From: Ilm, Vol. 3, No.

1 July, 1977

By Alwaez Jehangir A. Merchant The Ismaili concept of and belief in Imamat is strikingly important because it stands for Ismailis as a central point around which the other Fundamental Principles of Faith, viz. Tauhid, Nabuwwat, Adl and Qiyamat, revolve. It is in the acceptance of this concept that they find new and fresh dimensions of the meaning and practices of Faith in relation to their own physical, mental and spiritual needs, and to the time, place and circumstances in which they live. This wonderful concept and belief has suffered greatly at the hands of antagonists who have led people to believe that the idea of a 'Permanent Institution of Imamat' was only a cover up for a very ambitious political movement. The cobwebs of extreme prejudices lie so thickly over the Truth of this concept that it is absolutely necessary to view the establishment of this Divine Institution, and consider its constant need and unique position in relation to the other Fundamental Principles of Islam. For a faithful treatment of this subject it would only be fair and logical to enumerate the Sunni-Shi'a claims separately and look at them in the light of the Holy Qur'an, Sunna and historical facts. Sunni Claims Sunni Muslims say. 1. that the Holy Qur'an and Sunna are sufficient to guide the Muslims in their worldly and spiritual matters; 2. that our Holy Prophet Muhammed (s.a.s.) never indicated any successor after him; 3. and that hereditary succession was never an order amongst the Arabs and hence election was the only correct solution to give a Caliph to the Muslims. Sunni Claims Discussed in the Light of Holy Qur'an, Sunna and Historical Evidence 1. In addition to the Holy Qur'an and Sunna, the Sunni Muslims depend on the idea of Ijtehad which holds an important and significant place in their legislation. Explaining Ijtehad, Maulana Muhammed Ali writes in his voluminous work 'The Religion of Islam':—
"The sphere of Ijtehad is a very wide one, since it seeks to fulfill all the requirements of Muslim Community which are not met with expressly in the Holy Qur'an and Sunna. The great mujtahids of Islam have endeavoured to meet these demands by various methods, technically known as Qiyas (analogical reasoning), Istihsan (equity), Istislah (public good) and Istidlal (inference)."1

Seeing the stagnated condition of the Muslims, he looks into its cause and adds:—
"The impression prevailing in the Muslim world at present that no one has the right, even in the light of the new circumstances which a thousand years of the world's progress have brought about, to differ with the four Imams2 is entirely a mistaken one. The right to differ with the highest of men below the Prophet is a Muslim's birth-right, and to take away the birth-right is to stifle the very existence of Islam. Under present circumstances when conditions have quite changed and the world has been moving on for a thousand years, while the Muslims have more or less stagnated, it is the duty of Muslim states and Muslim peoples to apply their own judgment to the changed conditions, and find out the ways and means for their temporal salvation."3


" Imam Ja'far-as-Sadiq then said: "This was so because they were under the sole authority of Prophet Muhammad (s.s. 15 : vs.s. At this stage not all Muslims were aware of the passing away of our Prophet and so there can be no doubt as to the fact that a large number of Muslims never 2 .) had never indicated any successor after him.) never indicated a successor is contradicted. but how can it be considered logical to leave this important factor in the hands of millions of Muslims or in the hands of a hundred or even less mujtahids or even two at a time.a. Imam Ja'far-as-Sadiq was once asked: "O the son of the Messenger of Allah! why are the Muslims so divided?" The Imam replied: "Were they divided during the time of Prophet Muhammad (s. Was it after all. During his last days. 89-91. a fair election? Our Holy Prophet had only just breathed his last when there was a mad rush by the few to give a leader to the Muslims.s.a. Again.The idea of Ijtehad in Sunnism conclusively proves that Holy Qur'an and Sunna need new interpretations in the light of changed circumstances. 32.)?" The man answered: "No. become an agent of discord and disunity in the wrong hands. the leading men. God's Divine Revelations are not meant to become the property of all and sundry. It is also worth noting that in advancing this argument.a. Ch 43 : vs. History has shown that God's Divine Revelations. then this election could well be termed as the first breach of the Holy Qur'an and Sunna. the claim that Prophet Muhammad (s. If election was the only solution left to find a Caliph for the Umma (community). one may well ask: "Does the Holy Qur'an or Sunna indicate any such procedure?" If not. for the two will also differ.s. (so also on such) as have made Qur'an into shreds (as they please). "Also they say: 'Why is not the Qur'an sent down to some leading man in either of the two (main) cities'? Is it they who would portion out the Mercy of thy Lord?" Holy Qur'an." Holy Qur'an. Sunnis claim that Prophet Muhammad (s. The weakness of this argument as a basis for Hazrat Abu Bakr's choice as Caliph is of course quite obvious." 2.' (of just such wrath) as We sent down on those who divided (Scripture into arbitrary parts). our Holy Prophet had deputed Abu Bakr to lead the congregational prayers and this. They also quote a very stray and irrelevant event in support of Hazrat Abu Bakr's choice as Caliph. 31. the Sunnis say. Ijtehad becomes a system which portions out the Mercy of God under the supervision and at the hands of mujtahids. they were not divided. 3.a.). This system can never give to the Muslim World the same status of ONE STRONG COMMUNITY which it enjoyed during the life-time of our Holy Prophet Muhammad (s. was Prophet's indication of a choice of his successor. "And say: 'I am indeed he that warneth openly and without ambiguity.s. 4.).a. A UNIFYING FORCE. Ch.

by oratory. The Khalif or successor of the Prophet was to succeed him in both these capacities. the Divinely ordained Institute of Authority of Oolul Amr Minkum mentioned in the Holy Qur'an and which.participated in electing the Caliph. or by the sudden desire for material advantage. He avoided election and stayed from nominating his successor. our Holy Prophet declared.s. What happened to the principle of election and on what authority was the nomination affected? Hazrat Omar chose a different course.' Perhaps an analogy from the Latin. The Shias have therefore always held that after the Prophet's death. Hazrat Omar declared him to be the Chief and paid him his homage. both a temporal and a spiritual sovereign. his brother and right-hand man. The course taken at Saqa-e-fae-bani Saa'ada and the events of history which followed later. and when Hazrat Abu Bakr did so. as I have shown. he nominated Hazrat Omar to succeed him. subject to whims and gust of passion and material necessity. Western world will make this clearer: he would be Supreme Pontiff as well as Imperator or temporal ruler.a. appeared destined to be that true successor. Could this be said to be an election in any sense of the term or was it only a choice of one individual forced upon the others? When Hazrat Abu Bakr got ill and there was no hope of recovery. the Prophet's cousin and son-in-law. set up a humanly instituted authority quite in contrast to IMAMAT. in the veins of whose descendants the Prophet's own blood would flow. Mohammed had been."4 The points gathered from the above passage from 'The Memoirs of Aga Khan' can be enumerated as under: — 1. Divine Guidance could not be left in the hands of ordinary mortals. capable of being momentarily but tragically misled by greed. when the dispute became severe between the Mohajirs (the immigrants) and the Ansars (the helpers) gathered at Saqa-e-fae-bani Saa'ada over the question of leadership. Instead. Moreover.) death. he was to be both Emir-al-Momenin or 'Commander of the true believers' and Imam-al-Muslimin or 'Spiritual chief of the devout. his bold champion in many a war. belonged to Hazrat Ali and through him to his progeny till the Day of Judgment. he appointed a committee of six men to elect a successor for him. "Ali. Divine Guidance is always available to mankind and did not cease at Prophet Muhammad's (s. Divine power. Hazrat Omar cried out to Hazrat Abu Bakr to stretch out his hand so that he could swear allegiance to him. the husband of his beloved and only surviving child. These dangers were manifest in the period immediately following our Holy Prophet's death. Fatimah. and such had been the general expectation of Islam. Shi'a Claims The following passage from 'The Memoirs of Aga Khan' beautifully explains in clear terms the Shia concept of Imamat: — "The Shia school of thought maintains that although direct Divine inspiration ceased at the Prophet's death. 2. guidance and leadership manifested themselves in Hazrat Ali as the first Imam or spiritual chief of the devout. the need of Divine Guidance continued and that could not be left merely to millions of mortal men. his first convert. who the Prophet in his lifetime said would be to him as Aaron was to Moses. 3 .

Moses. 1. "And God will teach him the Book and Wisdom. came forward with the Divine Messages to cope with the requisite needs of human aspirations. The stage was set for the World Prophet and it is therefore that the Holy Qur'an speaks of Prophet Muhammad (s. there arose from time to time messengers. and the addition of Kaffah is meant to emphasize further that not a single nation was excluded from the heavenly ministration of Prophet Muhammad (s. 4 . Shi'a Claims Discussed in the Light of Holy Qur'an. 73. Muslims indeed know no limitation merely to the Prophet of Israel. and Shri Ram in India. illumined by Divine Grace. 71: v.a. 35 : v. Prophet Muhammad (s."—Ch. Ch. But while national growth was a necessity of the first condition of the human race. The Arabic for 'ALL MEN' is 'Kaffat-anli'l-nas'. Jesus and all the Prophets of Israel are universally accepted by Islam.) had indicated Hazrat Ali as his Successor. 4. Prophets were raised up in every nation."—Ch. embraces. Thus Abraham."5 —The Memoirs of Aga Khan. they are ready to admit that there were similar Divinely inspired messengers in other countries—Gautama Buddha. for centuries. "To the 'AD' people (we sent) Hud. the grand aim which the Divine Scheme contained was the uplift and unification of the whole human race. National Prophets. 49. and (appoint him) an apostle to the children of Israel.a..). . Sunna and Historical Evidence. 7 : v. 3 : vs. and is the Universe.s. The Khalif was to hold both. the Law and the Gospel. but their messages were limited to certain areas and in some cases to one or a few generations. and many other sages and saints among people and civilizations of which we have now lost trace. Imamat is the hereditary right of the descendants of Hazrat Ali. 7 : v. for and amongst those races of the earth which had sufficiently advanced intellectually to comprehend such a message. 65. temporal and spiritual authority. Thus Man's soul has never been left without a specially inspired messenger from the Soul that sustains. when each nation lived almost an exclusive life and the means of communication between different races were wanting. messengers of God. 28. and their work was restricted to the moral uplift and spiritual regeneration of one nation only. where even al-nas carries the idea of all people. The verse from the Holy Qur'an quoted above and the passage from The Memoirs of Aga Khan explain the Divine Scheme under which Prophets were raised for the regeneration of the world. Socrates in Greece. so to say. the wise man of China. 14 : v. "We sent Moses with our signs (and the command): 'Bring out thy people from the depths of darkness into light and teach them to remember the days of God'.a. 5. 1.3. Shri Krishna. for thousands of years before the advent of Mohammed. Stating the mission of earlier Prophets. one of their own brethren. —Ch. 48."—Ch. "To the 'THAMUD' people (we sent) Salih."—Ch. 24."—Ch.s. All these Prophets were. with their souls which had drunk deep at the Fountain of Divine Inspiration. "All Islamic schools of thought accept it as a fundamental principle that. 34 : v. This Divine Scheme is briefly summed up thus: During the period of gradual development of Man.) in different terms." Holy Qur'an.s. 5. The period of National Prophets ended when it had served its purpose. the Holy Qur'an says: "We sent Noah to his people (with the command). It says: — "We have not sent thee but to ALL MEN as a bearer of good news and as a warner. "And there never was a people without a warner having lived among them.

"O ye that believe! fear God and believe in His Apostle. "Ordinary people whose duty is only to obey the command of God."—Ch. and He will bestow on you a double portion of HIS MERCY: He will provide for you a LIGHT by which ye shall walk (straight in your path) and He will forgive you (your past) for God is oft-Forgiving most Merciful. Humanity are like children—they may be clever in their own way. however aged he may be. 40. Even an adult. 33 : v."—Ch. the finality of Prophethood was established to preserve the unity and purity of Faith. 24 : v. like clothes of man. and ultimately it would be necessary to replace it with a new one.Therefore. Leadership. Thus there is great need for a guide to help the people. 2. inevitably. has to become old and worn out.s. and Allah is cognizant of all things. obviously is a matter of greatest possible importance. but he is the messenger of Allah and the 'last of the Prophets' (Khatam al-nabiyyin). or that He was capable of creating up to our Prophet's time but that thereafter He lost the attribute of creation. disregarding the real one.a. every period of time has its own destinies and history. 40. It is IMAMAT—the Divinely ordained Institution which manifests God's Divine Justice over mankind. 57 : v. at every time. Again. which is the real meaning of the term Imamat. therefore. how could one explain God's ADL (Justice) when the Holy Qur'an says:— "God is never unjust in the least degree. are we to believe that the doors of Divine Guidance are no longer open to mankind? Reason would revolt against the suggestion that God exercised His attributes of speech up to the time of the World Prophet and there-after ceased to do so. that there must be in the world a Supreme Leader (rah-nama) at every time. His ADL (Justice) lies not only in His Judgment to reward or punish but in His providing the Divine Guidance even after the last of the Prophets. Could the Divine Guidance be left in the hands of ordinary mortals? Pir Shihabu'd-in Shah al-Husayni writing in his Risala dar Haqiqat-i Din (True Meaning of Religion) says: — "If it were destined that a manifestation (zuhur) of the Divine Substance should take place at some time. and as such.uhur) is to take place in an ordinary mortal body. what should be the fault of those who were not yet born at that time? Or of those who lived before it. Therefore they need a teacher. and how can people find the way of Truth. The Leader of humanity is one who commands some things and prohibits other things in accordance with the requirements of the time. who may give them necessary knowledge. how can they follow it? "It is obvious.s. 35). and without which the belief in ADL would only be meaningless. if God wishes to lead all who are continuously being born. so also we must repudiate the suggestion that God spoke up to any particular period and thereafter ceased to speak.a. the latter. If Prophethood came to a close with our Holy Prophet Muhammad (s. and yet there are many things that are beyond their power of comprehension.) but thereafter ceased to see. if it were to be supposed that God has withheld His Guidance to mankind. And He Himself revealed that He does wish this: 'God leads to His Light those whom He wants to lead'. Times differ one from the other. or did not recognise it? What have they to do. which cannot be left to the decision 5 . and to unify the human race. 28. have no capacity to act as they wish or to elect (as their leader) any one whom they want. 4 : v. But if the Divine Manifestation (z. we have the Holy Qur'an saying: — "Muhammad is not the father of any of your men. As we repudiate as blasphemous any suggestion that God possessed the attributes of seeing up to the time of Prophet Muhammad (s. needs a guide in the matters in which he had no previous experience. (Ch.)."—Ch. to the knowledge of His Light.

Prophet Muhammad (s.a. O God. 'We believe.) mission. the World Prophet.s. Salman Farsi said in Persian. and Abraham's descendants and Imran's descendants above all people one after another in the lineage.) was left with a very grave and heavy responsibility.s. what has been revealed to thee from thy Lord. in the final analysis. 34. In the brief discussion on the gradual development of Nabuwwat (Prophethood). yet this was not to be the end of all."—Ch. 3 : vs."—Ch. that of completing God's message and hence he was commanded as expressed in the Holy Qur'an: — "O Apostle! deliver (to the people). The supremacy of the Prophet's authority did not simply lie in this fact alone.a. We would not have created thee.a. 4 : v.). And if there were no Ali. and if thou did not do so. on the day when Abu Bakr was in appearance (tahir) elected as a caliph: 'kardid—na-kardid'. Being the last and final in the long line of God's messengers.a. completed My favour upon you and chosen for you Islam as your religion. God says in the Holy Qur'an: "The desert Arabs say.' Say (unto them O Muhammad): Ye have no faith. But this is a long story. 3."7—Prophet Muhammad (s. Had he not done so. 4. The Holy Qur'an therefore commands:— "0 ye who believe. Pir Shihabu'din Shah quotes the following Hadith in his work 'True Meaning of Religion which explains the most fundamental relationship between NABUWWAT and IMAMAT:— "O Muhammad! if it were not for thy sake. 67. can be seen as having the grand purpose of guiding mankind to IMAMAT—The Divine Institution. 59. it was seen that the office of National Prophets found its climax in the World Prophet."—Ch.s.) authority over Muslims was so high that they were asked to bring all their disputes to him and accept his decision as final and binding upon them. that is 'you have done this. A clear warning was laid out in this command and so."—Ch. but more so in the fact that his authority was made the measure by which the faith of the Muslims was to be gauged.of the mob. Nabuwwat. our Holy Prophet declared Hazrat Ali as the Maula (Lord) of the believers'. Prophet Muhammad's (s.a.). for being a Muslim was not to be a mu'min (faithful). but ye (only) say. and Allah will protect thee from the people.a. 'We 6 . it naturally follows that the temporal and spiritual authority enjoyed by the Prophet during his life-time had to be the sole privilege of none but Hazrat Ali and his rightful successors. God placed a seal of His acceptance of Prophet Muhammad's (s. but they came in two different persons (libas—dress) in order to uphold each other's mission amongst humans.s."6 This clearly explains that Divine Authority was to be held by the Chosen Ones amongst the people about which the Holy Qur'an also says: — "Verily God has chosen Adam and Noah.s. However the people did not recognise them.s). and he in turn completed Deen-e-lslam and his own mission by glorifying Imamat. "Muhammad and Ali both were manifestations of one and the same Divine Light. and in order to introduce each other to the people. saying: — "This day have I perfected your religion for you. Finally. 5 : v. obey God and obey the Apostle and obey those in authority (Oolul Amr) from amongst you. unhesitatingly. 5 : v. and God both hears and knows. his mission would have remained incomplete. 33. We would not have created the world. and yet you have not done it. As affirmed earlier in the discussion that Divine Guidance for mankind has continued after Prophet Muhammad (s. and yet in reality. nothing had been done. National Prophets had raised the platform for Prophet Muhammad (s. then thou hast not delivered His Message.' He meant that they had appointed a lieutenant to the Prophet.

Help those who help Ali and frustrate the hopes of those who betray Ali. though ill. 4 : v." Ch. a magician.a. viz. said:— "He who dies without the recognition of the living Imam.a. the testing instrument.a. "O Ali! you are from me and I am from you. Are you not satisfied to realise that you are unto me as Aaron was to Moses?"12 e. "Here is my proxy and my lieutenant.s. When Hazrat Abu Bakr complained about this change. On the field of Khyber.) indicating Hazrat Ali as his successor.). a sorcerer and a necromant." declared our Holy Prophet on the occasion of 'Dawat-e-Asheera' (Invitation to Faith to his relatives). They have called me an epileptic. 14. you will inherit me and I will inherit you. our Holy Prophet halted at Ghadir-e-Khumm and declared before a large gathering: "Hear and remember."11 d.' for faith has not yet entered your hearts. your blood is my blood.s) did indicate Hazrat Ali as his successor. 4. Prophet Muhammad (s. 49 : v. Returning from his Farewell Pilgrimage. Listen to him and obey. that to whomsoever I am the Lord.s) decided to leave Hazrat Ali behind to act as a regent in his place. Thereupon. When Sura Barat was to be read before the infidels of Mecca. Prophet Muhammad (s.have submitted our will to God. He called Hazrat Ali and said: "O Ali! nobody could look after this centre of Muslim state but you or I. but accept them with the fullest conviction.a.a. Ali is the Lord. and find in the souls no resistance against the decisions. they can have no real faith."—Ch. until they make thee judge in all disputes between them. by thy Lord. for he who disowns the right of Imamat altogether is not a mu'min (faithful). 7 .13 From the above instances quoted from history there can be no doubt that Prophet Muhammad (s. Here standeth my brother. but hardly had he left Medina when he was recalled by the Prophet. I have appointed you as my Vicegerent and my Caliph over all whom I have left behind. enmity against you is enmity against me. To identify one from the other God made the authority." He then prayed: "O God! be a friend to his friends and a foe to his foes."8—Hadith.s. He says: — "But no. embraced him and said. you are unto me as AARON was to MOSES. the Holy Prophet said: "O Ali! they are lying against you as they have lied against me. he left Medina immediately and met the Prophet at Jerf where he stated to him all that had passed. who loves God and His Prophet and is beloved of God and His Prophet. who then took the verses from Hazrat Abu Bakr and gave them to Hazrat Ali to be read before the Meccans. (i) that of the mind—of being a Muslim and (ii) that of the heart—of being a mu'min (faithful). a.s. As commanded by God I will give you these tidings that your friends will be rewarded in Heaven and your enemies will be punished in Hell"10 c. Our Holy Prophet Muhammad (s. His success so pleased the Prophet that he." Hazrat Ali stayed back at Medina but when the hypocrites started a whisper-campaign that the Prophet had lost faith in Hazrat Ali. which He had bestowed upon His Prophet. the Apostle of God replied: "I have done it under the orders of God which said explicitly that I should perform this duty or somebody who is like me. dies the death of an unbeliever. war against you is war against me. who will not run away from the battle-field. Thus. He is to me what Aaron was unto Moses.9 b. 65. came out to greet the victor.) first ordered Hazrat Abu Bakr to carry the forty verses and convey them to the people. and who will not come back to me without success. The above-quoted verse speaks of the two different states. iman (faith) finds its fulfilment in acknowledging the authority of the Living Imam. Prophet Muhammad (s. in his turn. During the expedition of Tabuk.s. Now we shall look briefly into the historical evidences which speak of Prophet Muhammad (s. who will keep on attacking.a." Next day the command was handed over to Hazrat Ali.) declared: — "Tomorrow I shall give the command of this army to a man who is brave. your flesh is my flesh.

3. 3). for Thou art He that heareth prayer. "And hold fast. we saw how Nabuwwat (Prophethood) and Adl (God's Justice) found fresh dimensions to their meanings when studied in relation to the concept of Imamat."—Sura Kauthar.s. finds action in its belief through faith in IMAM—God's Divine Mazhar (Manifestation) on this earth and amongst humans. which is beyond the grasp and reach of human comprehension."—Ch. "Behold the Lord said to the angels: 'I will create a vicegerent on earth. These thoughts were prevalent in the minds of the people during the time of our Holy Prophet Muhammad (s. viz.5. He said: 'I will make thee an Imam to the Nation. with which our Holy Prophet was blessed. and sacrifice. To possess a male child was always considered the greatest blessing one could receive and to be without one was regarded as the greatest curse. Lo! it is thy insulter (and not thou) who is without posterity. The following Hadith should prove sufficient to explain the meaning of Kauthar. A man without issue was regarded as dead. "Then did Zakariya pray to his Lord. Both are tied with a long rope and cannot be separated till the day of Judgment. However. if you follow them both you will never go astray. which says: "Two things I am leaving amongst you after me. —Holy Qur'an. this lofty concept. this claim can be further substantiated by the fact that Prophets had always wished to be succeeded by their progeny. "And remember that Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain commands. but that was not to be for God speaks of the abundance in posterity. The enemies even rejoiced in the fact that there would be no one to uphold his religion after him. 103. all of you together. and be not divided. The fact that Imamat runs in hereditary succession can be logically concluded from the Qur'anic verses 33 and 34 of Sura Aal-e-lmran (Ch. verily.a. then He placed them before the angels and said: 'Tell Me the nature of these if you are right.a. so pray unto thy Lord. by similarly relating them to the central point— Imamat." Ch. 108.).' They said: 'Wilt Thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood? Whilst we do celebrate Thy praises and glorify Thee?' He said: 'I know what ye know not."—Ch. The human mind is unable to conceive of the Nature of God which is Absolute (Ahad) and hence the call to belief in Tauhid (Oneness of God) would naturally seem meaningless. quoted earlier. Moreover. saying: 'O my Lord! grant unto me from Thee a progeny that is pure. Ch. 38. If Kauthar is not to mean 'Abundance in Posterity' then how could our Holy Prophet be speaking of 'MY POSTERITY' in his hadith? The Holy Imams through his daughter Bibi Fatima and Hazrat Murtaza Ali are his posterity on this earth who arc to be followed and obeyed implicitly. which he fulfilled. saying: — "Lo! We have given thee Kauthar (abundance).' They said: 'Glory to Thee: of knowledge we have none save what Thou 8 .s. : v."14— Prophet Muhammad (s. to the 'Rope of Allah' (Hablillah).) and it is for this reason that taunts were hurled at him of being an Abtar. the Qur'an and my posterity. Let us now seek a better understanding of the two remaining Fundamental Principles of Faith. During the course of our discussion on Shi'a claims. meaning the one whose succession in his seeds has ceased and the one who has no heir. 3 : v.' And He taught Adam the nature of all things. He who died without leaving his posterity was considered as one who had failed in his mission. 2 : v.' He (Abraham) pleaded: 'And also (imams) from my offspring?' He answered: 'But My promise is not within the reach of evil doers. Tauhid and Qiyamat. 38.

God was obeyed and loved through Prophet Muhammad (s. and they will not be dealt with unjustly in the least. Adl and Qiyamat emerges from and merges into Imamat—The Divine Institution. Adl and Qiyamat without its Central Point in the concept of Imamat would bear no meaning. The Imam said: "Everyone who bears love to us. And no one's heart shall be purified until he accepts our Imamat. and most astray from the Path. God purifies the heart of every one who loves us. But those who are blind in this world will be blind in the Hereafter. Iblis chose to follow his own judgment and earned God's displeasure. and he said: "O Son of the Messenger of God. Nabuwwat. 17 : v.' and they bowed down: not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: he was of those who reject Faith.' He said 'O Adam! tell them their natures. whereas Iblis. Instead of obeying God's command and prostrating to the Noor (Light) of God. 71. 17: v. God said: Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heavens and earth and 1 know what you reveal and what ye conceal' And behold. on the day of Qiyamat when all will be summoned to account for their deeds.hast taught us: in truth it is Thou Who are perfect in knowledge and wisdom. Imam therefore is. who did not prostrate to Adam and claimed his superiority over him. so that. 80. Just as one cannot conceive of a circle without a centre. so also Tauhid.' When he had told them." –Ch. He will be under our protection and be our companion in all stations (in Paradise). It is the circumference which emerges from and merges into the centre.s.a. Prostration to Adam became incumbent upon the angels on God's command and when the angels prostrated they did not commit shirk (sin of giving a partner to God) but perfected their belief in Tauhid (Oneness of God)." Ch. God will save him from the punishment of his sins on the Day of Judgment and keep him safe from the Great Terror. "Say.) in his time and so God is obeyed and loved through Imam of the time. the Lord and Master of both the worlds. Nabuwwat. Imam Ja'far-as-Sadiq has said: — "God is believed and worshipped in us. it is then that each one will rise with his guide he served on this earth. THE DIVINE GUIDE and AUTHORITY. Verily. 30 34. Doubly do 1 swear by God. so also the true understanding of Tauhid. 9 . We said to the angels: Bow down to Adam. and grant me from Thy presence an AUTHORITY to aid (me)'. will be with us on the Day of Resurrection. The Holy Qur'an says: _ "One day We shall call together all human beings with their respective Imam: Those who are given their record in their right hand will read it (with pleasure). belief in Tauhid becomes active and finds completion in the belief in Imamat—the Divine Institution."—Ch. both in life and death. the deceased had a very high regard for you and loved you sincerely”. for the mu'mins. And when he accepts our authority. 2 : vs. he may enjoy the love and care of the IMAM." Thus.”15 The love for the Imam leads a soul from its transient abode to the Eternal in God. in fact committed shirk. 'O my Lord! let my entry be by the Gate of Truth and Honour and likewise my exit by the Gate of Truth and Honour. A man came to Imam Ja'far-as-Sadiq and spoke to him about a man who had died recently. this salvation takes place when a persons life reaches here—and he pointed to his throat (that is at the moment of his death). Holy Qur'an therefore calls upon the mu'mins to supplicate this. Finally.

Musthadrik. 29-31. 387.163. and in whom they see their path to the Eternal Abode in Noor-e-Ilahi.p 32. Imam Hakim. 11. Asaba-fee-Ma'arayfath-e-Sahaba. and 153 historians.C.150 AH (699 . 85. Riaz-ul-Nazarah. p.p.. 13 ‘The Book of Faith' (Da'im al-Islam) tr. 216. Vol. pp. History of Tabari. 12. cit. Op. 6. Op.. 133. Almanquibe of Akhtab-e-Kharazami.. 8. Musnad-e-lmam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Op. Izalath-ul-Khifa Section 2 . 2. cit. 3. ‘The Book of Faith' (Da-aim al-Islam) tr. Moarej-un-Nabuwwat. Abdulla ibn Masood and Hussain ibn Sabith are among the narrators of the above event The book Arhahul Maltaiib cites 100 names of the companions of our Holy Prophet. Vol. para 18 . Ibne Hasham's Seerat: Tabari's History. Vol. Othman Ghani. but his faith does not include love for us and acceptance of the Authority of the People of the House. . IV . Mohammed ibn Ishaq. Vol.p. The founders of the four Sunni schools are designated as 'Imams’.). Ill . 83.C. See 'Ghadir Khumm' by L.. para. 261.p. Cit. 174. II – p."16 For the Shi'a Imami Nizari Ismailis. Vol.p 28 14. Masnad Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Tafseer-e-Mo'allam-ul-Thunzeel. 103.). No. by A. Umme Sulma. I . Imam Malik ibn Anas—93-175 AH (713-795 A. 178. I . If a servant of God worships Him with excessive devotion between the Rukn and the Maqam Ibrahim in the Ka'ba. IV .Imam Muhammad al-Baqir said: — "Verily. Vol. A. 1 – p. A. III – p. 89. so that his ligaments are torn (by running). 2. Paradise welcomes the presence of the progeny of the Prophet and their party. Bibi Aiyesha. Imam Ghazalee in Sir-ul-Aalameen: Ibne Shebab al-Zohri. Fyzee. (781 -241 A. History of Abdul Fida. collectors of traditions.767 A. They are: —Imam Abu Hanifa Nu'man ibn Thabit — 80 . II . p. A. pp. Musthadrik of Imam Hakim. cit. by A. Abu Bakr Siddiquee. God will not accept his devotions. Vol.p.p. Veccia Vaglieri in ILM.. 10. para 145 . 270.). II p. V . Fyzee. Vol.). Abdullah ibn Omar. 10 . Imam Abu AbdAllah Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi—150-204 A. Kunzul Ummal of Allama Ali Muttaquee. 281. 7. Cit. p 15. II .p.. Vol. 68. Ibid. References: 1. Hazrat Mowlana Shah Karim al-Hussayni (His Highness The Aga Khan IV) is their Present Living Imam (Hazar Imam) to whom they owe their complete devotion and allegiance. cit.p. 16. 203. Op. 331. Musthadrik. 279. Sahee Muslim.p. p. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal — 164-241 A. 138 .C. and its brightness will be the brighter for their arrival. Vol 2. authors of Seehas and Massaaneed who have narrated the whole incident in detail. p.H. Istheeaab of Allama Ibne Abdul Bur: Izalath-ul-Khifu of Shah Waliullah. Zubair ibn Awam.. Omar Farooq. Op. A. 663.p. 13. 4. 132 -p. H. (767-204 A. 9. Hakeem Tirmizee. Vol. Musnad Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal.C.p. 116. Tafseer-e-Tabari Vol IXX . 115. 26. Vol. 5. Op. para.p.p. Vol. 216. Sahee Bukhari. 104. History of Kamil. p.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful