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# ASSIGNMENT PRESENTATION MATERIALS SCIENCE TOPIC: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

PRESENTED BY: (10A247 10A253) SHREERAMAN L SHYLENDRAN R SIDDHARTH NARAYANAN C SIVA SANKAR NATESAN SUDALAI MUTHU M SUGEEBAN S SUKI M A

DEFORMATION
Any change in the original shape of a material is called deformation. The force which deforms a material is called deforming force. Materials which regain their original shape are elastic; those which do not are plastic. Most materials are elasto-plastic they possess both elastic and plastic properties to a certain extent.

HOOKES LAW
Whenever an object is strained, stress is produced in it. Stress/Strain = Modulus of elasticity It is applicable only within the elastic limit.

## STRESS STRAIN CURVE

TYPES OF MATERIALS
Elastic material regains its original shape after deforming force is removed. Plastic material retains its original shape after deforming force is removed. Ductile material o It can be plastically deformed without fracture. Example: Gold o Ductility is a measure of the degree of plastic deformation sustained at a fracture. Brittle material o It can be subject to a stress but fails without any significant deformation. Example: Glass o It experiences little or no plastic deformation upon fracture.

## COMPARISON OF MATERIAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Metal Alloy Modulus Shear Poisson's Yield Tensile Ductility of Modulus Ratio Strength Strength Elasticity (GPa) (MPa) (MPa) (GPa) Aluminum 69 25 0.33 35 90 40% Brass 97 37 0.34 69 200 45% Copper 110 46 0.34 75 300 68% Magnesium 45 17 0.29 130 262 45% Nickel 207 76 0.31 138 480 40% Steel 207 83 0.3 180 380 25% Titanium 107 45 0.34 450 520 25% Tungsten 407 160 0.28 565 655 35%

## DISLOCATIONS AND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS

Dislocations
Slip o Linear movement of atoms in the atomic plane under the action of deforming force. o It is the basic cause for fracture. o May occur at grain boundaries, internal defects, surface irregularities, scratches, etc. Twin o Angular movement of atoms

Strengthening Mechanisms
1. Grain size reduction A grain is a region where atoms are arranged in a particular order. Material strength can be increased by altering the microstructure of the material. Slip movement affects a materials grain boundaries. Grain boundaries obstruct slip as they progress along another grain boundary. So, when grain sizes are reduced, more grain boundaries are produced in a localized region. Consequently more obstructions to the slip occur. Thus material strength increases.

Grain strength can be increased by controlled crystallization and proper heat treatment. 2. Solid solution hardening Impurities are added to the material and then melted to form an alloy. The impurities may be substitutional (of same atomic size) or interstitial (occupies the space between two atoms). The impurities added to a materials lattice strain the lattice and this acts as an obstruction for slip. 3. Strain hardening Ductile materials can be transformed to stronger and harder materials when strain hardened. This can be done by rolling, drawing, pressing, spinning, extruding and heating.

Creep
Creep is a time dependent progressive deformation occurring at elevated temperatures (pronounced above 0.4 times a materials melting point). Occurs in gas turbines, reactor walls, furnace components, dam walls.

## Methods to increase Creep Resistance

Material failure due to creep is avoided by dispersion hardening, alloying and selecting materials with high melting point (Example: Al2O3 has a melting point greater than 2000OC).

Fatigue
Fatigue is a form of failure that occurs in structures subjected to dynamic and fluctuating stresses. Example: Bridges, aircrafts, machine components

Methods to increase Fatigue Resistance Material failure due to fatigue can be avoided by dispersion
hardening and alloying.