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EN3572-Biomedical Signal Processing Prepared by: Dr. Anjula C. De Silva Email: email@example.com Room: 3205, 1st floor, Sumanadasa building Slideshows: www.projectcuris.com/teaching.html
Definition of the EEG
• The EEG consist of excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials of pyramidal cells generated in the cerebral cortex of the brain
• The human EEG shows activity over the range of 1 to 30 Hz with amplitudes ranging from 20 to 300 μV
Cerebral cortex • The outermost sheet of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain • Functions – – – – – – Memory Attention Perceptual awareness Thought Language Consciousness • Consists of six horizontal layers • 2-4 mm thick 3 .
Pyramidal cells 4 .
Why not action potentials? • Action potentials do not contribute to the EEG due to the following reasons: – Less in time duration (high frequency transient) – Asynchronous • only a small percentage of neurons fire action potentials at any one instant – Filtered out by the capacitive lipid membrane. which serves as a low-pass filter • reduce the ability to be recorded from surface electrodes 5 .
more likely to overlap at any one instant and produce a substantial amplitude • Not filtered by the lipid membrane – Low frequency • Ability of temporal and spatial summation – Low frequency signals correspond to spatially larger currents and can therefore propagate farther 6 .Why postsynaptic potentials (PSP)? • Slow waves – Even though low in amplitude compared to the action potential.
Synaptic functions of neurons • Action potentials transmit information from one neuron to the other • However at synapses. alterations to these action potentials occur (processing) – Blocked from transmitting – Changed from a single pulse into repetitive pulses – Integrated with impulses from other neurons to form complicated pulse trains 7 .
which supplies the energy for synethesizing new transmitter substance 8 . either excites or inhibits the postsynaptic neuron The mitochondria – provides adenosine triphosphate (ATP). when released into the synaptic cleft.000-200.000 minute synaptic knobs called presynaptic terminals lie on the surfaces of the dendrites and soma of a neuron These presynaptic terminals are the ends of nerve fibrils that originate from many other neurons 80-95 % of them on the dendrites and only 5-20% on the soma • • The transmitter vesicles – contain the transmitter substance that.Physiologic anatomy of the synapse • • • 10.
Resting membrane potential of the neuron • Resting membrane potential: -65mV • Basis of excitatory and inhibitory functions – Decreasing the voltage to a less negative value makes the membrane more excitable – Increasing the voltage to a more negative value makes the membrane less excitable (inhibitory) 9 .
Resting membrane potential of the neuron • Sodium concentration gradient – caused by a strong somal membrane sodium pump that continually pumps sodium out of the neuron • Potassium concentration gradient – Caused by the potassium pump that pumps potassium to the interior • Chlorine concentration gradient – Caused by the negative voltage that repels the negatively charged chloride ions – Could be due to a pump (can explain with Nernst potential) 10 .
Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) • When the presynaptic terminal secrets an excitatory transmitter into the cleft – Increase the membrane permeability to Na+ ions – Rapid influx of Na+ ions into the soma due to • Concentration gradient • Electro negativity – Increases the membrane potential to -45mV – EPSP = +20mV 11 .
5-1 mV – Duration • 1-2 ms rising time while the Na+ gates are open • 15 ms decay time to leak excess Na + through the pump • The highly conductive soma summate all the neuronal excitations that occur in the soma and the dendrites • When the total EPSP becomes large enough – Threshold for firing is reached – An action potential will generate at the axon hillock • High concentration of voltage-gated sodium channels in the axon compared to the soma and dendrites 12 .Spatial summation and reaching the threshold • A single presynaptic terminal can never initiate an action potential – Single EPSP 0.
and K+ increase the intracellular negativity – Hyperpolarization • reduces the membrane potential to -70mV • IPSP = -5mV 13 .Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) • Inhibitory synapses open – Chloride channels • Allow Cl.into the membrane – Potassium channels • • Allow K+ out of the membrane Movement of Cl.
5 -86 8 107 -70 Ion Na+ K+ Cl- 14 .Nernst potential • Explanation of EPSP and IPSP can be supported by Nernst potential • The potential that exactly opposes movement of an ion is called the Nernst potential for that ion where EMF is the Nernst potential in millivolts on the inside of the membrane. The potential will be -ve for positive ions and +ve for negative ions Concentration Concentration Nernst inside (mEq/L) outside (mEq/L) potential (mV) 14 142 +65 120 4.
Signals related to presynaptic and postsynaptic activity 15 .
receive a variety of synaptic inputs • Consider the flow of current produced by an EPSP on an apical dendrite of such a neuron • Current flows (Na+) into the dendrite at the site of generation of the EPSP.Current flow in a dendrite of a pyramidal cell • Dendrites of pyramidal cells. creating a current sink • It then must complete a loop by flowing down the dendrite and back out across the membrane at other sites. creating a current source 16 . which are oriented perpendicular to the cell surface.
Dipoles • The polarity of the extracellular fluid forms a dipole – Current sink –ve polarity – Current source +ve polarity • The negativity at the apical dendrites near the surface is detected by EEG electrodes • The potential recorded by the EEG is as a result of summed postsynaptic potentials from pyramidal cells that create dipoles between soma and apical dendrites 17 .
EPSP effect on the EEG electrode site • The situation is reversed if the site of the EPSP generation is on a proximal dendrite • Polarity of the surface EEG depends on the location of the synaptic activity within the cortex 18 .
• EPSPs in superficial layers and IPSPs in deeper layers appear as upward (negative) potentials • Whereas EPSPs in deeper layers and IPSPs in superficial layers have downward (positive) potentials • Thus cortical synaptic events cannot be unambiguously determined from EEG recordings alone 19 . even though the basic electrical event is the same.EPSP & IPSP effect on the EEG electrode site • The activity measured at a surface EEG electrode will have opposite polarities for these same two EPSP inputs.
Summed effect on the EEG electrode site • Single neuron activity is too small to be picked up by EEG • EEG reflects the summation of the synchronous activity of many neurons with similar spatial orientations • Each EEG electrode “sees” the summed activity of roughly 6 cm2 of underlying cortex 20 .
tin. silver or gold plated – Needle electrodes – Electrode caps • Impedance – Absolute electrode impedance < 5kΩ – Inter-electrode impedance < 1kΩ 21 .EEG recording • Effective bandwidth of EEG is 100 Hz – Typical sampling frequency is 200 Hz • Quantization – 16 bits • Electrodes – Disposable electrodes • Cannot use in places with hair – Reusable disk electrodes • stainless steal.
EEG electrode placement • International 10-20 system – International Federation of Societies for Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology • Developed to ensure standardized reproducibility – Over time in a patient/subject – Among patients/subjects • "10" and "20" refer to the actual distances between adjacent electrodes are either 10% or 20% of the total front–back or right–left distance of the skull 22 .
International 10-20 system • Anatomical landmarks used to position electrodes – Nasion: the depressed point where the top of the nose meets the ride of the forehead – Inion: lowest point of the skull at the back of the head. normally felt as a prominent bump • Abbreviations – – – – – – – – – – F: Frontal lobe T: Temporal lobe C: Central P: Parietal lobe O: Occipital lobe z: zero (midline) A: Earlobe Fp: Frontopolar Even numbers: represent electrodes on the right hemisphere Odd numbers: represent electrodes on the left hemisphere 23 .
Conventional electrode setting of 21 electrodes (excluding earlobes) 75 electrode setting based on American EEG Society 24 .
Blum & Seward B. SaeidChambers.References • Guyton & Hall: Medical Physiology • Andrew S. J. A: EEG Signal Processing 25 . Rutkove: The Clinical Neurophysiology Primer • Sanei.
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