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HO M E > TEC HNO LO GI ES > P NEU M A TI C V A LV ES > P RESSU RE GA I N A N I M P O RTA NT V A LV E C HA RA C TERI STI C

## Pressure gain an important valve characteristic

Port pressure gain is the slope of the dead head pressure curve vs control current at a specific operating point as applied to each of a valve's two work ports.Pressure metering curves are assessed with work ports dead headed. In servo-valves, the pressur
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Port pressure gain is the slope of the dead head pressure curve vs control current at a specific operating point as applied to each of a valve's two work ports.Pressure metering curves are assessed with work ports dead headed. In servo-valves, the pressur

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Port pressure gain is the slope of the dead head pressure curve vs control current at a specific operating point as applied to each of a valve's two work ports.Pressure metering curves are assessed with work ports dead headed. In servo-valves, the pressure metering region is confined to approximately the center 5% of spool travel. For overlapped valves, pressure metering takes place over the entire dead zone, and more.

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Figure 1 Deadhead pressure metering curves are used to determine the pressure gain at each work port of a valve.

Referring to Figure 1, pressure gain is calculated as: GP,A = dPDH / dIC where GP,A is pressure gain, PDH is dead head pressure at the particular valve work port, and IC is the control current. Optimally, two pressure measuring instruments can be replaced by a single differential pressure sensor or gage. It is the differential pressure gain that is reported in technical catalogs and literature: GPD = d(PDH,A PDH,B) / dIC where GPD is differential pressure gain, PDH,A is dead head pressure at the valve's A work port, and PDH,B is dead head pressure at the valve's B work port, and IC is the control current. For a servovalve with essentially zero overlap:
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Figure 2 This plot shows a typical pressure metering curve for a valve exhibiting significant overlap between the spool and ports.

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8/27/13

Pressure gain an important valve characteristic | Pneumatic Valves content from Hydraulics & Pneumatics
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## supply pressure, valve temperature, and tank port pressure.

Null sensitivity tests Imagine a situation where we have set up a valve at a fixed supply pressure, a fixed temperature, and a fixed tank port pressure. Set up will consist of adjusting the mechanical null on the valve until both work ports reach the same dead head pressure while the coil current is zero. The valve is now nulled.
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8/27/13

Pressure gain an important valve characteristic | Pneumatic Valves content from Hydraulics & Pneumatics

Next, we change one of the three parameters, say, supply pressure. If we increase supply pressure, and if the valve was perfect, it would maintain its null at any supply pressures. But it is imperfect, requiring that we adjust the coil current to a new value in order to reacquire the null. That change in current is a measure of null sensitivity to (in this case) the change in supply pressure. That value is published for servovalves. Similar figures are published for thermal and tank port pressure null sensitivity. To design a servo system, you must take into account all the sensitivity factors of the valve in the context of the application. This requires calculating all the expected null shifts as amperes of coil current. Start by understanding the following definitions: SPS is the published sensitivity of the valve null to changes in supply pressure. S is the published sensitivity of the valve null to changes in temperature. SBP is the published sensitivity of the valve null to changes in tank port back pressure. If the valve's manufacturer has published a given sensitivity factor, SX, then the change in current caused by a change, (XAPP) of the affecting parameter is given by:

where AL, is the amount the valve current must change, in amperes, to compensate for the null shift, SX is the specific sensitivity factor taken from catalog data on the valve, IR is the rated current of the valve in amperes, and is the change in one of the three parameters that is expected in the application.

## More on this subject

Details on this subject, including formula derivations, is available in Designer's Handbook for Electrohydraulic Servo and Proportional Systems. For more information, contact IDAS Engineering, Inc., at 262/642-7021; fax 262/642-7025; or www.idaseng.com. The book is also available from Barnes & Noble. This website describes testing, research, and design facilities and services, instructional videos, books, and software, all geared toward electrohydraulic system design. It also contains complete, unedited versions of this and previous "Motion Control" columns. Previous editions of 'MotionControl" can be viewed on Fluid Power Web, www.fpweb.com, the internet home of Hydraulics & Pneumatics.From the home page, click Articles, then scroll down to entries containing Motion Control in the tile.

## An infomercial from the author

Electrohydraulic servo systems are at the heart of all modern hydraulic motion control systems, but few engineers really have a command of this exciting technology. In our continuing quest to disseminate electrohydraulic technology, we at IDAS Engineering Inc. have prepared a 55-minute educational video on a servomechanism. It's on a CD, and will play directly on your Windows-based computer. This animated video clearly and graphically describes the dynamic actions that take place when using electrohydraulic feedback control. Y ou can see the command changing and immediately observe the effects on the output of a cylinder. Y ou can even track the control valve current. And perhaps best of all, it is nonmathematical. What happens to the error in the servo system? Y ou'll be able to examine that, too, and for a small fraction of the time and money I have invested in developing my career around these machines. This video offers you the quickest and least painful way to gain valuable insights into the operation of feedback control systems as they are applied to electrohydraulic servomechanisms. Colorful motion graphics illustrate the more subtle nuances, such as saturation and timing of valve spool motion. This instructive animation video production normally sells for \$87.00, but we are
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8/27/13

Pressure gain an important valve characteristic | Pneumatic Valves content from Hydraulics & Pneumatics

offering it to readers of Hydraulics & Pneumatics until May 31, 2005 for the special discount price of only \$69.00, plus \$2.50 for S&H via US Mail. An optional comprehensive Learning Exam is available for \$43.00. But if you order the video and exam together, we'll bundle them for \$100.00 and cover the cost of shipping via US mail to any US address. That's a savings of \$30.00. Pretty soon, everything is going to be servo controlled. Only the technically qualified will be able to compete in this exploding technical field. So order yours right away to get a running start on this growing motion control technology. Just call us toll-free at 877IDAS-ENG (877/432-7364) with a Visa or Master Card, and you can start the easy way of learning about electrohydraulic feedback control servo systems. Y ou can also send a check, money order, or purchase order to IDAS Engineering Inc.

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