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alias apropos awk break builtin bzip2 cal case cat cd cfdisk chgrp chmod chown chroot cksum clear cmp comm command continue cp cron crontab csplit cut Create an alias Search Help manual pages (man -k) Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index Exit from a loop Run a shell builtin Compress or decompress named file(s) Display a calendar Conditionally perform a command Display the contents of a file Change Directory Partition table manipulator for Linux Change group ownership Change access permissions Change file owner and group Run a command with a different root directory Print CRC checksum and byte counts Clear terminal screen Compare two files Compare two sorted files line by line Run a command - ignoring shell functions Resume the next iteration of a loop Copy one or more files to another location Daemon to execute scheduled commands Schedule a command to run at a later time Split a file into context-determined pieces Divide a file into several parts
date Display or change the date & time dc Desk Calculator dd Data Dump - Convert and copy a file declare Declare variables and give them attributes df Display free disk space diff Display the differences between two files diff3 Show differences among three files dig DNS lookup dir Briefly list directory contents dircolors Colour setup for `ls' dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path dirs Display list of remembered directories du Estimate file space usage
echo Display message on screen egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression eject Eject removable media enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands env Environment variables ethtool Ethernet card settings eval Evaluate several commands/arguments exec Execute a command exit Exit the shell expand Convert tabs to spaces export Set an environment variable expr Evaluate expressions false fdformat fdisk fgrep file find fmt fold for format free fsck ftp function gawk getopts grep groups gzip hash head history hostname id if ifconfig import file install Do nothing, unsuccessfully Low-level format a floppy disk Partition table manipulator for Linux Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string Determine file type Search for files that meet a desired criteria Reformat paragraph text Wrap text to fit a specified width. Expand words, and execute commands Format disks or tapes Display memory usage File system consistency check and repair File Transfer Protocol Define Function Macros Find and Replace text within file(s) Parse positional parameters Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern Print group names a user is in Compress or decompress named file(s) Remember the full pathname of a name argument Output the first part of file(s) Command History Print or set system name Print user and group id's Conditionally perform a command Configure a network interface Capture an X server screen and save the image to Copy files and set attributes
join kill less let ln local locate logname logout look lpc lpr lprint lprintd lprintq lprm ls lsof make man mkdir mkfifo mkisofs mknod more mount mtools mv netstat nice nl nohup nslookup passwd paste pathchk ping popd pr printcap printenv
Join lines on a common field Stop a process from running Display output one screen at a time Perform arithmetic on shell variables Make links between files Create variables Find files Print current login name Exit a login shell Display lines beginning with a given string Line printer control program Off line print Print a file Abort a print job List the print queue Remove jobs from the print queue List information about file(s) List open files Recompile a group of programs Help manual Create new folder(s) Make FIFOs (named pipes) Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem Make block or character special files Display output one screen at a time Mount a file system Manipulate MS-DOS files Move or rename files or directories Networking information Set the priority of a command or job Number lines and write files Run a command immune to hangups Query Internet name servers interactively Modify a user password Merge lines of files Check file name portability Test a network connection Restore the previous value of the current directory Prepare files for printing Printer capability database Print environment variables
printf ps pushd pwd
Format and print data Process status Save and then change the current directory Print Working Directory
quota Display disk usage and limits quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage quotactl Set disk quotas ram rcp read readonly remsync return rm rmdir rsync screen scp sdiff sed select seq set sftp shift shopt shutdown sleep sort source split ssh strace su sum symlink sync tail tar tee test time times ram disk device Copy files between two machines. read a line from standard input Mark variables/functions as readonly Synchronize remote files via email Exit a shell function Remove files Remove folder(s) Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees) Terminal window manager Secure copy (remote file copy) Merge two files interactively Stream Editor Accept keyboard input Print numeric sequences Manipulate shell variables and functions Secure File Transfer Program Shift positional parameters Shell Options Shutdown or restart linux Delay for a specified time Sort text files Run commands from a file `.' Split a file into fixed-size pieces Secure Shell client (remote login program) Trace system calls and signals Substitute user identity Print a checksum for a file Make a new name for a file Synchronize data on disk with memory Output the last part of files Tape ARchiver Redirect output to multiple files Evaluate a conditional expression Measure Program running time User and system times
touch Change file timestamps top List processes running on the system traceroute Trace Route to Host trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne) tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters true Do nothing, successfully tsort Topological sort tty Print filename of terminal on stdin type Describe a command ulimit umask umount unalias uname unexpand uniq units unset unshar until useradd usermod users uuencode uudecode v vdir vi watch wc whereis which while who whoami Wget xargs list(s) yes .period ### Limit user resources Users file creation mask Unmount a device Remove an alias Print system information Convert spaces to tabs Uniquify files Convert units from one scale to another Remove variable or function names Unpack shell archive scripts Execute commands (until error) Create new user account Modify user account List users currently logged in Encode a binary file Decode a file created by uuencode Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b') Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b') Text Editor Execute/display a program periodically Print byte, word, and line counts Report all known instances of a command Locate a program file in the user's path. Execute commands Print all usernames currently logged in Print the current user id and name (`id -un') Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP Execute utility, passing constructed argument Print a string until interrupted Run commands from a file Comment / Remark
Basic Linux Commands
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mkdir - make directories Usage mkdir [OPTION] DIRECTORY Options Create the DIRECTORY(ies), if they do not already exist. Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too. -m, mode=MODE set permission mode (as in chmod), not rwxrwxrwx - umask -p, parents no error if existing, make parent directories as needed -v, verbose print a message for each created directory -help display this help and exit -version output version information and exit cd - change directories Use cd to change directories. Type cd followed by the name of a directory to access that directory.Keep in mind that you are always in a directory and can navigate to directories hierarchically above or below. mv- change the name of a directory Type mv followed by the current name of a directory and the new name of the directory.
Ex: mv testdir newnamedir pwd - print working directory will show you the full path to the directory you are currently in. This is very handy to use, especially when performing some of the other commands on this page rmdir - Remove an existing directory rm -r Removes directories and files within the directories recursively. chown - change file owner and group Usage chown [OPTION] OWNER[:[GROUP]] FILE chown [OPTION] :GROUP FILE chown [OPTION] --reference=RFILE FILE Options Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP. With -reference, change the owner and group of each FILE to those of RFILE. -c, changes like verbose but report only when a change is made -dereference affect the referent of each symbolic link, rather than the symbolic link itself -h, no-dereference affect each symbolic link instead of any referenced file (useful only on systems that can change the ownership of a symlink) -from=CURRENT_OWNER:CURRENT_GROUP change the owner and/or group of each file only if its current owner and/or group match those specified here. Either may be omitted, in which case a match is not required for the omitted attribute. -no-preserve-root do not treat `/' specially (the default) -preserve-root fail to operate recursively on `/' -f, -silent, -quiet suppress most error messages -reference=RFILE use RFILE's owner and group rather than the specifying OWNER:GROUP values
-R, -recursive operate on files and directories recursively -v, -verbose output a diagnostic for every file processed The following options modify how a hierarchy is traversed when the -R option is also specified. If more than one is specified, only the final one takes effect. -H -L -P if a command line argument is a symbolic link to a directory, traverse it traverse every symbolic link to a directory encountered do not traverse any symbolic links (default)
chmod - change file access permissions Usage chmod [-r] permissions filenames r Change the permission on files that are in the subdirectories of the directory that you are currently in. permission Specifies the rights that are being granted. Below is the different rights that you can grant in an alpha numeric format.filenames File or directory that you are associating the rights with Permissions u - User who owns the file. g - Group that owns the file. o - Other. a - All. r - Read the file. w - Write or edit the file. x - Execute or run the file as a program. Numeric Permissions: CHMOD can also to attributed by using Numeric Permissions: 400 read by owner 040 read by group 004 read by anybody (other) 200 write by owner
020 write by group 002 write by anybody 100 execute by owner 010 execute by group 001 execute by anybody ls - Short listing of directory contents -a -d -F list hidden files list the name of the current directory show directories with a trailing '/' executable files with a trailing '*' -g -i -l -R -t show group ownership of file in long listing print the inode number of each file long listing giving details about files and directories list all subdirectories encountered sort by time modified instead of name
cp - Copy files cp myfile yourfile Copy the files "myfile" to the file "yourfile" in the current working directory. This command will create the file "yourfile" if it doesn't exist. It will normally overwrite it without warning if it exists. cp -i myfile yourfile With the "-i" option, if the file "yourfile" exists, you will be prompted before it is overwritten. cp -i /data/myfile Copy the file "/data/myfile" to the current working directory and name it "myfile". Prompt before overwriting the file. cp -dpr srcdir destdir
Copy all files from the directory "srcdir" to the directory "destdir" preserving links (-poption), file attributes (-p option), and copy recursively (-r option). With these options, a directory and all it contents can be copied to another dir ln - Creates a symbolic link to a file. ln -s test symlink Creates a symbolic link named symlink that points to the file test Typing "ls -i test symlink" will show the two files are different with different inodes. Typing "ls -l test symlink" will show that symlink points to the file test. locate - A fast database driven file locator. slocate -u This command builds the slocate database. It will take several minutes to complete this command.This command must be used before searching for files, however cron runs this command periodically on most systems.locate whereis Lists all files whose names contain the string "whereis". directory. more - Allows file contents or piped output to be sent to the screen one page at a time less - Opposite of the more command cat - Sends file contents to standard output. This is a way to list the contents of short files to the screen. It works well with piping. whereis - Report all known instances of a command wc - Print byte, word, and line counts bg bg jobs Places the current job (or, by using the alternative form, the specified jobs) in the background, suspending its execution so that a new user prompt appears immediately. Use the jobs command to discover the identities of background jobs. cal month year - Prints a calendar for the specified month of the specified year. cat files - Prints the contents of the specified files. clear - Clears the terminal screen. cmp file1 file2 - Compares two files, reporting all discrepancies. Similar to the diff command, though the output format differs. diff file1 file2 - Compares two files, reporting all discrepancies. Similar to the cmp command, though the output format differs.
dmesg - Prints the messages resulting from the most recent system boot. fg fg jobs - Brings the current job (or the specified jobs) to the foreground. file files - Determines and prints a description of the type of each specified file. find path -name pattern -print Searches the specified path for files with names matching the specified pattern (usually enclosed in single quotes) and prints their names. The find command has many other arguments and functions; see the online documentation. finger users - Prints descriptions of the specified users. free - Displays the amount of used and free system memory. ftp hostname Opens an FTP connection to the specified host, allowing files to be transferred. The FTP program provides subcommands for accomplishing file transfers; see the online documentation. head files - Prints the first several lines of each specified file. ispell files - Checks the spelling of the contents of the specified files. kill process_ids kill - signal process_ids kill -l Kills the specified processes, sends the specified processes the specified signal (given as a number or name), or prints a list of available signals. killall program killall - signal program Kills all processes that are instances of the specified program or sends the specified signal to all processes that are instances of the specified program. mail - Launches a simple mail client that permits sending and receiving email messages. man title man section title - Prints the specified man page.
ping host - Sends an echo request via TCP/IP to the specified host. A response confirms that the host is operational. reboot - Reboots the system (requires root privileges). shutdown minutes shutdown -r minutes Shuts down the system after the specified number of minutes elapses (requires root privileges). The -r option causes the system to be rebooted once it has shut down. sleep time - Causes the command interpreter to pause for the specified number of seconds. sort files - Sorts the specified files. The command has many useful arguments; see the online documentation. split file - Splits a file into several smaller files. The command has many arguments; see the online documentation sync - Completes all pending input/output operations (requires root privileges). telnet host - Opens a login session on the specified host. top - Prints a display of system processes that's continually updated until the user presses the q key. traceroute host - Uses echo requests to determine and print a network path to the host. uptime - Prints the system uptime. w - Prints the current system users. wall - Prints a message to each user except those who've disabled message reception. Type Ctrl-D to end the message.
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