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TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents
Calculations of Number of Moles of a Substance 1.1.1 Relative Atomic Mass 1.1.2 Relative Formula Mass 1.1.3 Mole
1 1 4 5 8 12 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 21 21 21 22 24 25
Conversion of Percentage by mass to percentage by mole Molarity and Normality of Chemical Solutions 1.3.1 Molarity 1.3.2 Normality
Stoichiometric Calculations using Chemical Equations 1.4.1 Type of Stoichiometric Problems 1.4.2 Mass – Mass stoichiometry 1.4.3 Mass – Volume Stoichiometry 1.4.4 Volume – Volume Stoichiometry 1.4.5 Exercises
Material Balance 1.5.1 Material Balance 1.5.2 Material Balance Calculations Process Block Diagrams Defining a System using Block Diagram Multiple Stage Multiple Reactors
Page 1 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar
Module I Basic Calculations
BASIC CALCULATIONS 1.1 CALCULATIONS OF NUMBER OF MOLES OF A SUBSTANCE
Before carrying out such calculations, it is important to define the terms: 1. Relative Atomic Mass 2. Relative Molar Mass 3. Mole 1.1.1 Relative Atomic Mass The Relative Atomic Mass (Ar) of a chemical element gives us an idea of how heavy it feels (the force it makes when a gravity pulls on it). This is defined as the number of times an atom of an element is heavier than a hydrogen atom. Relative atomic Mass of an element =
Mass of one atom of an element Mass of one Hydrogen atom
If you look at the periodic table you can find out the relative atomic masses of the elements. The number at the bottom of the symbol is the Relative Atomic Mass (Ar): Relative Atomic Mass (Atomic weight)
CARBON Relative atomic mass of carbon is 12 means that 1 carbon (C) atom is 12 times heavier than 1 hydrogen (H) atom. Note: Relative atomic mass is sometimes called atomic mass or atomic weight.
Page 2 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations
Given the following below, what are the Relative atomic Masses of these elements:
11 23 20 40
1. Oxygen? 2. Copper? 3. Hydrogen? 4. Calcium? 5. Sodium? 6. Sulphur? 7. Chlorine? 8. Carbon?
__________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________
9. Potassium? __________ 10. Magnesium? __________
Page 3 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar
Module I Basic Calculations
Relative atomic mass = 1 Sulfur = 1 atom.1. To work out the Relative Formula Mass. Relative atomic mass = 32 Oxygen = 4 atoms. Relative atomic mass = 16 Relative Formula Mass = (2 x 1) + (1 x 32) + (4 x 16) = 98 Or (Remember that Relative Formula Mass is the same as Molecular weight and Relative Atomic Mass is the same as atomic weights) Molecular Weights = Number of atoms x Atomic weights Hydrogen = 2 atoms. you simply add up the Relative Atomic Masses (atomic weights) of each atom.2 Relative Formula Mass (Molecular Weight) Most atoms exist in molecules. H2SO4. Solution: Relative Formula Mass = Number of atoms x Relative Atomic Mass Hydrogen = 2 atoms. atomic weight = 1 Sulfur = 1 atom. atomic weight = 16 Page 4 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations . atomic weight = 32 Oxygen = 4 atoms. You can use the Relative Atomic Masses of elements to work out the mass of the molecule they make up. Note: Relative Formula Mass is also known as Molecular Weight Example: Find the Relative Formula Mass (Molecular weights) of sulfuric acid.BASIC CALCULATIONS 1.
CO2? __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Page 5 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations . Noah? 10. MgCl2? 6.BASIC CALCULATIONS Molecular weight = (2 x 1) + (1 x 32) + (4 x 16) = 98 E XERCISES What are the Molecular weights of these molecules: 1. CaCl2? 8. Cu O? 5. HCl? 4. K2O? 9. NaCl? 2. H2S? 7. H2O? 3.
BASIC CALCULATIONS 1. In SI units. CH4. Solution: Molecular weight of CH4 = (1 x 12)CARBON + (4 x 1) HYDROGEN = 16 Number of moles = 80 = 5 g·moles 16 Page 6 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations .3 Mole A mole is the quantity of a substance whose weight equals the molecular weight of that substance. Number of moles = Mass of Substance Molecular weight of Substance Example: Calculate the number of moles of 80 grams of methane.1. the term g·mole (gram·mole) is used as a unit for the number of moles.
BASIC CALCULATIONS E XERCISES 1. C2H6. Page 7 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations . Calculate the number of moles in 120 grams of ethane.
H2O.BASIC CALCULATIONS E XERCISES 2. Calculate the mass of 2 g·moles of water. Page 8 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations .
The composition of mixtures can be expressed as percent by mass or percent by mole and it is always useful to convert one form to another.10 x 100 = 5.23 7. butane and etc. C3H8 Butane. C4H10 Total % mass 72 12 10 6 100 Module I Basic Calculations Molecular Weight 16 30 44 58 Number of Moles 72 = 4.0 5.50 16 12 = 0.23 100 Page 9 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar . CH4 Ethane.40 30 10 = 0.23 44 Mole percent 4.BASIC CALCULATIONS 1.50 x 100 = 5.4 6 = 0. propane.2 CONVERSION OF PERCENTAGE BY MASS (% WT) TO PERCENTAGE BY MOLE (% G.6 0. CH4 Ethane. natural gas is a mixture of methane.0 0.23 4. C2H6 Propane.23 86. C3H8 Butane. Example 1: Natural Gas has the average composition of Component Methane. moles) Most materials occur as mixtures of various components. ethane. C2H6 Propane.23 2.40 x 100 = 5. C4H10 % mass 72 12 10 6 Calculate the composition of natural gas in mole percent. For example.10 58 0. Solution: Basis: 100 grams of Natural Gas (means that 72 % mass of methane = 72 grams) Component Methane.23 x 100 = 5.
BASIC CALCULATIONS Page 10 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations .
N2 Carbon Dioxide. Component Methane.5 x 28 = 98 4.5 x 44 = 198 1908 Mass percent 1312 x 100 = 68.80 1908 300 x 100 = 15. CO2 Total % Molecular Mass mole Weight 82 16 82 x 16 = 1312 10 3.5 4. N2 Carbon Dioxide.70 1908 98 x 100 = 5. C2H6 Nitrogen. CH4 Ethane. CH4 Ethane.5 100.00 Page 11 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations .5 4.BASIC CALCULATIONS Example 2: Convert the following gas analysis from mole percent to mass percent.40 1908 % mole 82 10 3. C2H6 Nitrogen.10 1908 198 x 100 = 10. CO2 Solution: Consider 100 g·moles of gas sample Component Methane.5 100 30 28 44 10 x 30 = 300 3.
Page 12 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations .E XERCISES BASIC CALCULATIONS 1. Air consists of nitrogen and oxygen. their mole percentage are 79 for nitrogen and 21 for oxygen. Express their mass percent in an air sample.
CH4 Ethane. A gas has the following compositions Component Methane.BASIC CALCULATIONS E XERCISES 2. C2H6 Propane. C4H10 Express the gas composition in mole percent % mass 64 15 11 10 Page 13 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations . C3H8 Butane.
Molarity (M) = Moles of Solute Litre of Solution or it can be written as M= Mass of Solute Relative Molar Mass x Litre of Solution or it can be written as Weight of Solute Molecular weight x Litre of Solution M= Page 14 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations . In the basic course we dealt with: a.3.BASIC CALCULATIONS 1.3 MOLARITY AND NORMALITY OF CHEMICAL SOLUTIONS some Concentration of solutions can be expressed through quantitative methods.1 Molarity (M) Molarity or molar concentration is the number of moles of solute per litre of solution. Parts per million (ppm) c. Mass per volume (kgs / lit) In this lesson. These methods are: 1. Normality (N) 1. we will deal with other methods of expressing the concentration of solutions. % weight) b. Molarity (M) 2. Percent by mass (% mass.
Equivalent: One equivalent is the amount of acid that can give one mole of hydrogen (H+) ions.5 Moles of NaCl = Molarity (M) = 284 Weight of NaCl = = 4. One equivalent is the amount of a base that can give one mole of hydroxide (OH-) ions.5 Molecular weight of NaCl Moles of Solute 4.85 g·moles 58.205 M Litre of Solution 2.20 lit of solution. Example 1: One equivalent of H2SO4 = = Molecular weight of H2 SO 4 Moles of Hydrogen Ions used Oxygen (2 x 1)Hydrogen (1 x 32)Sulfur (4 x 16) 2 g·moles = 49 g·equivalents Page 15 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations .2 Normality (N) Normality (N) is the number of equivalents of solute per litre of solution.BASIC CALCULATIONS Example: Calculate the molarity of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride containing 284 g of NaCl in 2.20 Litre 1.3.5)Cl = 58.85 g·moles = = 2. Solution: Weight = 284 grams Molecular weight = (1 x 23)Na + (1 x 35.
20 L solution in reactions that replace all three hydrogen ions.4 32.7 g·equivalents 3 274 g Number of equivalents of H3PO4 in solution = = 8.7 g One equivalent of H3PO4 = Page 16 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations . Solution: Molecular weight of H3PO4 = (3 x 1)H + (1 x 31)P + (4 x 16)O = 98 g·moles 98 = 32.BASIC CALCULATIONS Example 2: One equivalent of Ca(OH)2 = = Molecular weight of Ca(OH)2 Moles of Hydroxide Ions used Hydrogen (1 x 40)Calcium (2 x 16)Oxygen (2 x 1) 2 g·moles = 74 g·equivalents Example 3: One equivalent of Na2SO4 = Molecular weight of Na2 SO 4 Moles of Na to be replaced Oxygen = (2 x 23)Sodium (1 x 32)Sulfur (4 x 16) 2 g·moles = 71 g·equivalents Calculation of Normality Example: Calculate the normality of an aqueous solution of phosphoric acid containing 275 g of H3PO4 in 1.
1 Type of Stoichiometry Problems There are 3 types of stoichiometry problems: 3.4 STOICHIOMETRIC CALCULATIONS USING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Stoichiometry deals with calculation about the masses (sometimes volumes) of reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction. Three (3) basic steps are involved.Volume Page 17 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations . There are a number of methods available for solving stoichiometry problems. Mass – Mass (weight – weight) Mass – Volume or Volume – Mass Volume . 4.4 1. calculate moles of unknown substances. 1.BASIC CALCULATIONS Normality = = Equivalents of solute litre of solution 8. 5.00 N 1. The method we consider the best is the mole method. Step 3: Calculate quantities (mass or volume) of unknowns.4.2 = 7. Step 1: Calculate moles of the known Substances Step 2: Using balanced equation.
Moles of oxygen needed = 2.2 Mass – Mass Stoichiometry In this type. C2H6 + O2 Solution: First write the balanced equation: 2C2H6 + 7O2 Step 1: 4CO2 + 6H2O CO2 + H2O Calculate moles of C2H6 72 g = 2.4. Therefore.8 grams Page 18 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations .4 moles (2 x 12)C (6 x 1)H Moles of C2H6 = Step 2: Calculate the moles of oxygen needed.BASIC CALCULATIONS 1.4 moles O2 Step 3: Calculate the oxygen needed 7 moles O 2 2 moles C 2 H6 Grams of oxygen needed = Moles of O2 x Molecular weight of O2 = 8. quantities are given or asked for in a mass units Example: Calculate the number of grams of oxygen required to burn 72 g of C2H6 to CO2 and H2O.4 moles C2H6 x = 8. 4CO2 + 6H2O From the balanced equation: 2C2H6 + 7O2 2 moles of C2H6 needs 7 moles of oxygen.4 x 32 = 268.
Solution: First write the balanced equation.4. 2 KNO2 + O2 From the balanced equation: 2 KNO3 2 moles of KNO3 produced 1 mole of oxygen.1386 Moles of O2 x = 3. Example: Calculate the volume in litres of O2 measured at 0°C and 1 ATM which could be obtained by heating 28 g of KNO3.277 moles KNO3 x = 0. either the known or unknown is a gas. 2 KNO3 2 KNO2 + O2 Molecular weight of KNO3 = (1 x 39)K + (1 x 14)N + (3 x 16)O = 101 Step 1: Calculate moles of KNO3 28 grams = 0.4 L Volume of oxygen produced = 0. 1 mole of O2 occupies 22.277 moles 101 Moles of KNO3 = Step 2: Calculate the moles of oxygen produced.3 Mass – Volume Stoichiometry In these types of problems.4 L 1 mole O 2 . Therefore.1386 moles O2 Step 3: Calculate the volume of oxygen produced 1 moles O 2 2 moles KNO 3 At 0°C and 1 ATM (STP).1 L O2 at STP Page 19 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations 22.BASIC CALCULATIONS 1. Moles of oxygen produced = 0.
BASIC CALCULATIONS 1. Example: CH4 (g) + 2 CO2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2 H2O All compounds are in the gaseous state and at the same temperature and pressure. 1 volume of CH4 reacts with 2 volumes of O2 to produce 1 volume of CO2 and 2 volumes H2O vapor. Example: Calculate the volume of O2 required and volumes of CO2 and H2O produced from the complete combustion of 1.4. steps 1 and 3 are not necessary.4 Volume – Volume Stoichiometry This is based on Gay – Lussac’s law of combining volumes which states that “At the same temperature and pressure. Page 20 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations . they do so in the ratio of small whole numbers of volume”. All Volumes are being measured at 400°C and 1 ATM.5 L of C2H6. whenever gases react or form. only step 2 is required. The ratios are 1:2:1:2 for CH4:O2:CO2:H2O. Solution: Balanced equation: 2 C2H6 + 7 O2 4 CO2 + 6 H2O (g) (g) (g) (g) All substances are gases measured at same temperature and pressure. in solving volume – volume stoichiometry problems.
5 L C2H6 x = 5.BASIC CALCULATIONS 7 L of O 2 2 L of C 2 H6 (g) Volume of O2 needed = 1.25 L of O2 Volume of CO2 produced = 1.0 L of CO2 Volume of H2O produced = 1.5 L C2H6 x = 4.5 L C2H6 x = 3.5 L of H2O 4 L of CO2 2 L of C 2 H6 (g) 6 L of H2 O 2 L of C 2 H6 (g) Page 21 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations .
3 Cl2 10. Calculate Number of moles in 71 grams of HCl. 3. Mole percent of CaSO4 in hard water = 2.1 grams of Na2SO4 in 625 mL of solution in reactions that replaces both sodium ions. Calculate normality (N) of 12. Find the molarity of a solution containing 300 grams of CaCl2 in 500 mL solution. Find mole percent of salt in solution. 8. how many litres of oxygen are needed to produce 19. How many moles of KCLO3 could be prepared from 24.8 L of SO3 according to this balance equation? (g) 2 SO2 + O2 (g) 2 SO3 (g) Page 22 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations . Calculate the normality of 14. 5. 4. ZnCl2 (Aq) + H2 (g) 6. Mass of 3 g·moles of NaOH. 2. Find mass percent of CaSO4 in hard water.7 L of Chlorine gas at STP? (s) + 6 KOH(Aq) KclO3 (Aq) + 3 H2 (g) Assuming STP. Calculate the number of grams of Zinc chloride that can be prepared from 340 grams of zinc. 7. A solution of 10 mass % NaCl.BASIC CALCULATIONS E XERCISES 1. Zn(s) + 2 HCl(Aq) 9.1 grams of H2SO4 in 750 mL of solution in reactions that replace both hydrogen ions.5 % mole.
Mass input Process Mass output Mass or weight at start of a process = Mass or weight at the finish of the process.BASIC CALCULATIONS 1. that must be put into process in order to produce the desired amounts of products. Applications Test different design concepts Conduct energy audits of existing and proposed facilities Determine utility requirements for a range of plant operating conditions Calculate raw materials requirements for different product mixes Conduct process change impact studies Benefits Optimise process design A mass and energy balance produces a graphical consensus document Optimise energy use 1. material balancing is a method of calculating the amounts of substances. In general the term “reactants” refers to the starting materials in a chemical reaction.2 Material Balance Calculations in a Steady State System In a steady state system the weight or mass of the material at the start of the system is the same as that remaining at the end of the system.5. Page 23 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations . called reactants.5.1 Material Balancing Generally speaking. The following diagram. A short way of saying this is that the Input equals the Output.5 MATERIAL BALANCE A mass and energy balance is a conceptual tool for studying the way in which a process is put together. 1.
This is a simple way to show where in the process reactions are occurring. To understand the calculation we make a block diagram of the system similar to the following: The arrows indicate the direction of the process. Notice that the start materials sugar and water are on the left and the reactor tank is central with the products on the right. This is the usual format to be used for block diagrams. In the tank is 4m3 of water and 200 kilograms of sugar. The calculation is to find the total mass of sugar solution and the percentage mass of the sugar in the solution.BASIC CALCULATIONS The process may well change the chemical composition of the starting material but the relative masses of the process products will still be equal to the masses of the starting materials. Calculations using the start material masses will allow the expected masses of the products to be found. PROCESS BLOCK DIAGRAMS Squares or rectangles are used to indicate a part of the process. Arrows indicates the input and output into and from a reactor. If the final masses are different from the start masses then the process must be leaking or producing unexpected products that are not being weighed. In a steady state process the masses in a process will be constant. this means that the masses of the start material will be in BALANCE with masses at the end. Page 24 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations Tank of sugar solution Sugar solution 4200kg . Sugar 200 kg Water 4000kg This above diagram shows the actions of putting water into a tank and adding sugar. Mass input Mass output Process Reactor Example: Calculation is sugar dissolved into a Tank of water.
One cubic meter of water has a mass of 1000 kilograms. % sugar = % sugar = mass of sugar 100 mass of sugar mass of water 200 100 = 4. The system is in steady state so the input must equal the output. which equals 4200 kilograms. The total mass is 4 times 1000 plus the 200 kilograms of sugar.BASIC CALCULATIONS The calculation is simplified by the diagram as 200 kilograms of sugar is weighed into 4 cubic meters of water.7 % 200 4000 1000 kg = 4000 kg 1 m3 Page 25 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations . Mass of water = 4 m3 Mass of sugar = 200 kg Mass of sugar solution = 4000 kg + 200 kg = 4200 kg The percentage sugar in the sugar solution will be the mass of sugar divided by the total mass of sugar and water.
S1 or 100 kg/hr Reaction Vessel S3 or 220 kg/hr S2 or 120 kg/hr S1 = 100 kg/hr S2 = 120 kg/hr S3 = 220 kg/hr MULTIPLE REACTORS A & B 50 m3/hr A 50 m3/hr B 110 m3/hr 60 m3/hr 60 m3/hr Page 26 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations . Arrows indicate the direction of the process with the relative input flow rates and output flow rates.BASIC CALCULATIONS Defining a System using Block Diagram A continuous process may contain many reaction vessels each having a different input and output value. Each reaction vessel may be described as a square or rectangle with input stated to the left and output on the right. The total input at the start must still equal the total output at the finish.
A C E G H B D Flow rates A = 500 m3/hr B = 400 m3/hr C = 450 m3/hr D = 450 m3/hr E = 250 m3/hr F = 250 m3/hr G = 200 m3/hr H = 500 m3/hr I = 200 m3/hr Module I Basic Calculations F I Total input at A + B = output at G + H + I = 900 m3/hr Total output at C + D = output at G + H + I Flow rate of C – G = E Flow rate of D .I = F and Flow rate E + F = H Page 27 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar .BASIC CALCULATIONS MULTIPLE STAGE MULTIPLE REACTORS Predictions can be made of the flow rates at different stages of a steady state system from flow rates at other reactors.
20 kgs/hr 30 kgs/hr C 40 kgs/hr A Feed =? B D 60 kgs/hr 2. Given the data and diagram below. SEPARATOR PHASE 1 GAS 5 tons/hr HYDROCARBON GAS ? kgs/hr CHLORIDE SCRUBBER NaOH solution 25 kgs/hr HYDROCARBON LIQUID 20 tons/hr ASSOCIATED GAS 20 tons/hr INLET SEPARATOR WASTEWATER 40 kgs/hr PHASE 1 LIQUID 10 tons/hr DECANTER DRUM WATER 50 kgs/hr WATER 30 kgs/hr COALESCER DRUM WATER 15 kgs/hr ADSORBER WATER 5 kgs/hr Page 28 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations .BASIC CALCULATIONS E XERCISES 1. calculate how many hydrocarbon gases in k g s/hr are coming out of the unit. Feed pretreatment unit in Gas processing plants receives mixture of hydrocarbons with impurities such as water and chlorine gas. Calculate how much is the Feed as per given in the diagram below.
BASIC CALCULATIONS 3. Reflux in the distillation towers provides cooling at the topmost part of the tower and it increases the % yield of high octane fuel. Overhead flowrate is set at 2% of total MTBE flow. It is colorless and odorless. Given the data and diagram below. Overhead of finishing reactor constitutes unreacted methanol and isobutylene plus side reaction of dimethyl ether. It contains 18. It provides easy ignition to vehicles because of its oxygen content. Given the data and diagram below. REFLUX ? Tons/hr REFLUX DRUM HIGH OCTANE FUEL 27 tons/hr ATMOSPHERIC PIPESTILL CRUDE OIL 50 tons/hr STRIPPER KEROSENE 12 tons/hr STRIPPER DIESEL FUEL 5 tons/hr ASPHALT 2 tons/hr 4. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether or MTBE is used as an additive for liquid fuel. calculate how many tons/hr of methanol is needed to produce 26 tons/hr of MTBE.2 wt% O2. Unreacted METHANOL Unreacted ISOBUTYLENE Dimethyl Ether 2 % of total MTBE Flow METHANOL ? tons/hr ISOBUTYLENE 17 tons/hr STATIC MIXER MAIN REACTOR FINISHING REACTOR MTBE 26 tons/hr Page 29 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations . calculate the reflux rate in tons/hr.
Dehydrogenation is an endothermic reaction. CATALYST 100 kgs/hr Unrelated PROPANE 15 Tons/hr PROPANE ? Tons/hr OLEFLEX REACTOR PROPYLENE 35 Tons/hr SPENT CATALYST Hint: See the definition of a catalyst. calculate how much propane is fed into the Oleflex reactor.BASIC CALCULATIONS 5. It converts propane into propylene with the presence of a platinum on an alumina base catalyst. Page 30 of 30 Industrial Training Division Kamal El-Nashar Module I Basic Calculations . Given the data and diagram below. Propane is fed to the Oleflex reactor and propylene is the resulting product. Since efficiency is not 100 %. some of the propane are still unreacted.
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