Corrosion

Corrosion in heating surface

High temperature corrosion the term implies corrosion damage of the metal of tubes which are in contact with high temperature combustion products . It includes two kinds of corrosion which occur in various zones of the boiler and are of different chemical nature. One of them is the corrosion of water walls in the boiler furnace in the zone of the flame core. Which is fostered by the content of tube metal with sulphurous gases. Another kind is the corrosion of superheater tubes and their fastening elements in the presence of Vanadium oxides in the gas flow. Corrosion on the fire side of water walls causes in boilers fired by pul;verised coals with a low yield of volatile constituents , semi anthracites, lean coals amd high sulfur fuel oil . This kind of corrosion develops intensively on tubes at the level of furnace burners or slightly above it in the zones directly swept by flame.. Under unfavourable conditions, the rate of corrosion wear on the front portion of tubes may be as high as 34 mm/year. Ie water wall tubes in this zone gets out of order in less than one year. (with the wall thickness of 5-6 mm). As established experimentally, the main corrosion active component in flue gases is H2S (Hydrigen sulphide). Even with a slight volume concentration of H2S at a surface (0.04-0.07%) , the rate of metal corrosion increases roughly tenfold. At temperature of 1400 -1600 degC hydrogen sulphide burns in the presence of oxygen almost instantly. Therefore it can be present in the near the water wall only in a medium where oxygen is locally deficient. To avoid corrosion damage to water walls, fuel and air should be distributed evenly between the burner so that the excess air ratio in each burner is greater than unity, It is advisable to keep the flame from striking the water walls. Corrosion of the tubes of convective superheaters has been detected on the combustion of fuels whem the temperature of tube walls exceeds 610-620 degC . The trend of corrosion , called ?VANADIUM CORROSION ? is caused by the vapours of Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) formed in furnace gases. If the fuel oil contain sodium oxides , the comnbustion products will contain Vanadates (5 V2O5,Na2O,V2O4) which have a low melting point(600 degC approx) .If the temperature of the superheater tubes is above 610 degC , sodium Vanadates can form a liquid film which is corrosive for various sleets. (Carbon. Low alloyed and austenitic steels) Uncooled fastening and spacing elements of tubes whose temperature is close to that of the gases are also subject to heavy Vanadium corrosion. Corrosion is enhanced in the presence of sulphur oxides in the gas flow . Na2S2O7 (sodium pyrosulphate) are most dangerous for the metal, in combination with V2O5, they adhere the medium. Highly corrosive even at temperature near 610 degC

CaCl2. The degree of tube fouling depends substantially on the gas flow velocity. The presence of relatively easily fusible particles in the combustion zone is determined by the formation of eutecties between metal oxides MeO (such as CaO. if SO2 is present in the flue gases . Na2SO4. First ash and slag particles in a semi liquid or softened state are thrown onto the surface of tubes. Fe2O3 etc) with melting point 1600-2800oC).Scaling Scaling in Boilers Various mixed impurities which pass into boiler furnaces together with the organic mass of solid fuels are transferred in the high temperature zone. The ash of most solids fuels contain 5 to 40% of metal oxides such as CaO. MgO. The thickness of the deposits on the tubes decreases with an increase in gas velocity. or Fe2O3 and silica SiO2 or alumina minerals based on Al2O3. MgO. which is estimated by the JOULING COFFICIENT. g = sl / sl where sl and sl are the average thickness and conductivity of the slag layer over the tube perimeter. The fouling of tubes with fly ash deposits depends only slightly on the concentration of ash in the gas flow. MgCl2. FeO. Loose deposits on tube surface impair heat transfer . They are vapourised in the high temperature zone of the flame core and then condense on the surface of the tubes Medium fusible components of ash into melting point 900-1000oC (Fes. platens. The process is called ?SLAGGING?. ie in the turbulent zone that forms behind the tube. FeO or Fe2O3) and silica SiO2 or alumina minerals based on Al2O3. CaO. thermal conductivity etc. Na2SiO3. they adhere firmly to the surface. . viscosity. chlorides of alkaline metals (NaCl.) The composition of ash mainly includes sulphates. They remain solid as they pass through the combustion zone. The ash of most solid fuels contain 5 to 40% of metal oxides (MeO) With the infavourable mineral composition of fuel sitering (sulphation) may start in a deposited friable layer on the heating surface . Al2. Since these particles are these components are carried off by the gas flow and constitute what is called FLY ASH Ash particles can quickly fro growing deposits on furnace tubes in the zone where high temperature gives contact water walls. MgO. AL2O3. The behaviour of ash particles depends on their composition and physical properties (melting point. K2 SO4 etc) can from the primary sticky larger on water wall and platen tuebs of high temperature zone High melting compounds of ash are pure oxides (SiO2. The fouling coefficient characterises the thermal resistance of slag layer. Loose deposits chiefly form on the back side of tubes relative to the direction of gas flow . (SO4)3 with a melting point of about 700-850oC. and sections of the convective superheater in the regions of gas temperature 600 -700 degC. Slagging may occur on the tubes of water walls. upon cooling. part of these are melted and combined into larger particles which fall into the furnace bottom on slag which the main incoming fine particles of ash are carried from the furnace by combustion products.

The most efficient method for cleaning convective heating surface in the boiler furnace is short-blasting which utilize the kinetic energy of flying cast iron shots of 3-5 mm. Wear on the outer headers of a tube is dangerous. Dense deposits consists mainly of iron sulphates and calcium and sodium oxides . The Intensity of wear is determined by the following factors. which may greatly impair heat transfer . Effective depends on the range. The density of tubes in a bundle. The number of particles passing during through the surface per unit time. 2. increase resistence of the gas path and shorten the compaign of the steam boiler. The kinetic energy of ash or fuel particles which is proportional to the square of the gas velocity. 4. Since ash deposits contain Vanadium and sulphur they are essentially acidic. since the tube wall is such is thinner. 1. In boilers fired on high sulfur fuels. Sticky deposits on heating surfaces of convection superheater and economizer primarly contain Vanadium compounds (mainly V2O5) and sulphates. both sticking deposits and dense glassy deposits can form on the heating surfaces. 3. Deposits that form during fuel oil burning have a tendency to grow up quickly . Non-uniformity of ash concentration in the gas flow. Some methods of cleaning heating surfaces from deposits are based on the dynamic effect of jets of steam .The degree of tube fouling depends heavily on the type of tube bundles (staggered or in -line) and the longitudinal pitch of tubes in staggered bundles. . water or air .

where required. repair and inspection by the BOILER INSPECTOR. Periodicals Preventive Maintenance 3. formulated by the government every boiler have to be taken out of service once a year for thorough cleaning. The boiler inspector will inspect the conditions of the pressure parts. Annual Survey: According to rules and regulations for operating boiler. Annual Survey (IBR requirements) 2. Rapid cooling hardness scale. the hydraulic test will be performed by subjecting the pressure parts to water pressure equal to 1. superheater headers and other parts for thorough inspection. Maintenance of Boiler can be divided mainly in three categories: 1. generating tubes. are de-energized condition. the brick work will have to be removed incase of coal fired boilers and shedding with insulation to be removed incase of oil/gas fired boilers to expose drum. scale sludge and soot . heaters. Proper planned maintenance of the plants will increase the operating efficiencies and decease the outages of the boilers. Large quantities of cold water should not be pumped into the boiler for the purpose of cooling the water or reducing pressure and the boiler should not be emptied under pressure. such as boiler drum. care should be taken to see that all steam. boiler mountings. flame superheaters. is harmful to brick work and put excessive strains on joints.Maintenance & Inspection Maintenance & Inspection The life of any steam generating plant is dependent upon the amount of care and attention it receives while under steam and during idle periods. It is extremely important that no attempt should be made to remove any door while there is slightest possibility of pressure of vacuum and reliance should not be placed entirely upon the pressure gauge. water and blowdown connection or closed or banked off. When the pressure gauge reading zero and water is comparatively cool. Also particular care should be taken to ensure that all fuel atmosphere LPG connection are blinded off positively and FD/ID fan and other auxiliaries like sootblower etc. Before entering a boiler. economizers. and they cannot be accidentally opened.5 times the rated working pressure of the boiler to check the strength of these parts and also to detect the presence of any leak in them. The procedure for this type of maintenance is as follows : a) Emptying and opening of boiler: Wherever possible a boiler and its surrounding brick work of castings should be allowed to cool before running cut the water. Many more accidents have occurred owing to steam and hot water bring admitted to boilers in which men were working b) Every opportunity should be taken to remove accumulation of grease. Attention to breakdowns during operation 1. After the dry inspection of the boiler by inspector. the water can be run out.

Other portions of boiler setting which require special attention for this air leak are the brick work round the blow sowan recess and the joint between the boiler shall and cross wall. The location of the line of thrust within an arch is quite uncertain and varies with the temperature. scale formation retard the transmission of heat and may lead to over heating. As the boiler is taken off the line.The interior of the boiler drum. there will be an increase in fuel consumption. The deposits on the gas sides are also cleared. Scales are sometimes removed by circulating circulated water with 3 to 7% of concentration HCl acid in the boilers at the temperature of 160oF and using suitable inhibitors to lesson the attach upon the boiler metal. Various methods are adopted to remove scale by wire brushes and other hand and mechanical descaling tools. By scraping wire bushing etc. Defective furnace front plate. the boiler being used as a steam accumulator. By washing tubes with water after taking care to protect the walls by a protective coating on them Maintenance of Boiler setting and Furnace wall There may be cracks in the brick work of the furnaces and the passages and walls. Corners of bricks are exposed to the heat on two or three sides after the mortar has dried out and crumbles away and have to withstand attach of ash and other destroying influences. The deposits have a corrosive effect on the comparatively cool economizer tubes. leak on the furnace bridge wall in shell boilers may decrease the boiler efficiency considerably. This provides the first attach upon the deposit 2. draught loss. superheater header are to be thoroughly cleaned of any scale because: Due to scale formation. (In modern boilers with fully welded membrane type this will not hold good) The porosity of all brickwork itself should be restricted by sealing the fine cracks and pores with two or more coats of tar or thick while washing. These deposits cause decline in efficiency in the boiler due to less heat transfer. but by this method the inaccessible tubes cannot be cleaned easily 4. The leakage of cold air from outside decreases boiler efficiency by cooling the furnace temperature and by effecting draught. When boiler is allowed to dry by opening the door and dampers. Generating tubes and superheater tubes . and this is the main reason for which the scale requires cleaning. Different way to clean soot: 1. The deposits may be dissolved by applying water in the form of steam or spraying water to them. The points of all the doors in the boiler economizer should be coated with fire clamp after they are closed Water tube boilers arches Of all the places where failure is likely to occur prominent among such places are the furnace arches. and then to keep the door and dampers closed for 24 hrs. tubes. The thermal resistance of these deposits may be several times greater than that of normal water scale of the same thickness. sufficient accumulation of these deposits may case the boiler to shut down by lowering its steam out too much. the soot blowers should be operated. the sooty scale fall off easily 3. The bucks are subjected to gases at widely varying temperatures and hence to unequal expansion and to localized stresses causing a hard brittle brick to fail Joints are rarely perfect causing overloading at the points of contact between the bricks. the coefficient of expansion and other properties of the material. The dep osits are a conglomeration of root ash and grit impregnated with dilute sulfuric acid.

It is a good practice to limit the AC supply to 25 volts and the lamp leads should be three core to earth the frame of the lamp. These parts should be repaired or replaced periodically to avoid accelerated deterioration and consequent damage to other paths by overheating Instrument: All instruments should be checked frequently for accuracy as to correct instruments mislead and may result in less efficient operation than of no instrument had been provided Casing Leakage?s: Air infiltration through boiler casing should be stopped Hand Lamps: Risk of accident due to faulty hand lamp should be avoided. but in the regions subjected to more intense heat or scouring action. All the instrument leaks and sampling points should be cleaned also instruments should be checked for their correctness of functions and repaired if required Precaution before box-up the boiler after overhaul : When the boiler has been cleaned and repaired. They should be hydraulically tested for this. Safety valves. Scheduled Preventive Maintenance It can be divided into two categories 1. there are systems of shutting down the boiler at regular intervals to overhaul. Soot Blowers: Soot blowers should be lubricated.water gauges and gauge cocks must always be kept clean. it must be thoroughly checked to see whether there is an foreign matter left in the boiler before box-up of the boiler. leakages of steam fuel and lance tubes to be attended. 2. Stiffness of the spring placed in the two valves of the blow down valves should be checked. . The breakdowns can be attended to sometimes by shutting the boiler altogether or sometimes in the running conditions according to the nature of breakdown. Instruments: Draught gauge piping should be thoroughly cleaned. clean and replace ore repair defective parts in anticipation of breakdown of failure of those parts.Any defective grading or superheater tube should be changed during this time. The checking should be checked if at any time the adjustment is in doubt High and low water alarms : High and low water alarms should be tested once a fortnight by raining and lowering the water level in the steam drum to the levels at which the alarm should operate. Maintenance whilst in operation . leaking tubes charged. Generally during this maintenance the gas passages are cleared by taking out the soot accumulated during running. Safety Valves: Once a week safety valve should be used to ascertain that it is cooling freely. Steam flange joints should be leak proof. leaking valves are ground or machined. Maintenance during periodical shutdown: In many boiler houses. stop valves line valves. Glands to be newly packed. Regarding breakdown during operation. valve glands are repaired and leaky flange joints renewed. Bearings on motors. The greater part of the refractories should last for years without attention. fan feed pumps etc. the tubes which show the sign of overheating bulging distortion are changed Overhauling of Boiler mountings : The valves gauge cocks etc must be thoroughly repaired and overhauled in such a way that no steam through them when they are shut. blow down valves. boilers washed. Gland leakages. The water gauge should be blow down atleast once every shift Feed Pumps : All standby pumps should be run for atleast one hour each week to ensure they can be relied on for immediate service incase of emergency. it may be anything between the operating tube failure to the gear box trouble of the mechanical strokes. all should be ground with their respective seals by some abrasive and even machined when required to make them completely leak proof. This test is performed in the hand feed regulation with the automatic regulation isolated. they may in time. All bearings should be oiled or greased regularly.

Mass flow and density volumetric flow meters. and off gas for pilot burners. 5. Drum Internals Safety valve . The welding of high alloy and non-ferrous material shall be done in accordance with the regulation of the ASME Boiler and pressure Vessel code. So the maintenance and lubrication following should be based on the manufacturing recommendation and plant operating experience and not or memory TOOLS AND TACKLES . Fuel oil solenoid valves. 11.25 % . Further necessary spare parts. copper gaskets.) Gaskets.(spares like helical springs. some operation may depend on memory to determine when an inspection should be made bearing lubrication etc. Oil cooler tube bundle. pressure gauges . 9. UV flame detectors Pilot guns. . Love joy couplings 13. tools and maintenance personnel can be made available to accomplish the work efficiently. Although it may be satisfactory incase of smaller plants. 3. valves . lapping discs etc. A lubrication schedule should be established. it should be removed by hand or mechanical means. 4. pressure transmitters.If a hole cut is there in a water wall tube. the weld patch is made to seal the hole to provide access for welding the both sides of joint. 10.nozzless. 7. limit switches. . Sooner or later. Level controller spares 12. valve seats.  SPARE PARTS REQUIRED FOR BOILER MAINTENANCE 1. If the scale is thin. fuel oil filter elements. 8. being laborious process . material and thickness as the one being provided.Boiler house maintenance work should be performed on established schedule to prevent equipment from being forced out of service owing to failure. it should peel off easily by running a hand scrapper lightly over the metal. repair is further limited to carbon steels having a carbon content of not more than 0. 14. pressure switches. 2. Orifice plates of suitable sizes.  Welded repair may have to be made limited to steels having known weldeable quality . fuel oil.required for Boiler Maintenance -If the Inner shell and tubes found with scale on Economizer. diffuser plates. gland packings Boiler burner guns. controllers. The patch should be cut from a tube of the same size . If the boiler is badly scaled. something is neglected and an outage of the plant results. chipping is replaced by acid cleaning in rivetted boiler. 6. Scheduled maintenance work makes it possible to have other boilers carry the load or to perform the work when the boiler are not required. differential transformers for ignition Air register pneumatic cylinder attachments. impulse lines. 15. Flexible hoses for atomising steam. the drum will have to be hand chipped. asbestos packings. in large and complicated plants the memory may sometimes fail.

Brick work in contact with boiler surface should be removed as far as possible 5. After cleaning the boiler. sometimes incandescent charcoal or guidelines are placed in the drum and the manhole doors are shut 3. Cock valves. Boiler shall should be filled up with warm alkaline water and kept under a few pounds pressure . External surface must be kept clean and dry 4.16. Copper gaskets 17. PRESERVATION OF IDLE BOILERS Boilers deteriorate more rapidly when allowed to remain idle in a damp and dirty condition than during long periods of normal work 1. The way to preserve boiler during idle period is to remove all doors and covers and thoroughly clean and dry all internal and external surfaces and give a coating of one of the preservation paints 2.

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