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Katedra Archeologie a muzeologie Klasická archeologie
Lukáš Kratochvíl GLADIÁTOR TRÁK A JEHO ARMATURA OD ARCHEOLOGICÉ EVIDENCE PO REKONSTRUKCI
Vedoucí práce: Dr. Elisabetta Maria Gagetti, Ph.D. 2012
Prohlašuji, že jsem diplomovou práci vypracoval samostatně s využitím uvedených pramenů a literatury.
……………………………………… Podpis autora práce 2
I would like to thank my supervisor Dr. Elisabetta Gagetti for her valuable advice, her time and encouragement that she provided me during work on this thesis. I would also like to express great thanks to my girlfriend Lenka Hadašová for her language correction and psychological support, which was inestimable during forming of this work and my studies.
.................................................... 66 6........................... Galea .........1 Galea (“Helmet”) .........................................................2 Structure of the games ............................................................................................................................ 12 2....................... 64 5...3 Reconstruction .............1 Relieves ...............................4 Decorative items .................................................................. 70 7.................................................................... Introduction .................................................................. 8 2.................................5 Ocreae ............................................................................................................................................................................... The elements of the armature in the light of reenactment ............................. 10 2.............................................................. 58 5........................................................................................................................... 39 4 ....................................................................................................................6 Sica ..................................... 71 7...................................................................................................... 62 5......................................................................................... 14 3....... 5 2............................................................ 41 4............. Bibliography ................................................................................................................ 16 3..................................................... The Iconographic Sources .........................2 Reenactors ................7 Parmula ......................... 60 5................4 Manica ............................................................. 16 3............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 55 5.......................3 Manica (“Arm-guard”) ...... 73 4 .........5 Parmula (“Shield”) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 40 4...........Content 1.............................................4 Thraex ................... 38 3................................................................8............................................................3 The classes of gladiators ..2 Mosaic ........................................................................................................... 53 5...................... Summary .....................1 Reenactment: an experimental approach .............................1 Brief history of the games .......................................................................................................................................4 Weapons ...................... Conclusion ................................................ 25 3..................................................................... 58 5........... The Finds .......................... 46 4..................2 Ocreae (“Greaves”) ...................... 55 5..................... 37 3................................................................... 57 5................................................ Gladiators ................................................................................................................................................... 6 2......................................5 Similarities and differences: the hoplomachus ...................................... 6 2.....................
The present work has the wish to contribute to a better knowledge of the armatura of the gladiator type thraex.cz 5 . then. the second. Martin Junek3. Two are the main ways: the first. to summarize the principal finds of equipment and the iconographical sources.maral. The bronze parts of the reconstructed armature were created by Mr. The active interest about reenacting of this period is one of the main reasons for writing this work and there is a separate chapter dedicated to it 1. but made with the same traditional techniques. on its implication and function more than on the way in which it was created. the experimental reconstruction of replicas of the equipment and armature of the gladiator type thraex from the 1st century AD onwards. Scholarly studies are usually focused on setting the artifact into its context. which instead provides the best information about the techniques and the ways of construction of such artifacts. Projects devoted to the classification and function of gladiatorial equipment are rarely focused on its construction methods. who is at the top of world-class armory crafters.1. is to answer the question which qualities and functions could original finds show in the time they were used. The purpose of this experiment is to enlarge our acquaintance especially about the structural elements of representative gladiatorial material from archeological contexts. The reconstruction of the armature of the gladiator type thraex is part of a project dealing with the reconstruction of gladiatorial armatures of the 1st and 2nd century AD2. Introduction There is a lack of modern literature dealing with particular a type only of gladiator. Another aim of the present work. the analysis of the realization of fixed and moving joints and other production processes. 3 Armoury Maral company (for a brief overview of reconstructions of non-gladiatorial armatures belonging to different periods. The project is brought on by the team of professional reenactors “Familia Gladiatoria Tavrvs”. see: www. 1 2 Chapter 5. The most meaningful sources used for such reconstructions are the finds from the gladiatorial barracks at Pompeii. Even complex archeological studies on this theme usually lack the documentation about the structure of the items and the details of joints.
Anyway.1 Brief history of the games The origin of the gladiatorial games in Rome is commonly connected with the year 264 BC. This performance was called munus5. Plural: munera. the major part of the armature elements is ready and could be used in this work. Its meaning is “gift of living towards dead”. During the second century BC the gladiatorial show spread throughout Italy and its religious purpose was transformed into a means of political power. in 216 BC. With time. It was very typical in ancient Mediterranean cultures to spill blood on the deceased relative’s grave6. which are on permanent exhibition. his three sons. Junius Brutus Pera brought out three pairs of gladiators at the funeral games to honour their dead father. “After the death of M. the number of fighters engaged in gladiatorial fights raised. 4 5 Mainly greaves and helmets from the Musée du Louvre. The demand of time influenced the creating process of last part – the thraex’s helmet type Pompeii H12 − which is not yet finished. which considered the gladiatorial fight as an exciting and extraordinary amusement. Fifty years after the first mention about gladiatorial fights. 6 Nossov 2009. The reconstruction of the thraex’s equipment was based on my own photographic documentation of originals4. who had been augur and twice consul. In other cases it was necessary to start from the pictorial appendix of finished projects. 6 . but this was the first known occasion in the city when a gladiatorial combat was staged at a funeral. The blood of warriors spilled on the funeral pyre should propitiate the gods of the Underworld or put them into a good mood. when two sons of the deceased D. Gladiators 2. Lucius. These funeral rituals were very popular with the audience. Aemilius Lepidus. Human sacrifices were already known in Rome before this date. The reconstruction of the bronze parts of an armature is a difficult and expensive procedure. Noble families vied in the number of committed fighters so much that in many munera hundreds of gladiators performed.His experience in bronze working enabled this experiment. p. In the course of time the character of munera changed. The higher the deceased’s social rank was. 2. the more expensive performance was expected. 12.
In 107 BC the Emperor delivered 120-day games in honour of his victory over the Dacians. However. In 29 BC. three of which were consecrated to gladiatorial fights8. Titus Statilius Taurus built in the Campus Martius the first stone amphitheatre in Rome. in AD 70. celebrated funeral games in his honor for three days and exhibited twenty-two pairs of gladiators in the Forum7. from the colossal statue of Nero himself.30.500 gladiators appeared in the Roman arena. and Quintus. Livy 41. In AD 313 Christianity was accepted as rightful religion by the Edict of Milan and in AD 325 had Constantine the Great (the first Roman Emperor who adopted the Christian faith) declared in 7 8 Livy 23. Under the reign of Trajan there were held the greatest games of ever.15 (after: http://mcadams.000 animals were killed. The Colosseum could take in up to 50.941 pairs of gladiators met. later transformed into a statue of Sol. the historian Sextus Aurelius Victor (4th century AD) states that his opponents were armed with lead weapons9. He entered arena as a secutor gladiator The end of gladiatorial games is directly connected with Christianity.html. In AD 180-192 even Emperor Commodus entered the arena and reached allegedly 1.06.11. It was finished by Titus in AD 80. between AD 107 and AD 113. The funerary games lasted four days. Together with the Circus Maximus the Colosseum became the most famous amusement place throughout the Empire. well known from the 9th century AD onwards as “Colosseum”. 9 De Caesaribus. rising close to the building.2012).000 gladiators and 11.100 victories. 7 .mu. 17.4. almost 20. The inaugural ceremony lasted 100 days and the number of wounded or dead gladiators was unprecedentedly high.000 viewers. last access 5. During the next five years Trajan delivered other three games: the third lasted 117 days and 4. On this occasion a wooden amphitheatre was built in the forum boarium.posc. Altogether. In these games took part 10. which was unprecedented number until that time.Marcus.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy23. In 174 BC Titus Quintus Flaminius presented seventy-four gladiators.28. Forty years later. partly on the place of Nero’s Domus Aurea − in the area of an artificial lake − Vespasian started the construction of the Amphitheatrum Flavium.
The furious crowd stoned him to death. venationes were moved into arenas and closely connected with the munera. Emperor Valentinian I issued a second edict which prohibited the sending of criminals into arenas. p. occasionally. Eight years later. which condemned “spilling of the blood in public” and ordered the law courts to send culprits into jail or to mines instead of into the arena. Emperor Honorius made capital of this case and closed arenas10.. the era of gladiatorial games was ended by a dramatic incident. in addition to hunting. 8 . 12 They had no weapons and served as “beaters” of animals. animal fights. On January 1 AD 404 a Christian monk. Venationes were played out in the Circus Maximus in the period of the Roman republic and. However.2 Structure of the games Gladiatorial games had taken inherently their position in Roman society. Gladiatorial fights were put into programme in the afternoon and they were the highlight of the performance. and their lower class was called bestiarii12. rushed into the arena in pursuit of stop another bloodshed and to separate the fighters. In AD 375 Emperor Constantius II stopped the recruitment of Roman soldiers as volunteers for gladiatorial training and fighting in the arena. 10 11 Nossov 2009. there were the so-called venationes11 or “beast hunting”. Venationes. During the Empire. In AD 399 Emperor Honorius shut the remaining gladiatorial schools down. Telemachus. On Italian territory Constantine ignored his own decree and granted to priests in Umbria and Etruria the right to deliver gladiatorial games. 25. Hunters chasing wild beasts with weapons were called venatores. the course of munera received a strictly followed pattern. More generally. this edict was accepted only in the eastern provinces of the Empire. any kind of spectacle with animals in the amphitheatre or circus was called venatio. In the morning. The holding of munera went through a few radical changes during seven centuries: their generally applied structure was created soon after their origin. Nevertheless. bullfight and also the execution of criminals by wild beasts. included the exhibition of exotic animals and their amusing performances. the games continued but not at the same extent as before. also later. which reflected the passion for hunting of the Romans and also should symbolize the human domination over animals. st 2. After they became more than a funeral ceremony. So.Beirut an edict.
Thanks to their scale. audience could see revealed the faces of the gladiators (otherwise protected by the helmets). A group of assistants carried the helmets. 9 . naumachiae were not usually held in arenas but on artificial water dams or lakes nearby Rome. This ceremonial parade had a political character and its main aim was making visible the editor himself (organizer and “sponsor”) of the games. and these were followed by men carrying a ferculum15. At the end of the parade walked the gladiators themselves. 13 14 Usually condemned to the death in the arena for capital crimes.The space of time between morning venationes and afternoon gladiatorial performances was filled designated for executions of the so-called noxii13. Mars. 15 Portable platform bearing the statues of Hercules. After this the gladiatorial fights begun.2001. Before the beginning of the performance there was the prolusio16 which should warm up the audience before the real fights. A special kind of games was naumachia17. there were some cases in which naumchiae were realized right in an arena. Nemesis. 16 “Prologue” with gladiators (lusorii) fighting against each other with harmless − probably wooden − weapons (arma lusoria). On the occasion of the parade. In these battles were attended thousands of convicted criminals who staged famous sea battles in history. shields and weapons of gladiators. 32. Although. In one of the execution ways also gladiators played a part. Such criminals were thrown unarmed to the beasts or had some weapons and were forced to kill each other. These condemned persons were massacred in many various ways. Nike or other gods or important persons. and could be flooded. Such arenas were specially designed for these occasions. which owing to its costs belonged to the privilege of the emperors and was not held as often as gladiatorial games. Wilson S. The first naumachiae were produced by Caius Julius Caesar. The beginning of the gladiatorial show was called pompa. These criminals fought for death and gladiators were involved only extraordinarily. 17 “Sea battle”. who in the first century BC launched colossal gladiatorial games and theatrical performances. p. The organizer of the games was followed by lictors and musicians. who had no chance against professionally trained fighters. It was an unusual and astronomically expensive form of reproducing sea battles. For this purpose were gladiators armed with bizarre weapons14. They were sent in lesser numbers against numerically superior − but poorly armed − noxii.
because of the amplitude of the topic. Secutor was heavy armoured gladiator equipped same way as a murmillo except helmet which is closed plain with small holes for the eyes created for fighting against a retiarius. He was fighting with sword or dagger and with special type of weapon with crescent-sickle blade. Generally. essedarius and riders equites. His adversary was retiarius. The first mention of the samnis is in 308 BC. In the second century BC came into the arena the venatores (“beast hunters”). but their issue. he was armed as the light infantrymen of the Roman Republic: with javelins. It is very likely that the term gallus comes from the resemblance with Celts (Gauls). hoplomachus19. The gallus appeared in the arena at the beginning of the Republic and disappeared in the middle of the first century BC. Their equipment. secutor. The most ancient types of gladiators are gallus. Essedarius.5. during the first century BC came thraex18. samnis and veles. The term is derived from the Samnites. almost nothing is known about the veles. He was armed by sword and round large shield. Next. Together with murmillo remain in the arena to the end of the games. arbelas or dimachaerus. is suitable for an individual study. Finally. medium armoured and heavy armoured. murmillo. From the arena he disappeared in third century BC. He was usual adversary of thraex and hoplomachus. people defeated by the Romans at the beginning of the third century BC. Probably. This type of gladiator soon disappeared and reappeared again in the second and third century AD under the name of arbelas. Heavy armoured gladiator garbed in chain or scale male. 44 – 79) It is very easy to observe which type of gladiator was coming into the arena according to the period. 2. p.4. sword and shield. gladiators were classified according to their armatures into three categories: light armoured. Chapter 2. Murmillo was a heavy armoured gladiator armed with sword gladius and using a large shield scutum. who was his only adversary. He disappeared from the 18 19 Chapter 2.3 The classes of gladiators (According to Nossov 2009. 10 . In the present work will not be paid attention to them anymore. the term means “charioteer”. . armature and fashion were subordinated to period and popularity.Venationes and naumachiae are an inseparable part of history of gladiatorial games. In this period is classified also scissor.
He was fighting with weapons in both hands. the largest quantity of archaeological material until nowadays was preserved. For protection. From the early fifth century AD. Also the nineteenth century was under the sign of figurative and literary depictions of the gladiatorial theme. Equites disappeared from the arena in fourth century BC. For fighting on horseback. He was garbed in chain or scale male. the only one without helmet. Gladiators were in focus again in the eighteenth century. which had been the most favourite pair until that time. At the end of the Republic came into the arena the provocator. In the second century AD appeared the dimachaerus. net rete and dagger pugio. laquerarius . even more than the pair thraex – murmillo. Popularity of the pair retiarius – secutor rose very fast and became soon the most popular gladiatorial pair. because his purpouse was only to entertain the crowd only with blunt weapons. His adversary was another provocator. Possible translation of this name is “two-handed”. they were equipped by middle-large round shield parma equestris. and also declined the interest in this theme.probably variation of retiarius and crupellarius . The twentieth century continued with movies in which gladiators were mainly Hollywood characters: therefore.the only known fact is that he was whole garbed in steel. In the first century AD appeared on stage the retiarius. He was fighting with gladius and middle-large shield. when the gladiatorial barracks were excavated in 1766 in Pompeii: there. His only adversary was secutor. He was medium armoured gladiator. 11 . There are also gladiators whose presence in the arena was registered but whom we are not able to categorize in a period: sagittarius . anyway. the fame of gladiators and games declined.bowman. their popularity with the great public lasts so far. His adversary was probably also dimachaerus or arbelas. Equites are horse riders belonging to the medium armoured gladiators. In the first century AD showed also up the paegnarius. He was fighting with trident fuscina. pair of daggers or swords. Light armoured gladiator. They were fighting only with another equites. Retiarius remained in the arena to the end of the games. his gladiatorial classification is controversial.arena in third century BC. they were armed by lance hasta and for fighting on foot they were using gladius.
The best known representative of this armature in the history of gladiatorial games was Spartacus. a work on dreams: when a man dreams of fighting as a gladiator. vi. the gladiator who. equipment and fighting style − had nothing to do with that of Thracian warriors 20. To the 2nd century dates Artemidorus’ Oneirocritica. 20. 23 Artemidorus Daldianus. a 13th-century German sword & buckler manual22. arousing a revolt from Lentulus Batiatus’ ludus gladiatorius in Capua. to thraex corresponds a rich. It happens quite often that ethnic Thracian origin is mistaken with gladiator type. Many emperors admired specific types of gladiators and had their favourites among them. which could inform us about used technique or style of fighting as good as the still extant Anonymous Fechtbuch -Manuscript I. He is connected with the Mithridatic Wars. British Museum No. Barry. “cunning”. “eager to excel”. Some examples of the sketches illustrating different techniques can be found at http://www. This incident changed the view of society on gladiators.4 Thraex The thraex as a type of gladiator appeared for the first time in the arena in first half of the 1st century BC. Its popularity surpassed that of the pair retiarius versus secutor as late as the 1st century AD.2012).33. D. The thraex armature begged to this style of fight abbr. Chapter 4 Since its entry in the arena in the first half of the 1st century BC. when a great number of war prisoners from Thrace was caught by the Roman army. Spartacus had probably Thracian ethnical origin. 22 Tower of London manuscript I. 14 E iii.thearma. Royal Library Museum. because thraex fights with a curved blade. For instance. p. No. became the leader of the slaves in the Third Servile War. Emperor 20 21 Nossov 2009. the pair thraex and murmillo was the most popular and most often offered to the audience. 2009. because he acts aggressively. 68. cunning and eager to excel woman: “rich” because thraex is protected by a good armour. sending a shudder through the whole Italy in 79 BC21.33 12 . Oneirocritica 2.6.2. Because of the amplitude of the topic. The Spartacus War. There is a lack of historical sources about gladiator fighting style. such dream announce the marriage with a kind of woman corresponding to the used armature or to the oppponent against whom one fights23. New York London: Simon & Schuster.htm (last access: 4. please refer directly to Strauss.33. Men who were fighting as this type of gladiator could probably be both Roman ex-citizens and trueborn Thracians.org/Manuals/i33/i33. but he was also a thraex by type of armature. whose strictly defined armature – arms.
which reached the half of the thigh. Typical was the helmet (galea)25 with the head of a griffin. fastened with a wide belt called balteus. The fasciae provided an additional protection for the legs and also functioned as pads for the greaves. p. both for gladiators and for Roman soldiers. not differently from most of gladiators. He even designated a thraex as the commander of his personal guards24. 1). the goddess of retribution: a lot of small temples placed in amphitheatres were dedicated to this goddess26. The ocreae were fastened or tied on the back-side of the calf.02. murmillo mormillo. the subligaculum (Fig. as the manica of the Roman legionnairs.0132%3Alife%3Dcal. 13 . from the ankles to the waist. In accordance with the type of helmet. The thraex had only a small shield. for example.%3Achapter %3D55. or covered with tiny metallic plates. On the right arm he had a protective armour called manica. one on each side of the crest.perseus. last access: 4. On both legs the thraex wore greaves (ocreae)27.tufts. which could be either only quilted and stitched. the myrmillo was fighting with the type of sword known as gladius and the great rectangular shield (scutum). but this disadvantage was compensated by his high ocreae. usually used by Roman 24 Suetonius.6. The whole equipment weighed 16-20 kg: this categorized the thraex as a heavily armed gladiator. Less common was the pair thraex – hoplomachus. By way of contrast.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999. Later it could also be scaled. wore a loincloth around his waist. The thraex. A small square shield (parmula) was used for defense. His chest was bared. The griffin was believed to be an animal incarnating Nemesis.Caligula. the crest was adorned with a plume of feathers (crista). Such crest was entirely decorated with a feather pattern. The armature of thraex is easily identifiable either from archeological finds or depicted on reliefs and mosaics. 156-157. Life of Caligula 55: «He made some gladiators captains of his German guards» (http://www. there were two small holes. used for inserting long feathers (pinnae). Armour and weapons of each type of gladiator were designed for providing both advantages and disadvantages to their users. 26 Nossov 2009.2012). More frequent was the pair myrmillo – hoplomachus. The usual adversary of the thraex was the myrmillo28. a wide brim and a gridded visor. which formed the appearance of the griffin’s body. idolized just thraex. 25 Galea is a general term for “helmet”. Moreover. 28 Other spelling can be mirmillo. Under such leg protectors there were stitched bandages (fasciae). The griffin head was placed on the top of the crest of the helmet. 27 General term for “greaves”. The weapon used by the thraex was a curved sword called sica.
It could be decorated with feathers and.blogspot. His helmet had a wide brim and was stylized to the shape of a dorsal fish fin. The myrmillo wore on his left leg only a small protector and on his armed arm a stitched or plated (scaled) manica. 14 .html last visit: 28. This heavily armed type of gladiator should resemble a Greek hoplite29. He held in his right hand a spear (hasta) and defended himself by a small round shield (parmula): its handle. Fig.cz/2011/05/la-indumentaria-de-la. In connection with the thraex a special attention must be paid to the hoplomachus.5 Similarities and differences: the hoplomachus The hoplomachus appeared in the arena in the late Imperial period. also with horsehair. only their weapons being different. whose equipment was identical to thraex’s one. His armature categorized also the myrmillo as a heavily armed gladiator. more or less stylized in accordance with the typical appearance of gladiators. compared to the thraex’s helmet. 2012) 2. 06. Style of wearing subligaculum (after: http://historia-delvestido.antigua-roma. 1. To the same category belonged the hoplomachus.legionnairs. designed according to the model of the 29 Term for the citizen-soldier of an ancient Greek polis.
Due to the same type of equipment. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren 2000) 30 Junkelmann 2000. His side weapon was not the exact copy of the Greek sword (xyphos). He had. Fig. Staatliche Museen – Antikensammlung (after: Junkelmann M. at first sight hoplomachus and thraex can be easily mistakable. 2). 2. Berlin. like the thraex. 120-123 15 . which characterized specifically the thraex. but more likely a shorter version of the Roman gladius or dagger (pugio). allowed a hoplomachus to hold a short sword or dagger as a secondary weapon in his left hand (Fig. This begs the question whether each of these gladiators had his own armature or if it was duplicated for both of them. Bronze statue of hoplomachus. The crest of his helmet was decorated with feathers or horsehair30.Greek shield hoplon (even if the hoplomachus’ shield was much smaller then Greek hoplon or aspis). p. a manica on his armed arm. and a pair of high greaves. but without the griffin-shaped crest. His helmet was similar to the thraex’s type.
The helmet passed through a few stages of development well described by Marcus Junkelmann31. Only one of them was made in iron and belonged to the gladiator type secutor.1 Galea (“Helmet”) Most of the original finds of thraex’s helmets were found in Pompeii in 1766-1767. and is therefore unmistakable with other gladiator type helmets. California Getty Villa. 63-64. 3).flickr. in the ludus gladiatorius (“gladiators’ school”). In such period. Malibu (after: http://www. created in the Late Republic (Fig.3. During this excavation several pieces of various gladiatorial helmets were found: today. p. split between the Museo Archeologico nazionale in Naples and the Louvre in Paris. gladiators fought with their faces uncovered.com/photos/lazymodeler/6342800943 / last visit: 28. Fig. typically. All the other helmets were in bronze. 59-61. 2012) 31 32 Junkelmann 2000. 16 . 3. 06. so that we can assume that the thraex’s helmet was always made in bronze. The Finds 3. Junkelmann states32 that the antecedent of the thraex’s helmets found in Pompeii was the combination of Attic and Boeotian helmets. Helm of Attic type with griffin head 300 BC. p. Junkelmann 2000. only fifteen survive. and in other artistic media depicting gladiators − easily recognizable thanks to the griffin head on the top of the crest. The thraex’s helmet is − both in original.
8 kg: the average weight is approximately 4 kg37.5 mm. 17 .1. unlike Pompeii Subtype H1234 and Pompeii Subtype H1335. that the former and latter types of helmets were used contemporarily36. which have a bent brim and whose visors are greater. here below. p. triangular and with an upper edge following the brim. 37 Gladiators and Caesars. The weight of the helmets found Pompeii ranges between 3.A.3 and 6. It is obvious.1. 33 34 Entry 3. crest structure and in the system of closing the front mask. Chapter 5.1 35 Entry 3.2 Entry 3. To the construction and decorative details is devoted. Other differences are in the attaching of visors.1. Average thickness of material is approximately 1. The Power of Spectacle in Ancient Rome 2000. 84-85.3 36 Nossov 2009. p. 40. according to the finds from Pompeii.A.The next stage of development is the shape called by Junkelmann Pompeii Subtype H733 which had a straight brim and round visors.A.
p.1.4 cm. 96. last visit: 05.1. Gladiatorenhelm-Beschläge vom Limes. perforation and engraving (details). 122-123. Thraex’s helmet subtype Pompeii H12 (after: http://www. The grill covering the upper part of the face and the shape of the visor are typical for the 1st century AD. Measures: Height: with visor and crest: 38 cm. 20. 23. width: 33.1-2. Germania. pl. J. no. State of preservation: Good.3. 1987. Schutz und Zier. 116. The sides of the crest are decorated in detail with small overlapping feathers. Bibliography: Wahl. Material: Bronze. p. 89. Les Gladiateurs.louvre.A.8-2.: 1108. 2. 1989. with a griffin head on the top of the crest and a silver-plated Medusa head on the part of the cap protecting the head over the forehead. Quadriporticus of the Theatre (gladiators’ barracks). The helmet is decorated by embossing (relieves). Moreover on the helmet sides there are two feather holders. Entries 3. Dating: Probably AD 50-75. 2012) 18 .A. visor alone 23 cm. 1977. 2 and pl. Basel: Antikenmuseum Basel und Sammlung Ludwig.A. The surface of the helmet is partly decorated with tin embedded links and dents. 55. Paris. no.1.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/helmet-thracian-gladiator. length: 40 cm.1.1. p. Inventory no. Description: Bronze helmet richly decorated.3 mm. Antikenmuseum Basel und Sammlung Ludwig. no. 20. Musée de Louvre. Helme aus dem Antikenmuseum Berlin und Waffen anderer Sammlungen. Musée archéologique: éditions Lattes. 06. Provenance: Pompeii. Thraex’s Helmet Subtype Pompeii H12 Location: France. thickness of the gridded eye cover: 1. Figs 3.
3.1. 3.4.5. 3.3. Detail of the silver plated Medusa head on the forehead (photograph by the Author) 19 .A.A. Detail of the hinge cover (photograph by the Author) Fig.1.Fig.1.1.1. Detail of the hinge (photograph by the Author) Fig.A.1.
6.1.Fig.1. 3.1.A.6. Detail of the visor (photograph by the Author) 20 . 3.A. Detail of the crest (photograph by the Author) Fig.1.
1. width: 37. Bettinali Graeber 1988/1999.95-1. Naples. Junkelmann.5 cm. p. 33.3. p. visor only: 22 cm. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren 2000) 21 .A. Material: Bronze.23 mm. Diameter of the grill eye-cover: 8. Mainz 2000.2. p. The forehead of helmet is decorated by a palm tree. The helmet is decorated by embossing. an older version of subtypes Pompeii H12 and H13. Measures: Height with visor and crest: 43. Quadriporticus of the Theatre (gladiator’s barracks). Inner length and width: 22 cm. Subtype Pompeii H7 Location: Italy. Brim: width on front: 6. State of preservation: Good. Provenance: Pompeii. on back 8 cm. Thraex’s helmet type Pompeii H7 (after: Junkelmann M.5 cm. no. Figs 3. Museo Archeologico Nazionale. Il gladiatore / The gladiator 2008. Description: This Thraex’s bronze helmet is.2.5 cm.18 mm. with rim: 2. Weight 3400 g. These are fastened by hinges directly to the cheek pieces. Bibliography: Fiorelli 1869. Inventory no. Cheek pieces slide under the range of the brim in the front part into the bulging holder. M.: 5649.4 cm. while on the cheek pieces there are discoid patterns.97-4. crest: 11 cm. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren. Dating: 1st century AD. no. It has a flat brim and circular visor gratings which do not go through the brim. perforation and engraving.1-2. 165. 279. On the top of the crest there is a griffin’s head. 115-119. in terms of design. 20.A. 16. Thickness of the bronze plate: 0.1. p. Thraex’s Helmet.
Enlarged view of the right side (after: La Regina 2001) 22 .2.A.Figs 3.3.1.
3.1.A.3. Thraex’s Helmet, Subtype Pompeii H13 Location: Italy. Capua, Museo dei Gladiatori. Inventory no.: 5650. Material: Bronze. Measures: Height with visor and crest: 45.5 cm, visor only: 22 cm; width: 44 cm; thickness of the bronze plate: 1.2 mm, with rim: 3.4 mm. Weight 4000 g. State of preservation: Good. Provenance: Pompeii, Quadriporticus of the Theatre (gladiators’ barracks). Dating: AD 50-75. Description: Bronze helmet, richly decorated. In terms of design it is identical to subtype H12. The crest of the helmet is simpler than type H12. On the top of the crest there is a griffin’s head. A Medusa head is on the forehead, while on the sides there are dolphins jumping in the waves, indicated all around the circumference of the helmet. The helmet is decorated by embossing, perforation and engraving. Bibliography: Fiorelli 1869, p. 16, no. 280; Bettinali-Graeber 1988/1999, p. 120-124, no. 21; La Regina 2001, p. 373.
Figs 3.1.A.3.1-2. Thraex’s helmet type Pompeii H13 (after: Junkelmann M. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren 2000)
Fig. 3.1.A.3.3. Enlarged view of the left side (after: La Regina 2002)
3.2 Ocreae (“Greaves”)
The disadvantage of the small shield used by thraex and hoplomachus was compensated by the pair of high ocreae. In the Roman army greaves were not very common: both in the Late Republic and during the Imperial period, they were worn only by centuriones38. All of the original finds of ocreae come from gladiatorial barracks in Pompeii. There were found five pairs of long greaves, differing from each other in height and in the frequency of decoration. The greaves were made from one piece of bronze sheet and were bordered with a thin bronze strip covering the rough edge (Fig. 4a). They protect always only the front part of the legs. There were pair of rings attached by two rivets on both sides (Fig. 4b): through these rings passed leather straps, tied on the back of the leg.
Figs. 4a -c. (left) Detail of the bordered with thin bronze plate. (middle) Detail of the loop attached by two rivets. (right) Detail of the projection for a kneecap. (photograph by the Author)
Junkelmann, , 2000, p. 73-76, Nossov 2009, p. 91-94.
2. which are the marks of the familia gladiatoria42. Alike helmets. The inscription “M. 42 In these cases. More than half of discovered graves carry inscriptions. which was often signed by the owners44. 93. All types of high graves have a projection for a the kneecap (pict Fig. unlike the military one. we do not know whether these richly decorated greaves were not only for ceremonial armoury41. 41 Chapter 6. worn by gladiators only when entering the arena on parade (pompa) at the opening of the games.”. AVG. mostly by stamping. such as “N.2.” was probably the mark of a crafter. Entry 3. because it was found on ten identical pieces of armour43. “NER. 43 Nossov 2009.C.P.5.”. engraving. 44 In some cases we can find the signatures of more users on a single piece. p. p. 26 . The issue of the construction and using of Thracian ocreae is described in detail here below in Chapter 5. the inscriptions seem to indicate that the greaves had been made for the Imperial gladiatorial school (specifically of Nero): Nossov 2009.The decoration of ocreae differs piece by piece.).A. “NER. 4c.”.1.C.4.A. Some of them have no decoration39. bashing and perforation40. There are no inscriptions made by the gladiators themselves on their equipment. 39 40 Entry 3. some are very richly decorated. 93-94. For fighting simpler greaves were used.A. on the contrary.
Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren. 20.2. 2a-b. nos 296-297. As far as it is known. this is the only extant pair without decoration. Description: Pair of bronze high greaves. La Regina 2001. B1 and B2. p. 5648. Provenance: Pompeii. with rim: 3. Above the knee. Each greave is completely bordered by a thin bronze sheet. Junkelmann.1. Measures: Height: 52. 180 cat. Thraex’s/hoplomachus’s greaves type Pompeii B1 and B2 (after: Junkelmann M.8 cm. Quadriporticus of the Theatre (gladiator’s barracks). AVG. Figs 3. no. Dating: second quarter of the 1st century AD. State of preservation: Good. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren 2000) 27 .(VSTI) (“of Nero Augustus”).A.A. Material: Bronze. thickness of the bronze plate: 1. 386. p.65 mm.2. Mainz 2000.: 5644. In the area of kneecap they are bulging. Bibliography: Fiorelli 1869.1-2.1. Thraex’s/hoplomachus’s greaves subtype Pompeii B1 and B2 Location: Italy. p. 82 No. M. On the lower edge of the greave inv. Museo Archeologico Nazionale. Bettinali-Graeber 1988/1999.5 mm. there are two shallow drop-shaped bulges bordered by a vault line from engraved from the obverse of the surface.3.. for the fastening to the leg with leather straps passing through them. Inventory no. Naples. Weight 2200 g.13-2. There are three pairs of rings attached by two rivets on both sides. 5648 there is the mark of the Imperial workshop: NER(ONIS).
A.3-4.Figs 3.1.2. Enlarged view (after: La Regina 2001) 28 .
holding a long sceptre in the left hand and a bundle of bolts in the right hand. with rim: 4.2. 9a-b. p. Junkelmann. Fig. B3 and B4: La Regina 2001. 387.2.html. 5645) there is naked Jupiter. p. p. Thraex’s/hoplomachus’s greaves subtype Pompeii B3 and B4 Location: Italy. Il gladiatore / The gladiator 2008. M. Naples. p. last access: 1.: 5645 and 5647.A. Bibliography: Fiorelli 1869.A.5 cm. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren.12-1. p. 180 cat. 59-64. 3. no. no. State of preservation: Good. Museo Archeologico Nazionale. Measures: Height: 55. A vault line is in the lower part decorated with short bashed.edu/courses/introtogreece/gladiators/img13greaves.75-5.3.7. 5647) is naked Neptune.2.utexas. Bettinali-Graeber 1988/1999. In the area of the knee the are two characters. nos 299-300. Quadriporticus of the Theatre (gladiators’ barracks). Thraex’s/hoplomachus’s greaves type Pompeii B3 and B4 (after: http://www. 20. no. 37.2. thickness of the bronze plate: 1.2012) 29 . Material: Bronze. Inventory no.62 mm. In the term of design it is identical to types B1 and B2.1. Thy are decorated with engraved ornamental patterns on the upper and lower edges. Provenance Pompeii. On the left greave (inv. Dating: Second quarter of the 1st century AD.35 mm. Mainz 2000. standing between two trees. Description: Pair of high bronze greaves. On the right greave (inv. depicted holding a trident in his left hand and a small dolphin in his right hand.
A. Enlarged view (after: La Regina 2001) 30 .2.2-3.2.Figs 3.
13 a-b. bearded frontal head. On the right greave (inv.2. State of preservation: Good. Paris. Provenance: Pompeii. there is the mark MC (probably MCP: see below). 8. with a high anastolé over the forehead (Pan?). 124-125. so-called “beutyful tipe”.fr/cartelfr/visite?srv=car_not_frame&idNotice=20619& langue=fr . no.2.1. there are two superimposed masks of a Silenus and a Maenad in profile view to their right. Inventory no.2. Bibliography: De Ridder 1915. Musée du Louvre. 1169) there is the hallmark AM. p. Bettinali-Graeber 1988/1999. last visit: 27. beneath the upper edge. 23. on the left there is NCA. p. 1170). no.2. Opposite to it. In the areas of kneecaps there is a frontal head of Medusa. pl. 67. In the term of design it is identical to types B3 and B4. Quadriporticus of the Theatre (gladiator’s barracks). 06. on the right there is PPAM. On the left part of the upper third of each greave there is a male. Differences can be seen in the decoration. in the knee area there is the mark NCA. 3. nos 1169 and 1170. with her eyes open and a pair of winglets in the hair over the forehead. Measures: Height: 57.A. 2012) 31 .5 cm (the higher one). in the centre of there upper part. width: 21. on the front side of the thigh there is there the mark MCP.3. Description: Pair of bronze high greaves.A. no.5 cm. Thraex’s/hoplomachus’s greaves subtype Pompeii B5 and B6 Location: France. Dating: Second quarter of the 1st century AD.louvre. with a thyrsus behind them. no. Thraex’s/hoplomachus’s greaves type Pompeii B5 and B6 (after: http://cartelfr. Fig. Baratte 1987.: 1169 and 1170. inside a square frame. 83-86. p. On the upper part of the left greave (inv. originally probably PPAM. Material: Bronze.
Fig. Detail of the Medusa’s head on the kneecap area of inv.2. 1169 (photograph by the Author) 32 .A.2.4. 3. no. 3.2.2 Detail of the vault line and Fig.2.3. no. 3. Detail of the vault line and bearded head on inv. 1169 (photograph by the Author) Fig. no.A.A.2.2. 1170 (photograph by the Author) bearded head on inv.
Thraex’s/hoplomachus’s greaves subtype Pompeii B9 and B10 Location: Italy. In the upper part there are two laurel branches. width: 20 cm. It is not certain that greaves B9 and B10 belonged to the same pair.85 mm. because of the differences in their decoration.: B9 5665. The second greave is very similar to the previous. no. thickness of the bronze plate: 1. there is a thyrsus. Material: Bronze. 10a. In the knee area there is a table with three Bacchic masks. Weight 2200 g. Under the knee. On the lowest register there are five Bacchic masks: Three of them lay on a basket with lid. with a decorative round shield between their tops. there is a gabled line and. Bibliography: Quaranta 1831. no. Measures: B9 Height: 55 cm. p. with rim: 4. they do not share the same hallmarks. Provenance: Pompeii. Beneath there is an acanthus scroll. style and shape.2. Naples. p.3.A. p. Bettinali-Graeber 1988/1999. On the side rims of the greave there are three pairs of rings. 10b. On the knee there is a mask of young Bacchus on a cista mystica. 20. Il gladiatore / The gladiator 2008. Beneath. Museo Archeologico Nazionale. in the centre of the greave.13 mm.13 mm. Under the gabled line there is an eagle hunting a rabbit. Between each of the masks and the head of young Bacchus. B10 Height: 55 cm. thickness of the bronze plate: 1. there is a vegetal scroll. La Rocca 2001. B9). Quadriporticus of the Theatre (gladiators’ barracks). Weight 2200 g. B10. Fiorelli 1869. an eagle with widespread wings fighting against a serpent. known as cista mystica of Bacchus. 65-70. Next to one of the highest ring there is the mark NER. and the mask of a Satyr on the right side. Inventory no. differently from all the other greaves. On each side of the greave there are three pairs of rings. while on the upper part of the thigh there is a large hallmark MCP. there are the head of a Faunus on the left side. while on each side of this composition there is another Bacchich mask against a neutral background. State of preservation: Good. on both sides of the greave. Moreover. but it shows differences in decoration and shape. 33 . 71-75. no. width: 19 cm. with rim: 4. Description: B9. p. In the upper part of it there is a large hallmark MCP (cf.3.85 mm. under it. 301. both on a cista mystica. 37. Dating: Second quarter of the 1st century AD. there is garland made of laurel and oak leaves. leaning against the table there are a club (on the left) and shepherd staff (on he right). Under these. p. ***. B10 5668. On the upper part.
no.3.2. on the right. no.1-2. the greave inv.A. On the left.Figs 3. B10 5668 B10 (right side view) (after: La Regina 2001) 34 . B9 5665 (front view). the greave inv.
with rim: 4. In the lowest register there is a stork (or heron) with open wings. 21. no.3.4. Description: Pair of richly decorated bronze graves.8 cm. Measures: Height: 54 cm. beneath a richly decorated gabled line. no. 389. Museo Archeologico Nazionale. In the upper part a mask of Silenus. In the following register.78 mm. at each side there is thyrsus with long ribbons. 313-314. The decoration is identical on both greaves: the only difference is that the mask of Silenus in the upper part and the stork in the lower part are specularly inverted. Bibliography: Caterion 1827. Dating: Second quarter of the first century AD. State of preservation: Good. Provenance: Pompeii. 5667. inner diameter: 90. is depicted in profile. 2300 and 2500 g. Quadriporticus of the Theatre (gladiators’ barracks). in prifle towards the centre of the greave. Bettinali-Graeber 1988/1999. lying on a cista mystica.8-128. La Regina 2001. and a tree beneath them. p. 11a-b. there are two young Bacchus’ masks on a cista mystica (one on each side). Lower. depth 14. Fiorelli 1869. 35 . p. 76-81. holding a snake in its beak. p. there are three embossed Bacchic masks on a panther skin. Naples.: 5666.A. Thraex’s/hoplomachus’s greaves subtype Pompeii B7 and B8 Location: Italy. In the knee area there are two crossed cornucopias. in the same register. Inventory no. Thickness of the bronze plate: 1. Material: Bronze.8 cm. Weight: respectively.62 mm. On the sides of each greave there are four pairs of rings and on the upper edge there is the already seen hallmark MPC.2.
View of the front side decoration of inv no.A.1. 3.Fig. 5666 (on the left) and of the left side decoration of inv.2.4. no. 5667 (on the right) (after: La Regina 2001) 36 .
Laminar arm-guards was used for the first time by the army of Emperor Trajan in the First and Second Dacian Wars (AD 101-102 and 105-106). 5a).5. Gladiators 100 BC – AD 200 Osprey 2001) 45 46 Nossov 2009. The fastening of the manica was by leather straps over the shoulder and around the chest (Fig. were metal manicae (scale or laminar). found in Britannia. Entry 4. (after: Wilson S. later it was elongated up to the shoulder.2. It is depicted. from the wrist to the elbow. It probably developed from the Hellenistic boxing glove called caestus45. it protected only a short part of the arm. At first. p. We can find a few kinds of manica on depictions: unfortunately original finds has not been preserved. used during the 1st and the 2nd century AD.3. 5a. 90. we can guess the function and construction of the segmented manica (Fig. Systém of manica fastening by leather strap. The shorter variant was called sica. Fig. The function and reconstruction of the manica are described here below in Chapter 5.1.4. Gladiators 100 BC – AD 200 Osprey 2001) Fig.3 Manica (“Arm-guard”) The manica is the part of the armour covering the fighter’s arm. 5b). the scale arm-guard became favored. 47 The Dacian falx existed in two sizes: one-handed and two-handed. From the 2nd century onwards. Remains of metal manica segents from Newstead excavationin Britain (after: Wilson S. A case apart are the crossed thongs.1. 37 . Another option.g. e. These laminar arm-guards should provide protection against the Dacian weapons called falx47. in the fragmentary mosaic at Villa Borghese48. It is because of the organic material used for the making of most parts of the manica: usually made of quilted cloth or leather.. Another possibility to put it on the arm can be seen on the funerary relief of Lusius Storax46: broad cloth or leather thongs overlapped on the arm. According to the only preserved legionnaire manica. 5b. 48 Entry 4.
A training dagger sica has been found in the legionnaire camp in Oberaden in Northern Germany. The information about the shape of the blade of the gladiatorial sica comes from mosaics and grave reliefs. according to the opinion of Roman people.. Most of original finds of military sicae come from sites in Romania. the samnis gladiator was typical by his armour. 6c). 06. iron-bladed sicae were much more longer: we estimate the length of their blades in 45 cm. There are not so many preserved gladiatorial weapons. while later types were with sharply angled blade (Fig. 6a). Köln. Fig. The use of such curvature is described below in Chapter 5. dated to the 1st century BC (Fig.4 Weapons It was quite common that in the Republican period war prisoners used their own weapons or armours while entering the arena as gladiators49. It is a single-handed dagger with a curved blade. Yet. 6c). Detail of the oil lamp decoratin thraexholding sica with evenly curved blade. Until the first half of the 1st century AD the blade was evenly curved along its length (Fig. The wooden blade from Oberaden is 30.flickr.3.g. in the same period.6. but instead of them wooden swords (rudes) were used. and no direct find of gladiatorial sica. Place where gladiators lived and trained. the typical weapon for gladiator thraex. (after: http://www. 2012 49 50 E. 38 .com/photos/40060535@N05/4300079154/i n/set-72157623148558825 last visit: 27.5 cm (Fig.5 cm long and its total length was 46. In the ludus50 the gladiators did not train with sharp weapons most of the time. Sica sword was. 6b). Römisch-Germanisches Museum. 6a.
Hannover . 6b. Rome’s Bloody Spectacle 2009) 3. of their shields. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren 2000) Fig.and small-shielded51. Such shield had a convex surface for providing a better protection. but mostly it should have been suggestive of a miniature of 51 Junkelmann 2000. p.7. gladiators felt into three groups. Its shape could be various as it is discussed below in Chapter 5. that is large-. Bronze statue of the thraex holdning sharply angled sica and parmula with horizontal grip. there are iconographic sources.Fig. Because of the organic materials of which these shields were made. middlelarge.5 Parmula (“Shield”) According to the size. Kestner-Museum (after: Junkelmann M. 6c. Konstantin. Nonetheless. The exact construction of the parmula can be deduced from the way in which the large shield (scutum) was constructied. which inform us about them. none has survived. Gladiator. On the contrary. Reconstruction of wooden blade from Oberaden (after Nossov. in particular bronze statuettes. Thraex and hoplomachus belong to the group of small-shielded gladiators. The thraex used a small quadrangular shield (parmula) measuring about 60 x 60 cm. 39 . some hoplomachus’ parmula has been completely preserved because it was made of bronze. 76 -81.
1. Or “M. oil lamps. Finally.html. Gladiatorial topic can be observed in roman art. The Iconographic Sources The iconographical sources are the most valuable sources of information about gladiators. while the supporters of large shields were called scutarii53. Often are also found small bronze. paintings and commonly used pottery.edu/Antoninus/meditations. Letter “V” indicated winner and was a shortcut for viciit.6.5. “P” by word periit – killed or “Q” by word quanatoz or Gracian Θ théta which meAnt death. Fig.P”. cups. To the function and use of shields is paid attention in Chapter 5. e. 55 Nossov 2009 p. There are also shortcuts “ST. it is noteworthy to mention that there were admirers of particular shield categories.missus periit. for example in the mosaic from the Roman villa at Zliten52. M” – stans missus.g terra sigillata54. no similar exemplar has been preserved. last access: 7. who finaly succumbed to his injuries55 Extant engraved singns and paintings of gladiators on plasters of Pompeyian houses have usualy nothing common with original armature of gladiators but it shows the evident admiration of common inhabitans. “M” meAnt missus – reprieved gladiator. The supporters of small shields were called parmularii. this meant ending of fight by tie and both fighters left arena alive.mit. Information about fight results can be seen on mosaics. Nossov 2009.2. bone or ivory statuettes which depict gladiators in various positions – winner in winning position and surrender in gesture with raised finger. 154. Unfortunately. nor a partizan either of the Parmularius or the Scutarius at the gladiators’ fights» (http://classics. mostly on mosaics. Originals from excavations are of a type similar to those reproduced on statuettes depicting hoplomachi (see above. stone reliefs. 40 . reliefs and paintings.one. but also the hoplomachus is often represented with a very convex shield.1: «From my governor. for reprieved gladiator.1. Meditations 1. 4 . where one of the quoted sources is Marcus Aurelius. 2). p. [I learned] to be neither of the green nor of the blue party at the games in the Circus. 52 53 Entry 4. 54 General term for some of the fine red Ancient Roman pottery with glossy surface slips. 167.2012).the Greek shield aspis. next after the original finds.
Either by the co-fighters from ludus or by lanista himself in the case of eminent gladiator. who came from Daldis. Often were depicted with palm spray as winners. than follows type of weapon he fought with. Gladiators 100 BC – AD 200 Osprey 2001) 41 . Fig. But mostly it was built by family and children. Extant are gravestones of gladiators built by bereaved after death. In Thyateiry (nowadays Turkey). It´s dedicated that Araxios was fighting as a thraex. protects himself with shield parmula . There was found the largest graveyard of gladiators in Ephesus. young wife of fallen gladiator had built a gravestone. Reconstruction of the Relief tombstone of the retired gladiator Danaos with wreaths on the side. his native land. as in the grave of thraex Danaos (Fig. Araxios stays in figh position. The number of wreaths was eaqual to number of victories in the arena. Three gravestones and bones of 67 men in the age of 20 – 30 years considered as gladiators were found. The gravestones say: “Familia in memory to Satornilos.” Beside the figures. On the gravestones is engraved name of the dead fighter. his portrayal and often dedication. which says „Amias in memory to her beloved husband Araxios. there were depicted wreaths on the gravestones. 7. against his adversary or alone. number of undergone fights and age. also called Antalos“. Gladiators are allways depicted standing and fully armed. From Smyrna comes gravestone of thraex Satornilose who stands in winning position holding a palm spray. Some epitaphs on the graves of gladiators were same as on the soldiers gravestones. 7). has high ocrea and holds sica with curved blade.4.1 Relieves This expensive form of decoration is mostly connected directly with places of holding gladiatorial fights or death. First is written name. (after: Wilson S.
In the lower part there is venation depicted. Iin the middle line there are gladiatorial fights under way. nowadays placed in Muzeo archeologico Nazionale.1. murmillo – thraex.2. where in the right side can be recognized pair hoplomachus – murmillo. On the redrawn relief from 19th century from Pompeii which was destroyed are gladiatorial fights depicted. shows the course of venatio a munus. It comes from clerk Lusius Storaxe57. murmillo – hoplomachus and thraex – murmillo described from left. On the right side there is well identifiable pair thraex – murmillo in the upper part. 56 57 Entry 4. Entry 4. Also. In the upper part of relief there is pompa depicted.The relief found in Pompeií56. the lower line is formed only by pairs murmillo – thraex. the relief from 2nd quarter of 1st century AD is preserved. 42 . Thraex is in the upper line depicted twice in pair with murmillo. Neapoli.1. In the lower part there are pairs thraex – murmillo. thraex – murmillo.1.
Relieves 4.2012) 43 . a myrmillohoplomachus pair (behind them there are two umpires) and a thraex-myrmillo pair. Inventory nr. who lived in ancient Teate (today Chieti) where he was sevir Augustalis (i. member of a college of priests of the Imperial cult).1.com/photos/risotto-al-caviale/3442301242. Die Bildhauerkunst während der Regierungszeit des Nero (54-68 n.S.: unknown. Chr. Chieti. fig. last visit: 3. Museo Archeologico Nazionale d’Abruzzo. Funerary relief of Lusius Storax Location: Italy.flickr.) 2010. 4.1..com/photos/risotto-al-caviale/3442301554/and http://www. Provenance: Teate (Chieti). Around him there is a crowd of men and at the sides tibicines (on the left) and cornicines (on the right).1. height of the frieze panels: 60 cm. State of preservation: Good. Gaius Lusius Storax. The relief of the frieze (from left to right) shows the following pairs: thraex-myrmillo. Bibliography: Maderna. Kleiner F. we can see Lusius Storax in toga. Left and right part from Lusius Storax’s funerary relief showing the performance of munera (after http://www. C. The monument was designed in the fashion of a temple: with a pediment. I.1. there are two equites. principate of Claudius (41-54: Maderna). Measures: pediment 60 x 280 cm. All the people are watching the gladiatorial munera clearly offered by Lusius Storax himself. 204a-b. partly represented on the pediment itself: here. myrmillo-hoplomachus and thraex-myrmillo. in the centre of the composition. from left to right. myrmillo-thraex. A History of Roman Art. In the pediment. Description: The relief with gladiatorial munera belongs to the funerary monument of a freedman.6. Enhanced Edition. 132. Material: Limestone. p.4. seated on a sella curulis.flickr.1. Figs. II.e. Dating: AD 20-40 (Kleiner).1.
74. no.4. Bottom row.1. originally decorated the façade of a funerary monument. on which there are two small figures. The gladiatorial fights are represented in the central register: a series of pairs of gladiators.G. Rome’s Bloody Spectacle 2009) 44 . fig. in which the singles episodes mark also under the chronological point of view the “timetable” of an editio (the game day). In detail: two provocatores. The narration begins in the upper register.Kelsey. two groups each consisting of three men (perhaps. Konstantin. Description: This relief.L. Pompeii: A Sourcebook. and M. It is very important because it consists of a cyclic narration. Relief from Pompeii (after Nossov. 359. little missing area in the centre of the lowest register. 431. such as the table with the programme of the games and the palm branch as prize for the winner. A. paegniarii and their assistants). who is the patron of the funerary monument and the editor of the munera. as well as three bestiarii at the moment of letting beasts out onto the arena. p. Gladiator. Inventory no. Museo Archeologico Nazionale. with a procession (pompa). 2004 p. carrying materials needed for the games. a hoplomachus and a murmillo on the right. Provenance: Pompeii. umpires and assistants are depicted. 1907. Cooley S. 140. New York: Macmillan. necropolis before Porta Stabia. London: Routledge.W. possibly representing the fabri who constructed the armatures for the gladiators (Junkelmann 2000).2. organized in three registers of different height. offered by a magistrate. La Regina 2001. p. Relief from Pompeii with munus and venatio Location: Italy. In the pompa we can detect a character frontally depicted. Material: Marble of Luni Measures: 1.23 m. the harenarii follow.50 x 4. 246. 10. Fig. marching from left to right: the parade is opened by two lictors. Naples. Pompeii: Its Life and Art. Translated by F. Bibliography: See Mau. Dating: AD 20-50. Then. cladded in a toga. followed by three tibicines (“players of tuba”) and by a ferculum. State of preservation: Two diagonal fractures. venatores fighting with animals.: 6704.
F. The lower row comprises a myrmillo-thraex pair and a thraex-myrmillo pair as well as some enlarged details. Paris: Atlas. p.3 Tracing of the Pompeii destroyed relief from 19th century (after Nossov. Sketch of a lost relief from Pompeii Location: /.4. a myrmillothraex pair. Rome’s Bloody Spectacle 2009) 45 . two retiarii and a myrmillo-thraex pair. Helmets and foot covers are depicted. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.3. Fig. two essedarii. London. 1186-1188. 4748. there are in the upper row: two equites. Smith. Description: A sketch realized in the 19th century from a destroyed relief in Pompeii showing gladiatorial combats. Gladiator.1.1. 1875. From left to right. Provenance: After a relief found at Pompeii. W. Material: / Measures: / State of preservation: /. a hoplomachus-myrmillo pair. Konstantin. Bibliography: Mazois. 4. 1824. Dating: AD 20-50. Thraex’s parmula shows a vertical handgrip.: /. p. Inventory no. Les Ruines de Pompei: Premiere Partie.
159) 65 Chapter 2. 58 59 Entry 4.2.2. Their main task was observe the fight rulez dictate (Nossov 2009 str. Mosaics from 2nd century AD are less detailed and it is more difficult to follow details of gladiatorial armature opposite to mosaics from the end of 3rd and 4th century AD. 61 Entry 4. Pairng of gladiators is very well traceable on this mosaic. This expensive style of decoration was very well-liked by Romans who decorated with it their private vilas or public rooms. 63 Entry 4. fighting with murmillo and surrending with raised finger59. On this view there is Thraex hit by murmillos shield to his helmet which confirms the theory of active using of shield in fight62. the fighting person is unable to continue in fight because of his injury or exhaustion. Three fragments of mosaic from famous Villa Borghese from the beginning of 4th century AD represent gladiatorial combats between retiarii and secutores and venation.4. 60 Entry 4. On the fragment of mosaic from Verona 64 63 around AD 200 there is thraex kneeling over downed murmillo and standing arbiter .2.2 Mosaic Mosaics from the Antiquity are one of the most permanent form of decorative art which was preserved. On mosaics from Augst by Basel60 from 2nd century placed in Augst. Thraex is not represented here but it is clearly visible the using of scalemaled manicae and its attaching65. 62 Chapter 4.3 46 . 64 There were two arbiters summa rudis and his assistant secunda rudis watching th fight. Thraex is depicted twice. This gesture mean. Römermuseum is five fighting scenes depicted.4. On its right side there is bust of editor depicted. The fragmen fo mosaic from Zliten in Libye 58 dated around 200 AD depicts the cours of munus. Other fighting gladiators are also depicted. Than the crowd could decide about his next destiny. There is also depiction of pair thraex – murmillo on one part of mosaic from half of the 1st century from Bad Kreuznach61 placed in Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier. In spite of that mosaics in combination with written sources and original finds of equipment are very valuable preserved source of information.2.1.4. than follow musicians and a pair of fighting equites. One of the scenes is dedicated to pair thraex – murmillo. It is likelihood that authors of mosaics created their work with a certain amount of own artistic invention and some technical details were not crucial for creating work. with easily recognizable armature types.2.3.
Bibliography: Kondoleon.97 m.2. Details of the mosaic from Zliten showing the course of the pompa and a venatio (after: Junkelmann M. Here. 73-74. Description: Fragment of a large mosaic. p.73 × 3.: not found. Mosaics 4.1. a stretcher to take away the dead or wounded.1. a thraex-myrmillo pair and a hoplomachusmyrmillo pair (the myrmillo is holding up his finger and the umpire is stopping the fight). New York: Cambridge University 1999. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren 2000) 47 . originally decorating a triclinium. Bottom (from left to right): combat between a retiarius and a secutor. expecting a verdict. obliterating especially one of the gladiatorial frieze. only two details have been selected. Fig. The last gladiator on the right is a provocator.4. Domestic and divine: Roman mosaics in the House of Dionysos. Inventory nr. Provenance: Roman villa at Dar Buk Ammera. State of preservation: Complete. Top (from left to right): Bust of an editor. Mosaic from Zliten Location: Lybia. Mosaics of the Greek and Roman world (4th edition). The Archaeological Museum of Tripoli. Christine. and an umpire holding one of the equites by the hand. and some areas of the central square. Tripoli.2. p. with some lacunae. “water-organ”). formin a square in the centre of the pavement. New York: Cornell University 1995. Dating: AD 200. Dunbabin. The mosaic consists of a set of sixteen square fields decorated with geometric designs in opus sectile or representations of several kinds of fish in opus vermiculatum. with scenes of games in the amphitheatre. Measures: 5. 4.D.2. Each side of the edge is decorated with pictures of gladiatorial contests. 119120.1.. Katherine M. musicians (with the rare representation of a hydraulis.
Augst. Provenance: Augusta Raurica (Augst). Description: This square detail of the mosaic is one of the five. Inventory nr. 280-282. Measures: not found State of preservation: Good. p. Dating: AD 200. M. Mosaic fragment from Augst Location: Switzerland. There is a myrmillo prepared for the fight and a thraex taking his parmula shield from the ground.Dunbabin D.2. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren.98. p. 96. 4.: not found.4. 1999. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren 2000) 48 . Junkelmann. Römermuseum. Fig.2. which depict a gladiators’ pairing. Bibliography: Katherine M.2.. Mosaic detail from Augst showing gladiatorial fight (after: Junkelmann M.2..New York: Cambridge University Press. Mainz 2000.1. Mosaics of the Greek and Roman world.
Hamburg: Neyses. This fragment shows the fighting between a thraex and a myrmillo. 4. Luxus auf dem Lande – Die römische Palastvilla von Bad Kreuznach. Detail of a Mosaic from Bad Kreuznach Location: Germany.1.4. Die Römer in Rheinland-Pfalz. inside frames of different shapes. The myrmillo hits the thraex on the helmet with his shield scutum. Measures: The whole mosaic: 58m2. 2005. p. Dating: 2nd century AD. Detail of acmosaic from Bad Kreuznach (after: Junkelmann M. Bad Kreuznach.2. Bad Kreuznach: publishers.2.3. Hornung S. Inventory nr. Description: The extensively preserved mosaic depicts thirteen different combats in the Roman amphitheatre. State of preservation: Good. Bad Kreuznach.3.: not found. Provenance: Remains of a Roman villa. 2008. Fig. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren 2000) 49 . 321323. Bibliography: Cüppers H. Römerhalle.
Bibliography: Junkelmann.2. Fig. 4. M. Measures: not found State of preservation: fragmentary. Fragment of mosaic from Verona (after: Junkelmann M.: not found. Description: A thraex is kneeling close to a dead or badly wounded myrmillo.4. Museo Archeologico al Teatro Romano. Mainz 2000.4. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren 2000) 50 . shows a horizontal handgrip. 106-107.4.2. Mosaic fragment from Verona Location: Italy. also on the ground. Dating: Late 2nd or early 3rd century AD. In the right bottom corner there is a cart for a body. Provenance: Roman villa at Negrar. Verona. p. An umpire is stopping the fight. Thraex’s parmula. Verona. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren.1. Inventory nr.
p. 136-138 (with further literature). Inventory nr.4. Katherine M. Roma: De Luca.782 m. moreover there are scenes of venatio. A. The gladiatorial combats are between retiarii and secutores. I marmi antichi della galleria Borghese. According to the inscriptions all the duels ended with the death of the loser: in fact. Embedded in the floor of the Salone. La collezione archeologica di Camillo e Francesco Borghese. 1999. Galleria Borghese. M.25 x 5. pp. 51 . in the shape of a continuous frieze.16/2. Junkelmann. Mosaics of the Greek and Roman world New York: Cambridge University Press. p. Of the seven sections now in the Galleria Borghese. decorated. Discovered and brought to light in 1834 Dating: First half of the 4th century AD. the cryptoporticus of an Imperial villa.. Description: The most famous gladiatorial mosaic from the late Imperial period. Measures: The five larger sections: 2. Moreno. Gladiator mosaic in Galleria Borghese Location: Italy. the two smaller sections: 54 x 86 cm. on the via Casilina.: without inventory number.2. 2003.39/5. D. P. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren. typical for this late period.5. Bibliography: Dunbabin. 53-73. two depicts venationes. Provenance: Borghese estate at Torrenova. Rome. two very small) from many small square panel detached from their original setting. four scenes of munera and one scene both of munera and venatio. Viacava. The depicted gladiators use a scale manica. the Greek letter Θ (= first letter of θάνατος = “death”) characterizes the dead.144 – 145. State of preservation: recomposed in seven sections (five larger. Mainz 2000.
5.1-2.1. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren 2000) 52 . representing a venatio and gladiatorial combats between retiarii and secutores (after: Junkelmann M. Three fragments of the mosaic from Villanova in the Galleria Borghese.Figs 4.
Figs.com/photos/40060535@N05/4300079154/in/set72157623148558825 last visit: 27. Another group of decorative items constituted by small gladiator statuetes of various type cast from bronze (Figs. Especially in the day of Games a bussines with decorative items and souveniers with gladaitorial motive flourished. Two lamps from the National Museum in Berlin show two thraex (Fig. weapons. 10).flickr. 11a-b) or in more rare occasions from ivory. This support numerous finds of commonly used staffs with gladiators and their fights topic. ceramic with fighting motives. 06. There were countless traders around amphitheatres selling medalions and statuettes with popular gladiators. Köln. . 6a).4 Decorative items The whole decorative industry sector dealed with gladiatorial theme. Römisch-Germanisches Museum (after: http://www. Detail of the three oil lamps with thraex gladiator. Other show thraex in pair with murmillo (Figs. In RömischGermanisches Muzeum v Kolíně is placed collection of preserved oil lamps with gladiator depiction. It is certain that gladitorial theme arous enormous interest of common citizens. Some of them are decorated with thraex himslef (Figs.4. armatures and other various things of common use gladiatorial theme. 2012) 53 . 8a-c). 9a-b) and hoplomachus (Fig. 8a-c.
Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren 2000) Fig. Staatliche Museen –Antikensammlung (after: Junkelmann M.Germanisches Museum (after :http://www. 10 Two thraex . Berlin.com/photos/40060535@N05/4300079154/in/set72157623148558825 last visit: 27. Bronze statue of thraex prepared to fight. 2012) Fig.Paris.Figs. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren 2000) Fig. Detail of the two oil lamps depicting fight between thraex and murmillo.flickr. 11a. Das Spiel mit der Todt – So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren 2000) 54 . Bronze statue of thraex in surrender gesture. 9a-b. Römisch. Palencia. 06. 11b.. . Bibliothèque Nationale (after: Junkelmann M. Museo Arqueologico (after: Junkelmann M. Köln.
multiple use. It brings a great number of historical epics which purpose is only to deliver a period’s image without any effort to create the true image of history. But quality degrees of such operation can be various. 55 . nonetheless. A blunt blade is better for multiple use. it does not ensure the desired quality. This way.1. creates the illusion of historical authenticity but mostly without any connection to the reality of reconstructed age. For this type of reconstruction is not necessary to make a really sharp weapon. The elements of the armature in the light of reenactment 5. which has the purpose to attain the most faithful reconstruction of a certain period. At the opposite end of the range. galea − is mr. the true function of the object has the second place in reenactment. For example. Sometimes. Martin Junek. ocrea. there is professional reenactment66. This is a very popular way of delivering history in film industry nowadays.5. Reenactment: an experimental approach Reenactment has a strong tradition in Bohemia and thanks to high-quality crafters of historical replics there are some world-class projects. Reenactment creates a credible picture of a certain period67 in which is not necessary to own an actually sharp weapon for its active. by a deep study of the sources and replying the techniques of that period. The craftsman who reconstructed all the parts of the bronze gladiatorial equipment I am presenting here − manica. also professional reenactment has to face constructing compromises. especially because of the lack of information about techniques and processing of the selected period. The term “reenactment” includes general revitalization of history. Reenactment is only not focused on creating the picture of history but also should answer the questions about the functions and qualities of the reconstructed objects. The most similar approach to antiquity is experimental archeology. archaeology will primarily examine the function of a weapon and its effect in the time it was originally created and in certain situations. which nowadays are only hypothetical. At the lowest level there is a merely visual reconstruction. who belongs to the top-class of 66 67 “Professional reenactment” is not an official term: in itself. which creates only images of a certain period without putting any emphasis on historical or archaeological sources and on the used materials. Differently from experimental archaeology. yet.
For the reconstructions presented here tin bronze69 was used. Fig. The complexity and expensiveness of bronze manufacturing multiplies the difficulties in comparison with iron or brass manufacturing. which means also “fragile”. and the total amount of copper and tin must be at least 99 % in the final alloy. Heating of the bronze sheet (photograph by Martin Junek) Fig. is worldwide. it is difficult to assess the properties of the metal when heated. this means that the metal plate must be annealed in forge: its temperature is controlled by the colour of the heated material (Fig 12a). 12b). despite the supplier given values. A higher softness is reached by annealing at 650 to 700 °C. a specifical alloy with a content of ca. 71 In this case. there is only a short time for shaping72 (Fig. and and his fame.armours and plattner articles craftsmen in Czech Reublic. 70 Alloys with more than 10 % of tin are processed by casting. In the practice. it quickly cools down and becomes hard. depends his capability of bronze manufacturing. in this case.e. among collectors and producers of events. The biggest influence has ratio of copper and tin. which at such degree is very rare. 8 % of tin at most. Due to the factory processing of bronze68. which can be processed by cold-working70. The qualities of bronze objects are very different when compared with similar items made with substitute materials. besides other things. bronze can be hammered in cold form because of his hardness. 72 When bronze is annealed in the presence of air (i. which is commonly used as a cheaper substitute. 12a. 56 . 12b. of oxygen). Shaping of the vault line on a greave (photograph by Martin Junek) 68 69 The tin bronze sheet. When the metal is soft enough. On his great strength. Tin bronze contains at most 20 % of tin. The firmness71 of the cold-worked bronze slowly decreases by heating at 300 °C.
Recent works on pratical aspects of gladiatorial combat. The greatest expert in the field of reconstructions and experiments with gladiatorial equipments is the historian and experimental archeologist Dr.2 Reenactors Reenactors are people interested in the restoration and reconstruction of history in all of its forms. This influences both the used material and the degree (extension and quality) of decoration. 2000.de/gladiator. Das Spiel mit der Todt . Mainz: von Zabern. See: http://www. 510-532. 76 See: http://www. He conducted an array of significant experiments with his reenacting group Familia Gladiatoria Pulli Cornicinis74. Junkelmann. M. The other group reconstructing the gladiatorial world on a significant level is the Italian group Ars Dimicandi76.Roms Gladiatoren im Experiment. 57 . There is a lack of reenacting groups reconstructing actively the world of gladiators. 75 Among his many titles. This fact usually influences the quality of the reconstructed objects. M. p. 2010. Therefore. Instead of bronze he uses brass and iron. a reason for the trade-off between historical replicas and bare imitations is the financial aspect. His reconstructed items are not decorated and have only a raw basic shape with no details. Unfortunately. zu: "Retiarius vs. 23. regardless of decoration. His reconstructions are valuable thanks to their extent.5. Ricostruzione empirica delle tecniche di combattimento e degli armamenti". They are focused on reconstruction of fights and fighting techniques more than on equipment. 11. but used materials and processing differ from the original ones. secutor et scissor.net. Journal of Roman Archaeology. see: Junkelmann.net/. Very often reenactors can be found among amateur archeologists. Rez. Gladiatorial and military equipment and fighting technique. M. 113-117. A comparison. which are published in his studies75. On the 73 74 See: http://www. Junkelmann. and not everyone has access to the necessary archeological materials and knowledge. it is also a common practice that every reenactor reconstructs his equipment at his own expense.arsdimicandi. Among Czech craftmen should be emphasized Patrick Bárta73. who is at the worldwide top of weapon manufacturing.templ. replicas maintain only the basic shape of the reconstructed object.htm. the largest share in quality of reconstruction have the capabilities and experience of the craftsman who reconstructs a certain object. p. Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies. 2000. Gladiators in action. For most of them it is a hobby more than a profession. Furthemore. Anyway.clemens-fritz. It is common in Czech Republic that most of the historical replicas craftmen are also people acting as reenactors. which is at a very low level of processing quality. Marcus Junekelmann.
5 mm thick tin bronze plate.2. very good aesthetic results in reconstruction reached the German group Amor Mortis77.3. where on the left side there are fighting secutor and thraex depicted standing back to back. As models for those parts of the thraex’s equipment (i. Reconstruction In this part of the work I would like to specify. mainly iconographical were used.4 Manica Considering the absence of finds of gladiatorial manicae. they bring the largest information about this period.e. First of them is the mosaic from Zliten in Libya78. parmula). which were found out during the reconstruction and the following use of my thraex armature. The second source was the statuette of a thraex now in the Museum August Kestener in Hannover (Fig. the thraex would have an iron manica and the secutor a bronze one. The colour of the manica of each of them is different from the colour of their equipment. manica. 6b). 5. But also reconstruction itself brought new knowledge. Evident segments indicate the possibility of a scaled manica.eu/. Its quality was influenced by the number of the available pieces of information. therefore. Considering the change of human constitution in course of time.gladiatorenschule. In this case. which were not preserved other archeological sources. The reconstruction of this thraex equipment started three years ago. which helped to improve the quality of every following object. This is the reason why the shape is always the original one. 58 . The used material was a 1. but not the size. this reconstruction was based on the combination of different sources. the other ones are provided with a leather patch for a better flexibility 77 78 See: http://www. correct or add some pieces of information.1. Our reconstruction of the righthanded manica is made in bronze.contrary. This makes this group of archaeological finds the best for our reconstruction. Entry 4. The archeological finds from the Quadriporticus of the Theatre at Pompeii are date not later than the year AD 79 and. Twelve lamellae were made: the three in the area of the elbow are shorter. the size of the reconstructed equipment is made to fit a man with nowadays structure. The aim of this reconstruction is to create the replica of the armature of a gladiator thraex as it appeared during the first century AD. sica. 5. The way of the hand protection also suggests the conclusion that the manica was formed by lamellar segments.
Under the manica is worn a quilted linen sleeve on which metal lamellae are applied and fixed by leather straps. 13a-13b). tied up on the inside of the arm (Fig. Total weight of this manica is 3kg. Detail of the leather elbow cower (photograph by the Author) 79 Most of the depictions of gladiators show a manica on the whole arm. Lamellas of manica are overlapping from above. 13a. while in the middle the heads of the rivets are covered by overlapping lamellae. that is joint protection. This has a strictly practical reason. It is decorated with an embossed lionhead (Fig. 13b. Fig. On the inner side there are three leather straps along the whole length of the manica. But results show that the laiyng of lamellas has no influence on function of manica. This fact is often topic of discussions. including the covering of fingers. A larger strap is riveted in the upper part alonged around the chest and over the shoulder. This area is exposed to hits and so it is susceptible to damage. To the rivets on the sides of the lamellae there leather loops are attached. The lamellae are riveted to them on both sides of the manica and in its middle. 5a). 13c). 59 .(Figs. On the both straps there are buckles for tightening (Fig. 13e). through which run leather straps. Fingers are protected by the overlapping of the linen sleeve and a leather plate79 attached by leather straps around wrist and palm. Detail of the manica take apart (photograph by the Martin Junek) Fig. if they were in this course or reversely. The rivets on the sides of the lamellae are easily visible. There were a number of experiments for proving direction of laying lamellas. The upper part of the manica covers the shoulder and is made out from one single piece of bronze.
This bulge eases the movement of the knee and in particular the kneeling down (Fig. There was no need of a fully anatomical shape. with the quilted sleeve and the leather straps (photograph by the Author) 5.2. Under the gladiatorial ocreae there were quilted leggings called fasciae (Fig. Detail of the decoration (photograph by the Author) Fig. today on exhibition in the Musée du Louvre81. type B5 and B680. 13e. Through these leather straps pass and fasten the greave to the leg. All the joints of the hemming are covered under rivets. as for example in the Greeek kronoi or in the later mediaeval plated greaves. Département des antiquités grecques.5 mm thick. Inside view of the manica. which absorbed the hits and also enabled a large range of moves of the legs. The greaves protect the front part of the leg from ankle to the half-thigh. Whole manica with leather plate cowering fingers (photograph by the Author) Fig.5 Ocreae The model for the reconstruction of the high ocreae was a pair of greaves found at Pompeii. The deepest are is in correspondence with the kneecap area. étrusques et romaines.A. 60 . 14a). Both ocreae are all along hemmed by a thin bronze plate 0. on which there is an embossed relief.2. 13c. Salle des bronzes. on the first floor. so that the 80 81 Entry 3. On both sides of a greave three bronze rings are attached. 14b).Fig. 13d. which were formed straight on the leg.
5 kg. The weight of one single greave is 2.5 thick bronze-tin plate. The rings for hitching leather straps are made from bronze wire 0. 14c. These are attached by bronze rivets in the sides of graves (Fig. This technological problem has been overcome just in these days. Detail of the kneecap bulging with decoration (photograph by the Author) Fig. in fact. The decoration of ocreae was realized by embossing. 14d.5 mm thick bronze-tin plate. The total hight of an ocrea is 61 cm. were reconstructed on the basis of a picture and this relief seemed to be too raised for the embossing technique. This way of hemming is typical also for all other pieces of the gladiatorial equipment. 14c). The width in the narrowest ankle area is 15 cm. the edges of graves are hemmed by 0. in the widest area of upper edge is 21 cm. which were casted and added later (Fig. Detail of the loop attached by two rivets (photograph by the Author) Fig. Used material for reconstruction is 1. These greaves. 14d). 14a. Reconstruction of faciae (photograph by the Author) Fig. Detail of the bearded man (photograph by the Author) 61 .8 mm thick. 14b. Fig. This is a mistake in the construction.aesthetic of the object is not disturbed. except the bearded male heads. The cast plate has been removed and the reliefs remade by embossing.
the sica has worse qualities in stabbing but better for dealing 62 . (photograph by the Author) 5. are modelled after originals dated to the first century AD.Fig. Yet. The length of the whole weapon is 71 cm. Opposite to the gladius. 15a). It was established that it is possible to get behind the opponent’s shield by rotating this weapon. 6a) and an original sica in a private collection (Fig. as described above. Our sica is blunt on account of safety during experimental reconstruction of possible fight techniques and also of the decreasing wear. The second type of sica. 14e. its shape is the closest to that reproduced on the lamp. the hand holding the shield is much of the time out of the reach of curvature of blade. The blade is ground and tempered and inserted into the wooden handgrip (Figs 15b-c). which is the easiest body part to be injured by a curved blade. unfortunately with no indication of its orignal archaeological context.6 Sica All the reconstruction. Pompeii B5 and B6 Subtype recnostruction. Modern technologies were used for creating this weapon. This is the reason why the type of sica with blade evenly curved along its length was chosen. Hoplomachus eliminates the advantage of curved sica by using a bulging parmula because the curvature of this kind of shield covered the whole forearm. the blade alone measures 49 cm. because we have a lot of preserved material from Pompeii. As model for shape and curving of the blade were chosen the depiction on an oil lamp in the Römisch-Germaniches Museum in Köln (Fig. with sharply angled blade appeared around the mid-first century AD. But due to the size of the scutum of the myrmillos.
An active use of the parmula shield as a secondary weapon grants other combat tactic possibilities. Thraex’s sica in private collection (after: http://ru. 15a. 15b. last visit: 27.jpg. Thracian armatura bids an aggressive style of fighting82.wikia.4. Detail of the wooden handgrip (photograph by the Author) 82 Chapter. Final assemblage of the sica (photograph by the Author) Fig. 63 .warrior. 15c.com/wiki/%D0%A4%D0%B0%D0%B9%D0%BB:Th racian_machaira_1_645. 2.cut wounds thanks to its blade. Fig. 06. 2012) Fig.
It provides a better manipulation of the shield both for protection and for attack. it is bent with thin leather straps on the other side of the shield to be tightened. 2 mm thick. 16c). Due to its weight. 64 . The fingers are protected by an iron umbo85 (Fig. it is stretched on the structure of the shield. which is riveted the structure of the shield (Fig.2. “transferred” to gladiators.5. In the centre of the inner side there is a vertically inserted grip (Fig. The position of the grip is debated in many cases. The thraex’s shield has always a vertical grip. The horizontal holding so often depicted was probably inspired by Roman legionnaires. In this case the radius of the curvature is ca. This technology has not undergone changes during the period in which it was used. The artists depicting gladiatorial themes have not paid attention to this detail. Our reconstruction is made of 1 cm thick plywood. While wet. The shield used by hoplomachus could have two different shapes. The depiction on the shield means the affiliation to a particular familia gladiatoria. The edge of the shield is reinforced by a 0. the. Palm branches and two jumping bulls are painted on the front side. but the iconographical sources83 depict shields of hemisphaerical shape84. In the scutum the horizontal grip is a necessary option: because of his size and weight the vertical grip is not effective. 11 cm. which was. Then. Marcus Junkelmann and his function described in Das Spiel mit dem TodSo kämpften Roms Gladiatoren. The final size of the shield is 64 x 56. Iconographical finds inform about the possibility of vertical and even horizontical grips. 86 Chapter 2. 4 kg.7 Parmula There is a lot of archeological finds depicting a thraex holding his shield.4. 85 Shield bulging wich covers the fingers when they hold the grip. This fact is supported by the general opinion that the thraex’s was a very aggressive armature86. 16b). incurvated into the required shape. 16a). the thraex’s shield was a very effective weapon. and its shape is square or moderatel y rectangular. 83 84 Entry 4. Carried out experiments show that the vertical grip is much more advantageous and it is likely that this was the version actually used.5 mm thick bronze border. Depictions of the umbo on the thraex’s parmula are not so common.1 This shield is reconstructed by Dr. Original finds reach at most a radius of the curvature of 5 cm. The skin free of fur and other impurities is dipped into the water for 5-8 hours. to be softened. The front of the shield is covered by raw cowhide.5 cm and its weight is ca. It is possible to observe small differences in size and vaulting. in this case the familia gladiatoria Taurus. who used a kind of scutum with such a grip.
Detail of the vertical grip (photograph by the Author) Fig. 16a. 16b. Front side of the shield with umbo (photograph by the Author) 65 .Fig. 16c. Detail of the attaching bronze edge (photograph by the Author) Fig.
1. this part could be damaged and deformed. there is a strengthening plate (Fig. I would like to pay attention the same to the helmet reconstruction and describe the constructing elements and techniques.1. The material used for our reconstruction is a 1.5. which could make the opening of the helmet impossible. Due to such time reasons. As they don’t have any constructional meaning. ended with a loop through which passes a cotter. All of them were discussed with the craftsman Martin Junek and have been realized while this work has been written. the visors slide into the flat loop situated in the middle part of the cheekpieces. Grilled visors are attached to the upper part of the helmet by a tapering getting through the brim.6.A. Because of this. only the first stages of the reconstruction are presented here: the core and the decorated crest. étrusques et romaines.8. The crest of the helmet is decorated by chiseling delicate feathers. 3. 1st floor.1. Inside the forehead of the helmet.3). the manufacturing process is not yet finished. 66 . The decoration of the helmet is realized by a combination of several techniques: embossing. To this core crest and cheekpieces are attached. There are visible tiny holes piercing the crest in the upper part. In the lower part of the helmet.A. When hit. the lower part of cheekpieces and the visors was used a 0. crest (Fig. The helmet is structurally divided into four parts: calotte (Fig. undercut mortices and perforated patterns (lines or simple figures). The details of the decoration and the remaining elements are going to be finished during July 2012. they can be shut together by clicking. The griffin’s head was modelled in wax and cast in bronze with the method of lost wax. Salle des bronzes.5 mm thick tin bronze plate.A.). Subsequently. realized after the original on exhibition in the Musée de Louvre87.5 mm thick tin bronze plate. 17b).1. Nonetheless. In this type of helmet the crest is connected and forms a continuous surface in the back side . The crest is attached firmly. 17c) and cheekpieces (Fig 17d). while cheekpieces are attached by hinges (Fig. the same as for manica and ocreae. Calotte and brim form the core of the helmet.4) covering the critical area. Galea the last part of our reconstruction is the helmet subtype Pompeii H12. which should give the impression of the griffin’s body. Its construction is the most difficult and expensive part of my reconstruction and in present time.1. 17a). brim (Fig. 3. 3. it is likely that they were used for the attachment of a wooden extension with feathers by cotter 87 Département des antiquités grcques.1. which is attached by two rivets (Fig. For the brim hemming. there is a flat loop for the sliding of the cheekpieces.
The holes for the straps are well apparent on the original finds. a lining or cap is needed under the galea. Callote with attached brim (photograph by the Martin Junek) 88 It was probably attached the same way on the thraex helmet Subtype H12 type 67 . they are binded by strap in their lower part.pins or tiny straps going through the holes88. Callote with gorgon head decoratin on progres (photograph by the Martin Junek) Fig. 17b. This way of attaching is the same for every type of gladiatorial helmet which should protect the face. For a firm wearing of the helmet. After putting the helmet on the head the cheekpieces fasten together and. Fig 17a. for secure against opening.
Detail of the griffin head and crest decoration (photograph by the Martin Junek) Fig. 17c.Fig. 17d. Detail of the unfinished cheekpices (photograph by the Author) 68 .
Unfinished reconstruction of the helmet type Pompeii H12 on July 7th 2012 (photograph by the Author) 69 .Fig 17e.
which we are not able to answer at the present state of knowledge. which is obviously very difficult to realize. For a complete settlement of the construction of a thraex’s helmet and another equipment it would be necessary a personal examination of original finds. with the possibility to dismantle some of their parts.6. Conclusion At the end of this work I would like to say that the manufacturing gave the occasion for further construction inquiries. It would be expedient to work on the theme of the construction of gladiatorial equipment in a following project or to dedicate an individual study to it. 70 .
In particular. the investment in the attractive image of gladiators is a perfectly logical choice. including decorations. As models for the greaves and the helmet were used original finds from Pompeii. It would be expedient to work on the theme of the construction of gladiatorial helmets in a following project or to dedicate an individual study to it. Based on the carried experiments on bronze endurance. my opinion leans towards the possibility that all of the found items of gladiatorial equipment could be used for active combats in the arena without suffering aesthetic damage. which we are not able to answer at the present state of knowledge. 71 . while for fights were used other items less decorated. as possible. For a complete settlement of the construction of a thraex’s helmet it would be necessary a personal examination of original finds. focused on construction details and the interpretation of original equipment.7. with the possibility to dismantle some of their parts. Next aim was to describe the manufacturing process and to point out construction details and distinctions. Embossed decorative reliefs are almost undamaged in spite of numerous hits. if we take in consideration the costs and yields of holding gladiatorial games. A combination of iconographical sources was used as model for non preserved elements of the complete equipment. Experimental methods of reconstruction were used. The manufacturing also gave the occasion for further construction inquiries. Summary The aim of this work was to collet archeological and iconographical material concerning the gladiator thraex and to create an exact replica of a selected equipment of the first century AD. This ascertainment can help to answer the question if some helmets were used only for decorative (ceremonial) purpose. There are minimal signs of wear after year of active using. which is obviously very difficult to realize.
na základě experimentování s odolností bronzu. Obzvláště vezmeme-li v potaz. Toto zjištění může lépe odpovědět na otázku. zdá se investice do co nejlepšího image gladiátorů logickou volbou. Tepané dekorativní reliéfy jsou i přes četné zásahy užívanými zbraněmi téměř nepoškozeny. ale i výnosnou činností. se přiklání k možnosti. které se současným stavem poznání nejsme schopni zodpovědět. bylo pořádání gladiátorských her. Můj názor. zda některé přilby byly pouze dekorativní a k bojům do arény se používaly přilbice obyčejné a méně zdobené. jak nákladnou. Pro úplné přesné určení. aniž by utrpěly estetické újmy. Jako předloha pro rekonstrukci holeních chráničů a helmy byly použity originály nálezů z Pomejí. Pro nedochované vybavení byla předlohou kombinace několika ikonografických pramenů. Po roce aktivního užívání nese rekonstruované vybavení pouze minimální známky opotřebení. Dále mapovat výrobní postupy a upozornit na konstrukční detaily a odlišnosti. že k aktivním bojům do arény mohla být zapojena většina nalezených exemplářů gladiátorského vybavení.Shrnutí Cílem této práce byla sumarizace archeologického a ikonografického materiálu týkající se gladiátora Tráka a pomocí experimentální rekonstrukce vytvořit co nejpřesnější repliku vybraného vybavení zapadajícího do prvního století po Kristu. 72 . Výroba také odkryla další konstrukční otázky. by bylo nutné osobní prozkoumání originálních nálezů spojené s demontáží některých částí. Téma konstrukcí gladiátorských přileb by bylo vhodné rozpracovat v další práci nebo mu věnovat samostatnou studii. jak byly konstruované přilby tráckých gladiátorů. Zaměření rekonstrukce bylo především na konstrukční detaily a co nejvěrnější ztvárnění originálů vybavení včetně dekorací.
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