1 - (1 - Ku/ 0.3825 f' c )] = r x b x de = 0.0018 x b x ds As reqd Governs

spacing reqd (According to ACI Code 318-90) 16 As(provided) mm dia. @

mm c/c 2 1436.16 mm

(b) Long Direction Mu(+ve)(-ve) de' Ku r (reqd) As(reqd) As(min.) = 1.3 (M dead + 5 x M live /3) = de - half bar dia.(t) 2 = M u /bd e = r x b x de = 0.0018 x b x ds As reqd Governs = = = = = = = mm dia. @ 140 = 35.25 KN-m 0.191 meters 2 0.97 N/mm 0.0027 2 510.70 mm 405.00 mm 2 510.70 mm 221 mm mm c/c 2 807.84 mm
2

= 0.85 f' c /f y [ 1 - (1 - Ku/ 0.3825 f' c )]

spacing reqd (According to ACI Code 318-90) Provide: As(provided) CANTILEVER SLAB Abnormal Wheel Load with 50% impact Moment due to Abnormal Wheel Load Moment due to Dead Load Mu = 1.3 (M dead + 5 x M live /3) Ku r (reqd) As(reqd) As(min.) 12

= = = =

2 = M u /bd e = = 0.85 f' c /f y [ 1 - (1 - Ku/ 0.3825 f' c )]

= r x b x de = 0.0018 x b x ds As reqd Governs

= = = = 125 =

KN-m KN-m KN-m 2 2.55 N/mm 0.0073 2 1445.67 mm


2 405.00 mm 2 1445.67 mm 139 mm

778.40 41.00 7.89 99.09

KN/m 2

spacing reqd (According to ACI Code 318-90) Provide: 16 As(provided)

mm dia. @

mm c/c 2 1608.50 mm

CHECK FOR PUNCHING SHEAR (As per AASHTO 1996) Abnormal wheel load; V Contact area of wheel : Short direction a x Long direction a y Dispersed area of wheel :

= = =

140.11 KN 0.60 m 0.30 m 0.994 m 0.694 m 1.432 0.20 m 3.38 m 0.21 Mpa 1.02 Mpa 0.83 Mpa 0.83 Mpa

Ax Ay
Ratio of Wheel dimensions; Effective depth of Slab; Perimeter of critical section; Shear stress; Allowable Punching Shear;

= ax + 2 x de = ay+ 2 x de

= = = = = = = = =

Ax/Ay de b o = 2(Ax + Ay) v = V/(b o x d e ) v c = (0.8 + 2/ b c )(f' c ) 1.8 (f' c ) vc


SAFE IN PUNCHING SHEAR

Hence Allowable shear stress; Therefore,

UPGRADATION AND RELOCATION OF KARAKORUM HIGHWAY FOR BASHA DIAMER DAM PROJECT ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB
INPUT DATA Center to center distance of Girders Center to center distance of Diaphragms Width of Top Flange of Girders Width of Diaphragm Thickness of Deck Slab Effective Depth Effective Width Length of Cantilever portion of Slab Thickness of Surfacing Cover to Main Reinforcement Unit Weight of Concrete Unit Weight of Surfacing Ultimate Strength of Concrete Yield Strength of Steel

Sg : Sd : tf g : bd : ds : de : b: Lcant : t sur : Cover : gc :

2.350 meters 9.819 meters 0.600 meters 0.200 meters 0.225 meters 0.197 meters 1 meters 1.105 meters 0.050 meters 0.020 meters 3 24.00 kN/m
3 23.00 kN/m

g sur :
f' c : fy :

31.00 N/mm 410.00 N/mm

2 2

DEAD LOAD ANALYSIS (Considering 1m strip) Self Weight of Deck Slab Weight of Surfacing

ds x gc x 1 t sur x g sur x 1

= =

5.40 KN/m 1.15 KN/m

Max. +ve Moments due to Dead Loads Max. -ve Moments due to Dead Loads

= =

2.48 7.89

KN-m KN-m

LIVE LOAD ANALYSIS


Thickness of Deck Slab Case 1: Contact area of track : Short dimension Long dimension Dispersed area of track : Ax Ay = ax + 2 x de = ay + 2 x de = = 1.244 meters 3.994 meters

ds :
Due to CLASS 'AA' Tank Loading

0.225 meters

ax ay

= =

0.85 meters 3.60 meters

Total load of one track with 25% impact Load Distributed over track Impact Factor

= 70 tons x 9.807 x 1.25/2 = 429.06 KN = 140.21 KN/m2 = 25%

ax

ay

Ax

Case 2: Due to Abnormal Wheel Load (According to NHA Requirement) Contact area of wheel : Short direction Long direction Dispersed area of wheel :

ax ay

Ay

= =

0.60 meters 0.30 meters

Ax Ay

= ax + 2 x de = ay+ 2 x de

= =

0.994 meters 0.694 meters

ax
Ay

Ax

Total load of wheel with 50% impact Load Distributed over wheel area Impact Factor

ay
= = = =

21 Kips x 4.448 x 1.5 140.11 KN 778.40 KN/m2 50%

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Analysis for Maximum Live Load Moment using PIGEAUD'S CHART

Ax/Lx Ay/Lx
Corresponding Pigeaud's coefficients are :

= =

#REF! #REF!

a x4
Moment in short direction

= 0.143

a y4

0.088

Mx
Moment in long direction

= F ( a x4 + n a y4 ) x C.F = F (n a x4 + a y4 )

= =

#REF! kN-m #REF! kN-m

My

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SUMMARY OF MOMENTS Negative Moments: (KN-m) Short Direction 7.89 #REF! #REF! #REF! Long Direction #REF! #REF! #REF!

Moment due to Dead Load Class AA Tank Load Class A Truck Load Abnormal Wheel Load Positive Moments: (KN-m)

Moment due to Dead Load Class AA Tank Load Class A Truck Load Abnormal Wheel Load REINFORCEMENT (a) Short Direction (i) Mu(+ve) Ku r (reqd) As(reqd) As(min.) (Considering 1m strip) = 1.3 (M dead + 5 x M live /3) 2 = M u /bd e

Short Direction 2.48 #REF! #REF! #REF!

Long Direction #REF! #REF! #REF!

#REF!

= = 0.85 f' c /f y [ 1 - (1 - Ku/ 0.3825 f' c )] = r x b x de = = 0.0018 x b x ds #REF! = = = 140 =

KN-m 2 #REF! N/mm #REF! mm 2

#REF!

spacing reqd (According to ACI Code 318-90) Provide: 16 As(provided)

2 405.00 mm mm 2 #REF! #REF! mm

mm dia. @

mm c/c 2 1436.16 mm

(ii) Mu(-ve) Ku r (reqd) As(reqd) As(min.)

= 1.3 (M dead + 5 x M live /3) 2 = M u /bd e = r x b x de = 0.0018 x b x ds #REF!

= = 0.85 f' c /f y [ 1 - (1 - Ku/ 0.3825 f' c )] = = = = 140 =

#REF! KN-m 2 #REF! N/mm #REF! #REF! mm


2 2 405.00 mm mm 2 #REF! #REF! mm

spacing reqd (According to ACI Code 318-90) 16 As(provided) mm dia. @

mm c/c 2 1436.16 mm

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(b) Long Direction Mu(+ve)(-ve) de' Ku r (reqd) As(reqd) As(min.) = 1.3 (M dead + 5 x M live /3) = #REF! KN-m

= de - half bar dia.(t) = 2 = M u /bd e = = 0.85 f' c /f y [ 1 - (1 - Ku/ 0.3825 f' c )] = r x b x de = 0.0018 x b x ds #REF! = = = = mm dia. @ 140 =

0.191 meters 2 #REF! N/mm #REF! #REF! mm


2 2 405.00 mm 2 mm #REF!

spacing reqd (According to ACI Code 318-90) Provide: As(provided) CANTILEVER SLAB Abnormal Wheel Load with 50% impact Moment due to Abnormal Wheel Load Moment due to Dead Load Mu = 1.3 (M dead + 5 x M live /3) Ku 12

#REF!

mm

mm c/c 2 807.84 mm

= = = =

r (reqd)
As(reqd) As(min.)

2 = M u /bd e = = 0.85 f' c /f y [ 1 - (1 - Ku/ 0.3825 f' c )] = r x b x de =

KN-m KN-m KN-m 2 2.55 N/mm 0.0073 2 1445.67 mm


2 405.00 mm 2 1445.67 mm 139 mm

778.40 41.00 7.89 99.09

KN/m 2

= 0.0018 x b x ds As reqd Governs

spacing reqd (According to ACI Code 318-90) Provide: 16 As(provided)

= = = 125 =

mm dia. @

mm c/c 2 1608.50 mm

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CHECK FOR PUNCHING SHEAR (As per AASHTO 1996) Abnormal wheel load; V Contact area of wheel : Short direction a x Long direction a y Dispersed area of wheel :

= = =

140.11 KN 0.60 m 0.30 m 0.994 m 0.694 m 1.432 0.20 m 3.38 m 0.21 Mpa 1.02 Mpa 0.83 Mpa 0.83 Mpa

Ax Ay
Ratio of Wheel dimensions; Effective depth of Slab; Perimeter of critical section; Shear stress; Allowable Punching Shear;

= ax + 2 x de = ay+ 2 x de

= = = = = = = = =

Ax/Ay de b o = 2(Ax + Ay) v = V/(b o x d e ) v c = (0.8 + 2/ b c )(f' c ) 1.8 (f' c ) vc


SAFE IN PUNCHING SHEAR

Hence Allowable shear stress; Therefore,

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