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./ H / FOR THE JOINT COMMITTEE Of tlie Board of Traile and the Cotton Exchange By Erwtn Ckaioiieap. Mobile Datly Register Print. 1883.
the Tombigbee. Equal rates were established. many rivers and many roads. and other markets of the great West. Louis. Rival after rival sprang into the field and divided the trade. Chicago. of Louisiana. Radiating east. but for a while. the Alabama and their branches. Northward runs the Mobile and Ohio road. and brings in direct connection with this port the business of The main stem of this Louisville all southern and eastern Alabama. and at length heroic measures alone could be relied upon to bring back to the Gulf City that trade and commerce which had been hers in the old days before and just after the war. and brings Mobile into direct connection with Cairo. that the wholesale and general trade of Mobile is now of greater extent and value than before the war. north and south are four lines of railroad. business was so disorganized and new methods were so slowly adopted. which commands the great trade of eastern and central Mississippi. Alabama. St. This is a matter of but a few years. all of which are sources of wealth to the Gulf City. worked against Mobile. running along the lovely coast of Mississippi Sound. and Nashville runs northeast. that it began to look as if the city was doomed. the Crescent City. extends a branch to Pensacola. and reaches into Mississippi on the one hand and into Georgia on the other. Like New Orleans. with the exception of the Mobile and Ohio. All things considered. Mobile's steamboats penetrate far into the interior thev take and receive goods for the distance of three and four : . Lastly. during what are termed the "dark days" of the reconstruction era. and the widespreading tributaries. making tributary to Mobile the fertile region lying between this city and Montgomery. The railroads which. situated so advantageously are few THEEE Mobile. Mobile's own railroad. yet so successful has been the effort that it is claimed and not contradicted. Mobile always dominated this great region. and very soon the emissaries of the Mobile merchants were scouring the interior country in search of custom. the victory has been one of magnificent proportions. that these heroic efforts were made. and aiding the Mobile merchants in disposing of their goods to within forty miles of the metropolis of the South. she purposes as cities is for commercial the gate of sits at facilitating the business of the interior country. This immense whip spreads out over the whole State of to the lashes. there is the Mobile and New Orleans road. It is pleasant to add. and there connects with the Pensacola and Atlantic. and being paid in turn a moderate fee for the service rendered. The Louisville and Nashville road. which runs through a rich and promising country of western Florida. equal rights accorded. that vast and ever increasing corporation. Mobile river may be compared to a whip stock. were taught that the better policy is to help build up all stations and not to work for the exclusive benefit of terminal towns only.Iqbile and her Trade Territory.
The daily cry is. Last year the first stage of the work in Mobile Bay was concluded. Seventeen and eighteen feet of water were obtained. This is the work of Mobile alone and is very encouraging. For years and years the vessels for Mobile anchored twenty-five miles down the bay and every bale of cotton had to be conveyed thither by the^costly process of lightering. Not a decade ago the shore of the Gulf of Mexico had but one deep water port upon all its wide curve. however. took charge of the great work of improving these barred harbors. the wharf lessees and owners rejoice the sound of the hammer and saw.4 . and the better part of the^ cargo had to be towed the twenty-five miles before it could be put aboard. but the record of progress is not complete. were^ closed to everything in the shape of vessels. while on the rail lines shipments are made and supplies delivered into Mississippi as far west as the great father of waters. More wharves! We must have more wharves " It not room enough is indeed a croaker who cannot see in all this the march of material progress. There is no man wise enough to define the limits of Mobile's hastening prosperity. The change has been so sudden and so complete that it seems magiFull rigged ships and ocean steamers now come sailing up the bay cal. and east out their lines to the pier heads. except coasters and very light-draught seagoing vessels. and. the river in front of Mobile's wharves was filled with shipping. the thud of the pile driver. " AVe have . Even the light-draught timber shii^s could not be loaded to their capacity at these wharves. Business houses. ! ! . hundred miles distant. Mobile and Pensacola. The National Government. are heard on every hand. New Orleans. and into Florida as far east as the capital of the peninsular State. and so well has the labor progressed that year Ijy year has come the announcement of the opening of port after port. MOBILE AND HER TRADE TERRITORY. and the expense of making shipments by sea amounted almost to an embargo upon the export trade. and that one was in the neighboring republic of Mexico. immediately. It remains to tell of the jiresentation made last year of another seaport to the world. Galveston.
The rows of stores on the first floor. the building grew too large for the town. the visitor passes up Government street. goes along Eoyal. so that everything is now fit for the entertainment of the best who may come there for hospitality and entertainment. and it may be asserted that year by year it will be enlarged and improved until it will be cited by travelers as the best and most comfortable hotel in the Union.FROM THE VISITOR'S POINT OF VIEW. there comes a sudden and unexpected flow of Northern visitors hither— visitors who find Louisiana too damp and Florida too sandy and desert like. Naturally where there is so much custom. and. set in massive wood work. there is a desire on the part of Mobile property holders to show an appreciation of the good fortune showered upon them. the wanderer reaches the Battle House. which have always been unsuitable for the transaction of retail business. and are now coming hither in so great a crowd. supplied with tastyfronts of plate glass doors and windows. and through which guests of the house can easily reach the ticket offices. an ante bellum hostelrie of fame. the furniture renewed. . These men are determined to make the building complete in all of its parts and are resolved to have as popular a hotel as any in the country. the wood work and plastering of the hotel has been scraped and painted. that there already promises to be some difficulty experienced in providing proper accommodations at this the principal hotel. which has long had its period of rest and has now shaken itself together again for a grand stride forward. the prospect has brightened gradually but surely and at length to cap this happy climax. have been renovated. inside and out. little further on he comes to the corner of Dauphin. Up . barber shops. however. Here he finds the theatre on the right and the quaint old Spanish tower of the municipal guard house on the left. The carpets have been replaced. The hotel in itself is very large and can accommodate such a number of people that when the harbor became closed and the railroads ran away with the greater part of Mobile's cotton trade. In this theatre a series of the most interesting performances are given in the season. and with the growth of the lumber trade and of truck farming. the majority of whose stock is in the hands of northern capitalists and railroad men. etc. The interior have been freshly painted and in the rear has been constructed a wide corridor into which each store opens. With the revival of Mobile's general business. and the service overhauled. The Battle House is the first to spread its wings to a new fiight. These discover that Mobile is the true and only tropic city in the Union. furnishing goods stores. turning to the right. Passing still beyond. the principal retail LE busy AVI N G A street in the city. The Battle House is now owned by a company. The work of improvement began on the twentieth of last July and has been pushed forward until the change is thorough and in every way satisfactory. stairs and down. this wharf front where even now the army of workmen is construetinff vast rows of piling and erecting immense barriers along the water line so that commerce may be benefitted. owing to the lack of modern conveniences.
and here. the visitor goes further down the street. Up and down this wide and spacious street may be seen the enacting of the busy scenes of commercial life. the travelers know they have found at last the place where they can get the full value of their money. potatoes and cabbage. There also is the venerable Bank of Mobile. having for its rival the pretty town of Blakely on the other shore of the bay— a town of which to day nothingwhatever remains. The visitor will not fail to ride out Dauphin way and. We leave behind us the steaming cotton compresses we abandon to the left the long rows of stately ships which lie at the wharves receiving cotton and lumber. oats. 7 Of course the overflow of visitors must And houses among the green shade trees of the jewel city of the South. Here the rattle of the dray is ever heard. cowpeas. corn. We notice the beautiful and live oak embowered Bienville Square on the right. per month. an organization of older heads. so completely have its fortunes died away. When the best of food and the cosiest of lodging can be had for from twenty-five to forty dollars per head. there are other clubs. bran. The third floor is mainly devoted to the United States court and the clerks rooms. come down the whole length of Government street. occupied by merchants whose names are household words in Mobile. But why protract this stroll V There are other parks. It is an imposing structure. and march straight up the street. Within is the post office. The most noted alone are mentioned by name. and turn into Dauphin street. of her influence and of her grandeur. an institution founded nearly seventy years ago when Mobile was an extremely small but even then a promising town. Enough has been said on this subject however. and there have in consequence sprung up in the last few years a number of small hotels and first class boarding houses. returning. The first place of importance is the Southern Express office then comes the Cotton Exchange. three stories in height and of the Etruscan style of architecture. Commerce street is ever busy. . Around the corner is the Manasses club. passing store after store. but the object of this pamphlet is more general in its nature. and the chow-chow of the mighty locomotive is never quiet. Nothing like it exists in this country. . . and then turns to the right and enters the wholesale quarter of the city. Here he meets the foremost men of the city. the money order and registration offices. and the Mobile Board of Trade. We pass across Boyal— having doubled on our track. passes the Western Union Telegraph office. the Daily Kegister building. He can be promised a view which is uniciue. It is the forum of pork. After inspecting this building and noting its many beauties. the visitor may find every item of commercial and industrial information properly prepared and kindly furnished by the polite secretary or his equally courteous assistant. Whole pages can be filled with such information. This is the centre of Mobile's wealth.FROM THE ^VISITOR S POINT OF VIEW. as in the Booms of the Board of Trade. The Athelstan club house looks down upon this beautiful spot. and the customs and internal revenue ofiQces. Just opposite the Battle House is the granite Customhouse of the United States. there are other banks. all managed by polite gentlemen and efficient officers. the Telephonic Exchange. The visitor must be asked to continue his morning's walk. We go to the right.
If the visitor will go with the writer upon a short drive in the subThere everyvirbs. Let us ask him why the country around Mobile has become so thickly settled with farmers. leaving barely room for a roadway between. He . in fact. educational and correctional purposes. well-fed cattle graze down in the meadows along the creek side. west and south of Mobile. While they have been crying and wringing their hands. by the way. after five years of industrious labor. everything a farmer can wish. religious. thoroughbred stock." and truly does the title ajiply. People can make money . elegant residences and imposing buildings. have strong fences. Cleve Prichard. turned a desert into a paradise and filled their pockets with wealth. A journey of several days' duration would hardly suffice to make an inspection of this farming district which extends. and. however. and it is very difficult indeed to realize that this same land was a few short years ago covered with pine and chaparral and regarded as entirely unfit for cultivation. has crowned his place with plenty and achieved a reputation as a successful farmer. would be a pleasant experience but require much valuable time to There is much to see in the way of public parks. It was Talmage who called Mobile "the City of Churches. where cosy cottages crown the eminences. The trip wi'll take the visitor through a country where for miles and miles farm lies up against farm. well-shaded avenues. excellent roads. who. such a scene reminds one strongly of the arable land of southern England. private gardens. and contributes to the prosperity of the place. a class of scientific farmers has grown up in this neighborhood and performed a miracle. The visitor is asked to go into the suburbs and surely. producing three and four crops per annum. gives additional stability to the banks. erected for civil. every dollar of which stays here. if he has the idea that the beautiful old city is asleep. public and private hospitals. that no city in the South is better supplied with ])ublic schools. Who better for this than Mr. IT go further in the tour of the city. This branch of the subject must. be hurriedly and regretfully dismissed. and sleek. he will find that every word of this statement is true. It may be said. smooth. call upon and interview one of the practical farmers and learn what he has to say upon the subject. he will find very soon that the idea is based upon fancy. thing is in a state of prosperity people live in new and handsome houses.AGRICULTURALLY SPEAKING. Even in Mobile. Let us. the citizens have only lately awakened to the knowledge that they possess a source of almost inexhaustible wealth located at the door and ready to be taken up by those who are courageous enough to make the proper venture. crescent-shaped around to the north. more imposing county and port buildings and finer churches. replies "The reasons are many and sufiicient. the hope being expressed that time and space may be found later on for its consideration. broad acres. however.
it is flDurishing with us. Louis. You never hear of any of these men asking favors of the bank or of the merchants. and these we supply by using cotton- Properly dressed with this fertilizer. It is a great thing to have such an abundant supply of clear. but it is just the thing for another. perhaps. They buy for cash and get the best of everything. while we raise corn and hay for our stock. harvest it. besides hog meat and mutton. They have good horses and buggies their wives have their carriages their children go to good pay-schools. and the return is very valuable. Drouth liills one planting. all the vegetables we eat. Now what do you think of that? And the farms will not average more than twenty acres each. . It is cool. This soil has all the ingredients necessary to the production of crops except phosphates. and plant another. quality of the drinking water. -and is plentiful. the soil produces much esteemed natui'ally richer. In other farming countries heavy rain puts a stop to ploughing for days Another great advantage we possess is the quantity and at a time. Chicago. Does not that speak well for the productiveness of the country? " . 9 less labor soil is The than any where in the United States. Sometimes we miss it. our land drains naturally. as well off as the people of their class in any part of the country. . he is done for. better than fertilized. "As for business. and from that time on you have enough water for yourself and whatever stock you may choose to keep. After a heavy rain on these farms. potatoes. the truth. He cannot make another crop before winter. so cool that we never use ice. " Then again. There are farmers here from Ohio who say they can make ten times as much here as up in their country. We pay no attention to the threats of winter.AGRICULTURALLY SPEAKING. and so quickly that within an hour the ploughman can go into the field and do a day's work. and can always make expenses. This is a sandy with a clay subsoil about a foot and a half below the surface. winter and summer. are the chief products. Here we sow. we put in the other. A well twenty feet deep taps the underground fountains. snap beans and tomatoes. We are thus saved from failure also for if one crop does badly. the water sinks through the sandy soil until it reaches the clay and runs off that as off a shed into the ravines. gather and plant. We get our crops ready for the moment when we thinli the market will be most favorable. At the North this is not so. there is nothing that can happen which will prevent our making some crop or other. The most of the farmers hereabout are well to do. Cincinnati and elsewhere. plant one crop. soil' "Then the climate is very favorable. but not often. and what we lose on potatoes we make up in cabbages. thus getting from three to four crops yearly from the same piece of ground. We ship to St. Cabbages. but go on planting and harvesting tlie year ai'ound. here with fact. Even the best bottom land soil cannot compare in productiveness with this land after it has been seed meal. and they themselves have large cash balances in bank. and get very remunerative prices for our truck. cool and pure water. and I have no doubt that they speak We . If a farmer loses his corn crop or his wheat crop there.
secondly. declares he will have nothing to do with the colored man. Will a Northern man be well received by the Southern people? He said that in reply he learned that white men can work everywhere in the South during the hottest weather of summer. for there are many such men here who are well-to-do in this business. From that moment their prosperity for the future is assured. and in what manner and to what extent he will succeed. and. and the Southern people want more of them. brings to his aid energy.MORE UPON THE SAME SUBJECT. To come at once to the farm proper.. love of order. One farmer. the Southern people are too American to take notice of a political difference of opinion. Of course. a few miles out of town. The idea that the temperature of this region is so hot that no one but a To the second question he negro can stand it. a good common school education. generally. The Southern people have a well-founded admiration Such an one has. in the writer's acquaintance. and not simply to try and rule the people by the aid of negro votes. he is sure to receive the most friendly greeting. In the South there is but one political issue the rule of the intelligent classes. seriously and profit by their advantages. is not based on fact. can best be told by examining into the success achieved by those who have been the first to occupy the land. some knowledge of the science of farming. but better in every respect. some six and a portion over ten years. truthfulThere are many such Northern men in the South ness and politeness. labor almost exclusively. These laborers come here without money and with very little but their They go to work honest intentions in the way of a recommendation. had field asked in theSonth? and. for the Northern laboring man and farmer. Ten years ago the scientific farmer was not known here at all. and that he must have white men from the Northwest or he will not be satisfied. there are some thirty-five acres which have for three years past been systematiA portion of this land has been opened and planted cally cultivated. the man who brings capital and farming experience will succeed more quickly. besides. but scientific principles have been applied during the three years only. It will not be necessary to describe the farm house and pleasure grounds of Captain H. It is not a question of long time either. received but one answer The people of the South need help to reap the full benefit of the agricultural and mineral resources of the country. In this neighborhood are many large farmers who employ white They find it higher in price than negro labor. and as it is a question of dollars and cents. and if a Northern man comes South to work. Presently an opening occurs and they become managers and then owners of farms. The farm is cultivated with im: a gentleman traveling: from Minnesota said he RECENTLY Can a white man work in the everywhere two questions : : .'s fine place on the Mobile and Ohio Eailroad. and yet improved farming is a very new thing in this section.
giving about 1. A promenade through the orchards of peach. grain drills. you see the fifty cents a bushel wholesale this is $250 to me now potato banks near the store house V Each one contains forty bushels of the best of the crop. "is five hundred bushels to the acre. and my price is above a dollar per bushel. mowers. was followed by cow peas which was turned under to give vegetable matNext year oats again. in process of being harvested. building contains the feed room with grain bins and hay cutter. . plough room filled with one and two-horse i^loughs. folter. Potatoes are worth now about but. extension harrows. which surrounded by substantial and neat five-bar fences. also fertilized. subsoilers. third is the second crop of Irish potatoes. A number of sheds. all floored. in November. serves as protection for . adding stable and barn-yard manure as far as it reaches in aid of the peas and commercial fertilizers. Everywhere is to be seen the evidences of thrift and success in farming. and there they will remain until I get my price." . . lowed immediately by German millet. The cost of commercial fertilizers is now annually from $17 to f 18 per acre. while in still a. another for forage. and a run through the poultry yards where Light Brahmas. White Leghorns. fertilized as before. I thus bring up my land. to the soil. and of oats and rye about three tons of each to the acre. The mill for grinding feed for stock stands in the centre of the yard and next to the boi'ed well. " It is naturally a poor soil. to be again turned under. and other large and Another building is stored with haruseful agricultural implements." says the owner of the place. myself. Of corn I made about sixty bushels to the acre. each breed in a separate enclosure. now. In one plat are oats. cultivators. numerous wagons and carts. brings the visitor to the fields.200 pounds of fertilizer to the acre. the peas furnishing enough for one hay crop alone. oats would not grow without fertilizing six inches high. to be used for grazing for cattle during the winter and early spring. Now the amount of fertilizer is being lessened for each hay crop. and this by cow peas. with force pump and water troughs. millet and corn fodder. These I had taken out filled with the stumps of the original pines. and get fine cabbages where. in another winter rye.MORE UPON THE SAME SUBJECT. and yet ventilated box-stalls for horses." continued the Captain. and cultivated to the extreme of care and skill. consisting of 300 pounds of bone meal. Leaving the fields to the right and left. "The average of this field of one-and-a-half acres of yams. pear and pecan trees. and still another building is a stable divided into a series of wellAnother house is for cattle. humus. " Where you see oats and rye there was three years ago a worn-out peach orchard. are a joy to look upon. all baled. the average would be about six hundred bushels to the acre. 500 pounds The oat crop cotton-seed meal and 400 pounds cotton-seed hull ashes. the visitor enters the barnOneyard which is surrounded on all sides save one with buildings. Were all the rows to produce like the ten just in front of you. 11 proved machinery. I began by seeding down oats. hay rakes. so that I now get fine hay and corn crops. ness. consisting of oats. three years ago. Games and Houdons thrive. and time and labor saved thereby is almost sufficient to pay the first cost of the plant.
and at once ceased operations in this direction. It is the same cry the wool carders of England raised when steam and water power machinery was introduced into the mills of that country. Suddenly she discovered that she was cutting her own throat. But presently there came the steam trains and the locomotives. and many citizens It was indeed the time fled. It would have been idle at that time to have suggested that the railroads would iiltimately confer a benefit many times the value of the trade and wealth lost by their introduction. After the war the tide of the trade surged higher than ever. influenced purely by the example of others. and this people waxed fat with the wealth poured into their laps. and absorbed for inland towns and Northern ports the cotton and supplies trade which Mobile had always considered peculiarly her own. The capitalists and railroad builders came marching on. Freight was piled house-high on the wharves. The mail-line •steamers were sent elsewhere. but the ALLUSION . however. of course.nd pay toll at the water-gate of Mobile. It was yet another example of the misery caused by the introduction of improved machinery. the blocks of great wai'ehouses losts their tenants. and this is beginning to be realized by everybody. Mobile built two of the roads. They would have told you blandly that the railroads have ruined Mobile. and soon Mobile found goods from New Orleans going into Alabama by rail and marked "through freight. Then came the collapse of the enormous business. to stand up in the mart and curse the railroads which had accomplished all this ruin— this sharp and bitter season of adversity. What this change amounted to can be but feebly described. Mobile's only competitor for the trade in the interior was New Orleans. the wharves rotted down." At the same time the Eastern and Western lines cut across her rivers. The rivers were filled with well-built and powerful side-wheel steamers. The reaction was all the greater because of the suddenness of the downfall. What good to tell people sinking into poverty that after they were ground down the wheel. and spent a great portion of their money in Mobile. The mail-line of steamers ran daily along the sound. has been made in the introductory cliapter to the influence the railroads had in changing the tide of trade and bringing a season of torpidity to Mobile. commissions were many and bulky. the enterprising merchants moved to New Orleans and grass grew in the streets. and everything bought in that city had to pass a. so to speak. and the hours of arrival and departure of the handsome steamers were events in the local history of the place. there would arise another and hardier generation which would ziiake Mobile a mighty city In the land. and helped to build another.MOBILE AND HER RAILROAD FACILITIES. The history of Mobile does not differ from that of any other place in this regard. and the planters as far as 203 miles up each of the four streams and tributaries transacted all their business. storage a handsome revenue and money was plentiful. This was not the sole source of wealth. "What good will that do us ?" would have been the answer.
Owing to geographical position. In exchange for this so called "robbery. This will not be disGiven a State full of energetic workers. This is not all The Upper portion of the State is being peopled with iron men and new furnaces are being almost daily added to the list of those already Whatever enriches the people of established and coining money. To bring the matter directly home. The wise recognize that the cotton business of this country is seeking the shortest way to the northern and European markets. it must be noted. In fact the people of Mobile. however. cities must reap the benefits. The ventilated vegetable and fruit cars are specially constructed lor the transportation of the perishable crops and are handled by efficient train men who have much experience in loading them both .MOBILE AND HER RAILROAD FACILITIES. but in this Mobile is suffering a little ahead of other Gulf ports. "nature's gentlemen.. and that every thing is done to satisfy those lords of creati. Mobile is triumphant in the new industry of truck farming. and both roads exercise wise caution in seeing that the business is transacted rapidly and carefully. and reach into the vast iron and coal fields of northern Alabama and have at one stroke made Mobile the cheapest and best coaling station upon the Gulf of Mexico. and that even New Orleans. It is true the roads have taken a third of Mobile's cotton business. in time. Louis and Chicago markets. and which now retails for five dollars and is put on board ships at four dollars. It is a question of dollars and cents with the railroad corporation and so long as there is a mutual interest. are now the greatest factors in her present and future prosperity. the worthless pine lands of this State. St. and is not suffering alone. and make extra exertions to capture some of this profitable vegetable freight. the puted. The railroads have opened up the country. however." the farmers.n. that the Mobile and Ohio railroad has placed its trains at the disposal of the truck farmers and has gradually built up such a business that the mighty Louisville and Nashville corporation has been compelled to turn its attention somewhat from the transportation of coal from the Alabama mines. their vegetable cars and their fast freight trains to Northern markets. there will be a mutual agreement and accommodation. bread winners. Take this fact in connection with the Isthmean canal and Eads' ship railway. coal as good as that which cost from twelve to fourteen dollars a ton five years ago. To descend into particulars. Alabama's chief city. It may be asked at this point: what would this truck business be without the aid of railroads ? How could these valuable resources be utilized without the assistance of improved machinery ? In fact it must be conceded that the same railroads which seemingly : destroyed Mobile. and the full advantage Mobile will enjoy as the coaling port of the Gulf States is seen. and especially those supremely worthless lands around Mobile are made to produce luxurient crops of vegetables. lose her cotton supremacy. by the aid of commercial and other fertilizers. one and all. Both roads have now their vegetable stations. look to this new interest for their financial salvation and begin already to compare it favorably with the old time cotton business." the railroads have given Mobile cheap and good coal. Mobile can always secure a handsome price for this truck in the Cincinnati. " 13 few people above alluded to. Coal will be profitably put on board vessels here at two dollars and fifty cents a ton during the next ten years. Alabama enriches Mobile. must. It has been shown that.
S 13 .
the Mobile truck farmer is the most independent being on the face of the earth. beans and green peas. and at so small a charge as to leave a handsome profit in the hands of the shipper. The rates are per hundred pounds. and 65 cents to Chicago. and the shipper can count with considerable certainty upon the arrival of his consignment in market at the time desired. es. St. and 15 cents more to Chicago. This fact permits him to consult prices current and market quotations and to select the market for his various crops where he can get the best price. In truth." should be read by every one who looks with interest toward this southern country Fast freight. Louis and Chicago. melons. and 40 cents to Chicago. Louisville. green beans and peas etc. onions. Adjuncts of the railroads and express companies are the street railway lines which traverse the city and reach into the vegetable district on every side. per hundred pounds of cabbages.MOBILE AND HER KAILROAD FACILITIES. etc. beets. Louis. etc. Freight on cucumbers. are generally sent by express and reach Cincinnati and Louisville twenty-eight and thirty-two hours after shipment. three dollars to Cincinnati. Cincinnati and intermediate places. Louis. such as haye been last named. the tomatoes. in packages or in bulk. 35 cents to Cincinnati. These fast freight trains are usually not more than twelve hours behind the express trains in reaching Cincinnati and St. Louis. per hundred pounds. Elliot whose pamphlet upon "The Profits of Vegetable Farming in Mobile County. Louis. The tenderer varieties of vegetables. same increase to St. Louis. . He is well treated because it is known that he has the privilege of seeking his own market at his own time. and 50 to Chicago.000 pounds. There are two express trains daily and the facilities offered are the very best. John 8.. 10 cents more to Cincinnati. For less than a car load. 50 cents to St. These freights are delivered in prime condition in St. 60 cents to Cincinnati. and two dollars and a half to Louisville. The following figures concerning freights have been furnished by the railroad managers to Mr. squashplaced at 45 cents to Cincinnati. These subsidiary lines are of great benefit to the farmer who thereby can easily and cheaply deliver his goods at the depots and stations. car load of 22. Chicago. and his independence has a solid basis of fact to support it. He is no longer at the mercy of a local merchant or subject to the exactions of commission men at distant points. Less than a car : load 10 cents more per hundred pounds. Freight upon tomatoes. ^ 15 promptly and securely. potatoes. Nashville. 35 to St. 30 cents to St Louis.
too It is enough to say that the Mobile lumbermen and manufacturers have had no set back since the beginning. but were presented in a new light— the capitalists here got themselves into the line of march and profited by the gifts of nature. by furniture-makers and by house-flnishers. if any. and log booms were to be seen lining the shores of the rivers and the large creeks. they had known men to grow very rich by the use of such machinery. The number of mills has increased four-fold and a trade with foreign and northern ports has been built up which. the market beginning at to tell in detail of the progress of events. tainly so is shown by the fact that Pensacolians are turning their attention in this direction. is yet more reliable in its That this is cernature and more remunerative to the manufacturers. in ad.MOBILE A LUMBER CENTRE. contain cypress of the best quality— a wood which is almost everlasting. Mobile the manufacture. busy watching her cotton business waste away. The fancy of the present turns more especially to shingle mills. For many styles of work it excels any other kind of wood. and one of Pensacola's richest lumbermen and ship owners will. and the product is sold as fast as manufactured. but have always made money. the swamps along the coast and back fi'om the rivers. while Mobile had no such merchants and very little. is white. they discovered that variety of uses to which it can be put. new and growing interest ANOTHER sale and export of lumber and timber. Over in Baldwin county. As one industry shrank by force of circumstances. backed by an almost virgin forest of the best and most desirable yellow pine in the country— a wood that is sought after by ships and bridgebuilders. though still behind that of Pensacola in size. establish himself in this port and reap so much as he can of the benefits in store for him. They have made more money some years than others. It will waste time dition. As many as a dozen years in is ago there were very few mills in this eounty and these did little more than supply the local and near country demand for building matePensacola was recognized as the lumber port of the Gulf. . of course. The country is full of mills. and they had heard that the ambitious and well-to-do town of Pensacola owes all her prosperity They enquired and found that Mobile was to industry of this sort. They knew what this meant. was the result partly of the energy of Pensacola's merchants and partly of the good harbor and moderately practicable channel. the monied men of Mobile noticed that there was growing up under their eyes another one in addition to the truck farming previously mentioned. hard and easily worked. to turn the attention to the source of great wealth which lay within her grasp. Saw mills began to be erected here and there thi'oughout the section immediately tributary to Mobile. not entirely new. on the other side of the bay. and this rial. this season. Seeing these things—-which were. channel being. showing the Moreover.
MOBILE A LIIMBEK CENTRE. ! . but this was a mere riffle on the surface the other timber and lumber men were not shut out by such a gigantic operation.50 to $5. the 750. in a spot where he will have to cut down $20 worth of trees to make room for his mill building. and that these lands are covered with the variety The only reason land is so cheap is of yellow pine timber most desired. ten and fifteen miles of railroad or navigable stream which are for sale at between one dollar and a half and five dollars an acre. he smiled. and. food is simple and cheap. on account of the location of the firm's mills. that there is so much of it. The moneyless man comes and works as a timber getter or a turpentine distiller he is sure of his $1. One firm purchased in July last 750. and : ." . and the interruptions of work by the elements more frequent. be used by it. Lodging costs him nothing. the well-to-do lumberman. They come. and expected to see him greatly distressed. as heretofore shown — can be bought at prices ranging from a $1. five. I am one man wlio believes in Mobile. and you can make a note that I back up my opinion by my act. 17 length to demand sawn instead of drawn shingles. plenty of testimony confirming this. and can make by his exertions at least $200 more per annum than he could possibly make in a climate where the demands for fuel. suffered the loss of the whole concern from fire. They say it is as good a thing as they want. Even were they. The change is refreshing. The rich man. while. Messrs. The writer met the head of the firm the next day after the fire. whose mills here have been greatly admired because of their compactness and availability. The laborer can work all the year round. Now comes the practical question What is offered to the reader of this pamphlet? The answer is that here are thousands of acres of unoccupied timber lands within three. Instead of complaining. The lumber supply of those regions is very nearly exhausted and a good site is worth from fifty to one hundred dollars an acre. The firm was its own insurer. He has sold out his mill and machinery in Michigan. comes with money and friends. am said: " I have ordered a double sized plant of machinery this morning and having plans for a new mill drawn up. and the demand being so great tliat it can be supplied by improved machinery only. some without money and some with everything they can get together. but it will be proper to cite but one instance. better Tliere is still. Land sales are common and especially to lumbermen of Michigan and Minnesota and the Northwest. both by rail and river The opportunity is so fine an one that the woods are quickly filling up with western and northern men.000 acres in one lot. and these lands located in a district easily reached and in close proximity to the market. owing to the mildness of the climate.000 acres are not occupied and no doubt the firm will sell such of the land as cannot. and here he is ready to establish a saw mill.. His expenses are nominal. clothing is but little needed and fuel not at all.50 a day from the start.00 an acre. leaving it in the midst of a well used up tract. Stoutz & Bro. it is more profitable than it looks to be at first sight. clothing and stimulants are greater. What an opening hei'e presents itself when good well-timbered lands— lands which can be profitably cultivated. It won't do to be idle when there is so much to be done.
was filled with deposits of clay and mud from the upper rivers. is assured. appropriate to spoken Mobile's advantages by land. even at the It is not strange that the people of highest tides. . She had only one advantage over Galveston the ships visiting the bay could anchor inside the bar and not be compelled to risk the storms outside but the wide and shallow bay between what is known the "Lower Shipping" and Mobile. is kept scoured by the tides. however. There is another appropriation ready. and her lumber and cotton exportations had to be lightered twenty-flve miles down the bay to a point where the water was of sufficient depth to float the ships. The cut is seventy yards wide. and shut out from the sea by an ever-increasing bar of mud. This work was begun four years ago and pushed vigorously and with such success that the new channel was declared open October one year ago. they naturally felt that the place was doomed and that the sooner they sought another home the better. It remains now to show that the last obstacle to her advancement has been removed.THE ONLY FREE PORT IN THE UKION. has . upon the recommendation of the State's Senators and Eepresentatives in Congress. approi)riated several hundred thousand dollars for the digging of a canal or channel from Mobile to the deep water in the lower shipping. silicious clay. and the United States engineers have planned to widen the channel to 200 yards. To determine if a channel of this depth fill . The widened channel will be deepened to twenty-two feet. Mobile grew despondent. New Orturn the attention of it is to sea. Cut off from interior trade by the east-andwest railroads. It has been shown how the railroads became at length a blessing and not a curse. eighteen feet deep at low water and nearly twenty-three miles long. The canal is dug through a kind of blue. and can be used with safety by the largest vessels which have so far sought this port. which is tenacious in character and preserves the shape of leans. and that Mobile's future prosperity. The National Government. it has been shown how the immense resources of the State are being developed by the capitalists and the railroads of the vast monied corporations. too. It will not be necessary to go into details. when no side walls of the cut are as firm and regular to-day as carved out of the surrounding deposit. and measurements show that there has been The first any where throughout its length. It is carefully staked and lighted. HAVING her advantages by Mobile. . and how every Alabamian and every Mobilian is thereby enriched and put in the position to increase his riches and it has been shown that what benefits the State at large most benefits Mobile. After this work is completed the third and last stage of the work will be performed. . the cut. come to the wharves. like been snatched from obscurity by the strong arm of the National Government like New Orleans. The bottom. and no vessel drawing more than thirteen feet could. her pathway to the deep water in the Gulf was closed to deep draught vessels. The improvement will not stop here.
C9 U'a:.u.C ./J.G TJ I.lici. F ^ ' * O F M E X I C O i-AUre/V t-NO.ylc.
and Mobile to-day is not only the cheapest loading station in the United States. In his report made this ber. The only actual charge to vessels here is pilotage.000 bales of cotton. That vessel drew seventeen feet six inches when loaded and going to sea. In addition to this improvement. The filling from the sides and ends was from the natural slope. perhaps. Of course. but the cut showed no filling duo to other causes." The importance of these operations can be appreciated only by those who have lived in Mobile a length of time. although he will bo unable to detine the limits of the coming pi'osperity. a cut twenty-two feet in would maintain without artificial aid. The list of VESSELS IN PORT DECEMBER 1881. port was greater by one half than that of vessels up and cleared. and it will be remembered that in the list of 1881 all the ships and barks and some of the brigs had to take their cargoes below the city at the " Lower Shipping. very light. 1882. •depth was made in September. 1882. and have seen the city fade away under the devastating hand of Isolation. but is practically the only free port in this country. the Port authorities and the merchants have made great reductions in charges. and that is. Steamships Ships Barks Brigs 4 13 3 5 Steamships Ships Barks Brigs 2 1 8 1 Schooners Total Schooners Total 12 25 24 Cleared for Mobile same date : Ships 3 7 Ships 5 Barks Brigs Barks Brigs 19 4 8 Schooners Total 3 Schooners Total 38 60 This exhibits an increase of 22 vessels. One large ocean-going steamship figures in the 1882 list. and. the United States Ens^ineer says of this experimental cut Septem- "It was sounded October 2i. in comparison with the pilotage of New Orleans and other ports. Here are the figures showing the immediate change. there has not been a complete regrowth in a twelve-month. during the coming year even larger vessels will be able to enter this port. The channel is now deep enough to float vessels loaded with 5. but there has been such improvement that the pro))het will have little trouble in correctly forecasting the future. 1883.20 THE ONLY FREE PORT itself IN THE UNION. 2-1 : 1882. and the channel had at that A month later the list of vessels in time been open two months only. A comparison of these soundings showed less depth on the sides and ends of the cut with about the same average depth along the centre. an interval of about seven months. and again in June." while all named in the list of 1882 came up to Mobile wharves and loaded at a trifling expense compared with that caused by the use of lighters. .
at $5 50 Outward. AT MOBILE. Inward. Inward. 12 feet. at $4 50 Outward. at $2 $49 92 76 50 25 45 00— $171 42 AT SAVANNAH Pilotage compulsory. at $4 50 Quarantine fees. 17 feet draught. at $3 33. say of 1. at 75 AT PHILADELPHIA $66 00 .THE ONLY FREE PORT IN THE UNION. 12 feet. 20 days. at §1 50 Outward. at $4 GO Outward. at $7 00 Wharf charges. : $51 OJ 76 50 0— $130 50 Pilotage compulsory. Inward. at $5 50 Outward. Inward. DEL. 17 feet. 12 feet. 20 days.200 tons. amount not given $54 00 76 50 120 00 — $250 50 . 12 feet. at $4 50 Wharfage. 20 days. at 5 00 AT WILMINGTON. at $4 10 Outward. 12 feet. and 17 feet leaving port. 12 feet draught. C. drawing 12 feet entering. Pilotage compulsory.)3 50 15 00— $174 50 Pilotage compulsory. 20 days at $4 00 State tax. amount not given $40 00 120 00 80 00 — $240 : 00 AT BOSTON Pilotage compulsory. 17 feet. 17 feet. at 3 00 Wharfage. 17 feet. 21 Let the figures be set down in detail— they will prove to be interesting reading: A vessel. 17 feet. at $5 50 $66 00 93 50 3 00 Harbor Master's fee Wharfage. THE CHEAPEST PORT OK ALL : Pilotage not compulsory. at 5 50 Wharfage. 20 days. at |c. pays. Inward. not required in winter Wharf charges XT WILMINGTON..^ Outward. 12 feet. at $4 50 Wharfage. 17 feet. Inward. 17 feet. at $4 50 76 50— $239 00 AT CHARLESTON Pilotage compulsory. N. per ton State tax. : $ 48 00 5100 100 00— $199 00 Inward.
that the owners can underbid New Orleans and Galveston for all classes of work in their line. and to offer inducements to shipowners to visit the port. at $8 65 Quarantine fee Wharfage. than at any point in the Union. 20 days. 4c. a ton State ta>:. Inward. 20 days. per ton Outward. at J State tax. Inward. at $6 00 Outward. at $17 50 : ISO 00— $410 50 $60 00 48 00 105 00 350 00— $503 00 Comment upon these figures will not be required. These facts account for the coaling of all the gulf-coast revenue cutters at this point. 17 feet. 17 feet. The port is sure to become the coaling station for the gulf as well as the repair shop of all the vessels which sail the Southern waters. at $5 00 Wharfage. to extend welcome. It is the policy of the ])eople of Mobile.22 THE ONLY FREE PORT IN THE UNION. and so economically managed. also. 12 feet. 20 days at Ic. Inward. Inward. . at $G 78 Quarantine fee AVharfage. at ^c AT NORFOLK 120 00— $318 20 Pilotage compulsory. 12 feet at $4 00 Outward. however. 12 feet. at $4 50 Towage up and down the river 220 miles 80 00 Quarantine fee 20 00 Wharfage AND AT SAN FRANCISCO Pilotage compulsory. and cheaper. Wharf charges. amount not given AT NEAV ORLEANS : $48 00 85 00 240 00 — $373 00 Pilotage not compulsory but invariably accepted because of the difficulties of navigating the river. the sending of the cutter McLean all the way from Galveston to Mobile to have her hull and machinery repaired. 17 feet. and. and they hope that such treatment will be extended that all who come will long to return. 12 feet at $4 50 $54 00 76 50 Outward. 17 feet. 20 days. at $5 00 Inward. Inward.. 2i per cent $72 00 147 00 3 00 $120 00 8 55— $350 55 AT BALTIMORE Pilotage compulsory. AT NEW YORK $76 44 115 26 G 50 Pilotage compulsory. 12 feet. and it is equally known that the marine ways and dry docks are of such capacity. The facts speak so strongly in favor of Mobile that there is no doubt that when they are sufficiently known the port will be crowded with vessels. at $5 00. It is known that coal can be put down here in better quality. at $G 37 Outward. 7 feet.
scarcely seven. of a mild climate where factories can be run at a less expense the year round. there is not a single instance where a well handled. and is transported to almost every portion of the State by railroads radiating from the coal centre near Birmingham.COTTON AND WOOLEN MILLING INTERESTS. owing to the conditions surrounding the business in that section of the country. of longer working hours. The remarkable example of the Eagle & Phoenix Mills at Columbus. The Southern labor. although unskilled. are possessed to the greatest extent by the State of Alabama. there is an abunddance of pitch pine. Better still. but successful beyond any other milling industry either in this country or in England and France. the cheapness of the motive power. F. is cheap and faithful. of less loss of weight by handling of cotton. ash. L. Where coal cannot be easily obtained. There have been several individuals and companies of individuals who have put these assertions to the test. These advantages. but in every instance the failures have been caused by a combination of inexperience and poverty. of cheaper building materials. cotton maaufacturing in the South is not only successful. under favorable circumstances and TH E and greater. The people who undertook the manufacture of cotton goods in competition with the New England spinners. especially all through the southwestern portion of the State. and with wise management. he is nearer his market. knew nothing whatever about the business. Those of the New England mills. Irwin— and some have failed. and in the neighborhood of Mobile. of lower prices. properly capitalized concern of this sort in the South has failed to make money. fuel has dropped from the — extraordinary price of eleven to fourteen dollars a ton down to three dollars and a half to five dollars a ton. which may as a general thing be said to belong to all the Southern States. The dividends of Southern mills average 14 per cent. he enjoys the advantage over the New England mills of cheaper lands. even when both coal and wood are abundant. at first. the water ways of Alabama. Since the successful working of the vast fields of Alabama coal. interest in Soutliern cotton factories grows year by year greater in no part of the United States do sucli enterpises flourisli so uniformly successful as in tlie States along tbe Gulf Coast. provide motive power which is cheaply handled. of Mr. One other advantage not named above is of special momeat namely. The manufacturer is nearer the raw material. It is well known as a fact that while even the most carefully managed mills in the New England States have been forced to shut down and some of them to close for good. and have embarked in the cotton manufacturing business in. Some of these have succeeded notably the Cherokee mills. The reasons for this are evident. and where there is less loss by reason of sickness of employes and interruption of business in consequence. and at the same time inexhaustible. oak and other fire wood. of cheaper transportation of the raw material. of a better opportunity to select flrst-class staple. tends only to show that. and were — .
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and unless a profit was made from the first turn of the wheel. As a general thing. The only hope is for the capitalist to come South. while the spinner can get the article at a price which permits him also to gain something. and the cost of shearing them and baling the fleece for market. and the average price in this county is twenty-five cents. There alone. is of older growth than that of vegetable farming. thus showing that there is a good profit for the sheep raiser. . surrounded by the broad fields of fleecy cotton and backed by the forests of inexhaustible fuel. It is hardly necessary to repeat all the arguments. There is money in wool at eighteen and twenty cents. Of course where attention can be given them. The wool industry in this and the adjoining State of Mississippi. where sheep range at will. The intelligent reader will see them and feel their force. owing to the character of the climate. or the streams which give him many hundred times the power he needs. The mills at Ulrnan. even if successful. take about fifteen thousand pounds. It is natural that cotton spinners should seek the place where the staple is produced. . Then again. As a general thing. at the 25 mercy of the men they chose to run their business for tliem. Often the men so chosen were incompetent and visionary and soon had the enterprises well into debt. and Mississippi. The merits of this region for cotton milling are equally patent for woolen milling. the concerns too insignificant. Sheep sell at from $1. and better food supplied. Since the change in the tariff more than twenty-five Northern woolen mills have shut down. and protection against cold wind and rain be afforded. and those at Wesson. and wool is better assorted now than ever before. are very trifling. More attention is paid of late to the quality of the wool. the amount of capital was always ridiculously small considering the work i)roposed to be performed.25 to $3. he will turn the fibre into yarn and cloth. No allowance was made for waste of time in getting the machinery u[) and to work no provision was made for the payment of expenses until the goods had found a place upon the market. however. Florida the raw material less costly.00 a head. the character of the flock will improve and the value be materially increased. tlie enterprises were too small. and these depressed industries cannot revive in that country. and will grow rich while his Northern competitors are becoming involved in bankruptcy. a great deal more.. where the expenses are much lighter and The wool comes from Alabama. It was in nearly every instance a game of the purest luck. with all the chances favoring failure at th& end of a few months. Any one who has anything to do with sheep can calculate the increase. The country is peculiarly suited for the growth of sheei>. Miss.00. and the finest wool can here be obtained at a rate which gives the Southern spinner a great advantage. It is claimed that even the misfortunes of the Southern people who have engaged in cotton spinning serve to show where and how other" people can make a great deal of money.COTTON AND WOOLEN MILLING INTERESTS. and a merino ram can be bought for $18. The expenses. no individual or individuals watched the small economies and hunted for the small profits. including only the cost of collecting them at shearing time. and has always been remunerative. the whole enterprise went by the boaixl. also. and the handsome profit made by the owner is almost all pure gain. to earn a respectable dividend. The sheeii will range all winter. the sheep receive very little attention.
000 . The former live along the bay and sound sbore and gather the oysters with rakes. it is conveyed either to the city and sold to dealers and shippers. It is only recently that the beds between Point Clear and Mullet Point have been exhausted. at the •end of which time they have nearly doubled in size and delicacy. These " plants " are much sought after by the restauranteurs and bon-vivants of Mobile and New Orleans. " Reefers " are taken by two classes of people the natives and the sloop owners. said to be the largest and finest oyster in the world. not a few of the finest plants find their way to all ])oints of the compass. while "plants" bring from a dollar ten to a dollar twenty-five cents. permanent and rising industries is tlie cultivation The original Mobile oyster is found upon shell banks and bars in the bay and is termed a " reefer.000 100. Plant oysters Reefers and Cullings Total . also near Collins' Bay." although they bring retail some twenty cents per hundred more than the "reefers. Reefers are furnished to the sloop owners at prices which are governed by the market— generally at fifteen cents per box.000 $111. or is taken into the flats of Bon Secour and Hei'on Bays. on the Eastern Shore." Bedsof these reefers extended in the times past up the eastern shore of the bay as far as Howard's. of course.are called "cuUings" and are classed with the "reefers.000 $ 50. but as a general thing they run to low grade and are sold at retail at 40 cents a hundred. off the Mississippi coast. The figures in dollars and cents which give an accurate idea : of the extent and growth of this industry. and keep them for sale to such of the sloop owners as do not care to catch for themselves. and between Dauphine and Mon Louis Islands. These beds of reefers are regarded by the oyster getters as practically inexhaustible. There are beds of varying quality and quantity at the mouth of Fish River." and cullings form the bulk of the shipments from Mobile to Northern <?ities. These planted oysters remains generally one season in the mud. $ 30.OYSTERS AND FISH. The "reefers are of a fair size. There are other and very rich beds in and about the waters of Chandeleur Island. although. and these . and there are many now alive who have eaten bivalves taken from the u]n>er locality. : ONE and shore with signals flying to indicate the price they offer for "reefers.000 81. and planted in the mud. From this last process comes the ''plant oyster." When a supply is obtained. The sloop men run down to the shell banks and lay off of Mobile's sale of oysters. 1882-'83. some of them being as large as can be desired. Around each goodly sized lolant oyster clings a number of smaller oysters.000 $150. are 1881-'82.
besides New Orleans. says he has seen two thousand pompano caught at one hauling of the seine. Andrews bay. and are caught with a hook. The pompano is a beach fish and is caught with a seine during April.OYSTERS AND FISH. The owners of the boats in the fish business. the most of which they shii^ to that city. On each smack is a well or pen of lattice work in the bottom of the boat. The nearest fishing bunks to Mobile are just outside of Fort Morgan. Cincinnati. in bins or casks. and a great number of people are employed in it to the advantage of Mobile and the comfort of lovers of the *' salty shell fish. The wholesale fish dealers find ready sale for their fish in New Orleans. They hire the smacks to a crew for foity per cent. and drummers from all the States. and believe the business will double itself during the next ten years." and have to a considerable extent.500. The fish are bunched and shipped. Ten days is the average time for a smack to go to the banks. The red snapper. Visitors to Mobile from the North and West. The cre^s on each smack average about seven in number. These fish bite all the year round. catch a load and I'eturn to the wharves. The carrying capacity of the smacks is from 5. Captain Ben. The fish brought here are the same species as those shipped from Pensacola. In the summer or hot season of fall. Louis. They extend thence easterly IGO miles along the coast of Alabama and Florida to St. May. In cold weather they are shipped as freight in bulk.000. St. even the worst. oysters are put up here in cans containing from fifty to five thousand. of the fish caught.000 pounds of fish. who travel this way. take no active part in the catch. 27 This is an increase greater than the total value of the shipment of plants" in 18Sl-'82. Mobile's fish trade is young. and during 1882-'83 $9l). There are at present seventeen smacks cp. Oysters are shipped from Mobile to Louisville. larger. In those cities the sign " Mobile Oysters " is displayed to attract custom. crouper. and other places. The oyster men are therefore forced to •g-reater activity. and the oyster men say that this is but an indication of what will be done in this line.— but particularly in the l¥estern and Southwestern States— taken the place of Baltimore canned -oysters. October. ^nd are sent by express. The fish are thrown into the well when caught and are brought alive to the city. they are enquired for where fine fish is wanted. groupers. Spanish mackerel and pompano are for sale.000 to 10. The pen is always flooded with sea water. The business is lucrative. Little Rock. Chicago. and more presentable than those from Maryland's chief city. and to-day where red fish. ship fish in refrigerator ears to Western cities. Both Mobile and Pensacola boats fish on the same banks.tching fish for jMobile. as a rule. The quality of the bivalve is such that it makes friends everywhere. for they are. and the demand has so much increased this fall that it is evident that the very heavy plant made last season will BOt be sufficient to supijly it. During 1881-'82 the sales aggregated $iG. and Spanish mackerel are deep water fish. July. never fail to notice and remark the exPensacola some few years ago began to cellence of the Mobile fish. which are . June. November and December. These bivalves are compared very favorably with the celebrated "Saddle Rocks. genei'ally speaking. an old fisherman.
MARINE HOSPITAL. as easy of access from this place as from Pensacola.28 OYSTERS AND FISH. U. there is no reason why Mobile should not outstrip all other gulf ports in this business. indicates what is being done in this direction. with the Northwest and the Northeast. and that the quality and variety guarantee an immediate sale. amounting to one hundred per cent. considered in its relation to the great fish-cat chiny and shii)i)ins business of Pensacola. and. S. . is an assurance that Mobile can.. With excellent rail communication with the West. no doubt. will greatly extend its participation in this profitable vocation. It is well known that the supply of flsh is inexhaustible. The immense increase during the last year. This fact.
which also carries out daily mails. where. the city itself. and its broad avenues is always captivating to the stranger. within a few feet of being the most elevated point on the entire line between the Ohio and the Gulf. . "Eastern Shore" may . and refinement of its people. Delightful residences surrounded by lovely gardens abound. B I L E is on a plain shut in by slight hills at her back. looking out to the limitless sea. which has earned a high reputation. from its abundance of various trees. and was very early the resort of the wealthier during the summer months but. showing deep and red bluffs crowned by lofty pines. the Catholic brethren located their college. and also those of San Antonio. became their permanent home. Its shores are varied here precipitous. a continuation of the great Appalachian range. Then. . and the heights of the readily be seen as a map spread before the observer. to these. also. Here. and with heavily moss-laden cypress.MOBILE AS A HEALTH RESORT. and the the beautiful bay. it becomes a truly lovely one to the visitor. soon having been carefully laid out. wealth and elegance have been wont to dwell. and flowers are always in bloom. Texas. . a lovely suburban village. It has for more than a half century been noted for the salubrity of its location and its peculiar healthfulness. This is easily reached every two hours by a horse-car. From its elevated plateau the garden lands between it "O . washed by Mobile river and bay at her front. and having experienced more beneficial results from his residence in Citronelle during city. and altogether attractive to the mailed alligator and the succulent terrapin. with crystal streams rushing to their resting place in the sea. at an elevation above the sea of 360 feet. On these shores vineyards of scuppernong and orange groves are found thrifty and pleasant both to eye and palate. bay and magnolia trees making a tropical shade and yet again. at the terminus of the accommodation train. and fanned by the tempered -*^^^ breezes of the Gulf stream. On the line of the Mobile and Ohio Eailroad are to be found many stations within thirty-three miles of the city near which are some most pleasant resorts. courtesy. The city itself. its beautiful gardens at all seasons in bloom and abounding in semi-tropical plants its antiquated styles of building its quiet and noiseless streets. in nooks shady and wet. at an elevation of some two hundred feet. A resident of a Northern clime in search of health. lies Citronelle. This village is on the eastern edge of the plateau which reaches from the elevated country southerly to the very border of the bay and gulf. Figs yield their sweet fruit generously. Within a few miles of the city lies Spring Hill. there low and sandy beached. while even the banana produces its golden fruit at times there. and who had tested the virtue of many places in other parts of the South. The diadem of this City of the Gulf is her pretty bay. before and since the war. if we add the quiet hospitality. Thirty-three miles from the city.
that this atmosphere is entirely free from malaria in any of its foxmis. than in any of these. which abound in fresh-water fish. &c. gives to salt air in winter the tonic properties which we lind in the mountain atmosphere in summer. and also an accommodation train. Anderson.MOBILE AS A HEALTH RESORT. bought a home at Kushla. which are resorted to during the summer by the inhabitants of Louisiana.. one of the oldest and most esteemed physicians. as the regular sea breeze sets in. where are some pretty stations. At each of these are many families who continue their residences during the winter. which have been for years productive of large incomes to the owners. No city corporation has either the wealth or the appliances to keep up a thorough system delightful. gays: " There ai-e many chronic diseases that are positively benefitted by the balmy air that blows from this tropical sea. late President of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. however. Mississippi and Alabama. in a pamphlet published last year in relation to the health of the location. still they are invigorating and have a healthful effect on the system. The wind there is never cold. The fact. though still covered with the forest pine. and on its way to New Orleans traverses this high and dry region. wdiich are floating in the atmosphere of the Gulf of Mexico. Contamination of the atmosphere is part and parcel of dense populations. for the advantages resulting from the sea bathing and the balmy breezes of the Gulf which sweep unobstructed over the placid waters of the bay. There is no better way to drive malaria out of the system than to go to the seashore and breathe its healthful atmosphere. unless for a few hours after a northerly gale. First Vice President of the American Medical Association in 1880-'81. healthful and . and western cities and towns is malaria. where the breeze is not too strong and too chilly for him to be exposed to it. which are reached by trains twice each day. are powerful tonics to the system. Many small rivers empty into the bay on this side. " The curse of northern . Dr. Yet. and on this shore are many quite old and extensive orange groves. The Louisville and Nashville Kailroad partially skirts this region. and the State Board of Health. Although they exist there in almost inflnitessimal quantities. In summer the Atlantic coast is resorted to for this purpose. while those whose habitat is the salt water are to be obtained from the bay. It has Ions? been known that the iodine and bromine vapors. too. of very extensive practice. To have the blood infected with its poison is the forfeit which the luxurious citizen must pay for the sensuous gratification afforded by the high degree of civilization that reigns in opulent cities. 31 the winter of 1881. William H. and its numerous watering places are filled to overflowing. Professor of Physiology in the Medical College of Alabama. because the lands lie lower. but in winter there is no accessible point on the Atlantic to which a malarial invalid can go. the atmosphere is balmy. On the Gulf coast this is not the case. On the eastern shore of the bay are found most agreeable villages previously mentioned. perhaps. The western shore is not so attractive. ta which he could regularly resort when the inclemencies of his own climate made it necessary. when the cold north wind is driven back by the tropical breeze as soon. and thus lengthen out his days. to the usual span. here are many beautiful places.
.MEDICAL COLLEGE OF ALABAMA.
and if the facts in the case had been widely known. then. that it is far out of reach of the sunshine or of any other cause favoring the generation of malarial poison. This close confinement serves only to make matters worse. and still in a climate mild enough to be in the open air the greater part of the time? It is my opinion that such a climate and surroundings exist on the Gulf coast. have been more crowded with visitors than Florida itself. where exercise in the open air can be had.MOBILE AS A HEALTH EESORT. The city is built on a sandy soil. and winter. The same sandy soil reaches from four to six miles north and west. Springhill. During forty years I have never . The atmosphere of a city mansion with closed windows and doors. comes on an enfeebled constitution. " Where. and it cannot get it in a closed apartmentNow. sandy soil and a mild southern sea breeze. But these resorts. Every inherited and acquired disease has. in a location free from malaria. and by December or January the early symptoms of pulmonary consumption begin to show themselves. and to shut themselves up from the rough winds of the season. and exist nowhere else on the American continent. Avith its rude and cutting blasts. where they will be out of a malarial district. is a positive poison that aggravates any disease. What is wanted by such invalids is a dry. therefore. now begin to complain. and where malarial poison does not exist. therefore. although furnishing the requisite temperature. The health of this location is proverbial. who have stood the rest of the year well. which must give way in the battle for life. The very nature of the soil at and around Mobile is opposed to the generation of malaria. and no matter how heavy a rainfall may be. can these unfortunates And a comfortable. however. These requisites are found in the city of Mobile and its vicinity to a greater extent than they can be found anywhere else. powerless to do any good with medicine. exercise in the open air. The blood wants free oxygen. agreeable. and then culminates into hills from two to three hundred feet high. than to remain shut up in a house. to lose appetite and bodily vigor. and the natural limit of human life is correspondingly shortened. and the family physician. is six miles from the city. I claim for Mobile and its vicinity this advantage. and is the site of many country residences. cannot boast of that freedom from malaria for which the coast of the Mexican Gulf is justly noted. is all-important. that the patient can be out in the open air nearly every day during the winter and spring season. it disappears in a few hours and sinks so deeply in the earth. an enfeebled constitution to work upon. for the last few winters. it fulfils all the indications necessary for consumptives. advises a change of climate. malaria contains its most concentrated poison. either in this country or on the shores of the Mediterranean. 33 of sanitation. the nearest of the range. In the latter part of summer and the early autumn. I am aware that many parts of the southern country hold forth inducements to invalids from the colder latitudes. and healthy region? Where can they seek a temporary residence. Already a number of Western people come to our city during the winter and early spring. and the consequence is that the inhabitants mvist live in an infected atmosphere. "For consumptive patients. If this open air. Thousands of delicate persons. is mild and not poisoned with malaria. and thousands flock to Florida every winter. if the outer air is mild enough to allow it. It is far better to live in a canvas tent. and suffer accordingly. the Gulf coast would.
is that the mild atmosphere assists the action of remedies which are often required in chronic bronchitis. and that they retain the poisonous volatile animal matter of exhalation. that several days together are often passed without the necessity of lighting a fire. We must mention. "In this short sketch we cannot ])articularize all the diseases that are benefited by a residence in a Southern climate during winter. "What has been said of climate. past the writer has had cases of chi'onic rheumatism frona the North under his professional care. then. It is almost impossible to cure it when the patient is daily exposed to the rude blasts of the North. and sometimes substituting for this a net work of fine wire. and give it back again with the air that is inhaled. might be expected in a climate where the mean winter temperature is many degrees higher than it is in northern latitudes. The writer has known cases of Eczema and Psoriasis of forty years' standing. . and the patients themselves declared that they experienced a inuch more comfortable existence than they had during the winter months at their homes. a case of malarial fever to originate at Springhill. within certain bounds. and the subsoil is white sand for one hundred feet beneath the surface. will pass a much more comfortable winter on the Gulf For many years coast than in the cold windy'regions of the Northwest. This. No amount of warm clothing will keep the cold air from affecting" the system. suddenly comes in contact with a delicate inflamed membrane with a temperature of 98 to 100 c. How is it possible. . But these have little effect. insures that restorative influence which the mind always has over the body. It must be drawn into the lungs. It is through the sldn that some of the most important of these remedies act and the more temperate the climate. however. All physicians know that they are poor substitutes. Persons ai¥licted with chronic rheumatism. to be appai'ently cured by a continued residence of twelve months consecutively in Mobile.. would heighten the temperature of the ingoing breath. and there the air. and he can state from observation that in the great majority of cases decided amelioration took place. For these reasons Southern climates in winter act favorably on bronchitis. In fact there it. or those who are subject to frequent acute attacks of this malady. Chronic rheumatism is nothing like so frequent on the immediate Gulf coast as it is in the interior of Alabama and Misis known nothing there to produce .34: MOBILE AS A HEALTH RESORT. Another good effect produced by residence in a Southern climate during the harsher seasons. will also apply to other chronic diseases of the chest. the benign effect of a soft climate on chronic affections of the skin. which being warmed by the exhaled air. at a temperature of 10 to 2) Fahr. however. The advantage liere being that the sea air is always mild and invigorating. The water is of the purest tiuality the growth is exclusively pine. So mild is the temperature in Mobile and on the Gulf coast in winter. the more active are the cutaneous exhalations. These mild spells of weather may be spent by invalids in the open air. as regards consumption. the moral effect of the rich foliage and the gay flowers of winter. The mild sea breeze is always favorable to rheumatic patients even on the Atlantic coast. that the latter should not suffer? Various devices have been used to soften the air by drawing it through woolen cloth placed over the mouth. where. Bronchitis is a very general ailment in the North and Northwest in the winter season. in addition to the grateful sunshine.
" SPRING HILL COLLEGE. that the Gulf coast is the healthiest portion of the United States. whose honesty of purpose and critical acumen were never doubted by those who knew him. and is worse particularly adapted to the amelioration of many diseases. A residence of forty years in Mobile. C. "It wasthe opinion of the late Prof. who entire Union. made in northern districts. 35 and this is tliought to be owing to the bromine and iodine vapors always floating in the atmosphere of the Gulf. sissippi. Warren Stone. The eminent Dr. of New Orleans. with a reputation spreading over the North. J. Nott.MOBILE AS A HEALTH RESORr. Certainly spring early and winter the passing \)y lew men were as competent to judge in such matters as himself. . shared the same opinion. brought to his notice many sufferers from the sought his medical aid during their winter sojourn in the South.
Keokuk. unbroken. T. Sampson Lowell. It is used at the rate of a ton and a half to the acre for cabbage. Answer that Texas ponies and horses are used for lighter classes of work. asking about farming. of August 29th. usually less than is required for the proper cultivation of cabbage. from $50 to $100. For the Committee. September 7. Eespectfully. can usually be purchased for $150. Potatoes. which is sold according to the demand at from $125 to $250. Henry S. For the Committee. Mr^. Mobile. North Carolina Dear Sir— Yours. Coburn. September 9. Minnesota : Dear Madame— In answer to your question regarding day laborers and their work. The pay ranges according to the capacity of the laborer. Jones Hilbreth. Foe the Committee. for from $25 to $50. the cost of supporting draft animals is much less than in the northern section of the country. 1883. Draft Oxen bring from $50 to $80 per yoke. 1883. Mobile. . would say that day laborers are usually in the field from sunup till sunset with an hour's rest midday in winter. which is the greatest absorbent of this enricher of the soil. or for riding. Iowa : Yours. Furman. tomatoes.. 1883. take varying quantities. When hired by the month the laborer receives twenty dollars. asking a statement of quantity of fertilizers used and price of the same. but is usually sixty cents to a dollar a day and he finds himself. Would say that fertilizers are used liberally and with good result. September 3. but cotton-seed meal is mostly in favor. Charlotte. and from an hour and a half to two hours' rest in the summer. St. By the substitution of formulas like that of Mr. peas. Mobile. there still costlier fertilizers. They can be bought. Paul. Cotton-seed meal varies in price : are from $20 to $26 a ton.36 CORRESPONDENCE. Owing to the mildness of the climate and the length of the grazing season. A good. Tlie plough animal for this region is the Kentucky or Tennessee mule. while bone dust runs something above $40. or broken. of August 26th. the cost of fertilizers can be decreased at least one-half. or if of superior intelligence and can manage a gang of men. thirty dollars. beans. well-brolien and strong mule of medium size. etc. for hauling spring wagons and buggies. stock and prices is received.
There may be vacancies. vicepresident Mobile and Ohio road here. Maxatanny. 9. Gordan. and is becoming. Address Col. Chicago. but owing to the numbers of this class now present the salaries are low. G. 1883. but you know it is against their policy to advertise the fact. would say that upon an acre of ground four thousand merchantable head of cabbage can be grown. Dear Sir Yours 20th received. Mobile. In answer will say that while there is an evident plethora of book-keepers here. which will be sold usually at the rate of $8 per hundred. Farr. Eespectfully. and the reputation of the port in this regard is rapidly increasing.: 26. Salaries range from $800 to $l. and a good ship channel to the Gulf. that the demand will be stronger. What in particular do you want to know about them? In general way would say that the manufacturers and machinists here rank higher than those of any other Gulf port their work is looked upon as sui)erior to that of New Orleans. W. The only way to test such a matter is to make a personal application. asking the prospects of employment as an accountant or book-keeper. The cost is about $100. With iron and coal within reach. seed. Esq. or $320. of Danner Land and Lumber Company. C. These are samples of what is being done by the vegetable farmers in this region. St. Vermont Dear Sir— Your remarks concerning? vegetable farming in Vermont are interesting. For the Committee. Mobile is bound to become. sober and honest. this city. day labor. and will cost $50. We regard it as a good thing for the enterprising man to examine into these things and see whether he cannot "better himself by coming to this fresh and promising mineral region. Fennsylvania Dear Sir— You say send you information about manufacturers and machinists. W. and fertilizer. with the increase that is promised in every class of business here. . Mobile. and one can easily see why you long to do business in a less vigorous climate. It is hoped that in the coming season. KespectfuUy. but you must be more exact. 1883. Will be pleased to answer any other questions.CORRESPONDENCE. As to quantity and prices of truck. August Fred. A circular is sent herewith. Danner. Potatoes will bring 50 barrels at $3 to the acre. Another will be sent shortly.-400 per — annum. Beans bring in net one hundred dollars. can find work here. an iron manufacturing and machine-making town. Johnaburg. therefore the profit is in the neighborhood of two hundred dollars. or A. Brown. Mobile. a smart and active man. and merchants and railroad companies may want good men. September 9. . leaving a net profit of one hundred dollars. For the Committee. which includes taxes. For the Committee. September 3Ir.. 37 1883. Henry Jaenisch. On tomatoes the profit will be at least $140. Ills. H.
comfortable residence will cost about three thousand up to six thousand dollars. The grain and feed crop is short this year. will be glad to give you exact information. concerning which Dr. Neir York : Dear Sir— In answer to yours of 2Sth ult. Geo. Mobile. money can be found here to back the enterprise. 1883. Duij. A good farm with house and outbuildings. Will send another circular concerning business prospects as soon as it is printed. 1883. Charles Mohr. 1883. Those nearest navigable streams have been pretty well cut over. September 9. There are good pine lands for sale within five miles of the railroads and at reasonable jirices. but bullc of business is conducted by four or five of this number. Esq.. such a capitalistcould build up a paying business. The demand for feed depends greatly upon the result of the food crops the planters make. asking what are prospects of establishing a pottery for making general class of goods. These merchants seem to have enough capital to carry on their business. It has been customary to ship from here 300 and more car loads feed per month. For the Committee. W. Mobile. can doubtless make a good thing of this business here. . For the Committee. C.50 to fifteen dollars. asking general information. Men from the North speak of Southern Alabama as more pleasant in the winter than Florida. and good manager. There is always room for more capital if the owner manages it himself. Esq. A good. fire and pottery clays. Pine lands range from $1.. Y. say that Alabama possesses some rare varieties of porcelaine. Tarrijtoioi Pottery. in three directions. In answer. Tliere is always a s'oocl demand for flour in tliis vicinity and within one and two hundred miles radius.. Cooperstown. KespectfuUy. Box 36. and the shipments fell off ta about 30 car loads. and commission men look to an increase of business. which will give an idea of the sanitary location of Mobile. By a system of advances to cotton factors. the Danner Land and sells remarkably cheap. G. Mobile. Dear Sir— Yours 2'2d received. August 26. would say that there are seventeen feed and commission firms here. Harvey Booth. but last year a large crop of small grain was made in the South. Esq. Other lands from five to twenty-five dollars. Woodivorth. August 26. For the Committee. and if he can show that he has the requisite ability. Respectfully. A first-class manufacturer.38 CORKESPONDENCE. but there is a great deal of fine pine land left which Address on this subject. I send circular. Marshall County. We will make further enquiries and write you more at length. about from twenty to one hundred dollars an acre. Lumber Comjiany. Send a health circular to you and will send a business : circular as soon as it is printed. Mobile. of this city.. N. Iowa: Dear Sir— Yours 21st received. Marshalltown.
As regards house painting there is no great demand for ornamental inside workers. There are six confectioneries in Mobile. During the last eight months there has been an unusual revival in the business of build- Mmer F. Will send another circular shortly. because Mobile is yet in the utility stage. matter.. Very probably here is a good opportunity for a progressive farmer to get a well-located place.: Dear Sir— Yours of 7th received. September 9. There is but one prominent ice cream and fancy cake and confectionery here. Mnrtinsburg. C. Mobile. received. Broadwan. ¥. depends upon the ability of the workman. Septerc ber 14. both natural and manufactured at $10 per ton. September 9. A six room house as residence can be rented for $250 to $300.40 CORRESPONDENCE. Berkeleij County. ing" is and repairing houses. O. Will look into the Wm. 1883. Walker.. calling attention to your lots in the Mandeville district. Went Va. Keyser. 1883. Thei'e is every facility for getting ice. as far as house decorations are concerned. Less rates can be obtained. 2. Mobile. For the Committee. Will see what is in the land and will inform you. 1883. first-class board and lodging can be had here for $30 a month. As regards cost of living in this section would say that good. The citizens do not regard the fever as one of the possibilities of life in Mobile. although during these years the disease has broken out on either side of the city. higher also. A good house painter can find employment here. Ch'im. Rent from $300 up to $2. of course. Several well located stores are to be had. near the Fair Grounds.322 Mobile. West Vtrgbda : Dear Sir— Yours of the 3d. 0.. and it is learned that the demand for good men stronger than it has been for years. sometimes at the best wages. N. Mineral Co. Frank McAneny. although it seems your property is of limited size. 1883. at New Orleans and at Pensacola. Population now about 35. Jameatown. Fuel is needed about . P.000. More particular information will be given if you will put the questions. September 12.500 per annum according to location. which.205.: Dear Sir— Population of Mobile by census of 1880. Kespectfully. You can draw your own conclusion. For the Committee. Box 10G4 Dear Sir— xiccompanying this is a liealtli circular concerning Mobile which will give you a part of the information you wish. Esq. For the Committee. if desired. Respectfully. Mobile. The health authorities have for a number of years succeeded in keeping yellow fever out of Mobile. Cleveland. 31. that is. Think they may be well situated for the cultivation of truck— an industry which has increased with astonishing rapidity here. Housekeeping is perhaps cheaper. Respectfully. Neivkirk. Mr. Eight rooms $300 to $450.
would say that the companies doing business here follow the excellent plan of promoting for faithful service. James KitcMe.00 to $4. Your chance of employment upon one of the new roads are better than any other. but his case will be the exception. Mobile. September 12. Send circu- lar relating to the general health of Mobile. From Cincinnati you can come through without change. We have. The opening of the Alabama iron and coal mines has given a great impetus to the iron manufacturing business here. KespectfuUy. 31 German street: Dear Sir— Our machinists say they have done more work this year than in any year for a decade. We send a circular concerning Mobile. and a great increase is taking place. Will be pleased to answer more exact questions than are contained in your letter. via Kingston and Toronto to Detroit.00 a day.. The shortest way for you is from Montreal. A good man makes from $2. to Mobile. Montreal. For the Committee. .CORRESPONDENCE. 41 Thick wraps are not needed. thirty-five days in the year.' via Louisville. Nashville. besides. the railroad shops here. Concerning railroad employment. EespectfuUy. The marine repairs are also quite an item. Canada. 1883. thence via Toledo and Columbus to Cincinnati. A man of large experience may rise faster than the routine man. Jr. and Montgomery. For the Committee. This will give you an idea of the situation.
L. year by year since the establishment of the firm.. and Pine Land Business. in Banner Land and Liml)er Company. We have Planing Mills and Shingle and Lath Mills.000 Acres of Long Leaf Pine Land.. Banner & Co. OF MOBILE. STRONG. Laws of tte State of Incorporated under the Alabama. MOBILE. constantly cutting Long Leaf Pine Timber into lumber. BANNER. Own and sible Mill control some 800. . Banner Land and Lumber Co. C. J. Timber. 3anner Land and Lumber 3^FJ^3Sr"Y". Will furnish Mill sites and Timber to respon- LUMBER. Timber. ADVERTISEMENTS. ALABAMA. C. Owners. 0.S IN THK- Lumber. Whose credit has been untari:ished and whose business has increased 1868. Will sell Lands or Timber Rights.42 A. We own and control four good Saw Mills. Aug- 1. E. to A. ALABAMA. Are prepared to fill orders for any quantity or description of Southern Pine or Cypress Lumber. 1883. Sec'ty & TreasY. BEOOKS. Land Commissioner. President. etc. -SrCCESSOK.
Were its many advantages sufficiently known in the North and Northwest. Jesuit Masters. SFrtllSTO The most HILL OOLLEC3-E. remarkable alike for their for their efficient method of communicating their ideas to their scholars. beautifully situated. Icvely gardens and woodland walks. and the consoling fact that yellow fever has never visited the place. in order to build up the weak and delicate constitutions of their sons suffering from the very severe and trying winters of Northern climes. . no doubt fond parents would gladly avail themselves of these advantages. formed by a never-failing spring of cool water. celebrated Institution offers every advantage to boys anxiousTHIS to improve in health and to advance in literature and science. is flourishing Catholic University of the South. knowledge and Strangers should pay a passing visit to this lovely place. the very large and commodious rooms and halls of the buildings. every opportunity is offered at the College for the intellectual and moral training of the students. surrounded on every side by hand- some villas. always bright with flowers. The very extensive and elegant grounds attached to the College. in order to see for themselves one of the many advantages that Mobile offers to the citizens of the North and Northwest. make this College one of the mDst desirable homes in the South. Besides. a charming lake.ADVERTISEMENTS. devote themselves with their wonted energy to the formation of the mind and heart of those intrusted to their care. 4a At an elevation of over two hundred feet and within a few miles of the city of Mobile.
of the Visitation,
YOUNG LADIES AND LITTLE
Established in 1S33*
Located on Spring Hill Road, Three Miles, midway,
from Mobile and Spring
A THOROUGH MATHEMATICAL AND LITERARY
Superior advantages in Music,
and the Languages.
DUT-DOOR EXERCISE REQUIRED.
NO NIGHT STUDY.
HEALTH A SPECIALTY.
ACADEMY OF THE
VISITATION, NEAR MOBILE, ALA.
oldest real estate house in the city,
BUY, SELL AND RENT, ON COIVI MISSION,
ALL CLASSES OF REAL ESTATE.
Farms, Pine Lands,
ALSO, I>EA.LEK^S IN
ON MOETGAGES AND OTHER SECUEITIES.
^^ MY PERSONAL ATTENTION GIVEN TO ALL ORDERS. ALA.^ Dealer in r». to.KSAt. . P. 32 and 36 N. N. A. and Cans. Ead JL ) St. MOBILE. ^^Oysters in Barrels Country Orders solicited and promptly attended I H take pleasure to inform the travelling public that I have established a -A. ^VX/'O TP ff^ B^ footot llY^lrKHl ^ 1 W# ^J r^" / M. Bar with the best Liquors at No. PERFUMERY. CHEMICALS. .E NDKETAll. KOOFEPt. O. Royal Street. hermetically sealed. I=t where I 3VC keep a in Ji^ G -''Sr . and everything kept a flrst-class Drug Store. XWIolailo. TO'WLE.ADVERTISEMENTS. M. ALA.AJXek. ^ \ F. 47 GULF CITY OYSTER DEPOT \VI10L. P. CANDIDUS. 3IO BILE. Pharmaceutical Chemist.. line stock of PURE DRUGS. Oox 3^4.I^IDO'X'ITO AT WHAKF. MOBILE. Wholesale and Retail Packer and Shipper of Oysters and Fish. a and a Commercial course of one year. Oor. 36. W. Principal. Successor to Smith & Dumas. Ui3 Stairs- TOWLE'S INSTITUTE FOR BOYS.. of eight years.. 13 «& 18 Box 920. Government and Hallett StreetsThe Curriculum embraces an English and a Mathematical course Classical course of four years. RESTAURANT Ladies' Private FIRST-CLASS LODGINOSNos. ^ OYSTER DINING SALOON SALOON. J. o. CONTl HTKEET. UNDER THE BATTLE HOUSE. TOILET ARTICLES. MEDICINES. E. -A. lO. Francis St. C. FERDINAND SMITH.
and perfectly gentle and reliable.48 ADVERTISEMENTS. Their stock of road Horses are equal in speed to the best in the country. JONES. WHOLESALE AND RETAIL IlSr ^ OYSTERS. Builders' Hardware. These Stables are the most elegant in this country. KOCHE. T.IETC>I=I. They employ none but the most polite and experienced drivers. 39 and 41 Royal Street. Mantels. will have prompt attention. 3F»I1. SCROLL SAWING> AVOOD TUKNING. with House. and TVindoiV Frames. 60 Michael Street. $t ROCHE. Itoor Brackets. THOMAS DEA. AND p. WIINDOW OLASS. and 15 and 18 St.C0X. R.LER My facilities given to every order. Joseph Street.S. SUCCESSORS TO DANE. I^ouis and St. F. Sample Cards Furnished. IMEicliael Sts. .C>:E»H. near the Battle House. No pains will be spared to please all who furnish us with their orders. who dress in livery when desired. MOBILE DOOR. McKAY. 59. They have the largest and best selected stock of Carriages and light vehicles that can be found in any stable in the South.TuKNEF\8cClOyy MOULDINGS. AND PURE MIXED PAINTS.9KAY and 61 St. They have also Office in the Battle an Omnibus and Baggage Transfer connected with their Stables. THOS. IVI. Nos. are unsurpassed by any dealer in this city and . my personal attention is Betifveen St. SASH AND BLIND FACTORY. Orders for Carriages and IBuggies our Office in the Battle House. and 58. Passengers and Baggage called for from hotels and private resileft at dences at all hours.
O. repainted. . LESSEE AND PEOPEIETOE. as those of any other flrst-class hotel in the 1^.THE BATTLE HOUSE. ALABAMA. and in great part refurnished AT AN EXPENSE OF OVEE THIRTY THOUSAND DOLI LAES. MOBILE. Having been improved and altered during the past season jand thoroughly repaired. this well-known Hotel can be recommended to the attention of the traveling public. recarpeted. I I UNUSUAL FACILITIES OFFERED T^ WINTER TOURISTS Terms as reasonable South. I^OBBIlSrS.
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UBRARVOFCONGB^SS 540 363 Q 014 / .
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