cheong 28
TOPIC 5: INDICES & LOGARITHMS *paper 2
a
0
= 1
m
m
a
a
1
=
a
n
m
=
n m
a
Indices & Laws of Indices
Try first :
100
0
=
3
2
=
(3p)
2
=
a
3
a
2
=
2
3
2
4
=
p
3
p
4
=
a
4
a =
a
3
a
5
=
p
4
p
5
=
(4a)
2
2a
5
=
(a
3
)
2
=
(p
5
)
2
=
(3x
2
)
3
=
EXAMPLE 1 :
3
x
= 81
3
x
= 3
4
x = 4
2
x
= 32
[Ans: x = 5]
EXAMPLE 2 :
8
x
= 16
(2
3
)
x
= 2
4
2
3x
= 2
4
3x = 4
x =
3
4
4
x
= 32
[Ans: x =
5
2
]
EXAMPLE 3 :
8
x
= 16
x 3
(2
3
)
x
= 2
4(x 3)
2
3x
= 2
4x 12
3x = 4x 12
12 = 4x 3x
12 = x
x = 12
4
x+2
= 32
x  1
[Ans: x = 3]
EXAMPLE 4 :
2 8
2x
= 16
x + 3
2
1
(2
3
)
x
= 2
4 (x + 3)
2
1+3x
= 2
4x + 12
1 + 3x = 4x + 12
1 12 = 4x 3x
11 = x
x = 11
16 4
2x 3
= 32
2 x
[Ans: x =
4
3
]
EXAMPLE 5 :
Solve 2
x
. 4
x+1
= 64.
Answer : 2
x
. 2
2(x+1)
= 2
6
2
x+2(x+1)
= 2
6
x +2(x+1) = 6
x + 2x + 2 = 6
3x = 6  2
3x = 4
x =
3
4
1. Solve 4
x
. 8
x 1
= 4 .
[Ans: x = 1]
EXAMPLE 6 :
Solve 0 16 8
1
=
+ x x
.
Answer :
( ) ( ) 0 2 2
1
4 3
=
+ x x
( ) ( )
1
4 3
2 2
+
=
x x
4 4 3
2 2
+
=
x x
3x = 4x + 4
4 = 4x  3x
 4 = x
x =  4
2. Solve 5
x
 25
x+1
= 0 .
[Ans: x = 2]
a
m
x a
n
= a
m + n
a
m
a
n
= a
m n
(a
m
)
n
= a
mn
a
n
index(indeks)
real number(nombor asas)
w.c.cheong 29
EXAMPLE 7 :
Simplify
3 1 2
3
5 5
25
n n
n
+
.
Answer :
3 1 2
3
5 5
25
n n
n
+
=
3 1 2
2 3
5 5
(5 )
n n
n
+
= 5
) 3 ( 2 2 1 3 n n n + +
= 5
3n+1+2n6+2n
=
3 4
5
n
3. Simplify
1 2
3 9
27
y y
y
+
.
[Ans:
4 5
3
y +
]
EXAMPLE 8 :
Simplify
2 3 2 2
3 4
3 (6 )
12
p q pq
p q
.
Answer :
2 3 2 2
3 4
3 (6 )
12
p q pq
p q
=
2 3 2 2 4
3 4
3 6
12
p q p q
p q
=
2 3 2 4
3 4
3 36
12
p q p q
p q
=
4 4 3 3 2 2
9
+ +
q p
=
3 1
9 q p
=
3
9pq
4. Simplify
1
2 3 3 2
2
4
(4 ) 8
32
a b a b
a
.
[Ans:
7
2
b
]
5. Solve the equation
x
125 =
3
25
5
x
x
.
[Ans: x =
12
5
]
6. Solve the equation 8
2
3 2
4
1
+
=
x
x
.
[Ans: x = 1]
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EXAMPLE 9 :
Show that the expression
f(n) =
2 1
5 5 5
+ +
+
n n n
is divisible by 21 for all
positive integer values of n.
Answer : f(n) =
2 1
5 5 5
+ +
+
n n n
f(n) = ) 5 5 1 ( 5
2 1
+
n
f(n) = ) 21 ( 5
n
For all positive integer values of n, 21 is a factor
of f(n). Hence, f(n) =
2 1
5 5 5
+ +
+
n n n
is divisible
by 21 for all positive integer values of n.
7. Show that the expression
f(n) =
1 1
3 3 3
+
+
n n n
is divisible by 7 for all
positive integer values of n.
Logarithms & Laws of Logarithms
N = a
x
log
a
N = x
Logarithm of N to the base a
log
a
1 = 0 (1 = a
0
)
log
a
a = 1 (a
1
= 1)
Log
a
(xy) = log
a
x + log
a
y
log
a


.

\

y
x
= log
a
x log
a
y
log
a
x
n
= n log
a
x
EXAMPLE 10 :
Evaluate log
10
1000.
Answer : log
10
1000 = log
10
10
3
= 3log
10
10
= 3(1)
= 3
log
2
32 =
log
2
8
1
=
log
10
0.01 =
[Ans: 5; 3; 2]
EXAMPLE 11 :
Given log
2
3 = 1.585, log
2
5 = 2.322. Without
using calculator, find the value of log
2
15.
Answer : log
2
15 = log
2
(3 5)
= log
2
3 + log
2
5
= 1.585 + 2.322
= 3.907
8. Given log
3
5 = 1.465 , log
3
7 = 1.771. Without
using calculator, evaluate log
3
35.
[Ans: 3.236]
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EXAMPLE 12 :
Given log
2
3 = 1.585, log
2
5 = 2.322. Without
using calculator find the value of log
2
0.6.
Answer : log
2
0.6 = log
2
(
10
6
)
= log
2
(
5
3
)
= log
2
3 log
2
5
= 1.585  2.322
= 0.737
9. Given log
3
5 = 1.465, log
3
7 = 1.771. Without
using calculator, evaluate log
3
1.4.
[Ans: 0.306]
EXAMPLE 13 :
Given log
a
x = p and log
a
y = q, where x 0 and
y 0, find log
a
(
y
ax
)
2
in terms of p and q.
Answer : log
a
(
y
ax
)
2
= 2log
a
(
y
ax
)
= 2[log
a
a + log
a
x log
a
y]
= 2[1 + p q]
= 2 + 2p 2q
10. Given log
a
x = k and log
a
y = h, where x 0
and y 0, find log
a
(ax
2
y
) in terms of h and k.
[Ans: 1 + 2k + h]
11. Given log
3
x = p and log
3
y = q. Find log
3
xy
2
in terms of p and q.
[Ans: p + 2q]
12. Given log
5
2 = m and log
5
7 = p, express
log
5
4.9 in terms of m and p.
[Ans: 2p m 1]
Change of Base of Logarithms
n = log
a
b
a
n
= b
log
c
a
n
= log
c
b
nlog
c
a = log
c
b
n =
a
b
c
c
log
log
log
a
b =
a
b
c
c
log
log
EXAMPLE 14 :
Evaluate log
4
8.
Answer : log
4
8 =
4 log
8 log
2
2
=
2
2
3
2
2 log
2 log
=
2 log 2
2 log 3
2
2
=
2
3
c = b,
log
a
b =
a
b
b
b
log
log
log
a
b =
a
b
log
1
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13. Evaluate log
4
32 .
[Ans: 5
2
]
EXAMPLE 15 :
Evaluate log
4
9.
Answer : log
4
9 =
4 log
9 log
10
10
=
6021 . 0
9542 . 0
= 1.5848
14. Evaluate log
5
20 .
[Ans: 1.8612]
15. Evaluate log
4
0.8 .
[Ans: 0.1609]
EXAMPLE 16 :
Show that (log
2
9)(log
7
8)(log
3
49) = 12.
Answer : (log
2
9)(log
7
8)(log
3
49)
= log
2
9 x log
7
8 x log
3
49
= log
2
3
2
x
7 log
8 log
2
2
x
3 log
49 log
2
2
= 2log
2
3 x
7 log
2 log
2
3
2
x
3 log
7 log
2
2
2
= 2 x
7 log
2 log 3
2
2
x
7 log 2
2
= 2 x 3(1) x 2
= 12
It is shown that (log
2
9)(log
7
8)(log
3
49) = 12.
16. Show that (log
7
3)(2log
5
7)(log
3
25) = 4.
17. Show that (log
a c
)(log
b
a
3
)(log
c
b
2
) = 3.
EXAMPLE 17 :
Solve the equation log
5
x = 4log
x
5.
Answer : log
5
x =
x
5
log
4
(log
5
x )
2
= 4
log
5
x = 4
log
5
x = 2
log
5
x = 2 @ log
5
x = 2
x = 5
2
x = 5
2
x =
2
5
1
x = 25
x =
25
1
w.c.cheong 33
18. Solve the equation log
3
x = 4log
x
3.
[Ans: x=9, 1
9
]
EXAMPLE 18 :
Solve
2 4
1
log log 2 3
2
x x + =
.
Answer :
2
7
2 log log
4 2
= + x x
2
7
4 log
2 log
log
2
2
2
= +
x
x
2
7
2 log
2 log
log
2
2
2
2
= +
x
x
2
7
2 log 2
2 log
log
2
2
2
= +
x
x
2
7
) 1 ( 2
2 log
log
2
2
= +
x
x
2
7
2
2 log
log
2
2
= +
x
x
(x 2): 2log
2
x + log
2
2x = 7
2log
2
x + log
2
2 + log
2
x = 7
3log
2
x + 1 = 7
3log
2
x = 7  1
3log
2
x = 6
log
2
x =
3
6
log
2
x = 2
x = 2
2
x = 4
19. Solve 2 log 3 2 log
2 x
x = + .
[Ans: x=2, 1
8
]
EXAMPLE 19 :
Solve the equation log
3
4x  log
3
(2x 1) = 1.
Answer : log
3
4x  log
3
(2x 1) = 1
log
3
1)  (2x
4x
= 1
1)  (2x
4x
= 3
1
4x = 3(2x 1)
4x = 6x 3
3 = 6x 4x
3 = 2x
2
3
= x
x =
2
3
w.c.cheong 34
20. Solve the equation 2 + x x
3 3
log ) 1 ( log = .
[Ans: x= 9
8
]
EXAMPLE 20 :
Solve
2
3 5 0
x x
= .
Answer : 3
x2
= 5
x
log
10
3
x2
= log
10
5
x
(x  2)log
10
3 = xlog
10
5
(x  2)(0.4771) = x(0.6990)
0.4771x 0.9542 = 0.699x
0.9542 = 0.699x  0.4771x
0.9542 = 0.2219x
0.2219x = 0.9542
x = 
2219 . 0
9542 . 0
x = 4.3001
21. Solve
3
2 7 0
x+
= .
[Ans: x=0.1924]
22. Solve the equation
3
log
2 32
x
= .
[Ans: x=243]
w.c.cheong 35
EXAMPLE 21 :
Given
3 3
3 log 2log x y = . Express x in terms
of y .
Answer :
3 3
3 log 2log x y =
3log
3
3  log
3
x = log
3
y
2
log
3
3
3
 log
3
x = log
3
y
2
log
3
27  log
3
x = log
3
y
2
log
3
x
27
= log
3
y
2
x
27
= y
2
2
27
y
= x
x
=
2
27
y
23. Given that log
2
xy = 2 + 3 log
2
x  log
2
y ,
express y in terms of x .
[Ans: y = 2x]
24. Given
2 4
5
log log
2
k w + =
. Express k in
terms of w .
[Ans: k = 4 2
w
]
EXAMPLE 22 :
Given log
3
x = m and log
2
x = n. Find log
x
24 in
terms of m and n.
Answer : log
x
24 = log
x
(8 x 3)
= log
x
(2
3
x 3)
= log
x
2
3
+ log
x
3
= 3log
x
2 + log
x
3
=
x
2
log
3
+
x
3
log
1
= 3/n + 1/m
25. Given log
3
x = p and log
2
x = q. Find log
x
36
in terms of m and n.
[Ans: 2/p + 2/q]
EXAMPLE 23 :
Given log 2
m
x = and log 5
m
y = . Express
log 12.5
m
m in terms of x and y .
Answer : log 12.5
m
m = log
m
12.5 + log
m
m
= log
m
10
125
+ 1
= log
m
2
25
+ 1
= log
m
25  log
m
2 + 1
= log
m
5
2
 x + 1
= 2log
m
5  x + 1
= 2y  x + 1
w.c.cheong 36
26. Given that log
m
2= p and log
m
3 = r, express
log
m

.

\

4
27m
in terms of p and r.
[Ans:3r 2p + 1]
27. Given
y
log 9 and log 27
x
m n = = .
Express
27
log xy in terms of m and n .
[Ans: 1
3
( 6 4
m n
+
)]
28. Solve
3 9
log log 3 1 x x =
.
[Ans: x=]
29. Solve
2 4
log 4 log 8 x x + =
.
[Ans: x=16]