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act like an on-off switch. It acts as a short circuit and allows the current flow when the diode is “on” or forward-biased. However, diode behaves like an open circuit and blocks the flow of current if the diode is “off” or reversed-biased. Hence, in order to make the diode “on”, the potential or voltage applied must match the polarity of the diode (forward-biased). To turn “off” the diode, invert the polarity of the diode (reversed biased). Of course this is the theoretical behaviour of an ideal diode, but it can be seen as a good approximation for a real diode. Diode is used in various electronic applications. For example, due to the characteristic of diode, it can be used in AC-DC rectification and voltage multiplier. Besides, it is found very useful to make FM and AM detector. Light-Emitting Diode or LED which is one of the types of diode, is commonly used in electronic devices due to its properties. LED is a semiconductor light source. When current flow through the LED, it will produce certain wavelength of photon and this light is used in giving indication and not illumination. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. However, they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources. They also enjoy use in applications as diverse as replacements for traditional light sources in automotive lighting (particularly indicators) and in traffic signals. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology. Objectives: The objectives of this experiment are: i) ii) iii) iv) To show the difference between Pn Diodes, Zener Diodes and Light Emitting Diodes. To fathom the behavious of pn diodes under forwards biased and reversed biased conditions. To demonstrate the characteristics of Zener Diode at reversed biased condition. To show the relationship between forward current and LED intensity.
No current can flow through the diode and the diode is “off”. Electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device. this will provide a forward-biased condition for the diode. the depletion region will continue to decrease in width until a flood of electron can pass through the junction. When applying positive potential to the p-type material and negative potential to the n-type material of the PN junction diode. Electroluminescence occurs and the LED will release energy in term of photon. resulting in exponential rise in current. 6. 3. 3. 4. The Operation of the Light-Emitting Diode (LED) 1. When applying positive potential to the p-type material and negative potential to the n-type material of the PN junction diode. As for reverse-bias condition. As the applied bias increase in magnitude. it will increase the width of the depletion region and form a very strong barrier and hence block the flow of majority carrier. 5.Theory: The Operation of PN diode 1. 2. This forward bias potential will pressure the electrons in n-type material and holes in p-type material to recombine with the ions near the boundary. Hence. 2 . This forward bias potential will pressure the electrons in n-type material and holes in p-type material to recombine with the ions near the boundary and reduce the width of the depletion region. 4. The colour of the light emitted is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. the diode allows the current flows and the diode is “on”. 2. 5. The resulting minority-carrier flow of electron from p-type material to the n-type material (and holes from n-type material to p-type material) has not changed in magnitude. this will provide a forward-biased condition for the diode. but reduction in depletion region width has result in heavy majority flow across the junction.
6. that are 1V. 4. The DMM is used to measure the potential across the diode as you vary the power supply. The circuit in the Figure 1 is set up as shown above to measure the forward characteristics of silicon diode. The diode is now connected in the reversed biased mode as shown in Figure 2 below. The current is increased at intervals from 0 to 10mA by varying the power supply and the potential across the diode. IR is recorded through the diode at respective 4 values of VR.Procedures: (A) The Junction Diode Figure 1 1. 3V. (B) Zener Diodes Figure 3 3 . VF is measured. 8V and 15V. Figure 2 5. 3. The reverse current. 2. The graph of VF versus IF is then plotted on a graph.
(C) Light Emitting Diodes Figure 4 1.VF RS = ೃೄ ூೃೄ 7. 6. The LED short lead is connected to ground during the installation process. use ohmmeter to set the Rs calculated by applying the formulae: VRS = VS . The breakdown characteristics (VR vs IR) for TWO different diodes using the circuit shown in Figure 3. applied to the trainer. observed. the 200 Ω control is set to the RS value calculated to produce 40 mA of forward current using the ohmmeter. Loads are connected to 200 ohms control. Power is applied to Trainer and Rs is adjusted for an indication 40mA on Inillian1meter. To prove the results of your calculations. The forward voltage of the LED is recorded with 40mA of forward current. To prove the results of calculations in Step 6. 2. and milliammeter indication.1. The identification information is noted on the diodes. The brightness of LED is noted. The data points obtained in Steps 3 and 4 are plotted. 3. 4. 5. The test requirements are set so that the millimeter in 100mV DC range and voltmeter in 3V DC range. 4 . Rs is adjusted to midrange. The control is inserted into the circuit. Power is removed from the trainer. If the curve and calculations are correct. the milliammeter should indicate very close to 40 mA. 2. The circuit is wired as shown in the schematic diagram in Figure 4. power.
Power is removed from the trainer.614 0. The red LED is replaced with the green LED and power is applied.0 6. The 1 kΩ control is used for RS and a 68 Ω resistor is added in series with the LED.0 10.670 5 .640 0. Power is removed from the trainer.0 3. 20 mA and 10 mA (depending upon the LED used.0 8. +5V ADD THIS RESISTOR TO EXISTING CIRCUIT 3 Rs 1k CONTROL MILLIAMMETER 2 A 68 1 LED V VOLTMETER OR SCOPE Power is applied to the trainer and RS is adjusted for minimum resistance (maximum IF). This procedure is repeated using the amber LED.656 0.0 4.594 0.662 0. The test circuit is modified as shown below. The relationship between the LED's lens colour and the colour of its emission is again noted.This procedure is repeated for 30 mA.0 2.667 0. Power is removed from the trainer and the colour of the LED lens is noted.0 5.0 7. The LED should emit a bright red light.0 VF(V) 0. Results: (A) The Junction Diode i) Forward-bias Characteristic IF (mA) 1.554 0. it may be necessary to use the 1 kΩ control to obtain 10 mA IF).628 0.0 9. 8.649 0.
9V breakdown voltage (V) (mA) I 0.000 15.051 1.2V breakdown voltage II: 3.976 30mA 1.878 4.964 25mA 1.000 3. gradient = Δ௫ = Δ௬ IR (mA) 0.0 0.158 3.338 2. For Red LED (graph on page 14).288 1.528 2.50 3.587 2.032 1.792 2.915 10mA 1.986 2.263 2.The graph of VF versus IF is then plotted on a graph on page 13.963 2.165 2.021 2.794 3.834 2.889 2.0 0.186 1.813 0.000 8.210 = 0.345 2.05 1.043 IF 27.0 II 2.10 1.975 1.129 1.042 5.217 1.982 0. From the graph.195 (C) Light Emitting Diodes STEPS 1-5 VF/V RED GREEN YELLOW AMBER 40mA 2.5m 0.870 2.0 0.00 3.989 35mA 1.942 20mA 1.452 2.20 2.931 15mA 1.492 0.000 (B) Zener Diode Breakdown characteristics for 2 different breakdown diodes: I: 3. ii) Reverse-Biased Characteristic VR (V) 1.086 1.895 Table showing the forward current versus forward voltage of different types of LEDs.131 6 .
From the graph.235 = 0.Forward resistance = ଵ ீௗ௧ = 7.925 Ω ଵ 26.5m 0.636 Ω For Green LED (graph on page 15).0957 Forward resistance = ீௗ௧ = 10.390 = 0.918 Ω For Yellow LED (graph on page 16).0628 Forward resistance = ீௗ௧ = 15.342 Forward resistance = ீௗ௧ = 2. From the graph. gradient = Δ௫ Δ௬ ଵ = 0. gradient = Δ௫ = Δ௬ ଵ 22.5m 7 .444 Ω For Amber LED (graph on page 17).5m 0. gradient = = Δ௬ Δ௫ 24.0775 = 0. From the graph.
933 136.90 RS /Ω Yellow 67.80 Green 60.70 302.85 294.2 10.70 302. RS / Ω 67.23 156. the forward current reading is obtained.45 310. 8 IF / mA 40.7 31.50 By setting the control to the value RS calculated in step 6.800 93.6 .20 153.5 21.STEPS 6-7 Calculation of the values of RS needed to obtain the following values of IF using the equation: VRS = VS .7 10.6 32.325 84. RS / Ω 74.90 For Yellow LED.9 10.800 145. RS / Ω 60.4 IF / mA 40.800 93.23 156.80 For Green LED.2 20.50 320.1 30.800 145.50 Amber 75.325 84.475 101.475 101.9 21.85 294.933 136.50 For Amber LED.275 101.50 320.8 IF / mA 40.VF but VS = 5 V and IRS = IF RS = ೃೄ ூೃೄ IF 40 mA 30 mA 20 mA 10 mA Red 74. For Red LED.
5 20.3 Colour of emissions at minimum RS resistance (IF maximum) and power on Bright red light Emission colour when power off Red LED The colour became dimmer slowly and then went off.20 153. The colour became dimmer slowly and then went off.RS / Ω 75. The colour became dimmer slowly and then went off.45 310.50 STEP 8 Type of LED IF / mA 40. Green LED Greenish yellow light Yellow LED Bright yellow light Amber LED Yellow brownish light 9 . The colour became dimmer slowly and then went off.7 10.275 101.8 31.
the higher the diode current.DISCUSSION: (A) The Junction Diode Being semiconductor device. there is essentially no diode current in the diode. the junction diode is said to be in forward biased condition. However. the diode conducts current when it is in forward biased condition. we found out that the voltage drop is approximately 0. The injection of minority carries in both p and n junctions cause the current to produce. zener knee voltage or zener voltage. when the diode is in forward bias. When the positive voltage is applied to the p-region relative to the n-region. it acts like a switch. (B) Zener Diode Zener diode is a diode which allows current to flow in the forward direction in the same manner as an ideal diode during forward biased condition. the diode can be treated as short circuit and hence zero voltage drop across it. In forward biased conditions. the current (I) is an exponential function of the applied voltage (V). From the VF versus IF graph. In fact. I = IS(eV/Vt-1). It allows the current to flow through it in one direction and hence.6V across the diode when it is in forward biased (you can see from the graph too). This means that as the at higher applied voltage. Nevertheless. the junction diode is formed by fusing a p-type material and an n-type material together. This is due to the widen of space charge region that prevents the diffusion of carries from n-junction to the p-junction and the diffusion of carries from p-junction to the n-junction Besides. the graph obtained is non-linear because the diode is dependent on the temperature change. we can also see that the slope decreases when the current increases. majority electrons from n-junction can diffuse to the p-junction and majority holes from p-junction can diffuse to the n-junction. the depletion region has already been reduced and hence. It is due to the junction voltage across the diode that needs to be achieved in order to obtain a forward biased current. 10 . The higher the voltage applied. Ideally. From the table when reversed biased voltage is applied. it also permits the current to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value known as the breakdown voltage. a slight increase of voltage will cause a significant increase in diode current. As seen in the graph on page 13 . where Vt is given as kT/e. You can verify this from the table of reversed biased shown in the result section.
878V to 4. limiting the LED forward current to any predetermined value. showing the linear relationship between the forward current. the voltage across it is maintained in the range of 3. we obtained three similar curves.034V when the current supplied increases from 0. By using the forward characteristic curve obtained. However. The threshold voltage of a typical LED is around 2V. IF and forward voltage.195V. when the current supplied increases from 0. As the zener diode can maintain the voltage across it.9V breakdown-voltage zener diode. it can be used as a voltage regulator. light green. the voltage across the 3. The independence of the colour of light emitted by an LED and its lens colour (Step 8) Based upon the observation in Step 8. The selection of current limiting resistance in an LED circuit (Step 6 – Step 7) The result of IF is similar to the value we get at step 6.In this experiment under reversed biased condition. These outcomes obey the general behavior of a diode which shows linear forward property after the threshold voltage was exceeded. This is done by choosing the appropriate control resistance RS. as we will recall from the text.50mA to 5mA. For 3. The primary purpose of using pigmentation in lens construction is to improve its visual contrast between the “on” and “off” condition.2V breakdown-voltage zener diode is maintained in the range of 3. VF. Therefore. it allows us to design an LED circuit.042V to 3. we might conclude that the light emitted by an LED is strictly a function of its lens color. this is not true. After the experiment was repeated for red. 11 . (C) Light Emitting Diodes The forward-current-versus-forward-voltage characteristic of LEDs (Step 1 – Step 5) The curves formed provide us with workable “Forward Current –VersusForward Voltage” characteristic curve for this LED.50mA to 5mA. The LED produces only a narrow band of wavelengths. This curve is usually available in manufacturing’s data sheet. yellow and amber LEDs. the lens color can modify its appearance only slightly.
5) The color of the emission of an LED is independent of its lens color and is solely a function of its chip material.). Neamen. “Electronic circuit analysis and design”. References: 1. 2. McGraw-Hill. 4) The forward voltage current characteristic show straight line relationship if the forward voltage is greater than the turn-on threshold voltage of an LED. (2012). Boylestad R.Conclusion: 1) Diode is a device that only allow the current to flow in one direction. (2001). (11th ed. “Electronic Device and Circuit Theory”.). Prentice Hall International. (4th ed. Donald A. 6) Intensity of the LED emission is directly proportional to its forward current for current levels far below its maximum swing. 2) As obtained in this experiment. 12 . the threshold voltage of p-n silicon diode is approximately 0.6V 3) Zener diodes allow the current to flow in reverse direction with reverse bias configuration provided the breakdown voltage is reached.
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