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Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University-Commerce in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2013



Approved by: Advisor: Committee: Shannon Carter Robert Baumgardner Tabetha Adkins Sharon Johnson

Head of Department: Hunter Hayes Dean of the College: Salvatore Attardo Dean of Graduate Studies: Arlene Horne


Copyright 2013 Sunchai Hamcumpai


ABSTRACT LEARNING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE FROM RURAL TEXAS ORAL HISTORY VIDEO Sunchai Hamcumpai Texas A&M University-Commerce, December 2013 Advisor: Shannon Carter, PhD This project offers a theoretical framework and practical tools for teaching English to non-native speakers. Drawing together key scholarship in literacy studies and second language acquisition, the current study insists throughout on the crucial role played by authentic context in learning English language and communication. Current scholarship in literacy studies is in almost complete agreement on this fact as it concerns learning to read and write in ones native language. Similarly, current scholarship in second language acquisition studies is remarkably consistent on this point as it concerns non-native speakers learning to read and write in an unfamiliar language. Even so, very little published scholarship combines what we know about the role played by the authentic context with practical tools for engaging what I call them vertical dimensions into the developing of language teaching materials. The current study

v offers an extended study of language use in real context. It is a digital tool for replicated context in virtual space. The video-based prototype is developed from oral history interviews given by rural African American Texans for other purposes. The project is used to teach language to nonnative speakers. The remixed video and English lessons are delivered via e-learning platforms over the Internet to enhance authentic learning experiences using instructional materials from a local English-speaking community. The project suggests various roles digital media can play in language learning. It expands opportunities for language instruction in authentic contexts by making effective use of digital archives.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS For the contribution of this dissertation, I would like to thank Dr. Shannon Carter; my advisor, teacher, and supervisor, who always gives me opportunities and supports throughout my study in the program. She provided the guidance for doing research on this topic which matched my interests. She paid attention to several drafts of the proposal and dissertation with kindness. Being given a chance to work as a research assistant at CLiC (Converging Literacies Center) is an initiative to this study. Thank to all dissertation committees: Dr. Robert Baumgardner, Dr. Tabetha Adkins, and Dr. Sharon Johnson, as well as the department head, Dr. Hunter Hayes, for all of their comments and supports to complete the dissertation. My sincere thanks also go to the Mr. Harry Turner and other African American residents from Commerce, Texas as well as former East Texas State University students for hours of their oral history interview video which enable me to know about the history of the Americans and their authentic English language use. Appreciation to supporters in my home country in Thailand goes to three American University Alumni: Dr. Chaloey Pumipuntu, Dr. Somjai Pumipuntu from Roi-Et Rajabhat University for opportunity given to me to pursue the doctoral degree in the United States. These administrators support the faculty according to the universitys motto The Sources of Knowledge for a Lifetime. Also thanks to Dr. Rujira Rojjanaprapayon, my graduate advisor, for his educational insights as a mentor. I would like to express my greatest appreciation to my family members. Sutima Hamcumpai who always provides me all supports. She is the drive to push me forward. Two children Pammy and Ethan Hamcumpai who provide me emotional support. They are the gifts

vii from the heaven. We have been together in this country and have been striving for opportunities and providing love for each other. These three people are the reasons I live my life. Finally, thanks to the knowledge from technological invention that aids us to expose world wisdom. Bits of digital information across the Internet and oral history video contribute to my acquisition of knowledge. Education provides me the door for exploring the best of my potentials. Education provides humans the knowledge to build the sustainable society.


TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................................................... x LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................... xi CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 1 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ........................................................................16 2.1 Literacy.....16 2.2 Authentic Context........27 3. AUTHENTIC CONTEXT ....................................................................................36 3.1 Literacies by Trial and Error....38 3.2 Interaction with the Context....50 3.3 Reciprocity and Cultural Exchange.....64 4. PEDAGOGIAL IMPLICATION..67 4.1 Using video in English classroom........67 4.2 Vertical Dimensions for Learning Literacy in Context........70 4.3 Mozilla Popcorn: The Video-Assisted Language Teaching Materials76 4.4 YouTubes Closed Captioned in English Language Learning....86 4.5 Using Word Search to introduce English Vocabulary.93 5. CONCLUSION............................................................................................................101 WORKS CITED ......................................................................................................................107 APPENDICES ...........................................................................................................................123 APPENDIX A. Reel Texas Video Collection..124 APPENDIX B. Video Processing....149

ix APPENDIX C. Legal issues on media and archival use .....155 VITA ..........................................................................................................................................160

LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. Preview video from the African American communitys activities..93 2. Excerpt text and vocabulary selection .97 3. Video database in the Reel Texas digital collection showing title, duration, and date...124 4. Video database in the Reel Texas digital collection showing subject keywords and description126 5. Creative Commons licenses.157


LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. Sunday Bulletin ...40 2. Field note from the conversation with Mr. Turner and the mind mapping note from video viewing......51 3. Extended field note. 54 4. Harry Turner as a deacon at Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church ..56 5. The FAITH sign.. 57 6. The HOPE sign.58 7. The LOVE sign.59 8. Morning Chanting in Buddhist Sunday School....61 9. Research Journal, Mar 7, 2010....63 10. Difficulties Learning English from Chinese NNES..64 11. Vertical dimension on the video project and their link pages to Wikipedia..71 12. Vertical dimension to show events related to location..73 13. Vertical dimension on vocabulary learning...74 14. Beau Lotto and Amy OTooles new TEDTalk....81 15. The interface of Mozilla Popcorn maker...82 16. Mozilla Webmaker registration page.....82 17. Media, Events, and Project taskbars in Mozilla Popcorn project.83 18. Automatic caption from original transcription and edited version...88 19. Translation service provided by the YouTubes affiliated venders......88 20. Closed-Caption in English and Thai.......90

xii 21. Video transcription of Coming Together from Reel Texas collection....94 22. Word search generator interface page. Three combinations of cell99 23. Instruction menu of how to import raw video file to iMovie..153 24. Instruction menu on how to create new video event153

1 Chapter 1 Introduction

The current study is based on my experiences as a language instructor, a foreign student, and a video editor who has worked extensively with the collection and preservation of oral histories, especially for the Northeast Texas Digital Collections. Like most other language instructors in my home country in northeast Thailand, me and my students learned English with very limited authentic exposure. In fact, there is only one native English speaking faculty who comes from the US for whole university students to practice English communication with. Geography of my home university does not encourage foreigners to live in. The province which the university located is in the rural area. It is eight to ten hours by car from the capital city. It is hard to have any English speakers come by since it has no tourist attractions or international business. Also the university town is surrounded by agricultural farmland, not like industrial or tourist city in the central region. The local population uses Thai as the native language in communication. The rest of faculty does not use English as a second language. Most of them have domestic education in Thailand. Those who received international degrees are not in English education department; they work as administrators. Teaching materials are the only sources of replicated English input in the universitys English courses. They use the written dialogue in the textbook to have students learn how English communication is interacted among speakers. The formulaic pattern is the most language learning strategy they provide. For example, 5W1H (What, When, Where, Why, Who, How) is the formula to construct communication pattern. They conjugate sentences from the keywords with little inference to the context to obtain information. The English teaching strategy is dry

2 with little real language use from authentic English speaking community. Even in my former university in the capital city, they still rely on traditional approach of language learning. English is acquired from written texts and language skills are emphasis on grammar rules instead of real communication or authentic language input from the English speaking community. In stark contrast to this learning experience as the authentic learning context I experienced as a foreign student in the United States, I have been exposed to English in both an academic context and in daily communication with native English speakers. Invoking from my exchange student experiences in New York from June 1993 to June 1994 when I was sixteen, it was the first contact with authentic English language by living with American host family for one academic year, going to the class with English-speaking students, and exposing to people in the community in daily life. Learning literacy intended for American students is the source of language acquisition that was real English to me. The immersion into English literacy in that year was the important resource to develop my language competency later in the university and graduate school. In 2009, I came back to the US again as a doctoral student. Language input is not only emphasized on daily communication with the host family and classmate like when I was in the high school but it is more expanded to communicate in community. The aspect of language requirement is more on academic purpose. In order to survive in the academia, for instance writing response paper, presenting research project, and communicating with the faculty, I need to be proficient in advanced English. Literacy is the most important key success to the life of a doctoral student. Reading brings information I need to make knowledge. It was later as a digital archivist for Converging Literacies Center (CLiC), that I began to see an opportunity to

3 capitalize on the authentic context I experienced as foreign student by bringing that back home with me to Thailand for those students to experience virtually. Thirdly, I am a digital archivist for CLiC, and I record oral history and produce digital video for the universitys Digital Collection. From watching many interviews, I learn that orality is powerful in language learning. Behind the camera, I noticed how people delivered oral history interviews. Looking through the lens when I zoomed-in, their facial expression and gesture are making me learn better than only texts. Importantly, listening to their speaking for the key ideas to summarize video is the best way that develops my confidence in learning language. I agree that listening and watching oral history video makes me; as an English language learner, to be proficient in second language acquisition. These three areas contribute to the project I develop for students in other countries to aid them with authentic English from the content in local rural Texas. The study invokes Deborah Brandts notion of Sponsors of Literacy as the analytical framework. Sponsors are any agents, local or distant, concrete or abstract, who enable, support, teach, and model, as well as recruit, regulate, suppress, or withhold, literacy, and gain advantage from it in some way (Brandt, 2001, p. 19). I argue that English language learning can be sponsored by instructional materials developed from an authentic context (Cennamo et al., 2010; Kramsch, 1993; Mishan, 2005; Ndon, 2010; and Sherman, 2003). According to David Barton, Mary Hamilton, and other literacy theorists increasingly convinced of literacys function as a social practice, literacy is related to social conceptualization in terms of discourse community. The people in these communities are brought together by common ways of talking, acting, valuing, interpreting, and using written language. Therefore, the community that learners are engaging in could demonstrate the community practices as revealed by the way language,

4 literacy, and learning are interrelated. I suggest oral history interviews might offer language learners a meaningful window into an authentic context in which native speakers use English in a particular discourse community. In doing so, I make extensive use of the notion of affordances which are the semiotic resources of meaning making to the social worlds (Krashen, 1980; 1981; 1982). I would like to suggest the role of digital media playing in language learning. It expands opportunities for language instruction in authentic contexts by making effective use of digital archives. In order to limit the number of variables represented in my study, I will work primarily with a particular set of oral history interviews collected among members of a particular group: residents of the Norris Community, the historically segregated neighborhood in my rural, university town. All individuals represented in the oral history interviews are long-time residents of this particular neighborhood, and are African American adults born during the 1930s and late 1940s. This is a convenience sampling. My dissertation draws from this local context (the Norris Community) in developing appropriate resources for English language learners in Asian cultures like my own. Asian cultures such as the one represented in my home country, despite language differences, share common ground with African American communities like the Norris Community. I suggest the Norris Community in rural Texas is similar to my local community in Thailand with regard to faith, poverty, and community formation. In my dissertation, I am bridging cultural aspects and language learning, which I argue would enhance Thai students learning experiences with respect to both the English language and cultural values. This cultural education will eventually help them to learn about the community where people speak English in a more meaningful (authentic) way than it is spoken in their English classroom.

5 With research interests in English language, culture, literacy, and history, I particular found that Norris Community has common ground to my culture. In my home country, temple is the place where community member meet and learn local culture. I believe that every religion, both Christian and Buddhist, they share common ground in making people realize in virtue. A person with virtue can promote individual greatness. So there are only some practices make religions different but they all have similar purpose. As a foreign student, I first felt into the newcomer position who could not find a spot in the community to fit in because of language and cultural background. But attending activities at the churches (Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church and Commerce Community Church) and student organization (Baptist Student Center) has closed the gap of distance relationship. I have taken my family members to those communities several times and they welcomed us as much as friends. We had not been left out because we opened our mind to expose to the new culture around us. For example, I had learned about how baby shower was done when my wife had a baby, I attended the church service at Mt. Moriah and learned how the congregation at African American church was, and I joined luncheon at Baptist Student Center every Monday which helped me and my wife practiced learning English and did a small community service. Every time when I go out to the church I have many opportunities to listen to their history. Learning history is normally found in the texts, but on the field works at Mt. Moriah Church, Norris Community, and East Caney Baptist Church I had a new perspective in history. Oral history interview to the researchers in my working group is about how to preserve the oral story about the community and making understanding on the history. I also shared these perspectives with them. My expanded perspective in oral history had become the major theoretical framework in my literacy development. Oral history helps me to learn how English is

6 spoken by other Americans, not only the Whites I usually listen to. Listening to oral history interview given by the Blacks enhances my cultural perspective about Americans. In short , difference in religion and race are not risk to learn make understanding. Oral history interviews can be the main source of information to study literacy. In fact, the very reason we were in the Norris Community to collect oral history interviews was, to a great extent, about literacybased on Shannon Carters history of community activism in the area (see Carter and Conrad, 2012; Carter and Dent, 2013; Carter, Jones, and Hamcumpai; Carter, forthcoming). According to Linda Shopes, Oral History refers to formal, rehearsed accounts of the past presented by culturally sanctioned tradition-bearers; to informal conversations about the old days among family members, neighbors, or coworkers; to printed compilations of stories told about past times and present experiences; and to recorded interviews with individuals deemed to have an important story to tell. It is understood that oral history is a cultural vehicle that the communitys conversations ride over time among its members. Oral history is connected to our lives, works, families, and community (DeBlasio, 2009) because the literacy events (Heath, 1983) or literacy practices (Street, 1984) are remembered and recited in chronological order. Heath reveals the history of the black mill-workers in Piedmont Carolinas, the areas east of Appalachians from southwestern hills of Virginia through North and South Carolina into Georgia and Alabama. In 1950s, the blacks migrated from sharecropping farms to towns and cities to seek job opportunities in the mills and better schooling for their children. That event showed how segregation impacted their works and lives when they faced the barrier on hiring (27). Moreover, Street investigates adult illiteracy in the United Kingdom and the United States in the 1970s. He has found that illiteracy practices are not only the individual problem, but also caused by institutional practices in schools (214).

7 Barton and Hamilton (1998) assert that historical events may not be recognized by the people who participated in the event; the 400,000-people who gathered at the four-day music festival in 1969 may not recognize that they are the Woodstock generation. But other people, like journalists and historians, use these events or practices as a reference to the historical moment from the interview. Therefore, oral history interviews reflect the social and cultural values of a community. In this project, I argue that the historical event referenced by the spoken interviews would be a good source of stories to help learners with second language learning because they contain cultural lessons in oral form, which is important to the written form of literacy. It is also important to me to study the history of oral history interview. There were several projects on how oral history had been studied academically, beginning as early as the late 19th century. Though my dissertation will not focus on the history of oral history, the origins of the oral history interview as a research method and mechanism for preservation of local history will provide important background information for my use of oral history interviews as teaching materials. One of the earliest and most notable oral history projects is done by Works Progress Administration which was the part of the economic recovery project. The Federal Writers Project (FWP) collected the life histories of Americans after the Great Depression (Hirsch, Portrait of America). They hired writers and historians to travel and recorded the stories to make Art and literary work about American lives and cultures. This effort aimed to rediscover the American culture. The notable achievements of this New Deal effort are many, including an impressive array of literacy works developed directly from the materials developed through the FWP. Most notable in this respect is Richard Wrights 12 Million Black Voices which serves as my inspiration to study the life history of the African American community found in Norris Community, Texas.

8 Again, my goal is to draw from oral history interviews to teach English to non-native speakers with the assumption that the oral histories collected capture elements of the authentic context says are necessary for learning to read, write, and speak any new language. The Converging Literacies Center (CLiC) operates under the following mission statement: To promote a better understanding of how texts and related literacy practices may develop, sustain, or even erode civic engagement across local publics, especially among historically underrepresented groups ... CLiC is highly attentive to new medias role in our increasingly literate lives, thus projects emerging from and informing CLiC often engage new media as both object of inquiry and the form through which these findings are communicated. (Carter) It makes sense that the oral histories collected in the Norris Community would emphasize literacy as a theme for investigation. Shannon Carters multi-year study of the history of community writing among the areas African American citizens and studies led to the oral history collection that is my focus in the current dissertation (see Carter, A Clear Channel, and Carter and Conrad, In Possession). For this reason and others, I believe the oral histories collected from residents of this historically segregated neighborhood will be particularly appropriate for the proposed project as the citizens involved in each interview speak extensively about their experiences as readers and writers. As Carters oral history interviews with these participants were guided, in part, by the interview script in Deborah Brandts study of mass literacy (Literacy in American Lives), the key themes from which my own analysis will be well represented in the interviews selectedespecially with respect to forms of literacy sponsorship (Brandt) and similar themes emphasizing the role played by authentic context in literacy learning.

9 As my own goals are the teaching of second language acquisition not literacy development in ones native language, I will extrapolate lessons from these oral histories to emphasize in the teaching materials based on a close analysis of the oral history interviews informed by my equally careful reading of existing scholarship on the subjects under investigation (second language acquisition, literacy studies). The literacy studies scholar David Barton (2000) asserts that literacy practices are patterned by social institutions and power relationships. Education is one of the institutions that regulate the ways in which people operate literacy in a particular context. As noted above, several of CLiCs oral history interviews spend considerable time describing the ways literacy has developed in their own lives: for example, Harry Turner, a baby boomer and long-time resident of Norris Community, describes how he acquires information technology skills needed for his church in his role as deacon and technology specialist. Many of the details to emerge from the oral histories are more clearly linked to a particular time and place, like Turners description of how school segregation has affects on his literacy development. These videos do not only record the sound and moving image of literacy narratives of the people in a certain community, but they also represent the literacy practices in a particular context, as a history. I argue these descriptions can serve as teaching materials that simulate the authentic context researchers argue is so vital to learning any new language yet so hard to access for those living far away from native English speakers. Crucial to this study will be an understanding of literacy development as accumulating over an individuals life span and in relationship to broader social and cultural trends. Brandt (2001) approaches literacy as not only how we read and write but, in addition, the attention to the development of literacy. Brandt argues that literacy is based on knowledge and skills that have

10 been acquired throughout the lifetimes of readers and writers. From this perspective, literacy development means the accumulation of events across ones lifetime. That makes oral history interviews particularly appropriate for this project as oral histories have proven to be the record of values and knowledge that each informant has collected. From Brandt (2009), she examples the literacy narrative of Martha Day in her early years related with the innovation that sponsor the life changes. Electric light, paved roads, rural mail delivery, farm journalism, and expanding schooling are the sponsors that make life better. Theses sponsors are similar to the agents in Norris Community as well as Days community in 1920s. It was, she recalled the typical village of that day where a school, a church, and a general store were located within a mile from a family farm. They were own by local members in the community. This made people know each other. It was a sustainable community. Likewise, Norris Community and East Caney in rural Texas had the similar characteristics as well. The community sustained its economic stability by running the relationship with each instructional unit. Moreover, I would like to investigate how Carters pedagogy of rhetorical dexterity can work in the context of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL), as it seems to draw from the concept of affordances so important to my own project yet within a different context: the teaching of students called basic writers. A pedagogy of rhetorical dexterity, Carter explains, is an approach that develops in students the ability to effectively read, understand, manipulate, and negotiate the cultural and linguistic codes of a new community of practice based on a relatively accurate assessment of another, more familiar one (22). In pedagogy of rhetorical dexterity (p.63), Mike was the basic writing student who develops his golf literacy from his practice which not presented in school lesson. Out-of-school literacies are available from the context where a person operates his task. Therefore, the learners in EFL context would

11 make use of the rhetorical dexterity in learning authentic language from the community where it is used, whether they are living in the community or not. In this approach, language and literacy are interwoven. Language, as Gee (2011) defines, is the set of social conventions about how to combine words, phrases, clauses, and sentences to communicate meaning, while literacy is the delivery systems for language which represents speech, thinking, and signing. My project makes extensive use of the affordances embedded in digital media. Oral histories, which are presented through interactive media, contain language use which is the linguistic convention on how the spoken language was constructed from different language components. Learners in my project can acquire literacy from the video in forms of digital literacy that show authentic speech delivery, the thoughts of speakers, and the strategy meaning making from signs. I argue that technology can bring about the connection between language and literacy. It provides resources to develop the instructional media for language teacher. As the digital age is increasing technologys role in education, I would like to incorporate ways to use multimodal literacy in learning foreign language. The National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) added new objectives in literacy development such as; (1) additional proficiency in using technology; (2) collaboration with the world community; and (3) create, critique, analyze, and evaluate multimedia texts. In order to react to national policy in language education as NCTE states above, a future language teacher in the digital age should be able to adapt the way to deliver knowledge. The Internet is now the greatest source of technological development, since it offers us Web 2.0 technologies such as broadcasting, blogging, social networking, and Wiki. My dissertation project will use the advances in web technologies to teach English in a more visually attractive way than the traditional approach by remixing the existing

12 materials that CLiC has been collecting for years and reproducing them to serve learners in the digital age. Research questions The project that I intend to develop is based on the questions that related to the development of authentic instructional materials, utilization on locally-driven historical artifacts for globally-driven education context, and application of digital literacies for language education. The research questions are defined as the following: 1. How can digital artifacts be developed for foreign language instructional purpose to address a learner need for authentic materials? 2. How can we adapt the objectives of oral history video which recorded in rural American context to be utilized for applied linguistic purpose in another foreign context? 3. How we can we promote global awareness to foreign language learners through the collaboration of education technology that provides them with interactive uses of digital literacies? Context The materials for the project are collected from the depository of the Converging Litearcies Center and the digital archive collection at James G. Gee library, Texas A&M University-Commerce. The context of the video was originally intended for students in the local institute for research on a particular region of Texas. For my application, these materials are use for another context in rural university in northeast Thailand, where it is limited in authentic language teaching materials. However, the primary intention on local history will still be

13 preserved. In addition, it will be applied for linguistic purposes with learners needing competence to learn English as a foreign language. Significance Since English is used as the global language, it is significant that exposure to native speakers context will enhance motivation of foreign language students in global awareness. Study of the development in authentic language teaching materials will provide language teachers with visually attractive video for their lessons. The production of video will provide the idea on how to bring educational technology into English education where not only linguistic competence is primarily aimed at but also the communicative competence to drive motivation in learning culture of the English speakers. Method First of all, I plan to work on content analysis by exploring the oral history video in the archive. I will look at the topics that could share common interests with foreign students in my home country. Contextual aspects are such as community origin, religious activity, cultural activity, and minority students. After I am satisfied with the selected video clips, I will bring them into the development stage by using computer programs to process the video. Next, the edited version of the video will be installed on the online platform for language teaching purposes. Video sharing website such as YouTube and Mozilla Popcorn is the primary platforms to use. Last section focuses on the utilization of the simplified video clip. I will design the samples of lesson plan that use video clips from local Texas history in teaching English language. I believe this approach can appeal learners motivation because they can open communication with peers inside the class to achieve the tasks and with other global viewers who can share collaboration with them.

14 Outline of the chapters Chapter 1 describes the introduction to the research project. There are research areas relates to the research which included literacy, authentic context, oral history, language teaching, and educational technology. This chapter is the overview to research questions, method used in the study, and significance of the study. Chapter 2 is the review of the literature which covers two main areas: literacy and language learning and teaching. The first part draws from literacy scholars whose works are in literacy narrative, sponsor in literacy, oral history, digital humanity, literacy artifact, new literacies, multimodality. The later part is related to pedagogy in language learning and teaching. The literatures are included authentic context for language learning and teaching, principles in ELT (English Language Teaching), and sociolinguistic in teaching L2 (English as a Second/Foreign Language) Chapter 3 is the underlying theatrical framework about the context relevant to the tool that I develop an instructional prototype. It draws the ideas from context in oral history video. This is the examination of the elements found from rural Texas such as literacy practices and local history. The contextual observation is necessary to the development of language teaching tools. The link between local history interview and web tools is the main emphasis of this project. It is constructed on the application found in online environment. Chapter 4 is the application of context from the video into language pedagogy. This section demonstrates sample lesson plans which constructed on web tools. It suggests technological practices to use historical artifacts on ELT. Chapter 5 is the conclusion of the study. This chapter discusses the possibility that the project provides to literacy pedagogy, language learning, and educational technology application.

15 It also discusses the limitation and problem of the project which might be the future adaptation for other researchers whose works related to mine.

16 Chapter 2 Review of the Literature

The review of the literature will cover two main areas which are literacy and learning context. Firstly, literacy is based on literacy sponsorship and literacy narratives. The applied literacy theories are also including digital literacy, multimodality, new literacies, digital texts, and web tools. Secondly, learning context is the situation where literacy works on. The emphasis is put on authentic of context that influence language learning. It will cover the following issues: authentic context, oral history, and language learning and teaching. The second part discusses the pedagogy of literacy studies. 2.1 Literacy Deborah Brandts Literacy in American Lives (2001) provides the groundwork for literacy studies. The important analytical framework in this study is called sponsors of literacy. Sponsors are any agents, local or distant, concrete or abstract, who enable, support, teach, and model, as well as recruit, regulate, suppress, or withhold, literacy and gain advantage by it in some way. Sponsors deliver the ideological references to the sponsored in a reciprocal relationship. Brandt states that they lend their resources or credibility to the sponsored but also stand to gain benefits from their success, whether by direct repayment or, indirectly, by credit of association (19). In terms of resources, literacy supplies us with productive capacities like electricity supplies circulation to produce light. It trades the capacity with the opportunity for economic and political changes. The analytical method of this study aims to address the experience of how people learn to read and write. In everyday lives, however, literacy practices represent cultural variety and human resourcefulness.

17 She interviewed 80 people in America, whose birth dates ranged from 1890s to 1980s, and traced the memories of individuals literacy learning experiences. Inquiry focused on people, institutions, materials, and motivations. This method is called life-story research, and it gathers ethnographic narratives from open-ended autobiographical monologues, structured interview, and biographical surveys. In addition, oral history is another type of life-story research because it captures important social conditions and events when ordinary people recall their experiences. Mass histories may overlook the value of personal history because of its ordinary nature; however indirect evidence from oral history still illuminates the social structure from similar experiences over a particular life span. In the future, modern technological society is transforming the way literacy develops. Brandt predicted that literacy sponsorship would be associated with the technological revolution, and the form and format of literacy would diversify from conservative authorities. Schools and other institutions which sponsor literacy would be destabilized from the emerging conditions in learning how to read and write. Brandts ideas about literacy in learners lives provides my project with examples of the roles of literacy in peoples lives. I can see the influence of sponsorship on a persons literacy development, and this shows me that effective course management in the English classroom would support how language learners would acquire foreign language through technological literacy. Sponsorship provided by this project can supply the authentic language and culture of the people in English speaking community which consequently leads to the learners of foreign language in other communities to acquiring literacy. Cynthia Selfe and Gail Hawisher conducted a study on how people acquired technological literacies into their lives. In their book, Literate Lives in the Information Age:

18 Narratives of Literacy from the United States, literacies of technology have their tracings in specific contexts. We can see how different efforts (social, economic, education, technological) can shape specific cultural, material, educational, and familial contexts. We can observe different forms of literacy over individual life span. There are stories about how people in the United States adopted electronic literacy between 1978 and 2003. This project was inspired by Deborah Brandts oral history project in 1998. Because technology has become part of the American daily lifestyle, my project goal is to collect technological autobiographies of people of different ages, genders, ethnic and racial groups, and geographical backgrounds. Electronic literacies studies give us the base knowledge to understand the system of practices. The concept of technological gateways mentions the sites and occasions from which people acquire digital literacies across their experiences. These gateways can refer to schools, homes, communities, and workplaces where learners gain access to digital literacy. My project would be fully supported by the instructional tools that allow learners to access different gateways. In Composition Forum (2010) Cynthia Selfe revealed how her life as a scholar in rhetoric and composition and as an English teacher has developed technological literacies for the career. Brain Bailie (2010) led the interview by saying,
Digital humanists, working with networked technologies in their classrooms at the same time as they make the human use of technology a large part of their scholarship, are often dismayed by the general critique of their work as scholarship lite, something only worthwhile as long as the current new thing from Microsoft or Apple is en vogue and shiny enough to capture the attention of editors and students alike. How do we historicize and theorize our work, using that contextualization as a strategic position to work from when promoting the legitimacy and value of our work to the disciplineif not the academy in general? (1)

19 I can see clearly from Selfes words that digital humanist and language teacher can be two paths that overlap in the same avenue. Language teachers today are not limiting their scholarship to the content of language, but instead are expanding their approach to the study of how humanity can make use of digital advances to improve literacy learning. Digital literacy is now expanding its scope to humanities and education scholarship. Selfe started her narrative of educational history and her teaching career in the early 1970s by recalling her days as the English teacher in a Texas junior high school. She noted that educational institutes lacked the required methodologies to prepare their students for future teaching, so her early years teaching formal education were confusing. Teaching unprepared black students in poor schools taught her how the system failed to prepare her for serving society. In her graduate study at University of Texas, she acquired computer literacy and made it part of her educational plan, developing more perspectives in rhetoric and composition. That step was the turning point for scholars who were devoted to using technology in language teaching and learning. In order to engage students using multimodality in composition, critical thinking is needed to lead intellectual attention in developing literacy. New publishing formats, such as digital publication, are the approach that she and her colleagues in the field are engaging. In her words, media modes can change rhetorical approaches in more effective ways. Similar to Selfes narrative, I would like to make use of technology in language teaching and learning. I see that multimodality is one of the best tools for attracting learners to the lesson I will present in the project. My project is not limited to a single mode, such as text, or audio; instead, it brings together every mode to enhance learner experiences. In Beyond Communities of Practice: Language, Power, and Social Context, David Barton

20 and Mary Hamilton (2005) discuss how to connect literacy artifacts with a community of practices. The application of reification is defined in the following words: the process of giving form to our experience by producing objects that congeal this experience into thingness. In so doing, we create points of focus around which the negotiation of meaning becomes organized. Any community of practice produces abstractions, tools, symbols, stories, terms and concepts that reify something of that practice in a congealed form (Wenger, 1998). Reification covers material, artifacts, and abstract forms of semiotic representation which explains how a community of practice works. Barton and Hamilton observed literacy practices from Wengers vignette samples that narrated the work activity of a person in a particular period of time. The text discusses seven points of literacy in everyday life and social activities: 1. The literacy events point allows us to observe the written language as it takes an active role over events. 2. The literacy practices point highlights that specific practices in the workplace have particular roles in each situation. 3. During the social structure point, we can look at how the social patterning has established in relation with literacy practices. 4. History is built up from existing practices over the time and place, creating the historical point. The history explains the link between the local and power issue. 5. The dynamic point explains the fluid nature of literacy practices that have been changed and developed constantly.

21 6. We understand the meaning of the multimodal point from semiotic resources, and each mode has specific affordances. Multimodality is the combination of speech, visuals, numeric information, and symbolic system. 7. Finally, the recontextualisation point explains how texts are reframed over another context. Because texts can move across contexts, meanings and functions can be changed. My project is based on the application of reification by observing the points of meaning from the community where speech is used. In the local context, which is rural Texas, people use English as the main means of communication. Learners in the project can see how people in rural Texas use the English language to operate meanings and show their intention as the speakers of their community. This video provides the reification on how rural Texans are both physical and especially showing their thoughts and experience from speech. Brian Street addresses the term New Literacy Studies (NLS) as the new tradition of literacy that primary focuses on the acquisition of skills and looks at literacy as a social practice and also discusses multiple literacies by making distinctions between autonomous and ideological models of literacy to develop the definition of literacy as social practice (2007). When people have developed their literacy in an autonomous model, there is the assumption that literacy will have the effects of social and cognitive practices. These effects take part in enhancing economic prospects and creating better citizens. Street argues that social and economic conditions are the variables that make literacy different from one context to another. An alternative model, the ideological model of literacy, is culturally sensitive. The literacy practice is embedded in a particular society which operates variously in different contexts.

22 Ideology reflects the rooted worldview. Therefore, NLS, as supported by the ideological model, would look at literacy in the presupposition aspects; literacy is loaded with ideology and policy. The two main terms, literacy events and literacy practices, are well defined. Literacy events are defined by Anderson (1980) as the occasions in which people are trying to comprehend graphic signs. Heath (1982) expanded that definition to describe literacy events as an occasion when written texts are processed in the integral and interpretative process. In summary, Street defined social practices by focusing on reading and writing practices as social events. Participants have brought with them the social models to interpret the meaning. My project is adopting Streets idea of social practices by observing historical events from the people who acquired literacy in a certain way. Their literacy reflects the ideology of the Americans who live in rural Texas. These social practices well define how the culture of rural Texas has developed, which the language learners outside the community can use to make judgments about the language as well as the speakers. The project also aims to raise the mutual understanding among the world citizens. In the article Multimodality and Literacy in School Classrooms, Carey Jewitt (2008) said that multimodality has emerged in a changing social and semiotic landscape. Semiotic resources are found in many representations in addition to text, such as gesture, sound, image, and movement. They help us to make (as well as distribute, interpret, and remake) meanings. Such representations are referred to as modes which ascribe the material affordances, organize the principles, and relate meanings to cultural referents. Charmian Kenners (2004) ethnographic project demonstrated how bilingual students use semiotic resources such as directionality, spatiality, and graphic marks to realize meanings. Rosie Flewitts (2006) study on preschool children found that even young children use multimodality to construct meaning in socially

23 interacted activity at a play center. Flewitt used video to capture visual data and used medium that to interpret how children construct and negotiate meaning. While Jewitt suggested that language teachers should adopt multiple literacies in curriculum because student knowledge, experiences, and interests are the central factors of that pedagogy. Schools need to consider the students literacy practices since multilinguality, multimodality, and digital literacy are increasing their roles in education and students lives. I also look at multiliteracies as the foundation of language development. Also, Kervin and Derewianka (2011) described from the mode continuum model that in teaching with multimodal texts, teachers better know the composition of visual elements that underlying the relationship between the images and the accompanying texts. (Kress, 2006; Kress, 2010; Selfe, 2007). My project will adopt a multimodal approach by combining different meaningful modes that convey semiotic messages. For instance, images of a community, school, and university represent physical meaning. Audio contains words from speaking and also tone of voice, volume, rate, and cadence, representing the emotional meaning of the speakers. Body movement and hand gestures teach learners about body language. These examples are the points that I am going to focus on through the project. Rebecca P. Butlers article Oral History as Education Technology Research (2008) introduces readers to the definition of oral history as the type of discourse that enlists the notion of history as the narratives of the past and oral as the medium of expression. The interview preserves the memories and recollections of those who are interviewed for future appreciation. She suggests the methodology of oral history from her doctoral seminar course about educational technology instruction. She creates oral history interview checklists, including steps such as researching the background, developing questions, operating the equipment, interacting with the interviewee, and transcribing the interview. In summary, this article demonstrates historical

24 research in educational technology in order to review the foundations of the field from the remembrances of the founders. This article contributes to my study by giving the suggestion of how oral history can be done and how to make use in academic. Moreover, I am adapting Butlers idea to transcribe oral history interview for developing this video project. For instance, the questions that the interviewer asked would be the main ideas of the section where I will adopt to use in the prototype. Also, as Butler suggests, using transcription of the interview in the written format is good for the visual aid to the second language learners while the video is playing. New literacies were discussed widely in many scholarly conversations, such as the Conference on English Education in 2005. New technologies and new literacies were the issues in professional lives. The supports that they yield are contributed to dialogic, multi-authored, and organic texts (Swenson et al., 2006). In short, mutimodal literacies and digital technologies have influence on English education. Because of new literacies and technologies host the changing context in learning language. In the digital context, the perception of ourselves can be shifted. It is also the ecological context around us and the world we co-exhibit that have been influenced (352). For example, Walter Ong (1982), asserts that we will change the way we think as well as our lives conditions in technological context. Pat Sullivan (1991), posts a great and broader definition of technological changes as the change agents to our lives. Jim Porter (2002) also notes that technologies shape peoples ideology and perception of value. He discusses as a cyber writer that technology is related to writing, composition, education, and pedagogy. If most perspectives mentioned above are rightly justified, it is crucial to English teachers to think about the reasons why the new literacies bring us to get engage with, when is the right time and occasion that the changes impact on students lives, and how is the lives will be if the

25 teachers decide to bring the life changing experiences to them. This is the necessity for English education course to embrace new literacies to the classroom practice in order to catch up with technological innovation. English educators should have the responsibility to integrate new technologies with literacy courses. The change influences the willingness to adopt of various instructions using new media for teaching and learning. However, both teachers and students also need to develop critical and proactive stance to make understanding with opportunities and limitation that may occur. Such evolving changes brought by the Internet are not always technological issues, but rather the literacy issues to concern by English and literacy educators (Leu, 2005). As texts are expanding their forms from print-based to digital texts, we need to understanding the evolving relationship between traditional and new media texts. Mishra and Koehler (2006) explain, content knowledge on the digital texts have been evolved, updated, and revised continuously which makes texts dynamic. Obviously, texts in new literacies media such as webpage, blog, and social media are the concrete illustrations of how texts have evolved themselves according to the technological changes. Swenson et al. (2006) claim how the impact has taken place. They write Translating print texts into digital format also alter the way they transmit meaning and the ways in which they are accessed. (354) This point make me agree with by the observation to the revolution that historical artifacts have been able to access to the public through the digital achieve. This change makes texts and historical artifacts available globally on the Internet. Specifically, digital texts that I am using in the project are hypertextual that they are created as the digital natives. These texts have links to the other texts. Moreover, such multimodal texts are included visual, auditory, and other non-verbal elements. New literacies make text to be connective which widen previous boundary

26 of traditional texts. It also liberalize marginalized writers and underrepresented texts from the limit. Reading digital texts can be a creation of meaning, in addition to content comprehension from reading the printed texts. Reading in traditional ways, a reader explores meaning by following a linear reading pathway. On the other hand, reading digital texts in mutilmodality is different from traditional reading method. The interactive process makes reader to be more, as Swenson (2006) explains, writerly readers. This means they collaborate with the author to recreate another format of texts. They develop mindset to interact with the multimodal texts. Readers need to recognize the characteristics on modes in which texts are consisted of. Reading digital texts requires strategies to know how to locate, evaluate, synthesize, cite, and use information. For example, reading English in my prototype, students will have to recognize the involvement that each icon has on the meanings. They watch related streaming video to make use of aural and visual elements in meaning construction. Also, links will expand their understanding by leading them to related information. This sophisticate reading model reinforces development in reading strategies. They receive supports in reading texts by making intertextual connection between non-digital and multimodal elements. Reading in new literacies helps readers to see embedded values and ideologies within the language and society. To be obvious, reading the texts from rural African American artifacts reveals cultural sub-content that the people in a certain English speaking community have used via their language. This also represents their value of self. New lieracies defines social practice because they show how people have developed reading skills over their lifetimes to accompany the construction of knowledge. Swenson et al. suggests:


New literacies are in a synergistic, reciprocal, and constantly evolving relationship with older literacies, and the interplay of these processes in support of communication and knowledge construction must be perceived as social acts that build upon prior knowledge, literacy skills, and social literacy practices (357). The above idea implies how new literacies have been evolved from the rudiments of old literacies. Social practices are the layers of literacy that show how the practical knowledge in building existing literacy is formulated from the history. New literacies reveal the strategy that we use technology to support teaching and learning. They connect the gap by the integration of digital texts into reading curriculum. In the Internet age, the integration of digital and reading is common to the students who have grown up with this kind of texts. We can see new literacise texts in different forms such as print-based (e.g. digitalized text), digital texts genre (e.g. blog, wiki), hybrid form (e.g. hypertexual text), and mutimodal texts (e.g. videoblog).

2.2 Authentic context Authentic context is necessary in learning foreign language (Widdowson ,1998; Herrington and Oliver, 2000; Lee, 2000; Herrington and Kervin, 2007). Authentic context and situated learning are relevant to each other, according to Brown, Collins and Duguid (1989), knowledge is situated and influenced by the activity, context, and culture in which it is used. Knowledge is gained to the learners by contextualization. It is important to the instructional designer to concern with authentic experiences and to adopt this notion into various activities. Harrington and Oliver (1995) propose the situated learning as the instructional design of computer-based programs in their project. Authentic activities are provided to learners for

28 finding and solving the problem. When they are in the authentic environment across subject areas, they need to be able to detect what is relevant or irrelevant to the situations. Program instructor should add steps, procedures, hints, suggestions, clues, and facts into the interactive tasks. Therefore, it makes real world tasks to serve their need properly. Authentic situations are used to enhance learning in several studies. Foxfire was the innovative school project in 1966-1972 that combines oral history interview with composition from the authentic context. It encourages students learning motivation while they are interacting with authentic context in local community (Sitton, 1983; Richie, 2003). Students write as the ethnographer who inquires the field outside the classroom. Heath & Street (2009) suggest that ethnographers are constant learners who ever curious and opens to whats happening. They study something because they already know something. Harley (1993) used situated learning in the classroom context with the assistance of virtual reality and hypermedia. Collins (1988) notes that computers give us enormous power to create situated learning environments where students are learning about reading, writing, math, science and social studies in ways that reflect the kinds of activities they will need these for. Gulikers (2005) notes that an authentic context is created by simulating a consultancy agency in a virtual way with a lot of multimedia features combining visual, aural, and written information. (513) Participants in the university in the Netherlands participate with authentic context called Buiten Dienst which is the electronic learning environment. It simulates a consultant agency in virtual way. This aimed to create higher performance in authentic environment and also intended to prove that the environment has significant influence on student experiences. Stephen Krashens Principle and Practice in Second Language Acquisition (1982) addressed the approaches to language teaching by suggesting ways to provide input. In language

29 acquisition, the optimal input should be: (1) comprehensibly provided, (2) interesting and/or relevant to the acquirer, (3) not grammatically sequenced, (4) sufficiently provided, and (5) minimal in affective filter level. They should also (6) provide tools for conversational management. He asserted that good input will enhance the acquisition; therefore, the teacher should simplify the linguistic forms by slowing the rate and making articulation clearer. Teachers should use high frequency vocabulary and avoid using slang or idioms. Nevertheless, relevancy of comprehensible input supports comprehension in language learning. I will develop the language instruction video which is simplified for foreign language learners, making it easier for them to pick up. Moreover, the use of English transcription will be used to aid listening comprehension with visual text. Krashen (2003) mentioned that reading habits are directly involved with the previous experiences of the person working on the problem. Brazerman (1985) examined a group of physicists reading habits and found that they distinguished between core and peripheral reading from the relevancy of their interests. Their reading preferences automatically draw them toward texts that match with their core interests. They tend to understand better if the texts are related to their previous experience. As I mention earlier, Thai language learners may obtain relevant local experience from local Texas speakers in same common aspects. Syllabus, which the language teachers choose to use, plays the vital role the instruction on Grammar-based syllabus in Krashens argument will make teachers become overly concern about how learners speak and read the learning materials which results in tedious language. A communicative syllabus, based on the Natural Order Hypothesis, provides the student and teacher with the communication of ideas that can occur at any grammatical sequence.

30 The quantity of input needs to be sufficient for helping students acquire language as well. In child language acquisition, the silent period could last for six months. Adults who would achieve halfway between minimal professional proficiency and working professional proficiency may require around 720 hours of class time. Language acquirers tend to develop their competence from listening in order to produce understanding and output. From Krashens argument, I argue that language teachers should develop lesson plans based on the communicative approach. Learners start with extensive listening to simplified video and are aided by subtitles in their native language to enhance language acquisition. Diane Larsen-Freeman and Marti Andersons Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching (2011), offers language teachers the thought behind particular actions in language teaching methods. In their terms, thought-in-action links are the coherent set of thoughts and actions that teachers consider in teaching specific subject matter. The best method for teaching language depends on the instructors belief in teaching-learning processes. Professional belief is the direction in keeping teaching practice alive. Larsen-Freeman and Anderson present taskbased language teaching (TBLT) as a worthwhile alternative when teaching language to foreign students, because the authentic task of using target language in communicative practice could enhance language acquisition from direct experience. TBLT primarily introduces students to the goals they need to accomplish in their target language. They utilize four skills in practicing TBLT, and the teachers role is that of a mentor who provides assistance and intervention when it is necessary. Project work is the task that allows students to work collaboratively on language learning outside of the classroom. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) emphasizes more on communicative competence than linguistics structure. As Hymes (1971) suggested, CLT approach teaches

31 learners to be able to know how language is used in the society. The learners should know when and how to say what to whom. This is socially governed. It relates with the fact that language is fundamentally social (Halliday, 1973). The learners should be able to communicate in the real life situations that necessitate communication (Brandl, 2007). In order to teach communicative language approach, teachers can adopt technique in using authentic materials in their lesson by exposing learners to the natural English language from outside the classroom. In my project, I incorporate this idea by designing communicative tasks that will encourage learners to express their language production from their comprehension. Moreover, I am suggesting that teachers add the use of technology to their language teaching and students learning; the Internet provides digital technology that enhances communication for learning experiences. For example, the Internet makes learning resources available such as text, audio, and video. People share actual videos in a wide range of topics on Youtube. Wikipedia is a collaborative platform for a group tasks. The Internet provides a wealth of resources that aid in the acquisition of English as a second language. The texts used to develop the content in this project are retrieved from African American context. It is worth discussion the aspect of this kind of American English. First of all, Janet Holmess An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (2008) mentions that African American Vernacular English (AAVE) has a distinctive sense of cultural language. It also has some grammatical features which sometimes distinguish themselves from the English of white Americans such as multiple negation, consonant cluster simplification, and the use of invariant be. English language in America has linguistic variety that represents its peoples ethnicity. My project needs to address the features of AAVE as one of the language variations in which American-English speakers use. English in global use is also having the variety. As Braj Kachru (2009) coined the

32 term World Englishes in three concentric circles which represent the ways of where English is acquired and being used in different countries across the world. First, the Inner Circle refers to the countries where they use English mostly in their daily communication, and they define the language norms. These countries are the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Second, the Outer Circle refers to the countries that earlier colonized by Britain and the United States. English is used as the second language as for official communication purpose. The examples are India, Jamaica, Singapore, Hong Kong, and the Philippines. The outer ring plays important roles in multilingual context setting and called to be norm developing for these countries language policy. Third, the Expanding Circle refers to countries where English is widely used as a foreign language in business interaction or international academic context. It differs from the other rings in terms of the historical and governmental dependence from the inner ring. Examples of the expanding ring countries are China, Japan, Korea, and etc. I am going to assert the significance of world Englishes to prove that there are other varieties of English spoken in the world in addition to English used by American and British speakers. Robert Baumgardners Teaching World Englishes (2006) explains perspectives in teaching English course by Kachruvians philosophy. Baumgardner suggests resources for teachers who wish to adopt World Englishes approach to their courses which included culture, standardization, language form, and non-native English varieties. Teaching the World Englishes in the Outer Circle where my project will be conducted would be benefit by bringing the varieties from the Inner Circle to demonstrate the other forms of Standard English. The project will apply Kachrus polymodel concept in teaching English. Lesson planning serves as the guide for the sequences of activities. It helps teachers to decide what to teach, how much time to use, and which order should be used. Linda Jensen

33 (2001) also suggests that lesson plan works for students by reminding them to the goals and objectives of the course. Teachers can use lesson plans to prepare their teaching, at the same time, students use it to prepare for expected goals and objectives. Before planning the lesson, teachers need to have different knowledge in planning such as the capacities of students they are going to teach, the learning goals which the students should be reached, and the best ways teachers believe that their students can learn well (Graham, 2006). In addition, teachers should think about the skills they will aim to teach the students, the activities that would enhance learning objectives, the time constraints in each period, and the strategies to check students understanding. Milkova (2012) emphasizes the relationship between assessment, activities, and objectives. Starting from the concrete objectives, they define what teachers want student to learn by which teaching-learning activities. As in the loop, how teachers check their students understanding reflects the effectiveness of the teaching. The following steps in preparing lesson are important to novice language teachers to concern: outline learning objectives develop the introduction plan the learning activities check students understanding develop a conclusion create a realistic timeline

These steps provide ways I can adopt the project into the lesson, especially for activities implementation in planning step. It is suggested that teachers should prepare multiple ways of explaining the materials. These can be visuals, examples, or analogies. The activities should

34 catch the students attention and appeal their learning styles. Questions to ask when designing learning activities are included: How teachers can do to explain the lesson? What are the other ways to explain the same topic? How are relevant supports such as examples, analogies, and situations used to engage understanding? The project I will develop to be English language teaching materials is taken from authentic context. The Language Materials Project (LMP) of UCLA suggests the selection of materials whether the items are categorized as pedagogical materials or authentic materials. The first category is intended to use for teaching a second language whereas the other is intended to work with native speakers. Pedagogical materials need to have pedagogical usefulness that intend to teach any aspect of language. Publication information, such as author and publisher, is the standard criteria to include in LMP database. On the other hand, criteria for choosing authentic materials into the database are related to pedagogical usefulness, foreign origin, sustainable source, U.S. availability, and legal availability. Berk (2009) also suggests how teacher can use video in the instruction. Video should be short and editable in order to make it useful to the desire point for instructional use. He suggests the guideline as the followings: length as short as possible to make the point, edit unmercifully to a maximum of three minutes unless the learning outcome requires a lengthier extract context authentic everyday language use unless purpose relates to language actions/visual cues action should relate directly to purpose, eliminate anything extraneous

35 number of characters limit number to only those few needed to make the point, too many can be confusing or distracting. From the oral history interviews in the digital collection at James G. Gee library that I will select to develop the production, they possess all criteria stated above. They are originally designed for historical records but to this project they will be creatively remixed and reused for L2 pedagogical objectives. Origin of the materials is from speakers in an English speaking country, but the materials are worldwide accessible through the university archives website which are less restricted in copyright.

36 Chapter 3 Authentic Context

This chapter analyzes the theoretical framework with context from oral history and artifacts related to the interview. It is an examination of three core themes present in the oral history interviews and most relevant to the English lessons I will describe in the following chapter: literacy practices, local history, and language use. The geographical boundary of the targeted context is Commerce, Texasspecifically, residents of the Norris community, the historically segregated, predominately African-American neighborhood in town. The community selected is representative of native English speakers, a language that is far more diverse than is often depicted in English language learning materials. In my own case, for example, I never would have encountered the speech patterns of individuals like Harry Turner in my textbooks in Thailand. The excerpts printed in those textbooks represented a decontextualized, standard variety. That standard appears very little like the southern accents representative of the oral histories from which I sampled. Yet someone like Mr. Turner is far more typical of English language users than the individuals represented in my textbooks. I argue that individuals like Mr. Turner, who has spent the majority of his of more than sixty years in rural Texas are the representatives of standard English users. The authentic context I have argued is necessary for more effective development of English language proficiency. These individuals are clearly native English speakers because they were born to parents who used English in everyday life. The accent represented in mass media offers a standard variation of English language use. However, this is an inaccurate representation of English use in everyday life. There is, of course, much greater variety based on life experiences, regional

37 variations, and all the other variables that factor into authentic language use and, therefore, should factor into the way we learn new languages. In selecting the representative oral history sample for the sample lesson, I considered not only the authenticity of the language use example, but also potential access for second language learners. The oral histories I reviewed for potential inclusion included interviews with individuals like Opal Pannel, for example, a lifelong resident of Norris whose advocacy had a significant impact on the community. Still incredibly active and involved at more than eighty years old, her story has much to teach us about Norris and African American history. However, as a second language learner, I found it ultimately too difficult to understand what she was saying in the oral histories sampled. She speaks quite softly, and her accent can be difficult to understand. Similarly, local activists like Billy Reed and Ivory Moore presented potential problems for English language learners. Mr. Reed spoke much more loudly than Ms. Pannell, but in a rather thick southern accent. Moore was similarly difficult to understand. For these reasons, I ultimately settled on a series of oral history interviews with Harry Turnernot because his interviews present a more authentic use of English but simply because I found him quite easy to understand. For parts of the ethnography research in local community, my oral history project started in the spring semester of 2010 with graduate coursework. I decided to follow his literacy narrative in digital practice. I first saw him in a video that the oral history interviewer handed to me to transfer from mini DV to the digital format. When I had a chance to meet him at several meetings and community visits, I have primary information about what he has done in literacy practice.

38 This work behind the camera for Carters study of literacy in Norris inspired one of my own based on Mr. Turners developing technological literacies. As part of a graduate course designed to, according to the objectives outlined in the syllabus, Course Objectives: To examine rhetoric in everyday contexts via extensive fieldwork and rigorous use of archival materials. Course goals include preparing rhetoricians and literacy scholars to research writing and writers in local contexts, particularly among marginalized populations. To meet these goals, students will work with a variety of archival materials associated with a common research site: the Norris Community in Commerce, Texas.

Example 1: Literacies by Trial and Error In the following section, I will describe the results of that study. In doing so, I will explicitly relate the learning of technological literacies illustrated by Turners oral history interviews with similar learning strategies that take place when one is developing proficiency in a second language. As I noted in the previous chapter, literacy learning takes place in context in many of the same ways that language learning takes place in context. Literacy instruction, like language instruction, often decontextualize lessons in ways that misrepresent how we actually learn (Carter, The Way Literacy Lives). After making these connections between Turners developing technological literacies and second language acquisition, I will describe the ways in which oral history interviews like these can serve as a virtual mechanism for an authentic context that may be unavailable to learners. Why Turners technological literacies? In early conversations with Mr. Turner, I noticed that he had a great deal of skill with computers. He maintained the churchs website, and he even recorded the Sunday services to broadcast on local television station for those unable to attend

39 due to illness. From our understanding, very few Norris residents of his age and older had such extensive skills with computers. I wanted to know how he learned to do all he knew how to do. As someone interested in technology myself, this was an intriguing topic. However, I also wondered based on my readings of how people learn new language how his developing skills in this area might parallel my experiences as a second language learner. Specifically, I pinned down my research interest on digital literacy practice. According to Eshet (2004) digital literacy is basically related to the ability to use software and digital devices. It even expands its scope to a complex set of skills needed to function in digital environments. Those abilities in digital literacy are cognitive, motor, sociological, and emotional skills. The research for Turners literacy narrative included gathering artifacts he created using digital tools in achieving his task for the church, as well as oral interviews about his ideas in using technology The product of his literacy practice is the pamphlet he publishes every week to use in the church. Sunday Bulletin is the text produced as the supplementary handout for church services. It has been published since 1978 and kept in the collection, which currently has around 200 booklets. In the early years, he made it in the cut-and-paste method. He composed the texts with help from ideas from the Christian bible, and current issues the church wanted to emphasize. He used a typewriter as a tool to compose it and drew illustrations by hand.



Fig.1. Sunday Bulletin. He said in the interview about his memory about using publishing tools to produce the texts. This is my transcription of his literacy narrative about how he practices writing with technology. In 1978, I started from an old Roneo machine and the Smith and Corona typewriter and I did it until 1993 or so, and the Smith and Corona broke down. I have to chose for another, lets get out and use a computer. So they got one but I know nothing about it, nothing at all. I dont know how to set up anything. It was Windows 3.1 (laughter). So on the weekend, I worked out through three or four oclock in the morning, trying figuring out Access, Word, Excel, and all kinds of stuff. I found a guy who writes all kind of stuff pretty good and kind of digging onto computer. So right now I have got around five or six laptops As a student of rhetoric and composition, the approach which a writer uses to write is significant to me. This shows us how composition has relationships with tools. Turner has been using

42 various tools to compose texts. He mentioned using Roneo machine and the Smith and Corona typewriter since the 1970s, which nowadays are the old fashion machines. The descriptive narration explains the revolution of writing technology in his lifetime. Later in the 1990s, his literacy skills needed to adapt with rapid technological advancements by adopting computer technology. As Jones and Flannigan (2006) studied, the learning approach affects students adoption or rejection of electronic media. To Turner, it is his willingness to take a trial and error method in adopting new media for his composition skills. He also mentioned how he acquired digital literacy. Shannon Carter: How did you then teach yourself with these programs to works without the books to make use to teach yourself the various functions? so on and so forth. Harry Turner: Well, I guess trial and error. I remembered what this is, and then I saw how to type it anyways. You know at first, with tired and value worried and I just you know this bold, a paste, fonts. You know something I could know. I knew a lot of things were there, but I didnt need to use. () books on like ClipArt, and I believed this scan and I transferred it; drag-and-drop, you know all kind of stuff. It is his self-taught strategy on how to use computer. I believe that with his basic skills in using traditional machines for almost twenty years, it should not be difficult to upscale his learning curve with new technology. Eventually, I became a tech savvy in digital technology. The Internet is vital to his role as a Sunday school superintendent. He learned to use the Internet as the technology evolved from dial-up to high speed technology. His expanded his knowledge in digital composition by creating a website for the Mt Moriah Temple Baptist

43 Church ( This oral interview transcription reveals his literacy transition to the Internet literacy. Harry Turner: I had a friend and he would, one day he showed me some sport that he downloaded from the Internet stuff. So I said wah, I will try. I came home and I got on the phone ahead on the Internet on a line. So it had to call at a time. If you are on the Internet, your phone rings you knows (Turner was gesturing hand) Sunchai Hamcumpai : Yes, yes, it is disconnected. (laughter) Harry Turner: This is again dial up and you got to dial. You hear it rang..g..g..g. I will let you know when I found dial up. But it is so slow, you know it is terribly slow. You got to sit, you got to wait you know its trouble. Ive gone to broadband high speed Internet. Sunchai Hamcumpai: How about the church website? Are you the one who create the church website? Harry Turner: Yes, I did. I knew nothing about it. My pastor said, Can you create a website. I said No I cannot, I dont know how. So he said Sure you can, you look into it, you can do it. So I said No. He said Yes, you can. I looked at the prices and one was Starlogic. So I said Here, I might try. So I went to that website, Starlogic website, and it shows you how to create your own. So I just kind of (.) some pictures from there and I kind of create myself. Sunchai Hamcumpai: How do you change the website content when you want to add picture or add some texts?

44 Harry Turner: A page called website developer and it is step process. You want to change something, you got edit, or you can add it, you can delete it. Or you can the kind of highlight it. It is really simple to do. Though I am a generation younger than Mr. Turner, and I was raised in a very different country, his story has a number of interesting similarities with my own. His narrative is similar in that I first learned how to use the Internet before the 2000s. It was the dial-up connection era as well. We have shared a commonality for the first time with the Internet. The instant website is convenient for him to compose webpage instead of writing HTML code in lines as the programmer. Anyone can create and be a webmaster without knowing computer programming languages. Turner chose to buy a space on the website service provider who offered instant template for his church website. My technological literacy with computers began evolving in 1996 when I started my first year at Thammasat University. At the school of business, I took a couple of computer related courses: Management Information System and Marketing Information System. They were the introduction courses to use business computing programs such as Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access, and the Internet. Institutional sponsorship performs as an agent in my literacy, as those courses were included in the curriculum. As Selfe (1999) notes, technology and literacy have complex linkage that characterize public education and culture in America in gaining its achievement in the Twenty-First century. Selfe tried to find a literacy agenda that reflects a technological gap among students in the American education system, which she calls serious and shameful inequalities. These inequalities are the continuing of racism, poverty, and illiteracy. The Thai educational context is similar; the inequalities are presented among the people from different socio-economic backgrounds. Limited technological resources in

45 Thammasat University almost prevented me from gaining access to technological literacy. I remember I had to exit computer use sessions after one and a half hours because only thirty to forty computer stations were shared among thousands of students on campus. My family was not able to afford to buy me a computer because of they were low-income rural school teachers. I finally received a used computer from my older sister because it was necessary for my senior project in Marketing Information System. Internet literacy was introduced to me in 1997 by way of educational sponsorship in Thammasat University. It was fascinating to be able to access to online information from authentic contexts, especially in the US. I explored information from portal websites. and were among the first web portals I used to explore the World Wide Web. I gained access to reading materials written in English more easily and the Internet updated more frequently than textbooks or magazines in the library. Not only was I the literacy receiver, I was also the literacy sponsor to other students in my non-English speaking country by using Internet literacy resources as teaching aids. In my junior year, I worked part-time as an English tutor for high school students. I utilized literacy from the Internet by printing articles from to teach them according to their interests. For example, one student, Namwan, was a daughter of a fisherman whose father spent time several months in the ocean. She always admired her father as a hero. I selected articles on marine life to have her learn about the environment in which her father worked. Leng was another high school boy who was reluctant to come to my private English lessons because of I was selected by his father. I met his father one evening at the university where he randomly looked for a private tutor for his son in order to practice writing the university examination. Leng was a shy boy who did not talk much. After I have made a

46 commitment to help with his English and showed my advanced English communication skills I gained from exchange student experience in New York high school, it made him see the expectations that are results of having English proficiency. We learned English from his interests, which were music and soccer. Teaching materials I printed out were from authentic environment, such as Gun and Roses biographies, Meat Loaf lyrics, and Manchester United news. His study skills in learning English vocabulary were enhanced by his interests. Study skill. Whenever he needed to look up the meaning, I suggested that he highlight that word in his dictionary. Eventually, his dictionary was colored like a rainbow. We played games with English words by randomly picking the colored word to guess the meaning. Soon, Leng developed his vocabulary bank from frequent explorations through his English language dictionary. Two computer-mediated communication (CMC) approaches that I have to discuss in my literacy are synchronous and asynchronous communication (Ashley, 2003). First, synchronous tools enable the communication and collaboration in a same time-different place mode. People can access the same point in the Internet in the same time. This engages peoples interaction by interactivity because they can communicate instantly and learning becomes challenging for them. The drawback is that people from different time zones have difficulty in scheduling times to communicate. The examples of synchronous CMC are such as audio conferencing (useful for discussion and dialogue), web video conferencing (useful for sharing visual presentation and information), chat (useful when the information sharing is low-complex), and instant messaging (offers quick communications). When I leant to use synchronous communication, I used Telnet chat, mIRC, and Pirch Chat to practice English communication with people. Telnet was the intranet server within my universitys servers, as well as neighbor institutions who shared our Internet network. The users were Thai students, but we had to use English as a medium. Chatting

47 was usually conducted in English, but some other students used Karaoke English in the chat line. For instance, na rak jung for You are cute, Rao rean Accy, Ther la? for I study at the faculty of Commerce and Accountancy. How about you? Possible new sentence: English language learners used written codes as their strategy to convey meaning in their Thai language, as well as by imitating the sound of their native Thai language. The reason came from students student lack of knowledge in English written skills to communicate effectively in English. They have to use alternative codes of written texts to speak the sound of Thai in English written form. Pirch and mIRC were two other networks that hosted many users from outside the country. These networks were authentic communication environments that I could find in the university. It was excited me and friends to have a chance to practice real English communication with foreign people. In the chat room, there were two types of chatting: the main room chat where every user types conversational dialogues simultaneously, and a private room where communication takes places on a one-on-one basis. From 1997 to 2000, I was a heavy user of chat rooms. Every day, I hopped from one computer center to another until they closed their chatting services. It was obsessive behavior in using technology. Second type of CMC is asynchronous which includes tools that allow communication and collaboration to be on a "different time-different place" mode. People can connect at their convenience. Information via dialogue is sustained over a certain period of time to create instant access for any user. This is advantageous for users from different time zones to discuss a topic on the original post. The reply to the started topic keeps information and knowledge as collective collaboration. The drawback of this mode is login participation, in which users have to register personal information to participate in conversations. Someone may feel losing personal identity is a downside to using asynchronous CMC. Since 1997, I was active user on, which

48 is the first asynchronous Thai community on technology, lifestyle, and foreign living. I registered by providing the website with my social security number for official identification to receive a user name to participate in the community. It was a sharing website in which people contribute their responses to questions asked in order to make topics useful. Member could give monthly gift points to their favorite post to motivate the participation as well. E-mail communication also encouraged me to get in touch with a host family in New York. It was at this time that Hotmail and Yahoo! Mail were introduced to the public with free accounts for all. These tools bring me back to an authentic community where people use English as a first language in daily life. Literacy in technology and computer helped me to write a website for the marketing club. When I first created the website, I had never taught writing HTML programming language other than as a web master who majored in Computer Science. Similar to Turners literacy when he created website for Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church, I used Microsofts Frontpage to create the website from scratch. It had a template for web publishing which was the same as composing text on Microsoft Word. I also had to learn how to manage the HTML files to upload to the Internet by file transfer protocol (FTP). The moment I fully acquired computer literacy happened I created my senior project using Microsoft Access to manage marketing intelligence databases. My team worked on handicraft product information collected from the library databases. We collected news clippings to make data folders and assigned metadata for the computer system in order for the system to retrieve the clippings from particular inquiries such as keywords, product types, source names, or years. I had to work I on interface design to make the program visually attractive and userfriendly. That project was the origin of the final stage of my literacy development in technological competency.

49 With my original interest in technological literacy combined with language communication specialization, I started working for a marketing communication company whose main clients were IT and computer companies such as IBM, SAS Software, Cisco Systems, and Motorola. They organized the public relations events for the clients and I was responsible for translating English press releases to the Thai language for local news reporters. I had gained technological and English literacies during studying in college and living in America, which helped me advance in socioeconomic status. The trial-and-error strategy that Turner used in his technological literacy proved him to be efficient in computer. He tried different ways to use different functions on the computer until he found the effective skills on using the computer. This type of strategy can also be applied to my language learning. When I was sixteen years old living for the first time in an authentic language environment, I found different sounds in English pronunciation are troublesome, because I came from a rural hometown where English inputs were limited. In order to show how trial-and error strategy worked, my life experience was the best example that demonstrated how I negotiated with different pronunciations for the right purpose. One day, Jessica, the sister of the host family asked me what kind of ice cream I would like to order. I could not say the correct pronunciation for chocolate \ch-k(-)lt\ in two syllables. I kept saying shock-go-lad \k\ \o\ \lt\ several times until Jessica thought that I wanted shake-a-lot \shk \\ \lt\ or milk shake. In summary: What I said was What she heard was What actual sound is \k\ \o\ \lt\ \shk \\ \lt\ \ch-k(-)lt\ shock-go-lad shake-a-lot chocolate

50 Another example was also from the same situation for the pronunciation of creamy yellow ice-cream called, vanilla \v-ni-l\. In that time, I could not say it right but was recognized as where-need-la as the summary: What I said was What she heard was What actual sound was \v\ \ ni\ \ l \ \we\ \nid\ \l\ \v-ni-l\ vah-nee-lah where-need-la vanilla

The error of my pronunciation is shown through several trials, which are caused by the English speakers listening breakdown. The correctness of language production is significant to surviving in the English speaking community because the error in pronunciation can be compared to other similar sounds which the listener understands. Estimation of my sound toward the English listener was based on her rich experience as an English language producer who possessed native tongue.

Example 2: Interaction with the Context When I went to visit him on a Sunday in April 2011, I intended to catch up with the church service in the afternoon if there were still any activities went on. Unfortunately, I did not realize that the service was over by noon. I went to visit Turner at his home next door to the church. As suggested in FieldWorking : Reading and Writing Research, establishing rapport is necessary to get in the field. The researcher needs to learn how to establish the comfortable relation with the informant and keeps record of some differences between the interviewee and the interviewer to notice the gap between one anothers cultures. A cultural artifact interview can begin with the object that the informant has and later lead to the underlying aspect that is

51 worth studying (Sunstein and Chiseri-Strater, 2007). The field notes below demonstrates how I compose texts for my oral history research.

52 Fig. 2. Field note from the conversation with Mr. Turner and the mind mapping note from video viewing,

This note acted as the conversational artifact that later became the mnemonic device to write the extended field note in the blog. When I came back to the desk at home, I used it to refresh my memory from the interview to write the field research. Ethnographers are suggested to jot down main ideas as they conduct the interview. Different memory recording strategies can be used to record such as short note, narratives, and mind mapping. This note is written down simply by the main idea I discussed with Turner. For example I talked with him about the moral of money and extended the topic to politics and finally end with technology. The interview questions may not need to start directly toward what the researcher intended to know. Conversation can be on any the general talks to make the informant comfortable with the interview.




Fig. 3. Extended field note from the blog

The tool that I used in taking notes from the conversation with Mr. Turner is effective in organizing ideas. Mind Map is widely used in many educational contexts. It is the spider-like diagram used to outline information. The central node represents the main ideas which later expand with associated ideas, words, or concepts. Mind Map began being understood in the 1960s and 1970s and was widely recognized when Tony Buzan (1974) wrote Use Your Head Innovative Learning and Thinking Techniques To Fulfill Your Mental Potential and registered

56 Mind Map as the trademark for self-improvement educational courses in Great Britain and the United States in 1990 (Vic, 2008). Currently there are several websites that offer free-service Mind Map software such as,,, and These web tools can be effective to create more professional-looked Mind Map but students need to have basic ideas on how to capture the idea and organize the resulting ideas in visual mode. When the second language learners interact with text, we have different strategies to manage the meanings. For example, when I listened and needed to take notes, I used Mind Map to help organizing ideas as mentioned earlier. One of the language barriers in learning English is meaning translation. In my mind, as and non-native English speaker (NNES), I have to interpret the English words into Thai and then transfer the concept of meaning to the translation unit in the mind. For example, when I heard Mr. Turner said deacon, I instantly recognized the sound of \ d-kn\ in the ears but I still had no clues about the meaning of that sound. But I have no understanding to the meaning of the sound. It is necessary to consult the dictionary definition for an exact concept of the sound \d-kn\. Finally the dictionary explains that deacon: (noun) a subordinate officer in a Christian church: as a: a Roman Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Orthodox cleric ranking next below a priest b: one of the laymen elected by a church with congregational polity to serve in worship, in pastoral care, and on administrative committees
(Merriam-Webster, 2013)

The definition from dictionary makes me understands what the word means in English. In the authentic context by observing Mr. Turner at Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church, I saw how he

57 was the deacon. Visual representation from the event in the church clarifies my ambiguity about the unknown word deacon.

Fig. 4: Harry Turner as a deacon at Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church, images and YouTube Video

58 Observation of the deacons task made me curious, and I pondered about his performance. I wrote in my field note that: The above two photos are the Deacons performing his service. (Thanks to Dr. Carter for mentioning this word, Deacon. I really dont know what to call this position) One man raises his right hand and another man raises his left hand. The symbolic meaning that I assume is more like the bird wing, or probably the angle wing who spreads their arm under the pastor. This makes me feel that when I stay under the Gods arm or hand, I am being protected and feeling safe to be with him. Why dont they raise both hands? Well, they do so, too. But I think it means to surrender to something instead. Research Journal, 2010, This was my interpretation of the body language from the lens of the visitor who had never been to the African American Baptist church. The foreign students may need guidance with interpreting the ceremony practice into understanding this practice as a cultural literacy. Also, along the wall at the church, I found artifacts to learn about literacy at the church. From three examples:

Fig. 5. The FAITH sign, artifact seen on the wall at Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church.

59 1. This artifact is attached on the wall in the reception hall. This is the first one in the order. I think it has the meaning for the Gods word. Faith is being sure of what we hope for and certain of what we do not see. Surely, I need to keep faith in what I believe, no matter how vague it is. To be faithful is about hoping what I do not even see but I think, I am preparing to accept what I am certain. Its about determination.

Fig. 6. The HOPE sign, artifact seen on the wall at Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church. 2. The second one is HOPE. Where there is life, theres hope. I interpret this talk about hope to mean that we live on hope. Whenever I am living and breathing, it means I am alive. This is not only the physical kind of alive, but rather the emotional, mental, and spiritual kind of alive. Life and hope go together. Because of I am having hope, this makes my life going forward. I am walking to what I hope for in any way I go.


Fig. 7. The LOVE sign, artifact seen on the wall at Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church 3. This last picture says LOVE. And the greatest of these is love. The greatest thing to keep life alive is love. It is necessary to love to what I am faithful, and hope for something. I think that without loving anything, it would be hard to keep our life. People at the Christian church everywhere always say that because God loves us, he is willing to sacrifice himself. And this is the greatest love that Jesus performed to make it visible. Love has many aspects to people. I think that the opportunity that I am able to participate in this church is a result of the philosophy of the people who believe in love. In addition, to love what I believe in and hope for is also the way love works. I keep going and trying to research the Norris community because I feel love for my schoolwork. I am happy to try hard to accomplish it for academic purposes. By the way, I get involve with their activity because I would like to share my love with others. Three examples of literacy artifacts I found on the site are the authentic context clues to help me understand the use of written English. They have the keyword as the main idea of each sign along with the phase to elaborate the meaning. Every word has its own dictionary definition,

61 but its usage depends on the context. This is used to convey the meaning at the church, so the interpretation is based on philosophical aspects. As I am a non-native English speaker (NNES), having the signs on the wall around the place is part of the rich environment of linguistic landscape (Shohamy and Gorter, 2009; Liu, 2011). As a participant in the authentic context of the Norris community, I attended one class of Sunday School and observed the differences between my original Buddhism Sunday School in Thailand and Baptist Sunday School in America. When I was young and in grade 4-6 in 19871989, my local hometown temple had Sunday school at the religion and cultural learning center. The teachers were mainly monks who educated from Buddhism studies programs, while the teachers in my public school were educated in formal education from college. The ceremony was conducted in Pali language, which is used in Buddhism scriptures. Vocal Pali language was only taught at my elementary level, every student had to chant the verse precisely as pronounced in the scriptures. For example, before the class started in the morning, students practiced vocal chanting loudly in the hall to worship the Lord Buddha. The chant has exact pattern of pronunciation to follow.


Fig. 8. Morning Chanting in Buddhist Sunday School, In contrast, I had another opportunity to attend the Sunday School at Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church. The experience that I had was different from the way I used to have in my home country. The way that texts were read and interpreted was based on discourse interactions, which meant that each participant had a role in the critical thinking and argumentative discourse he had from his understanding. The following excerpt is well demonstrated how I attend Sunday School at the church.

63 Mar 7, 2010 9:30 am. -1:00 pm. I attended the service at Mt. Moriah Baptist Church. The reason of attending is not primary collecting data for the research project, but rather to experience the way of Christian. I wish to become their friend and learn more about the gods word. Personally, I was born to the Buddhism community which 80-90 % of Thai population is the member. I do not mind to learn more what the good is in Christian church. I am strongly believed in good of every religion. There are different practices that distinguish them. I arrived the churchs Sunday School around 9:30. I went to see Mr. Harry Turner who I have known the best by following his interview videos and meeting him personally in a few events. (Coming Together: A Conversation with Norris Community Members and Other Experts , Commerce Week on Writing, October 2009, Video; Black History Month, February 2010, Video; Norris School Visit, February 2010, Video) I was welcomed warmly from the people I met at the church. I realized that we are all different in race, origin, language, culture and belief but I am now seeking of the mutual understanding about life. So I introduce my purpose to Mr. Turner that I appreciated the way of Christianity belief, I used to visit this place before, I met him several times, and therefore I want to be a friend with people who come to the church. Indeed, I do need friends. Coming to the church as a stranger made me reluctant to step in the door, but if I believe and open myself to learn more about the others, I feel it so good to join them. When I enter the service hall, there were about 10 people studying bible taught by Mrs. Opal Pannell. I chose to sit alone in the back row since I did not sure what to do in the church. But a lady with a lovely daughter around my girl called me to share her book and guide me where the lesson was going on. People took turn reading the verses and Mrs. Pannell explained the meaning. Later, there was a man called me from the door to leave the hall. I wonder why he called. Finally, I found out that it was another mens class. The man who showed me the class was Paster Dixon. In the class, there were 3 men discussing on Jonah in the bible. They clarified the meaning by raising various examples in real life. There is the ways to go from point A to B, but there is one best way that God knows and leads us to. Unfortunately, people disbelieve his way. God never angry for them, but always forgive them repeatedly One man asserted.


Fig. 9. Research Journal, Mar 7, 2010,

The NNES have different ways to interact with English text. I usually need to consult a dictionary for unknown words meanings. It is common to examine a dictionary for definitions. The following example is from Teresa, a Chinese NNES, showing how she reads English text. It clearly states that she underlines the sentence to guide her reading. For some important word or phrase, she used special symbols, such as circles, asterisks, and bullets to highlight the text. In addition, she lists the difficult words out in another paper to show direct translation from English to Chinese. The Grammar Translation method is widely used in Asians English language teaching methodology (Pennycook, 1989; Li, 1998; Khamkhien, 2010).


Figure XX: Fig. 10. Difficulties Learning English from Chinese NNES, National Conversation

66 on Writing,

Example 3: Reciprocity and Cultural Exchange Authentic context can be a source of cultural reciprocity that enables a person to acquire competency in living in another community. I have seen that living in the United States is an opportunity to learn another culture whose main language is English. People here communicate with English as their first language, and 335 million people in the world share this language as well (Lewis, 2009). English is used as an International language (McKay, 2002). Also, English is the tool used to explore American culture. My cultural exchange experience in America in 1993 was the changing point of my life in my worldview. I lived with a host family who used English in their everyday life. The language contained cultural elements the members used in the community in order to convey their experiences among each other. The ways they live; such as education, faith, culture, food, and activities; are parts of cultural reciprocity. The members collectively sustain and transferred cultural heritage in the community. Therefore, cultural exchange is the collaboration effort to sustain the community. Again in 2009, my cultural reciprocity had been expanded by my interaction with the community members in Commerce, Texas. The activities involved with the Norris community gave me another perspective about African American community, whereas before, I had very limited exposure to them. I remembered visiting this Baptist church and being amazed by the congregation. They prayed differently from my previous expectations about church activity I had seen in the mass media. The pastor sang before the church members with the melody similar to singing song. While the congregation was going on, some of the people stood up to raise their hands and spoke with themselves as they pondered the messages being sent. Another example

67 occurred when the people were given wine to sip and a piece of bread to eat. This was never seen before in my life in a religious ceremony in my home country. Later, I learned that it was a ceremony symbolic of the peoples relationship with the Jesus. I had been involved with the church from that day as a guest who came from another culture, religion, language, and country. Fortunately, I was welcome as a student from Texas A&M-Commerce where it has had long involvement with the community. This helped me be able to access the context. A few weeks later, Mr. Turner invited me to give a talk on cultural exchange for the church members. I introduced myself as a foreign student who studied local communities in order to learn more about language and culture. In fact, American society consists of several sub-groups in the nation; The African American community in Commerce this local Texas college town was also part of it, but considered absent presented of underrepresented group (Carters In Possession of Community, 2012). As a Thai student in Texas A&M University-Commerce, I also sometimes found myself in the same situation. Mr. Turner provided me an opportunity to present my cultural identity with the Norris community residents by the communication channel at the church that he established to create the worldview of mine and the local people. He invited several foreign students to give a weekly talk at the church in addition to me. There was a student from Saudi Arabia, an Islam student from Jordan, and an African student from Nigeria. We were welcome to stand before them on that stage to exchange our information about culture, religion, and ways we see the Norris community and Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church.


Chapter 4 Pedagogy implication

This chapter describes the pedagogy examples that I intend to use to demonstrate how oral history video can be useful in teaching language. Its objective shows how we can manipulate digital artifacts in an authentic context to become language learning materials. It is also a modern pedagogical trend that has been adapted to the learning style in the twenty-first century to suit the learners digital literacies. Theses students are born in digitally-driven environments which has a high impact on their preferences in learning. This study is aimed to endorse the authentic context elements to use in teaching language to the learners from another non-native community where they have limited exposures to the cultural and linguistic perspectives of native English speakers.

4.1 Using video in English classroom

69 Native speakers are limited to speaking English engagements within my home community. It is necessary to obtain authentic English accent in teaching English as Foreign Language. H.H. Stern (1983) supported that native speakers are born with a subconscious knowledge of language rules. They have ability to grasp meaning in English language intuitively because of their language proficiency. To the learn language, foreign students need to acquire native speakers competence or proficiency or knowledge of language as the important elements to second language acquisition. Dufon (2002) found the potential in using video recording in second language acquisition, which occurred within socio-cultural contexts. Video recording provides data that has density and that includes audio, visual, and contextual elements. She used video as research tool in ethnography, and it provides linguistic information other than note taking. Video records every word that interlocutors said. Shrosbree (2008) demonstrated possibilities in using video in language learning with Japanese students. It records presentations to use in assessment. Videos can be also used as the task in discussion groups. Teacher can help students to develop speaking skills by providing model video, which visually demonstrates what we expect them to do in the speaking tasks. Teacher can manipulate digital video from authentic context with digital video technology at relatively inexpensive cost. This way makes authentic video simplified with subtitle and edited version. Language learners will eventually be motivated with a wide range of effective methodologies learned from videos. Berk (2009) suggests common procedures in using video in teaching. Eight steps that the teacher should consider when using video clip in the classroom. 1. Pick up a particular clip. Teacher selects parts in the clip to show the concepts or principles. If the teachers want their students to watch the entire video, it should be an outside assignment.

70 2. Prepare specific guideline. Students need to have guidelines or specific questions when they watch the video. It is the direction in watching video. The guideline may include the following: answer the question, listen to the sentence, or point in the clip to infer. They need to be clear before watching the video clip. 3. Introduction. Teacher should introduce the video briefly in order to reinforce the purpose of the lesson. 4. Play. Let the students watch the selected video clip. It is necessary to make a classroom environment appropriate for watching the video, such as dimming the lights, closing the door, checking the volume, and arranging seats closer to the screen. 5. Pause. Sometimes during the play, teacher may stop the video to emphasize the highlight or elaborate the main point. For some short clips, teacher can replay for an exercise. 6. Reflection. After watching the video, teacher should give them a few minutes to reflect the video that just have seen. They need to recall memory or making points that have been asked in the guideline. 7. Activities. The students are able to use time to find the answers from the video content. There are issues and concepts that students need time to tackle with. 8. Discussion. Students can check their understandings from this activity. It can be in pairs or group discussion. The oral history video is the primary source of information that I take into consideration while making the prototype. I choose to minimize the length of the video less than ten minutes because of the students ability. There are research findings on the length of using video clip in

71 teaching and learning language as the followings. Garza (1991) also suggests the optimum segment of video in teaching at two to four minutes, while Shih (2010) uses video in public speaking classes, which limited to five minutes. This length is related to the file size because more time in streaming large-size video means less willingness from students to use it. Hanson and Padden (1989) use interactive video to teach bilingual children the story. Each one ranged from three to six minutes. Therefore, I always try to keep the video length in the prototype be compact. As mention earlier, Mozilla Popcorn accepts online videos embedded link from,, and HTML5 video format. Since 2003, playing embedded online video, Mozilla Popcorn is required to play the video. For example, YouTube needs Adobe Flash Player, MOV file needs QuickTime Player. Currently, HTML5 helps us to play video without a software player. According to Perakakis et al. (2012), it is acceptable that HTML5 is video technology that offers a wide range of universal player. Its video format is browser-based which does not require any video program. In the advertising industry, when they develop interactive advertising, showing the video on different platforms such as TV or Web can be a barrier. Bright and Pearson (2012) notes, HTML5 offers a widget-based interface without relying on plug-ins or client-side software. Shero Designs Inc. (2011) concludes that HTML5 video has advantages by using less code, taking less time, and offering more advance functionality. Loop lets the video continuously play Autoplay the video will play once the page is opened Poster indicates the images that will be shown when a video is loading Controls standard play, pause, sound controls Preload can be used to download the video in the background even if the video

72 hasnt started to play. Therefore, the mobility of online resources makes the project be able to perform universally anywhere with the Internet access.

4.2 Vertical Dimensions for Learning Literacy in Context This lesson is based on Harry Turners oral history Interview video, entitled, Digitalizing the Word: New Media Ministry at an East Texas Church, which has been developed from the several videos. It was remixed to from the sections that he narrated his technological literacy and perspective on his experiences dealing with technological events. I took this YouTube video URL ( to make the language instruction materials on Mozilla Popcorn. Then I included the final Mozilla Popcorn project ( that includes all vertical dimension to make the context meaningful for the English Language Learners (ELLs) in Thailand. The key term vertical dimension here is the alternative ways on how video viewers can understand meaning above the face value of the video which are text, motion picture, and sound. Traditional video provides those elements at its pace. This means as the video is playing, the viewers watch as is on the screen. The limitation of using traditional video in the classroom is how it narrates the event in horizontal dimension. But in the authentic context as I demonstrate in Chapter 3, creating meaning requires additional information with contextual clues.


Fig. 11. Vertical dimension on the video project and their link pages to Wikipedia.

From the Mozilla Popcorn project at timestamp 0:09-0:17, there is the title of the video that the learners are viewing. As Thai ELLs are from the country where 90% of the population are Buddhists, their cultural repositories are quite limited in terms of Christian communities in the United States. They perceive church to be quite different from their temple. An additional dimension on top of the video in another layer as it is playing can be a source of knowledge that helps them learn more effectively. On the left-hand side, there are pop-ups showing Baptist Church links in English and Thai to Wikipedia, as well as East Texas pop-up on the left-hand side to allow learners explore more about the context in the learning material. So they can click to expand their literacy. According to Duquin (2002) learner

74 autonomy is necessary in training English learners because the instruction by students preference cultivates the development in learning strategies. Mozilla Popcorn supports learner autonomy by pausing the video, by opening a link in a new tab, when the learners click on the links to allow them to read more information. In addition, bilingual signs have influential impact on language learning, as nowadays, English is used as the global language. Huebner (2006)s study on Bangkok linguistics landscapes from the artifacts he found in the environmental print shows that language has evolved through code mixing. Examples of ever-changing linguistic diversity can be found in any Thai linguistics environment. The reason that I offer multilingual signs that represent the concept of church in this Mozilla Popcorn project is to support learning by both L1 and L2 on e-learning environment.

Fig. 12. Vertical dimension to show events related to location.

75 At timestamp 0:17-0:25, the Mozilla Popcorn presents the location context about what Mr. Turner describes his church. The close caption is as the following. Harry Turner: Hello, my name is Harry Turner and I am a member here at Mt. Moriah Church here in Commerce, Texas. Popcorn makes his speech meaningful by having three layers of events: Google Map, Mt. Moriah Baptist Church image, and the video of the congregation in the church. These dimensions help viewers to establish the image of the location. Google Map shows them about where the State of Texas is located. As I aware that this prototype leads the viewers to know Commerce, Texas, it is necessary to show them about its geographical context. Google Map included in Mozilla Popcorn can be any road map, satellite view, street view, hybrid view, and terrain view. The video viewers can explore virtual reality from the street map to see Mount Moriah Temple Baptist Church in 3D as they are browsing in the map. Also, they can measure the distance from famous cities such as Dallas, Los Angeles, New York, or Thailand to understand the location. In order to show exactly how Mount Moriah Temple Baptist Church looked like, I include the image of the church from its website. This is the quick reference that popped-up the same time that Mr. Turner is speaking. Image mode conveys the meaning of the location and place of the church. In addition to the still image, the moving images that I overlay along on the original video show the congregation in the church. There is another YouTube video that can be embedded over the original one. The remixing of video makes the message clearer and bring authentic context before the eyes of the viewers. So they can have the exact representation about the kind of activity that the Baptist Church does. There are the motion images of the pastor, deacon, and church members participating in the congregation. These three vertical dimensions represent the authentic context.


Fig. 13. Vertical dimension on vocabulary learning.

Time stamp 0:26-1:07, it shows new vocabulary clues. There are two advanced vocabularies that I would like the students to know: superintendent and pertain to. According to the video caption: Harry Turner: ..and being as a Sunday School superintendent means I have to be very knowledgeable not only about the word of God but also the things that pertain to our everyday society and our everyday life. way, I think you can improve or speed up our knowledge is access to the computers. Computers are here today, they are parts of our lives,

77 parts of our society. They will be there so. In a twine in that cause to that, we can not live without this upon it. Teaching vocabulary in context needs the vertical dimension to make language acquisition effective. Several words needed to highlight while the learners are listening to the sound of word utterance. For example, superintendant is clarified by the three pop-ups. First, the written feature is how the sound is written by s-u-p-e-r-i-n-t-e-n-d-a-n-t which is necessary to the learners, because they will be able to recognize the written form of the word. Second, the synonym pop-up shows the other words that have similar meaning. Learners will be able to expand their vocabulary banks. Third, the Thai translation pop-up is the native language that the learners know. Bilingual signs create a supportive linguistic landscape that makes learning foreign languages related to native language (Shohamy and Gorter, 2009). Another example, in a twine is supported by image, which it shows how the idea of meaning can be represented by picture.

4.3 Mozilla Popcorn: The Video-Assisted Language Teaching Materials This project uses Mozilla Popcorn as the tool in developing the multimodal web video. It is easy for basic computer users who are familiar with common media such as online-video (YouTube), audio files (mp3), and image files (.jpg). They simply mash up the media into another creation and can be shared with the other people on the Internet by using embedded links. No advanced technical skills are required; it is only a drag-and-drop approach in creating the project. This feature makes Popcorn dynamic web video software, with text and links. Mozilla Popcorn is one of the free Web 2.0 tools that come from the technological revolution. Young people nowadays tend to be inquisitive, rebellious, and open-minded (Mozilla

78 Webmaker). They express their identities and experiences as well as earlier generation did, but they do in different media, especially social networking tools. Tools are such as journal (Wordpress, Blogspot), photo album (Flickr, Photobucket), yearbook (Facebook), post office (Gmail, Hotmail) and video (Tumbr, YouTube). Moreover, they can make their films and tell stories with new media perspectives by manipulating different objects they find on the Internet. Rebellion Pixels video ( is one of the pioneers who developed a revolutionary video making approach by using web-native artifacts to remix them into another narrative which available on the Internet to view, share, and remix. This new creation video shows contextualization of the original story with different elements. As emphasized by Mozilla Webmaker, technology allows people to embed their unique insights and rebellious spirits. Web-native film making takes the advantages of online technologies by having the interactivity, non-linearity, immediacy, and potentials for connectivity to the products. In 2012, Mozilla introduced Popcorn Story Camp ( as the effort to integrate web-native film making approach into the curriculum. The goal is to educate learners to collaborative process of film production. Therefore, they can think critically about the objects and topics they use in making a story. They suggest that both facilitators and learners should have fundamental understanding of media production techniques such as script, setting, audio-visual, and design. Fortunately, the camp participants are not required to have advanced knowledge in computer programming, such as HTML5 and Java script. Mozilla Popcorns interface is easy to use for the novice users. The ease of usage allows users to focus more on critical aspect of the story, context, and presentation. The curriculum starts from understanding on the online tools form major web service (Twitter, WikiPedia, Google Map) which lets users remix and add data layers on the video. Users

79 can also use collaborative document writing and editing tool called Etherpad ( for gathering ideas in the making the story. Etherpad allows multiple users to type and record everyones contribution in the same project. This is not only used as the collaborating area but also as the assessment in project contribution. Learning is an active process because the web-experience is unique by the involvement of the viewers who engage and relate with each other in an interaction. They have the flexibility to navigate the content over the Internet. Remix in popular culture is currently increasing its role from what we have known in music, such as remixing, when a DJ pulls together audio tracks and mixes them to become another new song. However, remix in literacy can be practical. According to Gainer and Lapp (2010), students remix various texts to build their understandings based on different literatures they study from social, cultural, and historical contexts. In order to create multimodal texts, they remix the project from visual-pictorial, typographic text, audio, and video. They can communicate their understandings, ideas, and realities of the context they are studying. We can see old and new literacies being remixed from some of these projects. Huey P. Newton Foundation creates the video mashup called, History in These Streets in the webnative project. The original context is based on the Black Panthers who demonstrated the African American civil rights in Oakland, CA in the 1960s-1970s. The former Black Panthers chief narrates the street tour in the neighborhood where the historical events were taken place. Then the filmmakers remix his oral narratives with video, images, and Google maps. While viewers are listening to the oral presentation, there are visual presentations being shown in the same time. Viewers can have the interaction with the video by commenting their comments in the comment box.

80 Remixing between texts and images can create literacy event in language teaching and learning. For example, Comic Life ( is another free program that allows users to create comic with any photos and speech bubbles. Gainer and Lapp (2010) demonstrate the way how teacher can adopt it to make a literacy remix. First, they introduced students to the literature in the lesson and encourage them to reflect their discussion in the remix format between texts and photo story. Students were assigned to read Langston Hughess and Zora Neale Hurstons works on racism in the 1920s. They engaged with the assignment by creating the dialogue showing them and the authors characters talking with each other to represent how the students understood the literary ideas from having read the literature. The students created the responsive comic in conversational style. By bringing literary work into the real life of students, this experience motivates them to learn about race, society, and history in the mode that they use regularly in popular culture. Digital video helps language instruction by engaging the experience to the classroom. McKenney and Voogt (2011) suggest the basic criteria in selecting video project to the curriculum. The teacher should select the video projects which have identifiable links between the project and ongoing school activities and match the interest with new pedagogical use of technology. Media supports students with the interactive perspectives by which language lessons should be designed to engage social context to curriculum. The objectives have to be both meaningful and intentional. Additionally, media products can promote individual and collective learning (Lee et al., 2008) and promote the sense of community among students who use media to facilitate learning (Babaszweski, 2002) . Using video as an instructional tool is the aid to observe best practice from the class. The LIVE research (Language Instruction through Video-making Experience) is the project that

81 explores the potential of digital video production for language instruction. LIVE is based on language curriculum development and evolving technology in video. The LIVE collaborative process encourages engage group members in learning while doing video projects. They start by collaboratively creating the message in narratives that are consistent with the scripts that they are going to use in the video production. The team members have to consider how the video angle and sound are put together. The quality of the video comes from the criteria on clip editing skill and the screen layout (McKenney and Voogt, 718). Videos can play significant roles in teaching professional development as a good practice (Newton and Sorensen, 2010). It is an aid in developing the observational skills of teachers (Van Es and Sherin, 2002), the reflection of teaching performance (Abell and Cenamo, 2004; Sherin and Han, 2004; Powell, 2005), and the illustration of authentic good practice (Bliss and Reynolds, 2004). I am a frequent viewer of the TED talks (, which are educational talks from various TED conferences around the world. These videos inspire the viewer to think and even act upon the world of knowledge. TED has based its mission on change as an agent that could evolve attitudes, lives, and the world. They invited the worlds most inspired thinkers to one anothers ideas. TED is the clearinghouse that offers free knowledge of inspiration. Recently, some researchers have started paying attention to these TED video collections in creating their scholarly works. Cettolo, et al. (2012) studies TED talks as the corpus for machine translation research. Lopes et al. (2011) studies TED talks as the detector for nativeness classifiers for the English language. They look to the collection for the linguistics cue for segmental aspects and prosody. The most influential TED Talk by Ryan Merkley in 2012 entitled Online video -- annotated, remixed and popped is the inspiration for my research project using Mozilla Popcorn in oral history videos. He says that video has gone beyond the

82 box. Previously, video was separate from data and content all around. In Mozilla Popcorn, video is a revolutionary with the web. It is dynamic, full of links, completely remixable, and finally able to break beyond the box. He demonstrates how Popcorn works in this TED talk conference by taking a sample YouTube video to add annotations along with the speaker. Therefore, Merkleys demonstration suggested to me a new media tool in developing an oral history video from the Reel Texas Collection. From this creation, I can write the video in another context that suits teaching English as a foreign language.

Fig. 14. Beau Lotto and Amy OTooles new TEDTalk; How Popcorn Maker adds a new layer of information to a TEDTalk


Fig. 15. The interface of Mozilla Popcorn maker. Video project is centered and pop-up boxes will show events in timeline. Layer represents events that we want to pop-up.

84 This section illustrates the work process to create a project with Mozilla Popcorn. First, the user has to start the web project at Mozilla Webmaker ( From this portal website, it will link to Mozilla Persona which is the registration system. Users are able to manage identity information by using their e-mail address to register.

Fig. 16. Mozilla Webmaker registration page.

The registration process will lead us to Mozilla Popcorn, where the project will be created. We can remix different web video, audio, and images to create a new mashup. There are three main sections: Media, Events, and Project, which have the tools we need to use.


Fig. 17. Media, Events, and Project taskbars in Mozilla Popcorn project.

Media is the section where we have to paste the video web address. It accepts the video links from and The audio or music links from Also another video element format called HTML5 which runs independently without the plugin.

Events are the media elements that Popcorn provides for users. With the tools Popcorn provides, users can create their unique context from online video or audio. Tools in the Events section are included: 2.1 Text: This is the area where the users can input the text on the video. Each text

event needs to identify the starting and ending time to have it appears. The text box is able to embed the link to related website if users wish the viewers to click for further information.

86 2.2 Popup: This element performs similar function as text box but it adds the icon to

signify special meaning to the text. Moreover, popup has sound to call viewers attention to its appearance and information it intends to convey. 2.3 Google Maps: When users want to locate the place in the context, Googlemap

serves as the geo-representation along with the video. Technically in geography, location identification needs the latitude and longitude values to show the right location on the earth. On Mozilla Popcorn, users simply specific the place by its name (e.g. Commerce TX, Dallas, Thailand, etc.) which Google will automatically show the map by the query. It is also shown by map types: road map, satellite, street view, hybrid, and terrain. Viewer can make sense of their location easily by using the Google Maps feature. 2.4 Image: The visual element is important for multimedia projects. Users can insert

an image into Popcorn project in three ways: image URL, drag-and-drop, and slide show. Image URL helps users use ready digital files from the Internet. Dragging the images files from the computers local storage to Popcorn is more secure than using URLs, because the links may be dead, but dragging and dropping from the desktop confirms stability of the project. Slideshow from web album makes it more advanced than using a single image. It can create videos by pasting the URL of the gallery on Popcorn and specifying the duration each image will be shown. This way makes a presentation of images in series look consistent. Transitions between images makes the project look smooth. They can be changed by: pop, slide up, slide down, or fade.

87 2.5 Loop: The project can run multiple times, as long as users want it. Especially the

short presentation, loop is of great assistance in keeping it running when the presenter is not available. 2.6 Skip: This feature allows users to jump to a particular section in the video. The

video in oral history interview is quite long, approximately 60-120 minutes, but the section in the project lesson is only a few minutes. Moreover, if there are multiple videos in use in the remix, skipping enables the project to do the task easily without editing any videos. 2.7 Pause: It is sometimes necessary to stop the video for other activities, such as

recalling comprehension, question and answer, or changing activity. This pause lets viewers to spend time to do something else. 2.8 Wikipedia: Wikipedia has a huge database that we use to do further research in

specific topics. As of 2013, there are 4 million articles in the database and it continues to grow. Wikipedia is a free collaborative encyclopedia which was created on the Internet. Anyone who is registered to Wikipedia can create the article, and users can also edit and collaborate in the same article. This dynamic makes Wikipedia a collaborative knowledge community. However, there are criticisms on its reliability of information, which makes it unauthoritative. However in Internet society, knowledge is now becoming a common asset to the public with free access to many publications. Wikipedia is acceptable to include in Mozilla Popcorn.

4.4 YouTubes Closed Captioned in English Language Learning

88 Using authentic video can assist students by providing caption. Based on Dual-coding Theory, captioned video has the verbal and imagery system, which is comprised of non-verbal objects and events. They are functionally linked by referential connections (Paivio, 1986). It is explained that human behavior and experience are related to the dynamic associative processes that operate on a rich network of modality-specific verbal and nonverbal (or imagery) representations (Clark and Paivio, 1991). Captioned and subtitled video offers advantages for the students by developing word recognition, enhancing comprehension of details, and reducing learner-viewers anxiety (Danan, 2004). Therefore, text in captioning is strongly recommended to use in clarifying the context and make learners to become more comprehensible. There are some research findings on using captioned video in language learning. For example, Markham (1999) conducted a study on 118 ESL students to investigate the effects of captioned video on their listening word recognition. They watched two different videos with and without captions. The results showed that captioned video significantly improved the ability of students listening and reading comprehension. Bird and William (2002) examined two experiments of the effects of single-modality (sound or text) and bimodal (sound and text) presentation on word learning. These experiments confirmed that text representations are the contextual aids in word learning under certain conditions. Bimodal representation has a great impact on the recognition of memory for spoken word when compared to single modality. This research was assessed by explicit and implicit memory test. Winke et al. (2010) found from learners of Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, and Russian who watched three short videos with captioning that they increased attention, improved processing, reinforced previous knowledge, and analyzed language. Caption is frequently used in language learning. Similarly, King (2002)

89 used feature films with closed-caption in DVD for EFL classroom application to promote active viewing. YouTube offers online video with automatic caption. It has speech recognition software built-in YouTube application to transcribe voice to text. The Accessible Technology Coalition (2011) suggests that the conditions of the YouTube video should be: voices are clear, speakers have less accented English, and there is minimum background noise and music. In my prototype, I examine the practical application of YouTube closed-caption from Billy Reeds oral history interview video ( The videos voice can apply CC feature to transcribe speech into texts. But it has limitation of free service by producing error in transcription. The problem in accuracy has to be adjusted by experience person who is skillful in English listening. YouTube offers paid service from outsourced agency. For three minutes of video length, they quote service fee at $18-24. But the schools in non-English speaking country such as ones in Thailand have limited money to pay for transcribing service. This is the barrier in foreign language learning. Tasks in transcribing the speech in the video have to be done by teacher or assigned as the extra listening activity.


Fig. 18. Automatic caption from original transcription and edited version.

Fig. 19. Translation service provided by the YouTubes affiliated venders.


Closed Captions can be developed for further language learning activity, such as translation. YouTube provides initial service in English CC, which still needs polishing in terms of transcription, if we should use a free-of-charge of CC. This requires hours to complete and produce accurate CC, though this is worth learning. Translation is also a built-in YouTube feature. Caption translation has more than ten languages including Thai. As long as the CC is in English, YouTube can convert the caption from one to another. Again, teacher needs to concern themselves with the accuracy of translation. At the same time, this project can teach students about the syntax of English language when they translate texts. CC interface is user-friendly. It chucks the speech by time-stamp. This means speech is divided into smaller chucks, which are easy to translate. It makes the chunks correspond with original language (English). Translation project goes by any time-stamps that user wish to translate and keeps track of work progress by percentage (%) completed.


Fig. 20. Closed-Caption in English and Thai. There are many other videos recorded from the Norris African American communitys activities, which introduced audiences to the overall idea of the events. For example, the panel discussion named, Coming Together in 2009 was part of the Commerce Week on Writing (CWOW) activities, and I was present to collect minor parts of the entire video to create the teaser trailer. The total video lasts 76 minutes, but I carefully selected some scenes to make a short version video in 2.49 minutes. This task required critical thinking and close watching for the entire video. For this task, I performed multiple roles. First, I was the videographer who

93 followed the turn of each speaker as they spoke. The video angle should not always freeze on the same frame. Video sometimes had to pan with the speaker and zoom-in for more facial expression. The participants also took part, so video had to follow them, too. Second role, I was the video editor who need to cut some unnecessary parts such as pre-conference chatting, audience obstructing the camera, and tape changing interval. The video teaser trailer is a short video which brings together crucial parts of the event. Some oral history videos have an introduction by remixing texts, music, transition, and video excerpts. For example: Coming Together: A Conversation with Norris Community, Commerce Week on Writing: Writing Local History, Black History Month 2010, Oral History Interview: Billy Reed, and CLiC Talk: From Segregation to Desegregation. These five video previews are not too long (under ten minutes), which are suitable for the English language learners to listen to. The preview videos can be great starting points to encourage comprehension of the entire video interview or event, which last up to an hour. Making video previews requires skill in capturing the hot points to present. It is about presenting the representation of the historical events.




Coming Together: A Conversation with Norris Community Members

Commerce Week on Writing: Writing Local History

Black History Month 2010


Oral History Interview: Billy Reed v=FWBuEpckPuE

CLiC Talk: From Segregation to Desegregation: A Conversation from Experience in Texas Schools

Table 1. Preview video from the African American communitys activities

4.5 Using Word Search to introduce English vocabulary Word search is an entertaining and useful way in teaching new vocabulary. Foreign students may lose their motivation to learn English if they have found that the vocabulary is too hard to understand. Consequently, they give up reading a long passage. Otherwise, they have to look up to the dictionary while read because there are two different languages they need to translate. This is a time consuming process and discourage reading attention.

96 Teachers can help them read English passage easier with word search prior to read the paragraph. It can be used as pre-reading activity. There are many programs that can do word searches, and on the Internet, teachers can find free-online programs to do this task. Word search generator (, A-Z Teachers Stuff Word Search Maker For example, I selected the video on Norris Community panel discussion to present to the class. Since the students are not familiar with the context, teacher can provide them with the background context. In Reel Texas collection (, they provide the description with the video. I use the text to have them read before watching the video. The text length is 616 words, which students can read within 5-10 minutes. Also keeping in mind that, Thai students are not as proficient English vocabulary as native English speakers, so I selected the difficult vocabulary for them to study before getting to the video. There are many strategies in teaching vocabulary such as direct translation from dictionary, using flash card, writing a sentence with vocabulary, and finding word in word search game. In the Internet, teachers can find online tools to develop language-teaching materials for free.

Fig. 21. Video transcription of Coming Together from Reel Texas collection.

97 Coming Together is a panel of leaders and long-time residents from the Norris Community in Commerce, Texas. This is a conversation with community members of the Norris Community which is a section of Commerce that before integration was the site of the all-black community and a superfund site left by a factory that processed cotton and contaminated the soil within the community. Dr. Lavelle Hendricks, Texas A&M-Commerce faculty, came to Commerce 16 years ago. He relates to the Norris Community by attending Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church. He is the pastor at East Caney Missionary Baptist Church in Sulphur Springs. Madell Pannell has been in Commerce since 1957. She served on the NAACP board and as co-pastor of the Pentecostal Church of the Lord Jesus Christ. Harry Turner is the deacon of Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church. He was one of the few African American students at the ETSU during 1960s. Ivory Moore was an ESTU administrator who was devoted to minority student affairs and elected to the Commerce City Council. Segregation affected Turners life at a time when he went to see a movie but the ticket seller refused to admit him because he was black. Madell also had a similar experience as the restaurant worker who was not allowed to enter the workplace through the front door. Dr. Talbots anecdote, as told by Dr. Hendricks, reveals the misunderstanding of a White lady who saw him mowing his own lawn but thought that he was a worker she could hire. Turner has a high point of being African American when his Norris School basketball team won the State Championship in 1964. Commerce welcomed him as a hero and numerous scholarships offered him college admission. He went to Cisco Junior College for a year but transferred back to

98 ETSU. He was one among four or five African American students on campus in the 1960s. Mr. Moore worked with President McDowell and Dr. Talbot as an administrator to establish support for minority students. The Black Hellenic Council, directed by the black fraternity, raised funds to endow scholarships for needy students. Alphabet instruction for African American students was taught from a Christian perspective. For example: A for Adam, B for Bible, and C for Christ. The Norris School taught students writing with stories, poetry, and essays. Students were asked to read books and write comments about what they read. Before the 1960s, African American students in Hunt County had to attend St. Paul High School in Neylandville. It was an outstanding high school but school integration caused it to close down. Most teachers in this area received training from ETSU which is now Texas A&M University-Commerce. Hendricks asserts that 100% of the school teachers in Hopkins County received their masters degree from TAMU-C, as well as 90% of the African American teachers. The Norris Community had its businesses separated from the downtown square shops. In the 1950s, Pannell worked for a restaurant which paid her $2.50 per day ($12.50 per week). The community lacked indoor water, sewer, and toilets. Moore wrote the grant to the city council to have these services implemented. Today, Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church has its TV program that reaches 10,000 viewers. It broadcasts every Sunday from 8:00-9:00 AM. The University has been supporting Norris residents through employment for more than 30 years. Soil contamination in the Norris community was from the chemical substance released from the factory next to the stream. Many people got sick without knowing the causes.

99 Some died from skin cancer and babies were born pre-mature. The EPA found high levels of arsenic in the soil and water. Putting more concrete and new dirt over the ground was the solution. (Words count = 616)

1. panel 2. integration 3. superfund 4. contaminate 5. faculty 6. pastor 7. deacon 8. administrator 9. demote 10. minority 11. affair 12. elect

13. council 14. segregation 15. refuse 16. admit 17. anecdote 18. scholarship 19. establish 20. minority 21. Hellenic 22. fraternity 23. perspective 24. outstanding

25. assert 26. separate 27. grant 28. implement 29. broadcast 30. resident 31. substance 32. release 33. mature 34. arsenic

Table 2. Excerpt text and vocabulary selection

When we finish select the vocabulary that is needed to emphasize the lesson, it is not so difficult to make a word search worksheet for supplementary material. A word search generator ( supplies vocabulary into the online software; simply copying from the list and pasting to the word search generator. We can specify the number of rows and columns as we want. I will try 10 x 10 20 x 20 and 25 x 25 respectively for example.


Coming Together (10 x10)


Coming Together (20 x20)

Coming Together (25x25) Fig. 22. Word search generator interface page. Three combinations of cell: 10x10, 20x20 and 25x25.


There is a technical issue here with the limitation of the program. It has limited possibilities in creating the word search cells. 10 x 10 word search can make 11 words, 20 x 20 word search can make 28 words, and 25 x 25 words search contains all 34 words. We have to aware of this limitation when using this tool and try different ratio to create complete list of vocabulary. Otherwise, if we find the complete word search contains too many words, we should split total list into sub-sections such as 11-11-12 from 34 words. This way will make tasks to be achieved in a limited time. The main reason why I introduce this web-tool is that language teachers can lead to the lesson by assigning students to study vocabulary from the word search task. When they become familiar to the word in context, they will be able to understand reading task better. In summary, this chapter demonstrates the web tools for language teaching by using online video as the instructional media. As I discussed authentic context in early chapter, this is the important theory to developing literacy. Virtual contexts from videos help learners outside English speaking communities to understand the culture of language. Videos can be used for language learning in various approaches. Mozilla Popcorn is the platform that adds vertical dimension to the video. It is the multimodality to traditional video. YouTubes closed-caption feature assists language learning by providing visual text element to the sound. Bilingual translation allows learning meaning of language in holistic perspective. Word Search is a free online tool enables teacher to make learning of new words entertaining before learners will read the passage containing them.

103 Chapter 5 Conclusion

The oral history interview is a great way to discovering information about ways people live their lives. Brandt (2001), Selfe and Hawisher (2004) conducted ethnographic studies on peoples literacy narratives, and this study proved to me that the experiences people expressed for the interviews are the source of knowledge worth studying and teaching literacy. Therefore, I have used the oral history interview as part of the content of learning materials. Literary artifacts are also the key materials that explain how texts encapsulate everyday life and social activities (Barton and Hamilton, 2005). This idea encourages the development of effective approaches to teaching English for the learners in my home country. New literacy studies (NLS), as Steet (2007) addressed, is the underlying theory that helps me in exploring new traditions of learning language by using digital literacy as the tool in acquiring foreign language skills for NNES (nonnative English speakers). Also Jewitts (2008) multimodality theory supports how different kinds of presentation modes can make texts comprehensible. To NNES, the input should be optimum (Krashen, 1982), otherwise second language acquisition could not be completed because the complex chunk of language input may prevent the ability to take the input. Learning languages in authentic contexts is the most important element that I emphasized. Three aspects of examples I discussed in chapter 3 are Literacies by Trial and Error, Interaction with the Context, and Reciprocity and Cultural Exchange. These are backgrounds that contribute to my project. The first examples illustrate the literacy events in technological literacy from the views of Mr. Turners and my personal experiences. This part describes how Mr. Turner uses trial and error strategies in learning technology with his work in the church, while I

104 also share the similar experience in developing technological literacy in the university when I started learning computer literacies. The strategies I learned from computer communication are also similar to the way I acquired a second language, English, in its authentic context. The purpose of the narratives in this part is to demonstrate oral history in acquiring literacies. The second part is the examples of interaction within the context of the Norris Community. I describe my history on how I interacted with the people of the Norris Community, and the experience in doing ethnographic research with informants from Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church, which contributed to my cultural exposure. It benefits the worldview of a foreign language learner like me by seeing how texts are valued in the community. Comparing to my previous strategy in learning foreign texts in the Buddhist temple, this enriches my literacy development by having texts be seen around and making them optimally comprehended. The third examples are on cultural exchange. The reciprocity of culture is vital for learning another community where they use different languages. In order for foreign students to be able to adapt to a new speech community, an opportunity to exchange and accept different experiences makes the message understandable. In addition, English is used as an international language; thus, it is necessary to understand one anothers culture via the same means of communication. Social conflicts are usually caused from limited exposure to other unknown cultures in which they eventually develop the attitude of prejudice. The pedagogical implication makes my conceptual theory tangible. Since the technology in computers makes online literacy possible, this potential allows language learners to be able to access to authentic context without crossing the border. Videos bring the elements of signs in communicating meanings to language learning. It provides learners with text, sound, and images. Web 2.0 tools also expand a videos potential. The project is built on Mozilla Popcorn, which

105 can combine many other elements. As I called it vertical dimension, I can make the speech sound visible on the text pop-ups or make listening readable with visual clues. The difficult vocabulary is simplified by contextual clues. The instant events that developer adds, they help learning effective. Language teacher in a new generation have to aware the complete arrays of representation to their pedagogy. It is becoming the new literacies age when texts are not the only mode of communication. YouTube is the largest database of video in the world that language teachers can adopt its possible benefits. Several limitations and possibilities of this prototype to be used in Thailand or by other teachers may occur. For One, The course instructors who wish to adopt this prototype to their English class need to be familiar to American culture and language. Because this oral history video is a specific context developed from my personal cultural contact in rural Texas between 2009-2013, the instructors would need similar experiences to mine to be able to understand the meanings of the context. Because I develop this project from the experience of an foreign student who used to struggle with foreign language acquisition in limited contextual clues, the person with similar background or person who is going to be a foreign student in the United State should benefit the most from this cultural-specific English language learning materials. I also believe this prototype would be a good introduction to Texas for other Thai students or foreign students who wish to come to Texas A&M University-Commerce in the future. Second, the adaptability is based on the project creator. Because I am the owner of this project, the content creation is based on my design. When other instructors want to make use of this prototype, they need to follow my lesson plan and guideline. Any adjustments can be made from my permission. So I also try to introduce the production to future instructional materials designers and English language instructor to create their own project by using the same tool to

106 meet their requirements. Advanced English teachers and material developers who can write source code for their needs can expand the possibility of use, such as when they place events on the side instead of on top of the video, or they can embed responsive methods to comment on the video in form of texts or voice thread. Third, he Internet capability may not fully support the whole campus. Because Mozilla Popcorn runs YouTube videos on the network, the efficiency of the Internet may be interrupted by heavy traffic. There could be buffering time when the video is loading or some events such as images, Google Maps, or web links might not load properly as it should be. Fortunately, in 2013, I have learned that the campus in my local university in Thailand has WiFi connection for public use. This is an opportunity for the learners to gain access to this prototype as long as they provide sufficient Internet accessibility. Forth, the numbers of computer stations on the campus. My university is a mid-size university with total population approximately 5,000 students, with 500 computers to serve them. It is about 10:1 ratio per population. This means that every 10 student there will be one student can access to the computer while 9 students of them need to wait for availability. Unless some students can afford buying personal computers, they will not be able to be online to learn English from this prototype. Fifth, Curriculum management is centrally regulated. Most of the universities in my country have their central committees manage the curriculum and instruction. For example, in my hometown university, the first year students in every major have to take fundamental English courses managed by the Language Center. The Language Center also manages students majors course schedules; students are not allowed to make personal adjustments to their schedule. If they change their registration plan, their graduation would be affected. If any students found the teacher unsatisfactory, they have to stick with the same teacher for the entire semester. Teaching

107 materials and evaluation criteria such as textbooks, quiz, assignment, the mid-term test, and final examination are centrally managed. The benefit of this approach is the standardization of instruction. But this prevents other teaching materials like my project to find its place in a fundamental English course. The better use for it would be for English majors, such as Sociocultural Background of English-speaking Countries, English for Technology. A limited numbers of students can make use of this teaching material for English language learning. Sixth, multimodality is passive learning. The way that vertical dimension works is on the multimodality of the material which means it assists learners in reading the modes of presentation easier. Reading is a passive process in which the acceptance of information is the intaking, butlimited out-taking. They read and listen to data to make comprehensible input understandable but rarely express their thoughts while reading. Readers have limited opportunities to respond to the texts. The instructor has limited channels of communication to talk with the learners while they read or are confronting reading difficulties. There are other reading difficulties that Mozilla Popcorn cannot cover, such as materials written beyond their reading level, the content of the materials appears exotic to them, and the ability to process the spoken texts of the video is not enough to listen effectively. Seventh, CC needs native English speakers to verify transcriptions. As I mentioned before in the last chapter, automatic CC helps foreign language listening easier and is more accurate than video viewing only, but YouTubes automatic CC still produces a lot of transcription errors from the limitation of voice-to-text recognition software that YouTube uses. A possible solution could be hiring a professional transcriber for the most accurate CC. Otherwise, the language teachers in Thailand need to seek help from volunteers in English

108 speaking countries to make the most accurate CC of an oral history video from the Norris Community informants. Eighth, acceptance with Black English as non-standard English. People in my rural community are limited in exposure to English speakers from the United States. Most of the English speakers they have known are the Caucasian husbands of Thai women, Christian missionary, as well as the celebrities they have seen from the mass media. Some Thai learners may assume that all American people are Caucasian while African Americans are supposed to be from Africa continental. But in the present time the United States is a mosaic of people from many culture, races, and language background. Lastly, use of archival materials. The material developer should be well advised the consideration of the Fair Use. Therefore, I include in the appendix with legal issues about using archived media. In addition, the digital collection at James G. Gee library is the repository of all historical artifacts related to the Norris Community. They are preserved for future researchers. In conclusion, this prototype is a model for developing archival videos in teaching literacy. It is based on authentic materials that I have remixed from various sources. The online tools provide video with additional features that enhance learning outcomes, such as images, maps, video layers, pop-up texts, transcription, and translation. Materials that fully support students ability to learn and their learning styles will be the most effective tools. When the students are learning English as a foreign language, it is necessary to obtain the context from the authenticity of the materials.

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Reel Texas Video Collection I have been working on oral history interview for the Converging Literacies Center and the Special Collections Department of Texas A&M University-Commerce for some years. As part of the project, there are various video interviews and presentations. The Reel Texas digital collection hosts video documentaries on local history in critical race narrative in rural, northeast Texas. It is one of the universitys Northeast Texas Digital Collection which has more than 40 others collection. The authentic materials that I have been using in the research project are taken from the Reel Texas collection. The videos are listed as followed:

Table 3. Video database in the Reel Texas digital collection showing title, duration, and date.

Reel Texas digital collection Video Title 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Opal Pannell - Oral History Interview 1 Opal Pannell - Oral History Interview 2 Opal Pannell - Oral History Interview 3 Billy Reed - Oral History Interview 1 Billy Reed - Oral History Interview 2 Billy Reed - Oral History Interview 3 Coming Together: A conversation with Norris Community Members and Other Experts Dr. Lavelle Hendricks; Harry Turner, Ivory Moore, Madell Pannell Ivory Moore Oral History Interview Ivory Moore Oral History Interview 11/26/2009 Harry Turner Oral History Interview 1 Harry Turner Oral History Interview 2 (1 of 2) Harry Turner Oral History Interview 2 (2 of 2) Harry Turner Oral History Interview 3 Duration (min) 44 59 59 61 62 72 76 Date 2010 2010 3/6/2012 1/28/2009 9/18/2009 9/27/2011 10/21/2009

8 9 10 11 12 13

83 126 58 52 19 111

11/6/2009 11/26/2009 11/13/2009 11/16/2009 11/16/2009 11/23/2009

127 14 Harry Turner at "Race and Education in the 20th Century" class (1 of 3) 15 Harry Turner at "Race and Education in the 20th Century" class (2 of 3) 16 Harry Turner at "Race and Education in the 20th Century" class (3 of 3) 17 Derryle Peace - Oral History Interview 18 Derryle Peace - Oral History Interview 19 Celebration of Black History Month Ivory Moore, Harry Turner, Billy Reed, and James Green representing the Norris Community. 20 Rebecca Cord - Oral History Interview 21 CLiC Talk- From Segregation to Desegregation: A Conversation from Experience in Texas Schools James Belford Page, Opal Pannell, Joseph McCowan, Dr. Henry Ross, and Harry Turner 22 Allen Hallmark - Oral History Interview (1 of 2) 23 Allen Hallmark - Oral History Interview (2 of 2) 24 Dr. Shannon Carter Digital Methodologies: Remixing Rural Texas (1of 2) 25 Dr. Shannon Carter Digital Methodologies: Remixing Rural Texas (1 of 2) 26 McArthur Evans - Oral History Interview (1 of 3) 27 McArthur Evans - Oral History Interview (2 of 3) 28 McArthur Evans - Oral History Interview (3 of 3) 29 McArthur Evans Oral History Interview 11/7/2011 (1 of 3) 30 McArthur Evans Oral History Interview 11/7/2011 (2 of 3) 31 McArthur Evans Oral History Interview 11/7/2011 (3 of 3) 32 McArthur Evans - Black History Month Speaker Series 33 Dr. John Carlos - Oral History Interview at Texas A&M University - Commerce 32 Dr. John Carlos - Speak at Red River Region Business Incubator, Paris, TX 35 Dr. John Carlos - Speak at Paris Junior College 36 Dr. John Carlos Plenary Speak at Texas A&M University Commerce (1 of 2) 37 Dr. John Carlos Plenary Speak at Texas A&M University Commerce (2 of 2) 38 Belford Page - Oral History Interview 39 Belford Page - Black History Month Speaker Series 40 Black History Month Speaker Series Kickoff McArthur Evans, Opal Pannell 41 Dr. Henry Ross- Black History Month Speaker Series 30 30 8 121 93 54 62 107 10/10/2011 10/10/2011 10/10/2011 12/8/2009 1/6/2010 2/23/2010 3/1/2010 1/30/2011

45 12 27 24 23 25 13 23 25 13 60 80 53 59 71 58 68 61 64 64

3/12/2011 3/12/2011 10/24/2011 10/24/2011 11/7/2011 11/7/2011 11/7/2011 11/7/2011 11/7/2011 11/7/2011 2/7/2012 11/7/2011 11/8/2011 11/8/2011 11/8/2011 11/8/2011 11/28/2011 2/14/2012 2/7/2012 2/21/2012

128 42 Louis Margot - Oral History Interview 43 Glenda McKissic Baylor - Oral History Interview 1 (1 of 2) 44 Glenda McKissic Baylor - Oral History Interview 1 (2 of 2) 45 Glenda McKissic-Baylor - Oral History Interview 2 (1 of 2) 46 Glenda McKissic-Baylor - Oral History Interview 2 (2 of 2) 50 61 46 60 45 9/12/2012 9/17/2012 9/17/2012 9/17/2012 9/17/2012

Total duration 2,517 min 42 hrs (appx)

Source: Reel Texas Digital Collection, Texas A&M University-Commerce Libraries, 2010, web, 2013,
Table 4. Video database in the Reel Texas digital collection showing subject keywords and description. Reel Texas digital collection

Video Title Opal Pannell (2010)

Subject African Americans-History; East Texas State University;

Description Opal Pannell grew up in Neylandville, Texas in Hunt County. Neylandville was an all-black community near Greenville, Texas. Her parents Artie and Vivian Brigham were farmers. Mrs. Pannell attended high school at St. Paul High School in Neylandville. She recalls that the school received quite a bit of support from the university in Commerce, Texas, ranging from school books to football uniforms, and the use of the stadium to play their games. Mrs. Pannell graduated high school in 1948, and attended Jarvis Christian College. She then got a basketball scholarship to Butler College in Tyler, Texas. She left college before finishing school to start working. She moved to Commerce for good in 1954. Mrs. Pannell eventually enrolled in East Texas State University in 1970. She worked several jobs in the area, including a cafeteria worker at ETSU. She recalls a time in 1962 when cafeteria workers walked off the job, demanding better pay. The walk-out lasted one day. Mrs. Pannell

129 was one of the founding members of the Norris Community Club in Commerce, which was formed to improve living conditions in the African American community in the town. One of the first things accomplished was to get indoor plumbing in the homes. The next item was to improve the streets in the community, and the third accomplishment was to build some new, low-income housing in the community. Aside from working to improve the infrastructure in the Norris Community, the Norris Community Club also worked to elect African Americans to the city council, the school board, and other civic bodies to make sure that the African American population of Commerce would not be ignored. Billy Reed was born in Ladonia, Tx. When he was five years old, his mother passed away, and then he was adopted and moved to Roxton. He has four siblings and served in the Air force where he spent some time in Arizona. He received a range of training that included aircraft foundation, radio communication, safety procedures, and aptitude tests. The training station was in San Francisco. After the service, he moved to live with his aunt in Commerce, Tx. He spent some years in Dallas working for different car rental companies and construction firms. One of them was the Western Inspection Bureau where served as a foreman. He also worked on the weekends for the railroad station, starting as yardman and becoming a switchman. After two months, he became a full-time employee for the railroad station. There were three main routes: Santa Fe Railroad, Cotton Belt Railroad, and Southern Pacific Railroad. Reed explains the reasons why the Norris community was called the hole. It was because of its lack of lighting and muddy streets. The Norris Community was contaminated with arsenic in the air and soil. Residue from the industrial plant remained in the form of a dusty film on things. The soil was not fit for growing unless it was covered by a ground sheet for a period of time then topped with clean dirt to a depth of about four inches.

Billy Reed (2009)

United States. Air Force; Civil rights workers;

130 The water was sometimes grayish in color. The Environment Protection Agency (EPA) investigated the soil problem and suggested the residents relocate but they chose not to. Several law firms, such as BP&G and Wendel & Terry, assisted them in filing suit and shared 40% from the compensation. When Reed was young, he picked cotton for a farm in Wichita Falls, Texas. The workers lived in the camp surrounded by the wild. Picking season ran from December to March. He married his wife whom he met in the camp when they were 19 and 16 years old respectively. When he was based in Alabama, segregation was in full swing. Blacks had to take blue taxi cabs while the Whites had yellow ones. In Commerce, liquor possession by different races saw different law enforcement. He was asked from a White doctor to buy a case of scotch whiskey from Dallas for him. Police suspected him and took him to the police station as they found some liquor in his car. They released him because the liquor belonged to Dr. Carl and used for personal use. Reed remembers the prosecution of a police officer who arrested a black boy, cuffed his hands, grounded him, and then beat him because of his suspicious behavior. This stirred up concern and anger among the Norris community residents. Reed filed the case with the city manager. He managed the case with various organizations and people backing him. Black people were concerned about their rights as stated in the constitution and to have their voices heard. Billy Reed was a representative on the Commerce City Council for the Norris Community Club (NCC). In the 1970s, he spoke to the city commission on the agenda relating to jobs and education for Norris residents where he addressed equal opportunity for African Americans within the police department. The discussion took place at Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church. The first Black police officer was hired in 1975 by the City of Greenville. They also pushed forward in the local newspaper, The Commerce Journal, for public awareness. The NCC was active in public

Billy Reed (2009)

Federated churches; Civil rights workers;

131 affairs. They brought in Donnell Thomas, a Methodist church administrator, to speak at a charity banquet. People enjoyed his speech even though he criticized the city. The Methodist church accepted women into administrator positions as well as accepting both black and white attendees. Today, the NCC does not exist but is replaced by the Progressive Club. East Texas State University assisted the NCC through several consultants such as Terry Johnson (Science Department), Ronny Brooks, Ivory Moore, Dr. Bauer, Dr. Talbott, and Mr. MacArthur. They advised on solutions for property taxes, utility needs, and employment. The Local Democratic Committee (LDC) was set up in Greenville to be the meeting place to discuss social issues and to negotiate with the city. Reed said that the Norris community was called the hole because of its underdevelopment. It lacked lights, toilets, plumbing, and telephone service. The NCC helped residents request public works from the city to improve their living conditions. Coming Together is a panel of leaders and long-time residents from the Norris Community in Commerce, Texas. This is a conversation with community members of the Norris Community which is a section of Commerce that before integration was the site of the allblack community and a superfund site left by a factory that processed cotton and contaminated the soil within the community. Dr. Lavelle Hendricks, Texas A&M-Commerce faculty, came to Commerce 16 years ago. He relates to the Norris Community by attending Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church. He is the pastor at East Caney Missionary Baptist Church in Sulphur Springs. Madell Pannell has been in Commerce since 1957. She served on the NAACP board and as co-pastor of the Pentecostal Church of the Lord Jesus Christ. Harry Turner is the deacon of Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church. He was one of the few African American students at the ETSU during 1960s. Ivory Moore was an ESTU administrator who was devoted to minority student affairs and elected

Coming Together: A conversation with Norris Community Members and Other Experts Dr. Lavelle Hendricks, Harry Turner, Ivory Moore, Madell Pannell (2009)

Race relations; Hazardous waste sites; Segregation-United States

132 to the Commerce City Council. Segregation affected Turners life at a time when he went to see a movie but the ticket seller refused to admit him because he was black. Madell also had a similar experience as the restaurant worker who was not allowed to enter the workplace through the front door. Dr. Talbots anecdote, as told by Dr. Hendricks, reveals the misunderstanding of a White lady who saw him mowing his own lawn but thought that he was a worker she could hire. Turner has a high point of being African American when his Norris School basketball team won the State Championship in 1964. Commerce welcomed him as a hero and numerous scholarships offered him college admission. He went to Cisco Junior College for a year but transferred back to ETSU. He was one among four or five African American students on campus in the 1960s. Mr. Moore worked with President McDowell and Dr. Talbot as an administrator to establish support for minority students. The Black Hellenic Council, directed by the black fraternity, raised funds to endow scholarships for needy students. Alphabet instruction for African American students was taught from a Christian perspective. For example: A for Adam, B for Bible, and C for Christ. The Norris School taught students writing with stories, poetry, and essays. Students were asked to read books and write comments about what they read. Before the 1960s, African American students in Hunt County had to attend St. Paul High School in Neylandville. It was an outstanding high school but school integration caused it to close down. Most teachers in this area received training from ETSU which is now Texas A&M UniversityCommerce. Hendricks asserts that 100% of the school teachers in Hopkins County received their masters degree from TAMU-C, as well as 90% of the African American teachers. The Norris Community had its businesses separated from the downtown square shops. In the 1950s, Pannell worked for a restaurant which paid her $2.50 per day ($12.50 per week). The community lacked indoor water, sewer, and

133 toilets. Moore wrote the grant to the city council to have these services implemented. Today, Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist Church has its TV program that reaches 10,000 viewers. It broadcasts every Sunday from 8:00-9:00 AM. The University has been supporting Norris residents through employment for more than 30 years. Soil contamination in the Norris community was from the chemical substance released from the factory next to the stream. Many people got sick without knowing the causes. Some died from skin cancer and babies were born pre-mature. The EPA found high levels of arsenic in the soil and water. Putting more concrete and new dirt over the ground was the solution. Ivory Moore was an administrator in Texas A&M University (formerly East Texas State University-ETSU) who worked in minorities affairs. He grew up in Oklahoma and graduated from Langston University. He married Lennie Wilson and they have one son named Richard. They lived in Oklahoma for ten years before moving to Paris, TX in 1948. He was hired as a lecturer at Paris Junior College and later went to work for the high school as vice principal, government teacher, and basketball coach. In 1972, he was recruited to be an administrator in ETSU where his major responsibilities were dealing with student development and community services. At the Norris community, he coordinated projects and wrote grants with community leaders such as Opal Pannell and Billy Reed. ETSU developed different programs to support students. The Upward Bound Program and Mark III Program offered tutoring for high school students in local areas to help them get into college admission. The Bridge Year Program assisted ETSU freshman students in academic and student affairs. The Storm Program was an activity-based program to promote the students potentials. All programs were aimed at preparing students for university level studies. He established Minorities Affairs with Dr. David Talbott since the African American student population had increased.

Ivory Moore (2009)

Texas A&M University-Commerce; East Texas State University; Students-Education

134 From 1972-1975, the number of minority students increased from 700 to 2100. In 1975, the Norris Community Club was established to bring voice to the communitys standard needs and to keep the community together in cultural and social events. The Church bridged people in community relations. Dr. Lavelle Hendrix started a program for Hunt county by integrating community programs at the Mt. Moriah Baptist Church and expanded them to Hopkins county. Dr. Talbott belonged to the Methodist Church. Moore attended the Baptist church in the Norris community because he preferred a different style of service and he was familiar with the people. Black history was not included in the curriculum. Students studied general American history. When he worked with President McDowell, the university offered more job opportunities for Blacks as faculty and staff. During the school desegregation period, public schools in Hunt county had to integrate which made some Black teachers face difficulty in their jobs. They didnt want to be hired while some teachers work in other sectors such as the post office, police station, and other city offices. The Norris Community Club helped African American people to find jobs. Mr. Moore's wife, Lennie Wilson is active on the Commerce School board. She raises awareness for the rights for African American students. Ivory Moore was an administrator at East Texas State University, in Minority Affairs. His interview starts with a discussion about Dr. David Talbot, the first black professor at the University. He goes on to talk about his career at ETSU. During the first year,relations were sometimes strained between blacks and whites on campus, and Mr. Moore was often in a position to have to mediate and resolve disputes that arose. Harry Turner described the historical events related to the church. The Cypress District consists of 62 churches such as Mt. Moriah (Commerce), St. Paul (Ladonia), Bethlehem (Greenville), and East Caney (Sulphur Springs). The name of Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist

Ivory Moore part2 (2009)

School integration; Texas A&M University-Commerce; East Texas State University; Federated churches; Race relations; Voter registration;

Harry Turner - Oral History Interview 1 (2009)

135 reflects the outreach to the community. Turner spent his childhood in the church with his family members. Sunday school lasted the entire day. People from various cities joined in the weekly congregation and Summer Conferences. He received a bachelor degree in history and psychology from East Texas State University. The Church was difficult to access because of the dirt roads. It was paved in late 1950s through the initiative of Ivory Moore. He also brought water service into the community. People returning from World War II found the community a frustrating place to live and different from the other towns they were used to, so people kept moving out of the community. Also, integration contributed to the changing mentality of the youth. People in those days spend luxurious lifestyle in caf. Nevertheless, the church was the center for social gatherings for African Americans in Commerce. University people who are active for the church are Dr. Dawson, Dr. Talbot, and Mr. Moore. The Baptist tradition emphasizes education related activities. At one time, the congregation was about 100-150 people each week, but nowadays the church sees about 100 people weekly. In the 1960s-1970s, the church and the university had cooperative programs: Friday Night Life and The Third Sunday Choir. Lavelle Hendrix is the minister who also works for the university. The problem with the reputation of the church is that many people assume it is a church for Blacks only. The church provided a session during the election campaign but both candidates had to come. Turner said that 60% of Blacks voted for Obama because of his policies, his political record, and he is African American. He assumed that out of 10 church members, seven voted Democrat, two voted Republican, and one undecided. In the 1960s, the church provided transportation for Black voters from rural areas to register to vote. Womens roles in the church is the second-class and sub-urban until the present. Traditional southern churches have deaconesses stand in the back row. There have

136 never been any female preachers. Some female members used to have the title of Mother of the Church, but now they are called deacon ladies. The Deacons duty begins during the devotion session. Two to four deacons and a mission sister start a prayer and pass the offering among members. Donations are used for utilities, rent, miscellaneous, and community support. The church sometimes helps people with financial need. Since it was established in 1892, the church building is used for various purposes. Normally it served for community assembly. There have been 6-7 wedding ceremonies from 2000-2006. University students used it for a graduation party, under the conditions of no alcohol, no profanity, no vocal music, and cleaning up. The Norris community had its own police officers. Police treated black-on-black crime differently. It took longer to investigate and find the culprit. This video contains mostly biographical information of Harry Turner, who was born in Commerce, Texas on 12/20/1946. The interviewer states that she would like to focus on his writing during the interview, as well. Mr. Turner moved to Arizona at approximately 2 years old and lived there for 10 years, before moving back to Commerce. He credits living "out West" with helping to shape who he is today. He was not used to living with segregation, so coming back to Commerce was a culture shock. Mr. Turner goes on to discuss his experience going to school in Commerce. They often did not have adequate education resources, so they had to make to with what they had. Harry Turner's first memories of writing were in high school. He would write book reports, and in class essays. Turner says writing always came very easily to him. When he graduated, Mr. Turner briefly went back to Arizona, but eventually returned to Commerce, Texas. He attended community college, and eventually attended East Texas State University in 1965. In terms of the Civil Rights Movement, Mr. Turner says he was someone put off by the message of Malcom X, and like-minded people,

11 Harry Turner Oral History Interview 2 (2009)

Civil rights; Commerce (Tex.); East Texas State University

137 because the message was too radical. Turner mentions being drawn to the message of Haile Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia Harry Turner grew up with his grandparents. They met in Georgia on the way to the West and settled down in Texas in the 1920s. They valued literacy from reading the bible, newspapers, the encyclopedia, and periodicals, which were sent from relatives in New York. The Norris community began in the 1920s and migration continued to increase the population during 1940s-1950s. People migrated from East Texas cities such as Pittsburgh, Mt. Vernon, and Texarkana. Jim Crow laws did not cause them much antagonism because black people accepted the way things were. In those days, Black women worked domestics and in food service while Black men worked on farms and did manual labor jobs. They usually walked to work but some workers received pick-up trucks from their employers. On the weekends, men liked to play gambling games such as poker and dice. They also formed organizations: The Black Masons for men and The Eastern Stars for women. When the lawsuit on contamination was in progress in the Norris Community, people had group discussions extensively. There were 3 law firms representing clients in court. Residents received compensations ranging from $3,000-10,000 and lawyers made 80% of that. Different people knew the Norris Community differently: The House for Blacks, The Nigger Town for Whites, and The Hole for university students. Martin Luther King was highly regarded as a hero for African Americans. When he was assassinated in 1968, it caused tremendous anger. John F. Kennedy was held in high esteem among African Americans because of his policy for minorities rights and his political party. When he was assassinated in 1963, Turner was in high school and people were all gloomy. Lyndon B. Johnson was not so popular among African American voters because people distrusted him. Turner has a knack for using various digital and electronic equipment. In the early 1980s, he

Harry Turner Oral History Interview 3 (2009)

Race relations; Federated churches; Commerce (Tex.); New York (N.Y.)

138 taught himself to use the computer and Microsoft programs. Digital technology is used in the church, and his job where he also uses surveillance cameras for church security. Harry Turner has produced the Sunday bulletin to distribute at the Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist church services since 1978. The ideas come from the bible and questions asked from the congregation. The bulletin consists of the church covenant, a congregational hymn, responsive readings, weekly programs, and a directory. His self-taught computer skills allow him to draft and compose on the computer using Illustrations from the clipart collection. He uses a spreadsheet program for the financial records of the church. Historical records of the church were kept orally with some forms of written records such as reverence books and membership rolls; They could verify what the people said. He gets his inspiration from the Norris community cemetery where he feels that the bodies buried in the graves since the 1920s have hundreds of untold stories. He states that history helps to avoid past mistakes and to identify an individual as a person in the nation. In 1958 when he was in the high school, he went to New York City to visit his aunt. It took 4-5 days on the train leaving from Greenville, TX. His aunts house was on the 13th floor of the high-rise apartment building. After 6 months, he returned to Texas. Harry Turner spoke to a "Race and Education in the 20th Century" class about what life was like in the 1950s and 1960s in Commerce, TX. He was one of the first African American students to attend East Texas Sate University. Mr. Turner was a leader in the Norris Community in Commerce, and was and is an active civil rights activist. Derryle Peace, an East Texas State University (ETSU) African American alumni and current Director of Alumni Relations Texas A&MCommerce, talks about the hardship of being African American at ETSU during the 1970s, the struggle of the African American fraternity on campus, and life of African Americans in the

14 Harry Turner at "Race and Education in the 20th Century" class (2011)

Race relations; East Texas State University; Commerce (Tex.) Greek letter societies; Texas A&M University-Commerce-Alumni and alumnae; East

Derryle Peace Oral History Interview 1 (2009)

139 Texas State University-Alumni and alumnae; Commerce (Tex.); Dallas area community. His main fields of studies were counseling and sociology. Influential figures in his life were his grandmother and uncle, Martin Luther King, and Dr. Robert Gold who was his major advisor on academic and student activities. He has also held positions with the Texas Youth Commission, Girls Inc., and AT&T. Other topics include TV programs, newspapers, family, and work. Derryle Peace was born on May 3, 1962 in Dallas, Texas. He was raised by grandparents in Northpark area near Love Field airport and the Coca Cola plant. Church and neighborhood involvements contributed to his upbringing. Relationships in the community were very close. School segregation made him attend Booker T. Washington school which was located in another area. During the middle of the school desegregation phase, teachers prepared students with advanced lessons to be able to compete with the new transition. African American schools had to adopt second hand books and equipped with old facilities. English classes emphasized European literature with less African American literacy. In 1970, he left Dallas for East Texas State University (ETSU) in Commerce. In the meantime, the Vietnam War was on but he did not consider it as the option; college education was his choice. He was more concerned with civil rights and Black awareness. As an ETSU African American student, he engaged in student activities as well as attending the local Mt. Moriah Temple Baptist church. He mentions the reason why the Norris community is called The Hole from railroad blocking. Participation in the newly experimental interracial housing at the ETSU campus enriched his understanding of racial differences and similarities. There were African American faculty and staff with whom he could relate such as Dr. David Arlington Talbott, Dr. John Mason Brewer, Mr. Ivory Moore. The Black History Month panel discussion was held on February 23, 2010 at Commerce Public

Derryle Peace Oral History Interview 2 (2010)

Segregation in education; East Texas State University;

Celebration of Black History Month

Subject African

140 Ivory Moore, Harry Turner, Billy Reed, and James Green representing the Norris Community. (2010) American History Month Library. The speakers were Ivory Moore, Harry Turner, Billy Reed, and James Green. They were representing the Norris Community. The event is a part of cooperation between Texas A&M-Commerce and the Commerce Public Library. The Heirloom Project was another project relating to railroad history. Quay Throgmorton, the Citys mayor, read a proclamation to the City of Commerce, announcing the celebration of Black History Month. Moore introduced his roles when he was serving in the city council for the Norris Community. Hendrix also involves with the community for church activity. People from Norris usually worked for university in the food service and some of them worked as domestic maids. There were local shops such as Charlie Smiths store, a BBQ shop, and a barber shop. The Norris School was built in the 1950s on the land donated by Phillip A. Norris. In addition, Norris was the one who helped to bring a railroad into Commerce. The first principal was A.C. Williams. It was the all-black school famous for its basket ball team. Turner played on the team and led them to the Texas State Championship in his junior year. They played in the Dallas area, and neighboring states. The scoreboard only displayed 2 digits, so some games the lower score showing on scoreboard perplexed audiences, but actually the team had reached over one hundred points instead. Student uniforms were funded by the State but were not given every year, usually four to five years apart. People of the Norris Community gathered at the church to discuss their living needs such as sewer, pavement, and employment. When the Norris Community Club (NCC) was formed into the charter, their needs were heard by the City and the university. The Journalism Department helped by publishing their needs in the newspaper. The university staff and faculty such as Ivory Moore, Dr. Talbot, and Dr. Gold got involved with the community by supporting the organization. NCC helped local residents with employment in the Sheriff Department in Greenville and

141 Commerce. In 1975, Moore was elected to be a city commissioner. Rebecca Cord Oral History Interview (2010) Subject Social workers; Rural health clinics Rebecca Cord was a social worker at the Norris Community clinic in 1973. She was from Fort Worth, Tx studying for a bachelors degree in sociology and psychology. After graduating from ETSU, she continued to earn her masters degree in counseling. The Norris community received a 5-year grant for their community clinic. Later she became a social worker for Hunt County in Greenville, Tx and Mrs. Harvey asked her to work as a clinic manager. The job dealt with family planning, doctor arrangements, volunteer recruitment, and community service. The clinic paid $90/month for a manager, $75/day for a doctor, and patients were not charged. Many people supported the clinic variously: a lady donated a house for the clinic, the Mt. Moriah church provided stock rooms for medical supplies, and university students volunteered as lab technicians and receptionists. Volunteers helped to interview patients, prepare rooms, comfort patients, perform lab tests, and measure blood pressure. The clinic was open once a week between the hours of 4:00-8:00 pm. There were 10-15 patients each day. The doctors who came to work at the clinic were Dr. White, Dr. Ryan, Dr. Harris, and Dr. Martin. Once, she had to ask another doctor, Dr. King, for a substitution. She was worried about prejudice by seeing the confederate flag on his wall, but he was the most respectful person to the Norris community residents because he had delivered their babies for many years. Norris residents made up 5070% of the patients, the rest were university students, rural farmers, Whites, and Latinos. Birth control pills and pap smears were taboo subjects at the campus infirmary. Abortion cases were referred to clinics in Greenville or Dallas. Most of the patients were on government welfare. A sliding scale grant helped with money in the beginning years and the clinic charged a minimal fee to patients. Later, the clinic received grants from local supporters. The

142 clinic lasted only 2 years from 1973-1974. A new clinic was built on Monroe street, therefore more people could visit. After the clinic closed down, Cord joined the army. Racial tension on campus was not her attention. She, as a white student, sat on the right side of the dining facility in Smith Hall and received a warning signal that she was sitting on the wrong side. But she did not mind. She went to see the Soul Brother concert for Black fans without caring about racial differences. The Four March program opened for students who were interested in studying other cultures such as rural county, and Black communities. But outside the campus, tension was more horrible. A person at Howard store yelled social epithets to the Blacks but they pretended not to hear. In Mississippi, some older people acted against people from the other races, which is hard to change. The American society in the late 1960s and early 1970s was so violent and prejudice, it urged some Black people to commit crime. A panel discussion moderated by Dr. Shannon Carter, focused on personal experiences related to segregation, desegregation, and integration in the education system. The panelists are Theodore and Gwendolyn Lawe, Ivory Moore, Billy Reed, Angel Delgado, James Belford Page, Opal Pannell, Joseph McCowan, Dr. Henry Ross, and Harry Turner

CLiC Talk- From Segregation to Desegregation: A Conversation from Experience in Texas Schools James Belford Page, Opal Pannell, Joseph McCowan, Dr. Henry Ross, and Harry Turner (2011) Allen Hallmark Oral History Interview (2011)

Subject Segregation in education; School integration

Political activists; Pacifists; African Americans-History; East Texas State University

Allen Hallmark is a former graduate student of East Texas State University. He came to Commerce, Texas in 1973. He had previously received a B.A. in History from Austin College in Sherman, Texas. Mr. Hallmark had also previously served 4 years in the Army, one of which was spent in Vietnam. He became an opponent of the Vietnam War while still serving, and joined a group called GIs United Against the War, while stationed at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The group was comprised of active duty servicemen who opposed the Vietnam War. This is how Mr. Hallmark

143 became involved with social activism. When he came to Commerce, Mr. Hallmark was seeking a social cause with which to become involved. When he saw that the Norris Community, the name of the African American community in Commerce, lacked basic infrastructure and services, such as indoor plumbing, he wanted to see if there was any way he could help. He was made aware of the Norris Community Club, which met regularly to discuss and deal with the issues of the community. Though Mr. Hallmark was originally regarded with some skepticism by members of the Norris Community Club, he was soon accepted by those involved. His main job was to write newsletters that were distributed by the club, as well as press releases that were sometimes published in the Commerce Journal. This was a natural fit, since he was studying journalism at ETSU. Mr. Hallmark recalls that one of the most significant events to happen while he was in Commerce was the election of Ivory Moore to the city council. The Norris Community Club went door to door to register voters, and on election day, they actually drove voters to the polls. The effort paid off, as Ivory Moore became the first African American elected to the city council in Commerce. Mr. Hallmark eventually left Commerce, Texas to settle in the Pacific Northwest, but remains an activist for peace and social justice. Allen Hallmark Oral History Interview (2 of 2) Dr. Shannon Carter Digital Methodologies: Remixing Rural Texas (1of 2) 10/24/2011 Dr. Shannon Carter Digital Methodologies: 12 Humanities; Literacy; Digital media; Remixes; 3/12/2011 Presentation given by Dr. Shannon Carter as part of a digital methodologies lecture series. Her project involves working with local history materials, such as oral history interviews, and remixing them into unique digital objects. Her project is funded through an NEH grant. 10/24/2011


144 Remixing Rural Texas (1 of 2) McArthur Evans Oral History Interview (1 of 3) 11/7/2011

Subject African Americans-History; East Texas State University

Dr. John Carlos Oral History Interview at Texas A&M University (2011)

African Americans-History; Civil Rights-America; Olympic games (19th: 1968: Mexico City, Mexico); Sports--Social aspects; East Texas State University

McArthur Evans was born in Selma, Alabama, and lived there until his Grandmother died when he was 14. He moved to Chicago, where he lived with family, until he came to Texas in 1970, to attend Southwestern Christian College. McArthur Evans came to East Texas State University in 1972, where he majored in Sociology. He was also a University Police Department Officer at ETSU. Evans describes the situation at "hot" when he arrived in Commerce, Texas. There were no race riots on campus or in town when he came to Commerce, but he feels there easily could have been. The majority of African Americans in Commerce lived in a part of town that was called "the hole." It eventually came to be known as the Norris Community. Mr. Evans remembers that not long after he came to Commerce, the African American community began to organize, and make their collective voice heard. He became involved with what became known as the Norris Community Club, along with other citizens like Billy Reed, the purpose of which was to improve the social conditions within the Norris Community. Dr. John Carlos was recruited to the East Texas State University track team in 1965. Growing up in Harlem, and having never been to Texas, he had no expectations of what it would be like living there. When he landed at the airport in Dallas, he saw that segregation was the order of the day. The phrase he heard time and again was, Thats just the way things are down here. The relationship with his coaches at ETSU was often contentious, though the team did win the NAIA National Championship during his time there. It was at ETSU that Dr. Carlos learned of a potential boycott of the 1968 Summer games by African American athletes. Though a boycott never took place, Dr. Carlos is likely most remembered for the statement he and teammate Tommie Smith made during their medal ceremony by raising black-gloved fists during the playing of the Star- Spangled Banner. Dr.

145 Carlos was at ETSU for a short time, but it was during that time that some African American students and community leaders had begun to organize to affect change, and this climate of change gained steam in the years that followed. John Carlos took part in an informal discussion with a group of several other people at the Red River Business Incubator. Dr. Carlos talks about meeting important figures such as, Jackie Robinson, Malcom X, and Martin Luther King Jr. Dr. Carlos was asked to attend a meeting at Madison Square Garden, at which Dr. King was present, regarding a boycott of the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. Dr. Carlos goes on to talk about his time at East Texas State University, and how his famous clenched fist on the medal stand was a statement as part of the Olympic Project for Human Rights. Dr. John Carlos spoke to a group of student athletes at Hunt Physical Education Center, on the campus of Paris Junior College in Paris, Texas on November 8, 2011. He spoke about the stand he took in the 1968 Summer Olympics or equal rights, encouraging the students to take advantage of opportunites when they arise. Dr. John Carlos and Dave Zirin , two of the authors of the John Carlos Story spoke at Texas A&M University-Commerce on November 8, 2011. The speech described how John Carlos's and Tommie Smith's raised fists at the 1968 Summer Olympics were symbols of a larger movement seeking equality within sports and society as a whole, and what it meant for the two of them to take such a public stand. James Belford Page was born April 1, 1960 in Dallas, Texas. All of the schools he attended as a child were segregated. He did have interactions with white people growing up, and they were all largely positive. Page assumed that he would get along with everyone, and they would like him, because thats the way things had always been. His first experience with integration came during his senior year in 1968.

32 Dr. John Carlos Speak at Red River Region Business Incubator, Paris, TX (2011)

Olympic games (19th: 1968: Mexico City, Mexico); Sports--Social aspects; East Texas State University

Dr. John Carlos Speak at Paris Junior College (2011)

Olympic games (19th: 1968: Mexico City, Mexico); Sports--Social aspects; Olympic games (19th: 1968: Mexico City, Mexico); Racism in popular culture -- United States; Sports -- Social aspects -United States. Segregation in education; East Texas State University-Alumni and alumnae; National Football League;

Dr. John Carlos Plenary Speak at Texas A&M University Commerce (2011)

Belford Page - Oral History Interview (2011)

146 Athletics began integrating around the same time, and he did say that there was some tension on the field. Page was part of the Upward Bound program in school, which exposed students to college, who might not have considered going otherwise. He spent time at Southern Methodist University as part of the program. Page wanted to go somewhere other than Dallas when it was time to go to college, because he wanted to get away from what he had always known, and try something different. He chose to go to East Texas State University in Commerce, Texas. He got into school on a Math scholarship, then decided he wanted to play football as well, and he made the team. Page eventually changed majors, and switched to an athletic scholarship. He was eventually drafted by the Green Bay Packers, and played football in the NFL for a time Page says that there was racism on campus at East Texas State University, but he describes it as subtle. He tells a story of how the black athletes often had to run from the field to a tunnel while some white people in the back of a truck threw rocks at them. While he does speak of racism, and tension on campus, Page has fond memories of East Texas State as well, recounting some favorite professors and classes taken. Belford Page - Black History Month Speaker Series (2012) African American History Month; East Texas State University; Texas A&M UniversityCommerce Texas A&M University-Commerce hosted a Black History Month speaker series in February 2012, featuring alumni of Texas A&M University-Commerce. James Belford Page attended then East Texas State University from 1968 to 1972. He came to the university on a Math scholarship, and also played football. East Texas State had integrated in 1964. Page discusses his academic and football career, and also how he was surprised by his first encounters with racism on the then predominantly white campus. McArthur Evans spoke as part of the Texas A&M University-Commerce Black History Month speaker series. He was born in Selma, Alabama. Selma was one of the centers of the

Black History Month Speaker Series Kickoff McArthur Evans,

African American History Month; Civil Rights;

147 Opal Pannell (2012) Segregation; Selma (Ala.); East Texas State University; Civil Rights Movement. Mr. Evans remembers "drinking from the colored fountain" when he was a teenager. He makes the point fewer people remember the days of segregation in society, but it shaped who who he became. The Civil Rights movement was a time when certain people saw injustice, and they took it upon themselves to orgaize and try to change things. Mr. Evans came to East Texas Stae University in 1972. He asked where the other black people were, and he was told they were "in the hole" which was what people called the Norris Community, the traditionally black section of Commerce, Texas. The conditions in the Norris Community were one of the things that spurred Mr. Evans to become an activist. Dr. Henry Ross is an instructor of Health and Human Performance at Texas A&M UniversityCommerce. He spoke as part of the Black History Month Speaker Series that was hosted by A&M-Commerce. Dr. Ross came to East Texas State University in 1985 as an assistant football coach and instructor. He was born in Birmingham, Alabama in the mid 1950s. When he left home for college, his mother told him to get an education first, no matter what else he did. Segregation was in full swing when Dr. Ross was growing up. He remembers several events that turned out to be pivotal moments in the civil rights struggle, including the bombing on the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, and the police using attack dogs on civil rights protesters. When Dr. Ross had the chance to go to college, he left Alabama because he wanted the chance to go somewhehre else. Dr. Ross goes on to talk about how his love of sports has influenced his life, and how sports is often a micochasm of society. Louis Margot was born in Galveston, Texas, and grew up in New Braunfels, Texas. He was interested in sports from an early age, particularly baseball. He played into his teenage years, but had blown out both knees by the age of 15, so he was no longer able to compete. He became interested in Sports Journalism Margot

Dr. Henry RossSegregation; Black History Month Discrimination Speaker Series (2012) in public accommodation s; Birmingham (Ala.); Sports; Texas A&M UniversityCommerce;

Louis Margot - Oral History Interview (2012)

Sports journalism;East Texas State University-Alumni and alumnae; Texas A&M

148 UniversityCommerce; attended Southwest Texas State for one year in 1963. He came to East Texas State University in 1964, which is significant, because that is the year that the university integrated. He was interested in becoming a Sports Information Director (SID). Margot describes coming to East Texas as a culture shock, mainly because it was so far removed from the part of Texas in which he had been raised. Margot covered ETSU athletics, and reported in the East Texan newspaper. He covered all the major sports on campus, including football, basketball, and track & field. He mentions that there were no womens collegiate athletics on campus at the time. Margot was at ETSU when John Carlos was recruited to the track team, and remembers that Carloss wife Kim was the secretary for the journalism department, so he got to know them through that relationship. After receiving his Bachelors, Margot stayed at ETSU to pursue a Masters. While doing some research in Dallas, Texas for a potential thesis topic, he learned about an African American newspaper called The Dallas Express. Margot wrote his thesis on aspects of the paper, such as its history, how stories were presented to readers, and how that compared to other newspapers. Margot had a long career at ETSU/Texas A&M University Commerce. Positions held included SID, Director of Publications, Assistant Director of News & Information, Director of Information, Director of Special Projects, Property Manager, and Coordinator of Facilities Information. Glenda McKissic was born and raised in Minneola, Texas. The town was essentially divided between black and white. Ms. McKissic realized fairly quickly that the black kids didnt have any sort of social outlets at all. She organized a social club that gave them a means by which to get together and socialize. Ms. McKissics ability and willingness to organize and mobilize would serve her well throughout her like Ms. McKissic lived in Minneola for her entire school career, until she went to college. She started high school at McFarland High

Glenda McKissic Baylor - Oral History Interview (2012)

Segregation in education; School integration; East Texas State University-Alumni and alumnae; Minneola (Tex.);

149 School, which was the all African American high school in town. School integration was mandated in 1966, but she was part of a transitional program where Minneola started integration a year early, by sending 5 African American students to Minneola High School in 1965. The idea was that starting small a year early would help make the mandated change easier. Ms. McKissic said her transition to an all-white high school was more positive than negative. The other students were very cordial, for the most part, though she does recall one incident where a racial slur was yelled at her. One thing that did stand out to her was that the white school did have much better facilities and brand new textbooks for students. The school fully integrated the following year, and Ms. McKissic did say that there was more tension than the previous year, but that things stayed relatively calm. She graduated from High School in 1968, and came to East Texas State University that fall, where she majored in Business. Ms. McKissic quickly got involved on campus, much like she had in her own community. She was involved in starting the first African American sorority on campus. She helped start a chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha at ETSU. The following year, Ms. McKissic was nominated for Homecoming Queen, and became the first African American at ETSU to win that honor. She does recall some students booing when she was crowned, but recalls many students cheering as well. Ms. McKissic recalls that only one of the queens court was actually there for photos, while the others said they had prior engagements. She also recalls that after she won, she became more cautious about going places on campus, in case someone wanted to harm her. Ms. McKissic graduated from ETSU in 1971, and moved to California, where she first became an educator, and then an administrator, in the Los Angeles area. She was there for 9 years before moving back to Texas, which she said seemed not to have changed at all. She continued her career in education, working in the Dallas Independent School

150 District. She retired in 2000.

Source: Reel Texas Digital Collection, Texas A&M University-Commerce Libraries, 2012, web,

151 Appendix B Video processing The video collection of oral history interviews and relating events have been collected for over three years since 2009. These videos require many hours to process, index, and archive. Most videos in 2009-2010 were primarily recorded in analog format, technically they are called Digital Interface Format: DIF. We used MiniDV cassettes to record the interview. Each cassette records 60 minutes. When we need to watch the video on television, it requires the connection between video camera to TV. The camera acts as the videocassette recorder (VCR) as in oldfashioned video player. So it makes possible to view video on TV screen. MiniDV video is more convenient than VCR when we need to view on TV. However, watching the entire interview, it needs viewer to do the fast forward or rewind manually. Skipping a certain scene during the video is quite a time consuming task to make. This limitation on using video cassette in the classroom may bored students while waiting for teacher to go to a certain part during the lesson and requires teacher to spend time prepare the lesson when using the video as a supplementary of instruction. Since personal computer has a great role in video viewing, digital video format allows us to do more creation on video editing programs (e.g. iMovie, Moviemaker). Therefore, it is necessary to convert file from MiniDV cassettes to another compatible format on the computer. I have to convert DIF format to computer compatible files which are usually AVI or MPEG. In order to learn about media literacy, I have studied some of the video terminology. According to Rice Universitys video format guide, there are some technical terms and definitions that I frequently use.

152 .avi file extension which stands for Audio Video Interleave. This is a multimedia file format for storing sound and moving pictures in Microsoft Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) format. It is one of the most common formats because audio or video content that is compressed with a wide variety of codecs can be stored in an .avi file. .mpg or .mpeg and .mp4 file extension which stands for Moving Picture Experts Group. This is an evolving set of standards for video and audio compression developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group. This file format was designed specifically for use with Video-CD and CD media. .wmv which stands for Windows Media Video. This file format compresses audio and video by using the Windows Media Video codec, a tightly compressed format that requires a minimal amount of storage space on your computer's hard disk. The first process in digital video production is converting file format. After I receive MiniDV cassette, I have to convert the file to be the digital format as .avi. The work starts from hooking the camera to Mac computer. Then opening iMovie, which is the video editing program that built in the computer to import the video file. I have to import the primary video from MiniDV video camera into the program. Basically, the video will be replayed, so that the program will record it again into our desired format. The file size of DV in digital format it very large, approximately 10 Gigabytes (GB) per 1 hour video, which make it impossible to transfer from computers hard drive to portable drive such as DVD or thumb drive. Each regular DVD can hold only 4.7 GB. and we can do only a single write. Otherwise, external hard drive can solve the problem of transporting a very large file. However, not every student can afford buying an 500 GB external hard drive for $50-70. Some budgeted students can buy a blank DVD for $0.50 to keep their

153 video files for study. Once the DV file has been converted to AVI, MPEG, or WMV, they will be reduced the size to less than 1GB per 1 hour video. Economical concern is the idea that keeps technology affordable to every student. On the Internet, the file can be uploaded and distributed to multiple users. This way eliminates the need of storage device. There are many free file hosting websites such as Google Drive (, Dropbox (, and MediaFire ( Google Drive is one of the most popular file storage and synchronization service. It was released in 2012, with 15 GB online storage for initial user who registers with Gmail. This service offers cloud storage, file sharing, and collaborative editing. Dropbox also provides similar service on file storage. Its service is outstanding in synchronization which means any other users who are granted to access will be able to view and use the file with the owner. MediaFire offers up to 50 GB of storage from starting 10 GB and will increased by sharing activity such as on Facebook and Twitter. However, file hosting service needs downloading time which depends on the Internet speed. Each oral history videos size is from 500-800 MB for 60-120 minutes of video. This will take from 10 minutes up to 1 hour to receive the file. Recent technology in streaming video makes video available online without downloading the file and using video playback program. Normally, when we download the video, it is necessary to wait until the entire file is completely downloaded. Video streaming is different by creating the buffer for then video, this means we can watch while the video is loading. But there will be a delay in seconds during the video streaming process. Video owner simply upload the file to the server and share the hyperlink to the video to see the video. The traffic of the web server plays the important role in viewing time. Web site needs efficient servers to support

154 multiple visitors simultaneously. YouTube is the biggest video server that makes lengthy video to be online with least delay. In addition to YouTube, Selin Longhkaster (2013) suggests free video sharing websites that teacher can make use of various type of videos for educational purpose. Vimeo ( is the platform that competing with YouTube in terms of the professional community. It attracts users from movie making industry to upload videos with it. Free account allows 500MB upload space per week. It has the ability to download the HD video file which YouTube does not offer this service. Dailymotion ( is the new competitor to, which it is based in France. Users can view, search, and upload the video files. Each file can be up to 2GB or 60 minutes with 1280 x 720 resolution. This quality is as good as high definition (HD). Users can search by tags or video keywords in a large collection of 25 millions videos in the catalog (Dailymotion, 2013). Vevo ( is the web site for music video. It offers high definition video as much as in television quality. It has a huge collection of music video from the world leading entertainment companies such as Universal Music Group, Sony Music, and EMI Music. Music video is the source of studying literacy from lyrics, music, and motion pictures.

155 Fig. 23. Instruction menu of how to import raw video file to iMovie, from University of Victoria; Convert video on a Mac;; 2013; web; June 2013.

Fig. 24. Instruction menu on how to create new video event from Ken Stone.; iMovie 09;, April 2009, web, June 2013.

Video making is similar to writing and composition. As Bill Alves (2009) writes introduction calls readers attention to the story that is going to be seen. A good introduction should perform as a thesis statement of the entire story. It demonstrates different minor details to support the thesis. introduction improves the reader's recognition and retention. He introduces his course description interestingly:
Communicating effectively, clearly, and with grace is a crucial, even indispensible skill not only for future classes in the Humanities, Social Sciences, and Arts, but throughout your college career and beyond. However, this skill is inextricable from clarity of thought through interpretive, creative, and critical reasoning. That is, one cannot communicate clearly without being clear

about a topic in one's own mind and effectively communicating that interest to one's audience. In this course we will practice expressing our original, creative interpretations of the arts of our culture and time with clear and compelling writing and ideas.

The introduction of this course syllabus initiates the importance of communication to the students. It is necessary to them in order to achieve academic goal as well as intellectual achievement.

Appendix C

Legal issues on media and archival use Intellectual property issue is the main concern in making the remix. Fortunately, the interviewees have granted their permission in using the interview video for educational purpose. When we do the oral history session, they have to sign the consent form. It states that:

Oral history release form According to the Oral History Association, oral history is a method of gathering and preserving historical information through recorded interviews with participants in past events and ways of life. Your participation in this interview is voluntary. Even if you decide to participate, you may withdraw from the interview without penalty, or request confidentiality, at any point during the interview. You may also choose not to answer specific questions or discuss certain subjects during the interview or to ask that portions of our discussion or your responses not be recorded on tape.

Statement of Consent: I give permission for Texas A&M University-Commerce to keep a copy of my interview for research purposes at the James G. Gee Library. I agree to allow A&M-Commerce to place my interview in its entirety in the Northeast Texas Digital Collections for online research. Unless you check below to request anonymity, your name will be referenced in the transcript, recording, and in any material generated as a result of this research. If you request anonymity, the interview will be closed to public use, and your name will not appear in the transcript or referenced in any material obtained from the interview.

158 When researchers do an oral history project, they need to have ethical responsibility to the informant. This is ethical obligation that interviewer has to obtain inform consent for the oral history interview. According to Thompson (2000), inform consent explains the interviewers purpose clearly and meaningfully to inform the informant on what is the interview about. It specifies various forms of interview that will be published and whether these forms will be available to other researchers. It should make the informant understand his confidentiality that will be remained. There might be quotation used for research purpose, inform consent suggests possible permission in which the informant grants to use his words or speech from the interview. Multimedia projects usually deal with the media from different sources. Images and video are used in collaborative creation which makes remixing unique? It is necessary for students and teachers to think about legal and ethical issues in using multimedia. In the National Education Technology Standards for Students (NEST-S), it is stated that Students understand
human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

However, it is sometimes confusing to students to recognize the rights in which each media belongs to. For instance, some students assume that YouTube videos sharing on the Internet are free to view in the public and free to distribute and reuse. This is the controversial if those videos are protected by the copyright to use only by the legal owner. They must have permission to share or been paid for using. Students should learn how to consult the copyright information sources such as: Library of Congress (

159 Copyright Information Center ( Question Copyright ( Creative Commons (

The most influential source is Creative Commons which provides copyright licenses to the creative works with the public permission. Instead of all rights reserved found in most creation, media under Creative Common license are some rights reserved. According to Lawrence Lessig (2004) he explains Creative Commons (CC) is the legal tool to assist creators and institutions granting the copyright permissions to their creative work. The items categorized under CC can be copied, distributed, edited, remixed, and built upon, all within the boundaries of copyright law. Each license has various conditions to apply. The icons represent the meanings as the following. Table 5. Creative Commons licenses. Categorization Description You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your copyrighted work - and derivative works based upon it - but only if they give you credit

Attribution You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your work - and derivative works based upon it - but for noncommercial purposes only.


160 You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform only verbatim copies of your work, not derivative works based upon it.

No Derivative Works

You allow others to distribute derivative works only under a license identical to the license that governs your work. Share Alike

.There are six different Creative Commons licenses that we need to know. Creative Commons licenses Description This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit Attribution CC BY you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials.

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit Attribution-ShareAlike CC BY-SA you and license their new creations under the identical terms. This license is often compared to copyleft free and open source software licenses. All new works based on yours will carry the same license, so any derivatives will also allow commercial use. This is the license used by Wikipedia, and is recommended for materials that would

161 benefit from incorporating content from Wikipedia and similarly licensed projects.

This license allows for redistribution, commercial and noncommercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in Attribution-NoDerivs CC BY-ND This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they dont have to license their derivative works on the same terms. whole, with credit to you.

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and Attribution-NonCommercialShareAlike CC BY-NC-SA This license is the most restrictive of our six main licenses, only allowing others to download your works and share Attribution-NonCommercialNoDerivs CC BY-NC-ND them with others as long as they credit you, but they cant change them in any way or use them commercially. license their new creations under the identical terms.

162 VITA

Sunchai Hamcumpai was born in Thailand on June 16, 1977 in the family of educators whose parents and relatives are mostly school teachers. Family influences him to value academic attitude. In 1993-1994, he was the AFS international high school exchange student in New York which exposed his life to authentic English speaking community for the first time. In 1996-1999, he studied Business Administration at Thammasat University in Bangkok, Thailand and continued his Master of Arts (M.A.) in Language and Communication at The National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA) from 2000-2002. He gained professional experiences after graduation from various business fields such as sales and marketing, public communication, and international education. Then in 2004, he returned from the capital city to his rural hometown to be an English teacher at Roi-Et Rajabhat University. In 2009, he came back to the United States again as a doctoral student (PhD. in English) at Texas A&M University-Commerce. He also worked as a graduate assistant in research for the Converging Literacies Center (CLiC) which dealt with oral history interview, video production, and information research. He presented at national conferences such as The Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) 2010 in Atlanta, Georgia and The Thomas R. Watson Conference on Rhetoric and Composition 2012 in Louisville, Kentucky. On the campus, he assisted in the organizing of numerous events such as Norris Community panel discussion, Commerce Week on Writing, The Black History Month Speakers Series, The CLiC Talk, and Dr. John Carloss Talks. All activities contributed him to academic development and community services.

163 He married to Sutima Hamcumpai, a colleague who met at work and eventually become a lover. They have two children; Pammy who was born in 2006 and received her primary education from Commerce Independent School District since she was two, Ethan who was born and raised in Texas in 2009. Sunchai received PhD. in English from the Department of Literature and Languages, Texas A&M University-Commerce in 2013 and returned to a rural hometown in Thailand to be a teacher.

Permanent address: English Department, Roi-Et Rajabhat University, Selaphum District, Roi-Et Province 45120, Thailand Email: