# Isothermal process on p-V, T-V, and p-T diagrams

**isothermal ⇒ T = T0 = constant a = (p1, V1, T0) b = (p2, V2, T0) pV = nRT0
**

p p1 a T0 p2 V1 W Q b V2 V V1 V2 V T0 a b p2 b T0 T T p p1 a

nRT0 p(V) = V

PHYS 1101, Winter 2009, Prof. Clarke

T(V) = T0

p(T) = multivalued

1

**Isochoric process on p-V, T-V, and p-T diagrams
**

isochoric ⇒ V = V0 = constant a = (p1, V0, T1) b = (p2, V0, T2) pV0 = nRT

p p1 a T T1 a p p1 a

p2

b V0 V

T2

b V0 V

p2

b T2 T1 T

p(V) = multivalued

PHYS 1101, Winter 2009, Prof. Clarke

T(V) = multivalued

nRT p(T) = V0

2

**Isobaric process on p-V, T-V, and p-T diagrams
**

isobaric ⇒ p = p0 = constant a = (p0, V1, T1) b = (p0, V2, T2) p0V = nRT

p Q T T2 b W V1 V2 V T1 b p0 a V1 V2 V T1 T2 T a b p

p0

a

p(V) = p0

PHYS 1101, Winter 2009, Prof. Clarke

p0V T(V) = nR

p(T) = p0

3

Clicker question 1
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves from a → b → c. are in the system? a) 5 p (Nm–2)
105 a T0 pc 1 c Vc V (m3)
isobar
b
isotherm isochor
b) c) d) e)
105 50 1. Clarke
ideal gas law: pV = nRT
4
.000 Not enough information to tell
first law of thermodynamics: ΔEint = Q – W ( = nCVΔT )
PHYS 1101. n. how many moles of gas.000 J mol–1). Prof. If T0 ~ 240K (and thus RT0 = 2. Winter 2009.

Clarke
ideal gas law: pV = nRT
5
.000 J mol–1).000 n = = = 50 RT0 2. Winter 2009.Clicker question 1
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves from a → b → c. n. how many moles of gas. Prof. are in the system? a) 5 p (Nm–2)
105 a T0 pc 1 c Vc V (m3)
isobar
b
isotherm isochor
b) c) d) e)
105 50 1.000 Not enough information to tell
pV 100.000
first law of thermodynamics: ΔEint = Q – W ( = nCVΔT )
PHYS 1101. If T0 ~ 240K (and thus RT0 = 2.

Clarke
ideal gas law: pV = nRT
6
. the volume at state c?
p (Nm–2) a T0 pc 1 c Vc V (m3) b
a) 0. Prof. Winter 2009.0 m3 Not enough information to tell
105
first law of thermodynamics: ΔEint = Q – W ( = nCVΔT )
PHYS 1101.0 m3 4.0 m3 8.Clicker question 2
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves from a → b → c. What is Vc.5 m3 b) c) d) e) 2.

Prof.5 m3 b) c) d) e) 2. the volume at state c?
p (Nm–2) a T0 pc 1 c Vc V (m3) b
a) 0.0 m3 4.Clicker question 2
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves from a → b → c. Winter 2009.0 m3 8. Clarke
ideal gas law: pV = nRT
7
.0 m3 Not enough information to tell
105
need to know pc
first law of thermodynamics: ΔEint = Q – W ( = nCVΔT )
PHYS 1101. What is Vc.

5 m3 b) c) d) e) 2.0 m3 8.0 m3 4.0 m3 Not enough information to tell
105
first law of thermodynamics: ΔEint = Q – W ( = nCVΔT )
PHYS 1101.Clicker question 3
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves from a → b → c. the volume at state c?
p (Nm–2) a T0 5 ×104 1 c Vc V (m3) b
a) 0. Clarke
ideal gas law: pV = nRT
8
. Prof. What is Vc. Winter 2009.

What is Vc. Clarke
ideal gas law: pV = nRT
9
.Clicker question 3
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves from a → b → c. Winter 2009.0 m3 Not enough information to tell
105
pa pcVc = paVa ⇒ Vc = p Va = 2 m3 c
first law of thermodynamics: ΔEint = Q – W ( = nCVΔT )
PHYS 1101. the volume at state c?
p (Nm–2) a T0 5 ×104 1 c Vc V (m3) b
a) 0.5 m3 b) c) d) e) 2. Prof.0 m3 8.0 m3 4.

Clarke
ideal gas law: pV = nRT
10
.0 ×104 J about 7. Prof. Winter 2009.Clicker question 4
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves from a → b → c. ΔEint?
p (Nm–2) 105 a T0 5 ×104 1 2 c V (m3) b
a) 0 J b) c) d) e) 5. What is the net change in internal energy.0 ×104 J 105 J Not enough information to tell
first law of thermodynamics: ΔEint = Q – W ( = nCVΔT )
PHYS 1101.

ΔEint?
p (Nm–2) 105 a T0 5 ×104 1 2 c V (m3) b
a) 0 J b) c) d) e) 5.0 ×104 J 105 J Not enough information to tell
ΔEint = nCVΔT
first law of thermodynamics: ΔEint = Q – W ( = nCVΔT )
PHYS 1101.0 ×104 J about 7. Clarke
ideal gas law: pV = nRT
11
. What is the net change in internal energy. Prof.Clicker question 4
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves from a → b → c. Winter 2009.

Clicker question 5
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves from a → b → c. Winter 2009. Clarke
ideal gas law: pV = nRT
12
. W?
p (Nm–2) 105 a T0 5 ×104 1 2 c V (m3) b
a) 0 J b) c) d) e) 5. What is the net work done by the system on its environment. Prof.0 ×104 J 105 J Not enough information to tell
first law of thermodynamics: ΔEint = Q – W ( = nCVΔT )
PHYS 1101.0 ×104 J about 7.

0 ×104 J 105 J Not enough information to tell
first law of thermodynamics: ΔEint = Q – W ( = nCVΔT )
PHYS 1101.0 ×104 J about 7. W?
p (Nm–2) 105 a T0 5 ×104 1 2 c V (m3)
a) 0 J
W b
b) c) d) e)
5.Clicker question 5
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves from a → b → c. What is the net work done by the system on its environment. Clarke
ideal gas law: pV = nRT
13
. Winter 2009. Prof.

Clicker question 6
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves from a → b → c. What is the net heat transferred into the system. Winter 2009.0 ×104 J –105 J 105 J Not enough information to tell
105
first law of thermodynamics: ΔEint = Q – W ( = nCVΔT )
PHYS 1101. Q?
p (Nm–2) a T0 5 ×104 1 2 c V (m3) b
a) –5. Prof.0 ×104 J b) c) d) e) 5. Clarke
ideal gas law: pV = nRT
14
.

Clarke
ideal gas law: pV = nRT
15
. What is the net heat transferred into the system. Q?
p (Nm–2) a T0 5 ×104 1 2 c V (m3) b
a) –5.Clicker question 6
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves from a → b → c.0 ×104 J b) c) d) e) 5.0 ×104 J –105 J 105 J Not enough information to tell
105
Q = ΔEint + W = 0 + 105 J
first law of thermodynamics: ΔEint = Q – W ( = nCVΔT )
PHYS 1101. Winter 2009. Prof.

1 mole = 6. Prof.3147 J mol–1 K–1 k = Boltzmann’s constant = 1. Winter 2009.3807 × 10–23 J K–1 Eint = nCVT =
type of gas degrees of specific heat at internal specific heat at freedom constant energy constant (f) volume (CV ) (Eint) pressure (Cp ) 3 5 ~6
3 R 2 5 R 2 3 nRT 2 5 nRT 2 5 R 2 7 R 2
γ (Cp/CV )
5 3 7 5 4 3
16
monatomic diatomic polyatomic (≥3)
3R
3 nRT
4R
PHYS 1101.Internal Energy (revisited)
f f nRT = NkT Cp = CV + R 2 2 n = number of moles.0221 × 1022 particles (NA) N = number of particles R = gas constant = 8. Clarke
.

T0) b = (p2. T2) pV γ
= constant
p p1 T2 p2 V1 a
adiabat
irreversible a = (p1. T0) p1V1 = p2V2
p p1 a T0 p2 V V1 b V2 V
17
T1 b V2
isotherms
isotherm
PHYS 1101. V1.Adiabatic processes
reversible a = (p1. V2. Winter 2009. V1. V2. Clarke
. T1) b = (p2. Prof.

Clicker question 7
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves reversibly along the adiabat from state a to state b. This gas is…
p (kNm–2) b
a) monatomic (γ = 5/3) b) diatomic (γ = 7/5) c) polyatomic (γ = 4/3) d) not enough information to tell
adiabat
16
1 1
a 8 V (m3)
pV γ
= constant
PHYS 1101. Clarke 18
. Winter 2009. Prof.

Clicker question 7
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves reversibly along the adiabat from state a to state b. Winter 2009. Clarke
. This gas is…
p (kNm–2) b
a) monatomic (γ = 5/3) b) diatomic (γ = 7/5) c) polyatomic (γ = 4/3) d) not enough information to tell
adiabat
16
1 1
γ
a 8 V (m3)
paVa = 1(8) = 23γ
= pbVb = 16(1) = 24 ⇒ γ = 4/3 ⇒ polyatomic
19
γ
γ
γ
γ
pV = constant
PHYS 1101. Prof.

Winter 2009. Clarke 20
. Prof.Clicker question 8
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves reversibly along the adiabat from state a to state b. How much heat is transferred to the system? a) 0 J
p (kNm–2) 16 b
adiabat
b) c) d) e)
a 8 V (m3)
8 kJ 16 kJ 128 kJ not enough information to tell
1 1
pV γ
= constant
PHYS 1101.

Clarke 21
. Q = 0 for all adiabatic processes. Prof. Q. Winter 2009. is transferred to the system? a) 0 J
p (kNm–2) 16 b
adiabat
b) c) d) e)
a 8 V (m3)
8 kJ 16 kJ 128 kJ not enough information to tell
1 1
By definition.
pV γ
= constant
PHYS 1101.Clicker question 8
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves reversibly along the adiabat from state a to state b. How much heat.

W. How much work. Winter 2009.Clicker question 9
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves reversibly along the adiabat from state a to state b. does the system do on its environment? a) 20 kJ b) –20 kJ
p (kNm–2) 16 b
c) 24 kJ d) –24 kJ e) 32 kJ f) –32 kJ g) not enough information to tell
adiabat
1 1
a 8 V (m3)
Eint = nCVT = n3RT (for a polyatomic gas) first law: ΔEint = Q – W
PHYS 1101. Clarke
ideal gas law: pV = nRT
22
. Prof.

Clicker question 9
Consider the p-V diagram below in which the system evolves reversibly along the adiabat from state a to state b. W. Prof. does the system do on its environment? a) 20 kJ b) –20 kJ
p (kNm–2) 16 b
c) 24 kJ d) –24 kJ e) 32 kJ f) –32 kJ g) not enough information to tell
adiabat
1 1
W
a 8 V (m3)
ΔEint = 0 – W = 3Δ(nRT) = 3Δ(pV) = 3(16 – 8) = 24 ⇒ W = –24 kJ
Eint = nCVT = n3RT (for a polyatomic gas) first law: ΔEint = Q – W
PHYS 1101. How much work. Clarke
ideal gas law: pV = nRT
23
. Winter 2009.

V1. S2) d = (p4. S4)
p S4 p1
S3
b
isotherm: ΔT = 0
p2 p3 p4
c e V1 d V2 T2
T1
T3 V
free expansion (irreversible adiabat: Q = 0)
PHYS 1101. S3) b = (p1. Clarke 24
.Summary of Processes
S1 S2 a
isentrop: ΔS = 0 (reversible adiabat: Q = 0) isobar: Δp = 0 isochor: ΔV = 0
a = (p1. S1) c = (p2. V2. T2. V1. V2. Prof. T3. T1. T3. T2. S3) e = (p3. Winter 2009. V2.

Prof. Winter 2009. Clarke
.Summary of Processes
ΔEint = nCVΔT
pCV (V2 – V1) R VCV (p – p ) R 2 1 0 p2V2 – p1V1 γ –1 0
process isobar isochor isotherm isentrop free expansion
W
p(V2 – V1) 0 V2 nRT ln V1
Q
pCp (V2 – V1) R VCV (p2 – p1) R
ΔS
nCp ln
( ) ( )
p2 p1
V2 V1
nCV ln
( )
V2 nRT ln V1 0 0
( )
V2 nR ln V1 0 V2 nR ln V1
( )
p1V1 – p2V2 γ –1 0
( )
25
PHYS 1101.

isentrop (S). isotherm (T). Winter 2009.All processes on p-V. Clarke 26
. and isochor (V) emanating from the same initial state (a) as manifest on a p-V. and a T-S diagram. Prof. and T-S diagrams
p a p T p a T S V V V V S S a T p T
V
T S
An isobar (p).
PHYS 1101. T-V. T-V.

)
p b
a) Cp
a
b) Cp e
c) CV d) CV e e) R f) R e g) no where near enough information!!
V
1
e
ΔS = nCp ln(V2) (isobar) ΔS ΔS
V1 p = nCV ln 2 p1 V = nR ln 2 V1
some formulae. What is the net change in entropy? (Note. e = 2. Winter 2009.Clicker question 10
Consider the p-V diagram below in which n = 1 mole of gas evolves reversibly from state a to state b along the path shown.71828 = Euler’s number. Prof. and thus ln(e) = 1. Clarke
( ) ( )
(isochor) (isotherm)
27
. in case they help…
PHYS 1101.

Winter 2009.
PHYS 1101.)
p b
a) Cp
a
b) Cp e
c) CV d) CV e e) R f) R e g) Yes there is!!
V
1
e
ΔS = nCp ln(V2) (isobar) ΔS ΔS
V1 p = nCV ln 2 p1 V = nR ln 2 V1
Since S is a state variable. e = 2. and thus ln(e) = 1. choose the isobar. it doesn’t matter which path from a to b you choose.Clicker question 10
Consider the p-V diagram below in which n = 1 mole of gas evolves revers -ibly from state a to state b along the path shown. Clarke
( ) ( )
(isochor) (isotherm)
28
. What is the net change in entropy? (Note. Prof. Thus.71828 = Euler’s number.

Clarke
b) –2000 J e) 7000 J
c) 5000 J f) –7000 J
29
.Clicker question 11
The evolution of a system from state a to state b is shown on both the p-V and T-S diagrams below. What is the change in internal energy?
p (Nm–2) 2.000 b a T (K) 500 250 b a
ΔEint = Q – W = nCV ΔT pV = nRT
1
2 V (m3)
10
30
S (JK–1)
a) 2000 J d) –5000 J
PHYS 1101. Winter 2009. Prof.

000 b a T (K) 500 250
W = –2000 J
a b
Q> ~ –7500 J
Q ~ –7000 J W = –2000 J ΔEint = Q – W ~ –5000 J
1
2 V (m3)
10
30
S (JK–1)
a) 2000 J d) –5000 J
PHYS 1101. What is the change in internal energy?
p (Nm–2) 2.Clicker question 11
The evolution of a system from state a to state b is shown on both the p-V and T-S diagrams below. Winter 2009. Prof. Clarke
b) –2000 J e) 7000 J
c) 5000 J f) –7000 J
30
.

5 d) 2
PHYS 1101. Clarke
b) 1
c) 1. About how many moles of gas are in the system? (Take R = 8. Winter 2009.000 b a T (K) 500 250 b a
ΔEint = Q – W = nCV ΔT pV = nRT
1
2 V (m3)
10
30
S (JK–1)
a) 0.5
31
e) not enough information to tell
. Prof.Clicker question 12
The evolution of a system from state a to state b is shown on both the p-V and T-S diagrams below.)
p (Nm–2) 2.

)
p (Nm–2) 2.000 b a T (K) 500 250 b a
pV = nRT at state b: pV = 2000 RT ~ 2000
⇒ n~1
S (JK–1)
1
2 V (m3)
10
30
a) 0. Winter 2009.5
32
e) not enough information to tell
.5 d) 2
PHYS 1101. Clarke
b) 1
c) 1.Clicker question 12
The evolution of a system from state a to state b is shown on both the p-V and T-S diagrams below. Prof. About how many moles of gas are in the system? (Take R = 8.

000 b a T (K) 500 250 b a
ΔEint = nCV ΔT CV ~ 12 (monatomic) CV ~ 21 (diatomic) CV ~ 25 (polyatomic)
1
2 V (m3)
10
30
S (JK–1)
a) monatomic
PHYS 1101. Clarke
b) diatomic
c) polyatomic
33
d) not enough information to tell
.Clicker question 13
The evolution of a system from state a to state b is shown on both the p-V and T-S diagrams below. Prof. this gas is:
p (Nm–2) 2. Winter 2009. With n = 1 and ΔEint = –5000 J.

this gas is:
p (Nm–2) 2.000 b a T (K) 500 250 b a
ΔEint = nCV ΔT CV ~ 12 (monatomic) CV ~ 21 (diatomic) CV ~ 25 (polyatomic)
1
2 V (m3)
10
30
S (JK–1)
a) monatomic
PHYS 1101. With n = 1 and ΔEint = –5000 J. Prof. Winter 2009. Clarke
b) diatomic
c) polyatomic
34
d) not enough information to tell
.Clicker question 13
The evolution of a system from state a to state b is shown on both the p-V and T-S diagrams below.

Clarke
Qout
QH = Qin QC = Qout Wout = W
compression stroke
35
. Prof. to be extracted in each cycle.Three pictorial representations of an engine
p
Qin a→c TH
a W>0
Qout
Qin
c V
expansion stroke c→a TC
In a complete thermodynamical cycle. Winter 2009. gas expands at high pressure and compresses at low pressure allowing work. W.
PHYS 1101.

the thermodynamical cycle is always clockwise. Winter 2009. Prof.
PHYS 1101.Maximum efficiency and the Carnot cycle
p T TH a Qin W>0 TC S1 Qout c S2 S TC d S1 T TH a Qin W>0 Qout c S2 S b S1 a Q S2 adiabats in TC d b
isotherms
TH Qout c V
non-optimal thermo -dynamical cycle for an engine
optimal thermodyn -amical cycle for an engine (Carnot cycle)
the Carnot engine cycle on a p-V diagram
Note that for an engine. Clarke 36
.

the most optimal thermodynamical cycle for a refrigerator is the Carnot cycle traversed in the counterclockwise direction (opposite to the engine). Heat is drawn in at TC and expelled at TH.Refrigerators (heat pumps)
p a W<0
Qin Qout
p
S1 a Q S2 adiabats out
c V
TC d
b
isotherms
TH Qin c V
For a refrigerator. Expansion happens at low pressure. Prof. Winter 2009. compression at high pressure and this takes work.
PHYS 1101. the cycle is always counterclockwise. Clarke
QC = Qin QH = Qout Win = –W
As for an engine.
37
.