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WHAT IS BOILER ??

BOILER

BOILER

means any closed vessel exceeding 22.75 litres in capacity and is used expressively for generating steam under pressure and includes any mounting or other fitting attached to such vessel which is wholly or partly under pressure when the steam is shut off.
- IBR

STEAM

Steam

is the technical term for water vapor, the gaseous phase of water, which is formed when water boils

STEAM PIPE
STEAM PIPE means any pipe through which steam passes from a boiler to a prime mover or other user or both if pressure at which steam passes through such pipes exceeds 3.5 kg/cm2 above atmospheric pressure or such pipe exceeds 254 mm in internal diameter and includes in either case any connected fitting of a steam pipe. - IBR

BOILER CODES
Boiler Codes have been written by various nations in the past century to ensure safety of personnel and to avoid loss of property. Boiler codes cover the whole gamut of activities including Design, Fabrication, Testing, Construction and Operation. The various aspects of IBR Regulations are called out and consolidated against major items like drum, headers, lines & links, etc. The following codes have been used widely.

1. 2. 3. 4.

IBR 1950 ASME Section-I BS 1113 DIN TRD 300.

THERMODYNAMICS OF POWER PLANT

SENSIBLE HEAT
The Heat required to bring the water from 00c to

boiling point is the enthalpy or heat content of the liquid measured in Kcal/Kg. OR The sensible heat of a thermodynamic process may be calculated as the product of the body's mass (m) with its specific heat capacity (c) and the change in temperature ( T): Q=mc T

LATENT HEAT
Latent heat is the amount of energy in the form of heat

released or absorbed by a substance during a change of phase (i.e. solid, liquid, or gas), also called a phase transition

SUPERHEAT
When the steam is heated out of contact with water ,

the steam temperature increases above saturation temperature .Such a heating is known as super Heating OR In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, or boiling delay) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling

CRITICAL POINT

With the increase in pressure for steam generation , the sensible heat required increases with decrease in latent heat. At every pressure between saturated water and saturated steam a phase called wet steam exists. However at one point the water turns into steam on addition of sensible heat alone without going through the phase of wet steam . This occurs at temperature of 374oC and 224.6kg/cm2 absolute pressure. This is called critical point.

THE RANKINE CYCLE


Basic Rankine Cycle
OUTPUT INCREASE
Temperature ( 0 C) D

C E F

24 deg C

A -273

Entropy KJ / Kg K

DIFFRENCE BETWEEN POWER AND ENERGY ??

Energy is an amount of work generated or used, and has units such as Joules, BTU, calories, or or watthours or kW-hours.

Power is the RATE of generating or using energy, and has units of watts, which are Joules per second. Or kW or MW (standard SI prefixes apply)

MEANING OF 1 MW POWER
If 10 bulbs of 100 Watt glows at a time in one home. It will consumes 1 kilo-watt of power. Let us assume, load of one home is 1 kilo watt 1 MW = 1000 kW = 1000 X 1000 W

= 1000 X (load of one home)


= load of 1,000 homes Hence, 500 mw plant will benefit 5,00,000 homes (provided each home uses 1kw power at a time)

MEANING OF 1 UNIT OF ELECTRICITY


if 10 bulbs of 100 watt glows at a time in one home for one hour. it will consumes 1

kilo watt hour (1kwhr) of power. this is called as 1 unit in our electricity bills.
If 500 MW plant, when run for one full day, it will produces

500 mw = 500 mw x 24 hr = 12,000 mw hr = 12,000 x 1,000 kW- hr = 1,20,00,000 units of electricity (12 million units per day)

EFFICIENCY
Efficiency of any plant or equipment is the ratio of output to its input.

Output of power plant is energy sent out to the grid


Input is the heat energy of the fuels fired in boiler

Mathematically, (Energy sent out in KW) X 860 Kcal / KW Efficiency =

(CV of fuel in Kcal / Kg) X (Fuel burnt in Kg)

HEAT RATE
Heat rate is the ratio of heat added to steam in boiler (in Kcal) to the Electrical energy sent out (in kWh) Efficiency and Heat Rate are related terms. Lower the heat rate more efficient is

the plant.
Heat rate for thermal project is in the range of 2200 to 1950 Kcal / kW-hr

EFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF THERMAL POWER PLANT


TYPE
BOILER (1)

EFFICIENCY
84-92 %

TURBINE (2)
GENERATOR (3)

84-92 %
96-98 %

THERMAL CYCLE (4) OVERALL PLANT EFFICIENCY (5) = (1)X(2)X(3)X(4)

50-55 % 34-40 %

CRITICAL POINT
Increasing the pressure of steam will increase saturation

temperature of steam at which evaporation takes place.


A point on T-S graph, where saturated liquid line &

saturated vapour line meets, so that associated latent heat for phase conversion is zero, that point is called Critical Point.
The critical pressure & temperature for water are Pressure = 224.56 Kg / cm2 Temperature = 374.15 deg C

SUB CRITICAL & SUPERCRITICAL BOILERS


Boiler operating below the critical point range and have some amount of latent heat addition in steam during phase conversion from liquid to Gaseous state are termed as Sub Critical Boilers. Boilers operating above the critical point range are termed as Super Critical Boilers

BOILER CLASSIFICATION

TYPES OF BOILERS
(A) BASED ON APPLICATION :
1. Utility Boilers are large capacity steam generators used purely for electrical power generation.

2. Industrial Boilers are small capacity boilers intended for use in the process industries.

Types Of Boilers.contd
(B) BASED ON CONSTRUCTION:
1. Vertical Recovery-V2R

2. Vertical Unit 40-VU40


3. Vertical Unit 60-VU60 4. Modular Unit-MU 5. 2 Pass Single Arch 6. 2 Pass Double Arch

7. Close couple
8. Box Type 9. Tower Type

Types Of Boilers.contd
Single Pass (Tower type) :
If boiler configuration is such that flue gases from furnace continue to rise upward and all subsequent heat absorbing coils are kept in this vertical passage, boiler is referred as tower type boiler.

Double Pass or Two Pass:


However, if configuration is designed such that after furnace flue gases take a horizontal turn followed by downward path in a separate chamber, where heat absorbing coils like Super heaters and Economizers are kept, it is referred as Two pass boiler.

Types Of Boilers.contd
Top Suspended Boiler:
When all heat absorbing surfaces are suspended from top structure and are free to expand downward, the boiler is referred as top suspended. Some boilers are bottom supported also. (like CFBC Boilers)

But invariably large capacity boilers are top suspended for distinctive advantage of smooth down ward expansion of pressure parts.

Types Of Boilers.contd
(C) BASED ON FUEL FIRING: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Oil Fired Only Coal ( Sub-Bituminous) Fired Lignite Fired (CFBC Boiler) Black Liquor (For Paper Mills) Baggase (Stoker Fired)

Types Of Boilers.contd
(D) BASED ON TYPE OF FIRING:
1. 2. 3. WALL FIRING ( Only in CFBC Boilers) CORNER TANGENTIAL FIRING STOKER

Types Of Boilers.contd
Corner Tangential Fired Boiler
When burners are located in corners of furnace wall

such that the protruded flames from them form a tangent to an imaginary circle in the center of the furnace, the furnace (boiler) is called tangential fired boiler.
210/250/270/500MW boiler is invariably of this

design. Boiler)

(All Conventional Pulverized fuel fired

Types Of Boilers.contd
(E) BASED ON NO. OF DRUMS:
1. SINGLE DRUM 2. BI- DRUM 3. NO DRUM (Vertical Separator)

Types Of Boilers.contd
(F) BASED ON CIRCULATION:
1. NATURAL 2. CONTROLLED

2.1 FORCED Circulation (Pump)


2.2 CONTROLLED Circulation (+Orifice) 2.3 CC+ (Pump + Orifice + Rifled Tubing) 3. ONCE THROUGH

Boiling Mechanism
Circulation refers to flow of steam and water mixture generated in water walls to drum. Steam generated forms bubbles which in any case should immediately flow and should not stick to water wall surface, which is termed as Nucleate Boiling. In case, the bubbles formed are not able to flow and sticks to water wall, thus making a film that disrupts contact with flowing water for heat transfer is termed as Film Boiling which is not desirable. Thus Deviation from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) leads to tube failures due to higher metal temperatures. Rifled tubing (Inside surface has Helical profile) avoids the deviation from Nucleate Boiling

Controlled Circulation Boiler


Normal Conditions
FURNACE WALL OUTLET
uality

Smooth Tubing

Rifled Tubing

Generated Q

Q ua lit y

uali ty

Al lo w ab le

30%

Elevation

Elevation

DNB Region

Quality Minimum Safety Margin ~10%

Quality Minimum Safety Margin ~30%

y Qualit e l b a Allow

10%

Gen e ra t

ed Q

DNB Region

Circulation in Boiler
The ratio of the weight of water to the weight of steam in the mixture leaving the heat absorption surfaces is called Circulation Ratio.

Controlled circulation system use of controlled circulation pump used for pressure up to 194kg/cm2 (sub critical pr.) circulation ratio > 1

Natural Circulation
At lower drum operating pressure (below 175 kg/cm2), there is a considerable difference in densities of water and steam. Drum and down comers are full of relatively cold water whereas upper portion of water walls and risers tubes are full of wet steam. The circulation in furnace, in this case, takes place due to Thermo-Siphon principle. The density difference is the driving force and this balances the frictional losses, establishes a rate of circulation. The furnace is called Natural Circulated. Thus Natural circulation is the ability of water to circulate continuously, with gravity and changes in temperature being the only driving force known as "thermal head.

Forced Circulation
Beyond 175 kg/cm2 operating pressure, the driving force due to density difference reduces considerably and unable to establish such circulation. Now circulation is assisted by providing pumps in down comer path to over come frictional losses. The amount of water, flowing in water wall tubes, is controlled by providing orifice in each tube. The boiler (furnace) is referred as Controlled Circulated. 500MW boilers need controlled circulation. Less than 500MW units are generally natural circulation type.

Why controlled circulation is required?

Diff in Density

Types Of Boilers.contd
(F) BASED ON DRAFT:
1. Forced draft 2. Induced Draft

3. Balanced Draft

Types Of Boilers.contd
Balanced Draft Furnace
When the secondary air being supplied to furnace by

Forced Draft (FD) fans to facilitate combustion and flue gases of combustion from furnace are suck out by the Induced Draft (ID) fans are adjusted in such a way that the interior pressure of furnace is maintained at slightly negative pressure (minus 10 mm of water column as compared to atmospheric pressure), the boiler is categorized as Balanced Draft furnace.
210/250/270/500 MW boiler is invariably a balanced

draft boiler

Boiler Pressure Parts

PRESSURE PARTS
(A) BASED ON CONFIGURATION :
1. HEADERS

2. PANELS 3. COILS 4. CONNECTING LINKS 5. SUPPORTS & SUSPENSIONS

(B) BASED ON SYSTEM :


1. ECONOMISER SYSTEM

2. CIRCULATION SYSTEM 3. SUPERHEATER SYSTEM 4. REHEATER SYSTEM

WATER WALLS LOOKING FROM OUTSIDE

WATER WALLS LOOKING FROM INSIDE OF THE BOILER

Downcomers
There are down comers in boiler ( 6 no. in 270 MW) which

carry water from boiler drum to the bottom ring header.


They are installed from outside the furnace to keep density

difference for circulation of water & steam.

WATER WALLS
HEATING AND EVAPORATING THE FEED WATER SUPPLIED TO

THE BOILER FROM THE ECONOMISERS.


THESE ARE VERTICAL TUBES CONNECTED AT THE TOP AND

BOTTOM TO THE HEADERS.


THESE TUBES RECEIVE WATER FROM THE BOILER DRUM BY

MEANS OF DOWNCOMERS CONNECTED BETWEEN DRUM AND WATER WALLS LOWER HEADER.
APPROXIMATELY 50% OF THE HEAT RELEASED BY THE

COMBUSTION OF THE FUEL IN THE FURNACE IS ABSORBED BY THE WATER WALLS.

Water Walls Tubes Construction


Membrane Panel Furnace

walls:
When tubes are welded together using either welded metal between tubes (membrane walls) or a filler plate welded to both adjacent tubes (fin welded), the wall is called Welded Wall.

Construction of Water Walls


Tangent tube The construction consists of water wall placed side by side nearly touching each other. An envelope of thin sheet of steel called "SKIN CASING" is placed in contact with the tubes, which provides a seal against furnace leakage.

Pressure Parts ..contd


(C)BASED ON FLOW
1. ECONOMISER 2.1 Eco inlet Link 2.2 Eco inlet Header 2.3 Eco Coils 2.4 Eco Intermediate Headers 2.5 Eco Hanger Tubes 2.6 Eco Outlet Header 2.7 Eco Connecting Links to Drum 2. DRUM With Internals 3. DOWN COMERS

(C) Based on Flow contd


4. WATER WALL INLET HEADERS

5. WATER WALL PANELS 5.1 Front 5.2 Rear 5.3 Side 5.4 Extended Side 6. WATER WALL Loose tubes (Arch, Extended Side, Hanger and screen) 7. Water wall outlet headers 8. Risers 9. Drum

Water Path in Boiler (270MW)


Economizer (From BFP discharge lines) Collected in outlet water wall headers & discharged to steam drum through riser tubes Rises through furnace wall tubes - front/rear,left ,right side(absorbs latent heat) Inside drum water separated from steam-water mixture through turbo separators & screen driers

Steam Drum (Via economizer links to drum)

Dry saturated steam exits the drum & enters into 1st stage of superheating

Via Downcomers

bottom ring headers

SH STEAM OUTLET

CRH IN DRUM
FRONT ROOF

HRH OUT

REAR ROOF

EXTENDED WW

LTSH

Economiser

WATER INLET

WATER WALL BOTTOM RING HEADER

Steam Path in Boiler


Steam Drum SH SCW side outlet hdrs(4) (F/R; left/right) SH steam cooled Back Pass side walled tubes SH Steam cooled (Backpass) sidewall inlet header SH Radiant Roof outlet Header Backpass SCW front wall inlet header SCW front & screen tubes Backpass rear roof tubes Backpass LTSH & economiser supports lower SH steam cooled rear wall tubes upper SH rear roof junction header LTSH & economiser support tubes LTSH & economiser support headers

SH connecting tubes SH Radiant Roof Inlet Header

SH Radiant Roof tubes (Ist Pass)

Steam Path in Boiler (contd.)


SH steam cooled rear wall inlet header SH steam cooled rear wall tubes SH PLATEN inlet header SH Platen Coil Assembly

LTSH TO SH Platen HDR

SH outlet headers

LTSH steam cooled rear wall tubes inlet header


LTSH horizontal spaced coils

LTSH outlet headers

Main Steam (MS) line

LTSH coil terminals

Transfer of Energy in SH
Super heater heats the high-pressure steam from its saturation temperature to a higher specified temperature.

Hot Flue Gas

Thermal Structure SH

SH Steam

Convection & Radiation HT Drop in Enthalpy of Flue Gas

Convection HT
Rise in Enthalpy of Steam

Mechanism of Heat Transfer

Mechanism of Heat Transfer :

Rate of heat transfer from hot gas to cold steam is proportional to: Mean Temperature difference between Hot Gas and Cold Steam. Surface area of heat transfer Thot gas,in Tcold gas,out TSH steam,out Tcold steam,in

SUPERHEATER (For 270 MW Units)


SH heating surfaces are in the form of coils which are made by bending the tubes in cold or hot condition. The superheater is composed of four basic sections. The platen section is located directly above the furnace in front of the furnace arch. It absorbs heat mainly by radiation. The pendant spaced section (Final Superheater) is located in back of the screen wall tubes. The mode of heat transfer is convection. The horizontal section of the superheater (LTSH) is located in the rear gas pass above economiser. The steam cooled wall sections form the side, front and rear walls and roof of the vertical gas pass.

SUPERHEATER HEADER & TUBES

Platen Superheater
Flat panels of tubes located in the upper part of the furnace, where the gas temperature is high. The tubes of the platen SH receive very high radiation as well as a heavy dust burden. Mechanism of HT : High Radiation & Low convection Thermal Structure:

No. of platens No. of tubes in a platen Dia of a tube Length of a tube

Geometry of Thermal Structure : Platen SH


The outer diameter of platen SH is in the range of 32 42 mm. The platens are usually widely spaced, S1 = 500 900 mm. The tubes within a platen are closely spaced, S2/d = 1.1.

The number of parallel tubes in a platen is in the range of 15 35.

Convective Superheater (Pendant)

S1 S2

Convective super heaters are vertical type (Pendant ) or horizontal types. The Pendant SH is always arranged in the horizontal crossover duct. Pendant SH tubes are widely spaced due to high temperature of flue gas and ash is soft. Transverse pitch : S1/d > 4.5 Longitudinal pitch : S2/d > 3.5 The outside tube diameter : 32 51 mm Tube thickness : 3 7 mm

Convective Superheater (Horizontal)


The horizontal SH are located in the back pass. The tubes are arranged in the in-line configuration. The outer diameter of the tube is 32 51 mm. The tube thickness of the tube is 3 7 mm. The transverse pitch : S1/d = 2 3. The longitudinal pitch :S2/d = 1.6 2.5. The tubes are arranged in multiple parallel sets. The desired velocity depends on the type of SH and operating steam pressures. The outside tube diameter : 32 51mm Tube thickness : 3 7mm

S1 S2

76

Reheater ( 270 MW)


Purpose
RE-HEAT the steam (at 350 deg C) from HP TURBINE to 540 deg C for I.P Turbine. The Reheater - Single stage 2 Sections. Front & rear pendant vertical spaced. The front section is located between the superheater platen section and the rear water wall hanger tubes. The rear section is located between rear wall hanger tubes and water wall screen.

Reheater
The pressure drop inside re-heater tubes has an important adverse effect on the efficiency of turbine. Pressure drop through the re-heater should be kept as low as possible. The tube diameter : 42 60mm. The design is similar to Final (Pendant) super-heater.

CRH to HRH
HRH line CRH line
Reheater vertically placed rear outlet header

DeSH

Reheater Vertical platen inlet header

Reheater vertical spaced coil

FRONT REHEATER PANEL

Supports & Suspensions For Super Heater & Re Heater

SUPPORTS & SUSPENSIONS FOR SH & RH


1. Vertical Assemblies are suspended from the ceiling. 2. In Pendant assemblies, the Tie Lugs are welded in between tubes at the top row to transfer the load from centre to end terminals. 3. The horizontal Super heaters are supported by Economiser hanger tubes through strap supports.

SUPPORTS & SUSPENSIONS FOR SH & RH Contd


4. The pendant coils are suspended by high crown supports. The high crown plates are welded on either side of seal band and the load is transferred through end bar. The headers will be independently supported from the ceiling through tie rod assemblies with or without variable spring hangers as the case may be.

5.

SPACERS FOR SH & RH: Spacer are used to maintain pitches along and across coil assemblies. The type of spacers generally used are transverse spacers and alignment ties. Fluid Cooled Spacers or Mechanical Spacer Bar are used as transverse spacers.

Alignment Ties are used to maintain pitch between tubes in the same assembly.
Flexible Connector and Alignment Band are used as alignment ties. Flexible connectors in combination with fluid cooled spacers are used. Mechanical spacer bars in combination with alignment band are used. The spacers are all made of stainless steel.

In pendant SH or RH assemblies the tie lugs are welded in between tubes at the top row to transfer the load from centre to end terminals

Economizer
Economiser are feed-water heaters in which the heat from waste gases is recovered to raise the temperature of feedwater supplied to the boiler.

Economizer
The economizer preheats the feed water by utilizing the residual heat of the

flue gas. It reduces the exhaust gas temperature and saves the fuel. Modern power plants use steel-tube-type economizers. Design Configuration: divided into several sections : 0.6 0.8 m gap

16 April 2013

PMI Revision 00

92

Advantages of Economizer
6oC raise in feed water temperature in economizer corresponds to a 1% saving in fuel consumption.

220 C reduction in flue gas temperature, increases boiler efficiency by 1%.

Location and Arrangement


Placed ahead of air-pre heaters in back pass. Placed below the Low Temp Super-heater. Heat Transfer in counter-flow arrangement Horizontal in-line arrangement of tubes (facilitate complete draining) Recirculation valve and Non-return valve incorporated to ensure recirculation in case of no feed-flow Ash hopper placed below, as flue gas takes a turn.

ECONOMIZER TUBES ( Horizontal Inline Arrangement)

ECONOMIZER & LTSH HANGER TUBES

Type of Construction
Plain Tube : Several banks of tubes with either-in-line or

staggered type formation. Staggered arrangement induces more turbulence than the in-line arrangement. This gives a higher rate of heat transfer and requires less surface but at the expense of higher draught loss. Welded Fin-tube : Fin welded design is used for improving the heat transfer.

Finned Economizers

Materials Specifications for Boiler Pressure Parts

Economizer System
S. Description No.
1. Economiser Coils Headers Material SA 210 GrA1 SA 106 Gr C

Design Temp. 326 398

Circulating System
S. Description No. 1. 2. Drum

Material
SA 299 Tubes Headers SA210 Gr C SA 299, SA106 Gr C

Design Temp. 368 398 370

Water Walls

Roof & Steam Cooled walls


Sl. Description No. 1. 2. Roof SC walls Tubes Headers Tubes Headers Material SA 213 T11 SA106 Gr C SA210 Gr C SA106 Gr C Design Temp. 413 368 405 368 -394

Superheater System
Sl. Description Material No. Coils T11 LTSH 1. Headers SA106 Gr. C SA335 P12 T11, T22, Coils Div. T91 2. Panel Headers SA335 P12 3. Platen (Final) T22, T91, Coils TP347H, Headers SA335 P12 SA335 P22 Temp. Range 404 - 477 394 -452 409 - 535

420 - 496
478 - 600 489 - 572

Reheater System
S. Description No. Coils 1. RH Headers Material Temp. Range

T11, T22, 351 - 589 T91, TP347H, SA106 Gr C SA335 P22 361 - 590

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