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Course Review
History Makers of the Ancient World Ancient Mesopotamia (2350 B.C.E. 400 B.C.E.):
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sargon Hammurabi Sennacherib Ashurbanipal Gilgamesh Nebuchadnezzar (Akkadian Leader who created First Known Empire) (Consolidated the first known Written Code of Laws) (Assyrian King who destroyed the City of Babylon) (Assyrian King who developed First Large Modern Library) (Mythological Hero-King of Sumerian Legend Epic Poem) (Chaldean Ruler who restored City of Babylon and Dedicated the Great Hanging Gardens to his wife)

Ancient Egypt (3200 B.C.E. 670 B.C.E.):

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Narmer Hatshepsut Thutmose III Ramses II Piankhi (Unified the Upper and Lower Kingdoms of Egypt) (Expanded Egyptian Empire through Peaceful Trade) (Warrior King who expanded Empire into Syria & Nubia) (Defeated the Hittites and Directed building of Abu Simbel) (Kushite King who conquered Egypt & created Kush Empire)

Ancient Israel (1800 B.C.E. 900 B.C.E.):

1. 2. 3. Abraham Moses Solomon (Patriarch of the Hebrews who led migration from Ur to Canaan) (Prophet who led the Hebrews on Exodus from Egypt to Palestine and Introduced the 10 Commandments) (Most powerful Hebrew King, created Great Trade Empire, directed building of the Great Temple and had his Wisdom Tested by the Queen of Sheba)

Ancient India (560 400 B.C.E.):

1. Siddhartha Gautama (Known as Buddha, founder of Buddhism)

Ancient Persia (550 B.C.E 330 B.C.E.):

1. 2. Cyrus I (The Great) Darius I (Military Genius who founded the Persian Empire) (Created strong government with Provinces & Satraps)

Ancient China (550 B.C.E. 200 B.C.E.):

1. 2. 3. Confucius Shi Huangdi Laozi (Philosopher who created ideas of Filial Piety & Bureaucracy) (Qin Ruler who Unified China and became its First Emperor, Created Centralized Government & the First Great Wall) (Philosopher credited with development of Daoism in China)

History Makers of the Classical World Classical Greece (750 B.C.E. 330 B.C.E.):
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Homer Pericles Socrates Plato Aristotle Phillip II Alexander (Blind Poet who composed Epic Poems: Iliad & Odyssey) (Politician who developed Direct Democracy in Athens) (Philosopher who created the Question and Answer method of Discussion known today at the Socratic Method) (Philosopher - Student of Socrates who Founded the Academy of Athens) (Philosopher - Student of Plato and the Teacher of Alexander the Great) (King of Macedonia who conquered the Greek City-States) (Son of Philip II, Conqueror of the Known World creating the Hellenistic Age)

Course Review
History Makers of the Classical World (Cont.) Classical Rome (500 B.C.E. 117 C.E.):
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Hannibal Julius Caesar Augustus Diocletian Constantine Virgil Attila the Hun (Carthaginian General who led an Invasion of Rome) (Roman Senator and General who became Dictator for Life, Created Economic Reforms for the Poor, Finalized Modern 365 Day Calendar, and Assassinated) (Restored Empire under him as Supreme Military Commander and Emperor) (Emperor who Ruled with an Iron Fist, Limited Individual Freedoms, and Divided Empire into East and West) (Adopted Christianity and moved Capital to Byzantium) (Roman Poet who wrote Epic Poems: Aeneid) (Powerful Chieftain who led Invasion of the Roman Empire)

Classical India (320 B.C.E. 500 C.E.):

1. 2. 3. Chandragupta Maurya Chandra Gupta I Chandra Gupta II (Unified Northern India into Bureaucratic Govt.) (Expanded the Empire through Conquest) (Influenced the flowering of Indian Civilization by Promoting Peace, Expanding Trade, Improved Prosperity & Artistic Creativity)

Classical China (200 B.C.E. 220 C.E.):

1. Liu Bang (Seized control of China and Founded the Han Dynasty)

History Makers during the Age of Expansion Byzantine Leaders (500 C.E. 1500 C.E.)
1. 2. Justinian Theodora (Created an Imperial Capital called Constantinople and a Uniform Code of Laws called the Justinian Code) (Wife of Justinian who rose from Poverty to Great Power as Empress of the Byzantines)

Russian Leaders (860 C.E. - 1500 C.E.)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. King Rurik (Viking chief who united the Rus in Eastern Europe) Princess Olga (First Russian Leader to Convert to Christianity) Vladimir (Led Conversion of Russia to Eastern Orthodox Christianity) Yaroslav the Wise (Increased Empire through Marriage & Trade and Established first Modern Library in Kiev) Ivan III (Forced Mongols out of Russia and became first Czar/Tsar)

Islamic Scholars and Leaders (600 C.E. 1500 C.E.):

1. 2. 3. Muhammad Ibn Rushd Ibn Battuta (Last Prophet of Islam whos revelations became basis for the Quran) (Muslim Philosopher and Physician who combined Ancient Greek and Muslim ideas in search of Truth) (Muslim Explorer, Geographer and Historian)

West African Rulers (1200 C.E. 1500 C.E.):

1. 2. 3. Sundiata Mansa Musa Sunni Ali (First Great Leader of the Empire of Mali) (Great Military Ruler of Mali who adopted Islam, expanded trade, and created provinces with royal governors) (Military Leader and Ruler of the Empire of Songhai)

Course Review
History Makers during the Age of Expansion (Cont)
Nomads, Explorers and Invaders (1000 C.E. 1500 C.E.) 1. 2. 3. 4. Malik Shah Genghis Khan Kublai Khan Marco Polo (Great Sultan of the Seljuk Turks who promoted cultural diffusion and blending) (Born as Temujin, He Unified the Mongols and Conquered most of Asia) (Great Khan of the Mongols who conquered and ruled China) (Venetian Trader and Explorer who worked in the Court of Kubai Khan)

History Makers during the Middle Ages Germanic Kings and Clergy (500 C.E. 1500 C.E.)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Clovis Gregory I Charles Martel Pepin the Short Charlemagne Charles the Simple and Rollo Otto I (the Great) (Unified the Franks under Christianity) (Expanded the Power of the Papacy over Kings) (Defended Christian Europe from Muslim Invasion) (First Germanic King to be Crowned King by the Grace of God beginning the European ideas of Divine Rights of Kings) (Greatest Frankish King who expanded the Frankish Kingdom and Christianity Thus creating a Christian Kingdom known as Christendom) (Influenced the development of Feudalism through an agreement involving the granting of Land in exchange for Loyalty and Service) (Greatest ruler of Medieval Germany who established The Holy Roman Empire as a Christian Kingdom)

Leaders of the Crusades (1000 C.E. 1500 C.E.)

1. 2. 3. 4. Pope Urban II Louis II Saladin Richard I (Catholic Pope who called for the First Crusade) (King of France & Christian Leader of the Second Crusade) (Kurdish Warrior & Muslim Leader of the Third Crusade) (King of England & Christian Leader of the Third Crusade)

Leaders of England and France (1000 C.E. 1500 C.E.)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. William the Conqueror Henry II Eleanor of Aquitaine King John Lackland Philip II (Augustus) Joan of Arc (Leader of the Norman Conquest of England in 1066) (King of England who established and promoted Royal Courts, Justices, Jury Trials & Common Law) (Became Queen of France and went on the Second Crusade, later Queen of England & mother of both King Richard I and King John of England) (King of England forced to sign Magna Carta in 1215) (King of France who forced English out of Normandy and created the Third Estate of the Estates General) (French Peasant girl who led French Army to victory at Orleans during the Hundred Years War and was Burned at the Stake for claiming to have been commanded by God) (Son of the King of England and Great Military Leader during the Hundred Years War)


Edward (Black Prince)

Leaders of Feudal Japan (1100 C.E. 1500 C.E.)

1. Yoritomo (First Samurai Leader to be given the title of Shogun or Supreme General Of the Emperors Army)

Course Review
History Makers during the Golden Age of Change Renaissance Men (1300 C.E. 1600 C.E.)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Leonardo De Vinci Michelangelo Buonarroti Rafael Sanzio Donatello de Betto Bardi Niccolo Machiavelli Baldassare Castiglione Dante Alighieri (Painter, Sculptor, Inventor Create the Mona Lisa, Last Supper) (Painter, Sculptor, Architect Statue of David, Sistine Chapel) (Painter and Architect School of Athens, Wedding of the Virgin) (Artist, Painter, Sculptor Bronze Statue of David, St. George Statue) (Philosopher & Writer Father of Political Thought - The Prince) (Courtier, Diplomat, Soldier The Courtier) (Author and Poet The Divine Comedy) (English Author and Poet Romeo & Juliet, Hamlet, Othello) (English Author and Poet Book of the Duchess, Canterbury Tales) (English Philosopher & Author Utopia) (German Inventor Printing Press and the Gutenberg Bible) (Flemish Painter The Madonna of Chancellor Rolin)

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. William Shakespeare Geoffrey Chaucer Thomas More Johann Gutenberg Jan van Eyck

Leaders of the Reformation (1400 C.E. 1600 C.E.)

1. 2. Martin Luther John Calvin (German Monk, Wrote the 95 Thesis, Influenced Protestant Reformation) (Student of Law, Published the Institutes of the Christian Religion, Believed in Predestination and Theocratic Governments, Lead Reformation in Reformation) (Scottish Preacher who promoted Church Leadership by a group of Elders) (Catholic who Published Spiritual Exercises and formed a Society of Jesus known as the Jesuits to create Schools, Missions, and Covert people) (King of England who opposed Power of the Pope in England and sparked a Reformation by creating the Church of England) (Queen of England who created the Anglican Church to try and reduce Conflict in England between Protestants and Catholics)

3. 4. 5. 6.

John Knox Ignatius of Loyola Henry VIII Elizabeth I

Islamic Leaders of the Golden Age (1300 C.E. 1700 C.E.)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Osman / Othman Timur the Lame Mehmed II Suleyman the Lawgiver Ismail Abbas the Great Babur Akbar Shah Juhan (Ghazis warrior who established the Ottoman Empire and became Sultan) (Nomadic Leader from Samarkand who Temporarly halted Ottoman Expansion) (Ottoman Sultan who Conquered the Byzantine Capital of Constantinople) (Ottoman Sultan who Expanded the Ottoman Empire north to Russia and created a Consolidated Code of Laws) (12 year old warrior leader who created the Safavid Empire and became Shah) (Safavid ruler who led Empire into Golden Age through Cultural Blending) (11 year old warrior leader who created the Mughal Empire in India) (Mughal ruler who led Empire into Golden Age through Culutral Blending) (Mughal ruler who directed the building of the Taj Mahal dedicated to his wife)

Course Review
History Makers during the Age of Exploration Famous Explorers (1400 C.E. 1800 C.E.)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Prince Henry of Portugal Bartolomeu Diaz Vasco da Gama Zheng He Christopher Columbus Hernando Cortez Francisco Pizarro (Developed the Navigation School to Promote Exploration) (First Portuguese Explorer to sail around the tip of Africa) (First Portuguese Explorer to reach Calicut in India) (Chinese Muslim Admiral who led Seven Voyages to India, Africa, and Arabia with a fleet of 300 ships) (Discovered the Caribbean Islands while trying to find a western route to India) (Spanish Conquistador who conquered the Aztecs) (Spanish Conquistador who conquered the Incas)

Native America Leaders (1500 C.E. 1600 C.E.)

1. 2. Montezuma II Atahualpa (Aztec Emperor who was defeated by the Spanish under Hernando Cortez) (Incan Ruler who Captured and Killed by the Spanish under Francisco Pizarro)

History Makers during the Age of Revolution Absolute Monarchs (1500 C.E. 1800 C.E.)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Philip II Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIV Frederick the Great Peter the Great (Absolute ruler of Spain, Defender of Catholicism, Patron of Art & Literature) (Minister of France who controlled the country during Reign of Louis XIII) (Absolute ruler of France, Limited power of the Nobles, Patron of the Arts, Reformed economy, Modernized Military, and Fought Numerous Wars) (Absolute ruler of Prussia, Aggressive in Foreign Affairs, Patron of the Arts, Modernized Military, Opposed the rule of Austria by Queen Maria Theresa) (Absolute ruler of Russia, Adopted a policy of Westernization, Limited power of Nobles, Modernized Military, Patron of the Arts and Architecture)

Key Leaders in England (1600 C.E. 1700 C.E.)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Charles I of England Oliver Cromwell Charles II of England James II of England William and Mary (First European Monarch to be Tried and Executed Publically for Treason) (Parliamentary Leader of the Puritans during the English Civil War who became Englands first ruling Prime Minister) (Restored to the Throne by Parliament to preserve the power and tradition of Englands government) (English King who was overthrown during the Glorious Revolution) (Duke and Duchess of Orange in the Netherlands who led the Glorious Revolution, King & Queen of England who signed the English Bill of Rights)

Intellectuals of the Scientific Revolution (1550 C.E. 1800 C.E.)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Nicolaus Copernicus Galileo Galilei Francis Bacon Rene Descartes Isaac Newton Zacharias Janssen Evangelista Torricelli Gabriel Fahrenheit (Polish Astronomer who developed the Heliocentric Theory of the Universe) (Italian Scientist who was Excommunicated by the Catholic Church for publically supporting the Heliocentric Theory) (English Statesman and Writer who promoted the Scientific Method of study) (French Mathematician who promoted the Scientific Method of research) (English Scientist who combined the studies of Copernicus and Galileo to create A SingleTheory of Motion and a Theory of Gravity) (Dutch Eyeglass Maker who invented the first Microscope) (Italian student of Galileo who developed the first Mercury Barometer) (German Physicist who made the first Mercury Thermometer)

Course Review
History Makers during the Age of Revolution (Cont.) Intellectuals of the Enlightenment (1600 C.E. 1800 C.E.)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Thomas Hobbes John Locke Voltaire Montesquieu Jean Jacques Rousseau Cesare B. Beccaria Mary Wollstonecraft (English Political Thinker who promoted the idea of a Social Contract where the People Create their Government) (English Political Thinker who promoted the ideas that All People are Born Free and Equal, with Three Natural Rights Life, Liberty, Property) (French Philosopher who promoted the idea of Tolerance & Freedom of Speech) (French Philosopher who promoted the ideas of Checks and Balances an d Separation of Powers) (Swiss Philosopher who promoted the idea that Governments should be controlled by the General Will of the People) (Italian Philosopher who promoted the ideas that Punishment Should Fit the Crime and Justice Should-not be Delayed) (Strong advocate of Womens Rights and Education for Women)

Leaders of France (1789 C.E. 1815 C.E.)

1. 2. 3. Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette Maximilien Robespierre Napoleon Bonaparte (Absolute Monarchs of France responsible for increasing Frances debt and blamed for heightened poverty, Tried and Executed for Treason) (Jacobin Leader who took control of France as a virtual dictator and caused the Reign of Terror through excessive use of the Guillotine) (French Officer who became known as Savior of the French Republic and later rose to become Dictator of the French Empire. Create a comprehensive code of laws called the Napoleonic Code. Was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and Exiled to Island of St. Helena)

Leaders of Latin America (1789 C.E. 1822 C.E.)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Toussaint LOuverture Simon Bolivar (Revolutionary Leader of the Haitian Revolution) (Revolutionary Creole General from Venezuela who joined forces with San Martin to Liberate South America from Spain) Jose de San Martin (Revolutionary Creole General from Argentina who joined forces with Bolivar to Liberate South America from Spain) Padre Miguel Hidalgo (Revolutionary Mestizo Leader who led people of Mexico during Revolution) Padre Jose Maria Morelos (Revolutionary Mestizo Leader who continued to lead the people of Mexico during the Revolution after Hildago was defeated) John VI of Portugal (King of Portugal who granted Brazil Independence Bloodless Revolution)

Nationalist Leaders of Europe (1815 C.E. 1881 C.E.)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Louis-Napoleon Alexander II Camillo di Cavour Giuseppe Garibaldi Otto von Bismark William I of Prussia (President and Emperor of Frances Third Republic who reformed the country) (Tsar of Russia who reform the government and signed the Emancipation of the Sefs. Assassinated by Terrorists) (Italian Prime Minister who led Revolution for Italian Unification) (Italian Military Leader of the Revolutionary Red Shirts who fought during the Revolution for Italian Unification) (Prussian Statesman and Naval Officer who led Revolution for German Unification and became first Prime Minister of Unified Germany) (King of Prussia who was crowned the first Kaiser of Unified Germany)

Course Review
History Makers during the Industrial Revolution Leaders of the Industrial Age (1700 C.E. 1914 C.E.)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. John Kay (Inventor of the Flying Shuttle that sped up the Weaving Process in the Textile Industry) Eli Whitney (U.S. Inventor of the Cotton Gin that sped up the process for Harvesting Cotton) James Watt (Scottish Inventor of the Modern Steam Engine used for Railroad and Shipping) Richard Trevithick (English Inventor of the First Steam-Driven Locomotive for Railroads) Adam Smith (Scottish Economist who developed the Three Natural Laws of Economics) Karl Marx (German Journalist who introduced the world to a Radical Form of Socialism known as Communism when he published The Communist Manifesto) Jane Addams (Female leader who promoted womens rights and reforms in the work place) Thomas Edison (U.S. Inventor of the Light-bulb and Phonograph) Alexander Graham Bell (U.S. Inventor of the Telephone) Henry Ford (U.S. Auto Maker who revolutionized the Assembly Line for mass production)

History Makers during the Age of Imperialism Leaders of Democratic Reforms and Expansion (1800 C.E. 1914 C.E.)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Thomas Jefferson Abraham Lincoln Emmeline Parkhurst Theodor Herzl Charles Darwin David Livingstone Henry Morton Stanley King Leopold II Cecil Rhodes Matthew Perry James Monroe Theodore Roosevelt (U.S. President who signed the Louisiana Purchase with France) (U.S. President who signed the Emancipation Proclamation to Abolish Slavery) (Female leader who formed Englands Womens Social and Political Union) (Austrian Jewish Writer who started the Zionist Movement to create a Homeland for the Jews in Palestine) (English Naturalist who developed the idea of Natural Selection and Survival of the Fittest known as the Theory of Evolution) (Scottish Missionary and Explorer who was the first European to travel across Central Africa from East to West) (Newspaperman and Explorer who search for Livingstone and Signed Treaties With the Congo for the King of Belgium) (King of Belgium who claimed the region of the Congo for Belgium) (English Businessman who promoted British Expansion throughout Africa) (U.S. Naval Commodore who persuaded Japan to Open Trade to the U.S.) (U.S. President who Declared the Americas Off Limits to further Colonization by presenting the Monroe Doctrine) (Colonel of the Rough Riders during the Spanish -American War and U.S. President responsible for U.S. Involvement in the Panama Canal Zone)

Native Leaders who Opposed Expansion (1800 C.E. 1914 C.E.)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Shaka & Cetshwayo Menelik II Emilio Aguinaldo Queen Liliuokalani Dowager Empress Cixi Mutsuhito (Zulu Rulers who led Zulu Nation against the British & Dutch in South Africa) (Emperor of Ethiopia who successfully opposed European Expanision) (Filipino Nationalist who led Philippine Insurrection against the United States) (Hawaiian ruler who opposed the Annexation of Hawaii by the United States) (Chinese Empress who granted Spheres of Influence to Westerners in China) (Meiji Emperor who Modernized Japan in order to deal with Westernization)

Leaders of Mexico (1800 C.E. 1914 C.E.)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Santa Anna (Military Leader and Dictator of Mexico during the War for Mexican Independence and the War for Texas Independence) Benito Juarez (Liberal Leader of Mexicos La Reforma and First Elected President of Mexico) Francisco Madero (U.S. Educated Revolutionary Leader of Mexico who promoted Democracy) Francisco Pancho Villa (Popular Mexican Revolutionary who used Robin Hood tactics) Emiliano Zapata (Popular Mexican Revolutionary who promoted land reform: Land & Liberty)

Course Review
History Makers during the World at War Leaders of World War One (1914 1918)
1. 2. 3. 4. Kaiser Wilhelm II (German ruler who formed the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary & Italy) Alfred Graf von Schlieffen (German General who created Plan to Invade France and Russia) Woodrow Wilson (U.S. President who developed the Fourteen Points for lasting peace after war) Georges Clemenceau (French Politician determined to make Germany Pay for destruction of the war)

Leaders of the Russian Revolution (1917 1930)

1. 2. Vladimir Lenin Joseph Stalin (Russian activist influenced by Marxism, Led the radical Bolsheviks to Revolt) (General Secretary of the Communist Party who built Russia into a Totalitarian State)

New Leaders of Asia (1912 1940)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sun Yixian (Leader of Chinas Nationalist Party Kuomintang who became the First President) Mao Zedong (Leader of Chinas Communist Party during Chinese Civil War) Jiang Jieshi / Chiang Kai-shek (Military Commander and Leader of the Kuomintang during Civil War) Mohandas K. Gandhi (Leader of Indias Peaceful Resistance to gain Independence) Mustafa Kemal (Military Commander and President of the New Republic of Turkey)

Leaders of World War Two (1938 1945)

1. 2. 3. Franklin D. Roosevelt Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler (U.S. President who led the United States out of Depression with New Deal and Declared War on Japan following the Attack on Pearl Harbor) (Italian Politician who founded the Fascist Party and became Leader of Italty) (WWI Veteran and Member of the Nationalist Socialist German Workers Party Nazis who became Chancellor of Germany and master -mind of the Final Solution against the Jews, which led to the Holocaust) (Argentinean President and Military Dictator who ruled in a Fascist manner) (Spanish General who adopted Fascist-styled government during Civil War) (French General who set up a government-in-exile in London and led French Forces during D-Day Invasion of Normandy and Liberation of France) (British Prime Minister) (German General who led the Afrika Corps to victory in North Africa and was Responsible for the defense of Normandy during the D-Day Invasions) (Admiral and Commander of Japanese Forces during Attack on Pearl Harbor) (U.S. General and Commander of Forces in the Pacific who promised troops in the Philippines I Shall Return and used Island Hopping strategy against the Japanese) (U.S. General who was the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe and overall Commander of the Invasion Forces during the D-Day Invasion of Normandy) (Emperor of Japan during WWII) (U.S. President who approved the use of the Atomic Bomb against Japan)

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Juan Peron Francisco Franco Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Erwin Rommel Isoroku Yamamoto Douglas MacArthur

11. 12. 13.

Dwight D. Eisenhower Emperor Hirohito Harry S. Truman

Leaders of Post-WWII (1945 1950)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Harry S. Truman Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Mao Zedong George C. Marshall (U.S. President and member of the Big Three during Peace Treaty and created the Truman Doctrine to help Democratic Countries to Rebuild) (British Prime Minister and member of the Big Three during Peace Treaty) (Communist Leader of the Soviet Union and one of the Big Three) (Communist Leader of the new Peoples Republic of China) (Former General of the Army and Secretary of State who developed the Marshall Plan to help Rebuilt Europe after the war)

Course Review
History Makers during the Modern World Leaders of the Cold War (1945 Present)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Douglas Macarthur Ho Chi Minh Fidel Castro Daniel Ortega Ayatollah Khomeini Nikita Khrushchev Leonid Brezhnev John F. Kennedy Lyndon B. Johnson Richard M. Nixon (U.S. General of United Nations Forces during the Korean War) (Vietnamese Nationalist Leader of the Viet Minh during the Vietnam War) (Nationalist Leader of the Cuban Revolution who became Cubas Communist Dictator) (Revolutionary Leader of the Sandinistas during the Civil War in Nicaragua) (Muslim Religious Leader of Iran who led the overthrow of the U.S. backed Shah to rid Iran of Western Influences that threatened Arab/Muslim way of life) (Soviet Leader who initiated Destalinization to rid the Soviet Union of the Influences of Stalins policies) (Soviet Leader who caused the Soviet-Chinese Split and coordinated the Installation of Missiles in Cuba) (U.S. President who challenged the Soviet installation of Missiles in Cuba and Led the world to the Brink of Nuclear War during the Cuban Missile Crisis) (U.S. President responsible for Increasing U.S. Combat Operations in Vietnam and escalating the war) (U.S. President who adopted a policy of Dtente to reduce Cold War tensions with the Soviet Union, first President to Visit Communist China, and removed U.S. troops from Vietnam to bring an end to the war) (U.S. President who increased tension between the U.S. and Soviet Union by Supporting conflicts in Iran, Afghanistan, and Nicaragua and promoting a new Strategic Defense Initiative called Star Wars) (Soviet Leader who opened the Soviet Union to outside Influences through reforms known as Glasnost, Perestroika, and Democratization) (Soviet Leader who reformed Russias Economy by an abrupt shift to Free Market Economy known as Shock Therapy) (Polish Union Leader who led the anti-communist Solidarity movement to gain Polish Independence) (Communist Chinese Leader who tried to reform China by adopting a set of goals known as the Four Modernizations and then cracked down on Student Protestors in Tianamen Square using Military Troops and Tanks) (Communist Chinese Leader who reformed China b y adopting a Free Market Economy)


Ronald Reagan

12. 13. 14. 15.

Mikhail Gorbachev Boris Yeltsin Lech Walesa Deng Xiaoping


Jiang Zemin

Leaders of Independence Movements (1945 Present)

1. Nelson Mandela (Leader of the African National Congress, Imprisoned for 27 Years for opposing Apartheid, Elected the First African President of South Africa, Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize) (President of South Africa who pardoned Nelson Mandela and Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for brining Democracy to South Africa) (First Prime Minister of India after it gained Independence) (President of the Philippines who imposed Martial Law and had his opponent, Benigno Aquino Jr., assassinated) (Kenyan Nationalist who led Independence Movement of Kenya) (Leader of Non-violent Protests & Peaceful Independence movement in Ghana) (Leader of Algerian National Liberation Front and the First President of Algeria) (Army Officer who seized power in the Congo after granted Independence)

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

F. W. de Klerk Jawaharlal Nehru Ferdinand Marcos Jomo Kenyatta Kwame Nkrumah Ahmed Ben Bella Mobutu Sese Seko

Course Review
History Makers during the Modern World (Cont.) Leaders of the Middle East (1945 Present)
1. 2. Gamal Abdel Nasser Anwar Sadat (Became President of Egypt through a Military Coup and responsible for causing tension between Egypt and Israel resulting into the Suez Crisis) (President of Egypt who planned joint attack of Israel that was known as the Yom Kippur War, Assassinated after signing Peace agreement w/Israel known as the Camp David Accords) (Israeli Prime Minister who was a survivor of the Holocaust and led Israel to victory during the Yom Kippur War) (Chairman of the Palestinian Liberation Organization who fought for the rights of an Independent Palestinian State) (Prime Minister of Israel who was Assassinated after signing Peace agreement With Yasir Arafat called the Oslo Peace Accords) (President of Iraq who caused conflicts with Iran, Kuwait, and Israel, Mass Murders of Sunni and Kudish citizens, and Opposed U.N. Sanctions until Captured, tried and executed by a new Iraqi Government) (Leader of the Terrorist Organization called Al-Qaeda responsible for the 911 Attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon)

3. 4. 5. 6.

Golda Meir Yasir Arafat Yitzhak Rabin Saddam Hussein


Osama Bin Laden