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Åíçìåñùôéêü Äåëôßï (Newsletter): ÍïÝìâñéïò 2011 • Ôåý÷ç 10/11

ÁÖÉÅÑÙÌÁ: ÏÉÊÏÍÏÌÉÊÇ ÊÑÉÓÇ ÊÁÉ ÊÏÉÍÙÍÉÊÇ ÐÏËÉÔÉÊÇ
Ðåñéå÷üìåíá
• óåë. 1/2

The Economic Crisis and Social Policy
David Piachaud, Professor
• óåë. 3/4

Social Policy in Times of Crisis
Bent Greve, Professor
• óåë. 4/5/6

Êñßóç, êïéíùíéêü êñÜôïò êáé áëëçëåããýç
Ìáñßá Ðåôìåæßäïõ, ÊáèçãÞôñéá
• óåë. 7/8/9

ÏéêïíïìéêÞ êñßóç, öôþ÷åéá êáé êïéíùíéêÞ ðñïóôáóßá: 1⁄4ôáí óôñåâëþóåéò ôçò
ðñáãìáôéêüôçôáò õðáãïñåýïõí ôéò êõñßáñ÷åò ðïëéôéêÝò
×ñßóôïò Ðáðáèåïäþñïõ, Áí. ÊáèçãçôÞò, Ðñüåäñïò
ôçò ÅÅÊÐ
• óåë. 9/10/11

Áðü ôçí ÄçìïóéïíïìéêÞ Êñßóç óôçí ÊáôÜñåõóç ôçò Áðáó÷üëçóçò
Áðüóôïëïò Äåäïõóüðïõëïò, ÊáèçãçôÞò
• óåë. 11/12/13

ÐïëéôéêÞ óå Ðôþ÷åõóç, Ïéêïíïìßá óå Êñßóç, ÊïéíùíéêÞ ÐïëéôéêÞ óå Áðïññýèìéóç
ÄçìÞôñçò ÂåíéÝñçò, Áí. ÊáèçãçôÞò
• óåë. 13/14/15

ÅñãáóéáêÝò Ó÷Ýóåéò êáé Ìíçìüíéï
ÃéÜííçò ÊïõæÞò, Áí. ÊáèçãçôÞò
• óåë. 15/16/17
ÌåôáíÜóôåõóç êáé Êñßóç óôçí ÅëëçíéêÞ
Êïéíùíßá
ÄÝóðïéíá Ðáðáäïðïýëïõ, Åðßêïõñç ÊáèçãÞôñéá
• óåë. 17/18/19
Ç Áêýñùóç ôçò ÊïéíùíéêÞò Ðñïóôáóßáò
óôï Ôïðéêü Åðßðåäï
×ñéóôüöïñïò ÓêáìíÜêçò, ËÝêôïñáò

The Economic Crisis and Social Policy
David Piachaud, Professor, London School of Economics
The pioneers of social policy in Britain, Beveridge and Titmuss, made
the assumption that the economy would function smoothly achieving
full employment and some economic growth. For 25 years after the
Second World War this was a reasonable assumption. Now, such times
are a distant memory as the economic crisis has resulted in devastating
unemployment and negative growth in many countries, most damagingly in
Greece. This has massive consequences for social policy.
First, there are the direct and immediate effects of recession. There
are many sceptical about ‘trickle down’ and how widely the benefits of
economic growth have been distributed. Yet there can be little doubt
that the effects of no or negative economic growth are far more unequal.
Unemployment across Europe rose from 7% in 2007 to 10% in 2011. This
immediately adds to costs of social protection. Indeed a recent report on
The Great Recession and the Distribution of Household Income found
that:
Although GDP fell, national accounts data for 16 countries show that
Gross Household Disposable Income rose in 12 of them between 2007
and 2009. The household sector in aggregate was protected from the
impact of the downturn by additional support of governments through
the tax and benefit system (largely concentrated on the bottom half of
the distribution. (Jenkins et al., 2011:0-ii)
Thus, social policy worked, but at a substantial cost.
Second, as costs have risen and the yield of taxation has fallen, public
sector deficits have rocketed. Government responses to this, whether
decided internally or imposed from outside, have varied. In Britain
under the new Coalition Government the bulk of the reduction is being
extracted from public spending with a much smaller increase in taxation.
The resulting effects on the distribution of incomes was estimated by the
Institute for Fiscal Studies (Browne, 2010) who concluded that by 201415 the reforms were clearly regressive within the bottom 90%; the biggest
(and similar) proportionate losses occurred in the bottom and top deciles
of the income distribution. Families with children will be the biggest losers
because of cutbacks in social benefits and education.
Social policy is concerned with many goals but primarily with social
justice. One central aspect of this is poverty and income inequality. It is
not yet clear how relative poverty will be affected because a decline in real
income levels reduces a relative poverty standard. What seems certain is
that in many countries absolute poverty is increasing. Income inequality
is also almost certainly increasing: in the UK, the CEOs of the largest
firms received average pay increases of 50% last year when the average

2

ÅðéóôçìïíéêÞ Åôáéñåßá ÊïéíùíéêÞò ÐïëéôéêÞò

workers in general got an average increase of 2%. There can be little sense
of social justice when the rich and poor are treated so differently. The British
Government’s claim that in tackling the crisis ‘we are all in it together’ is hard
to credit.

Ó

ôü÷ïò ôïõ Åíçìåñùôéêïý Äåë-

ôßïõ åßíáé ç ðñïþèçóç ôïõ äéáëüãïõ êáé ôçò åíçìÝñùóçò óå üëï ôï
öÜóìá ôùí ðåäßùí ôçò êïéíùíéêÞò
ðïëéôéêÞò.
Ôï Äåëôßï äçìïóéåýåé óýíôïìá êåßìåíá, áíáêïéíþóåéò åñåõíçôéêþí
ðñïãñáììÜôùí, ó÷üëéá ãýñù áðü
ôçí ôñÝ÷ïõóá åðéêáéñüôçôá óôï
÷þñï ôçò êïéíùíéêÞò ðïëéôéêÞò êáé
óõíáöÝò õëéêü.
Ôá êåßìåíá/ó÷üëéá ðñïò äçìïóßåõóç äåí èá ðñÝðåé íá õðåñâáßíïõí
ôéò 1000 ëÝîåéò, ïé áíáêïéíþóåéò
åñåõíçôéêþí ðñïãñáììÜôùí ôéò 400
ëÝîåéò êáé ç áðïóôïëÞ èá ðñÝðåé íá
ãßíåôáé çëåêôñïíéêÜ óôçí äéåýèõíóç
ôïõ õðåýèõíïõ åðéêïéíùíßáò.

A second aspect of social justice is the inequality of life chances. With
youth unemployment running at 36% in Greece, 20% in the UK and 44% in
Spain the prospects of young people are worse than at any time in the past
50 years. More education improves an individual’s job prospects but it also
creates more competition for each job and the prospects for the unskilled
are bleak.
As far as banks are concerned, it is long established that the government
or central bank must act as ‘lender of last resort.’ It is hard not to feel
revulsion at vast sums being handed to banks whose folly has brought
about the economic crisis but the consequences of a widespread banking
collapse may make this inevitable.
For a society, a collapse of opportunities for young people can have
devastating consequences. Faced with this, a government seriously
concerned at the state of society needs to take on the role of ‘employer of
last resort.’ This would pose big challenges for social services, for working
with the private sector, for social benefits and for migration policies. Yet
without such a guarantee, and the obligations that go with it, societies are
in peril. The economic crisis is not a problem only for the economy, it is a
problem for society and may ultimately undermine democracy.
The current economic crisis is exceptionally difficult to tackle because of
its global dimension. To the extent that public debt is a cause of the crisis, it
could not have arisen without a global banking system and massive global
imbalances. Many would interpret the root cause of the crisis as being the
long-running imbalance between Chinese exports and imports, leading to
huge flows of financial capital into the US banking system, leading to the
banking crisis, which in turn has escalated into a crisis affecting whole
economies. National institutions become powerless in the face of global
pressures.
Another global dimension is the impact on the migration of labour
that results from chronic unemployment in some countries. In the past,
possibilities of migration have been limited. Now migration places strains on
social policy and on societal relations. The British riots of 2011 were in part
the result of unemployment of unskilled young people whose employment
prospects were damaged by migrants willing to take unattractive jobs at low
wages. One nation’s problems now diffuse through the world.

Õðåýèõíïò Åðéêïéíùíßáò
×ñéóôüöïñïò ÓêáìíÜêçò
cskamnak@socadm.duth.gr

Social policy is concerned with the whole of society. Nobody wishes their
whole society to be damaged – or apparently put up for sale - as the result
of a crisis for which they had no direct responsibility. Yet the crisis highlights
the inter-relationship between social policy and economic policy – something
that the pioneers of social policy unwisely took for granted. The economic
crisis will not be solved by placing the entire burden on social policies, as
some wish to do. Economic policies must change to ensure social justice
and fair life chances.
References:
Browne, James, 2010, Distributional analysis of tax and benefit changes
Online at http://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/5313

Äçìéïõñãéêü: Ðüðç Ìðñïýìá-Ðïëõæùßäïõ

Jenkins,S, Brandolini,A, Micklewright,J, and Nolan,B, 2011, The Great
Recession and the Distribution of Household Income, Report for XIII
European Conference of the Fondazione Rodolfo Debenedetti, Palermo

Åíçìåñùôéêü Äåëôßï (Newsletter) • Ôåý÷ç 10/11

3

Social Policy in Times of Crisis
Bent Greve, Professor, Roskilde University
Economic, fiscal and legitimacy crisis is not a new
experience neither in nation states, nor in the global
economy. There has been many and very varied times
of crisis, even by speculations in tulips way back in the
Netherlands in the sixteen century. Discussing crisis
in welfare states and social policy has been on the
agenda before, and will in all likelihood, be it again at
certain times and certain intervals.
A core difference being that in this present economic
crisis the available instruments seems less available
than, for example, in the times of depression in the
1930ies where, for example, the New Deal in the
US was a way to create new jobs, and also the
times where the suggestion and focus was on how
public sector budget could be important as an aspect
in helping to solve the economic problems at the
times. Economic interventions as those made in the
seventies after the first and second oil price shock on
the world economy, where many countries also turned
to active labour market policy as a central aspect and
also different ways of using fiscal incentives to help the
economy grow again, e.g. there was a relatively strong
emphasis on demand side economic management.
Whereas the crisis in the seventies focus on and used
the public sector as an instrument to cope with the
crisis, the recession in the nineties implied a shift more
towards and stronger emphasis on monetary policy
and supply side measures.
The latest crisis have also been more global and
more clearly indicating how economies are by now
interconnected to such a degree that if one country
catch a cold this might imply world wide sickness,
especially if it is a large country. The problem in the
financial system thus quickly moved around the globe
with the consequence that many countries public
deficits where increased due to the money paid out and
into the financial sector to solve this crisis, and, further
as a result of negative economic growth the result
was both increased expenditure and falling public
sector income. International economic recovery now is
dependent on presumably a combination of increased
consumer confidence in the more affluent countries
and higher demand from the growing economies,
especially China.

Despite the previous financial and economic crisis
welfare states have seemingly continued to expand
and grow, and focus has at least in several countries
moved from a strong focus on income transfers,
including as an important element pension in old age,
towards a higher focus on welfare services including
care for children and the elderly. The welfare state
can thus be discussed to be either a burden on the
economy or seen as an investment in the future.
Whether the welfare state is seen as a burden or an
investment have important implications for the way in
which policies are enacted. If seen as a burden then
focus will be on retrenchment policies and reduction in
public sector spending and less on a variety of ways to
finance the welfare state through either higher taxes
or duties or reduction in fiscal welfare, e.g. fewer tax
expenditures.
If the welfare state is seen as a social investment then
more careful analysis of spending and how this in the
longer run will imply a higher level of productivity and
make it possible to ensure a more coherent society
with a higher degree of equality. Naturally, at clear
restriction on a more active approach is the level of
the public sector debt. A high level of public sector
debt will imply that it is more expensive to finance
investment activities. Therefore, in order to be able to
pursue a more active approach it is important to have
stable and secure public sector finance. However, the
problem being that in the present economic crisis fewer
countries will be able to do this, and also the likelihood
that more countries will need to ensure sustainability in
the long run have the implication that this crisis might
take longer time than previous economic crisis, as
fewer countries, at least in Europe and US will be able
to expand and start a pathway towards expansion.
Therefore, it also seems likely that in order to avoid in
the future the recent dramatic downturn a consolidation
of public sector economies will be central, while at the
same time more control on the financial sector and its
many products will be important. The public sector will
need money in order to be able in future crisis to more
rapidly help in a more expansionary economic policy.
The financial sector will need to have more reserves,

4
and, this will in the short run dampen the ability to
increase the economic growth. Furthermore, it seems
important to ensure a development by using especially
the tax system towards more equitable societies, which
seems to be more cohesive and stable. They are also
more happy societies (Greve, 2011). Therefore policies
to ensure a more sustainable public sector finance will
include a focus not only on public sector spending, but
also the public sector income, including the loopholes
in the tax-system. The balance between occupational
and public sector welfare will perhaps also needs to
be redesigned, albeit the risk being a greater social
division between those on the labour market and those
outside the labour market. Growth in occupational
welfare although at the same time indicates that there
is a demand for more welfare, the main discussion

ÅðéóôçìïíéêÞ Åôáéñåßá ÊïéíùíéêÞò ÐïëéôéêÞò

being how to finance and develop welfare, including
who shall pay and who shall benefit.
Given the more global interconnectedness it seems
also possible that a greater common responsibility and
agreement on long term economic policy can be important
instruments. A global tax on financial transactions could
be important; however it is an example of, that a higher
level of international agreement is necessary. Further, if
the growing economies also start to import more from
the stagnant economies then this might help towards a
better international economic balance.
Reference:

Greve, B. (2011), Happiness. A key text. Oxon, Routledge. X.

Êñßóç, Êïéíùíéêü ÊñÜôïò êáé Áëëçëåããýç
Ìáñßá Ðåôìåæßäïõ, ÊáèçãÞôñéá, ÔìÞìá ÊïéíùíéêÞò Äéïßêçóçò Ä.Ð.È.
Óõ÷íÜ õðïóôçñßæåôáé óôï äçìüóéï äéÜëïãï üôé
ç äéåýñõíóç ôùí êïéíùíéêþí äáðáíþí êáé ôïõ
êïéíùíéêïý ìéóèïý, êáôÜ ôéò ðñïçãïýìåíåò
äåêáåôßåò, óôçí ÅëëÜäá êáé Üëëåò ÷þñåò ôçò
Íüôéáò Åõñþðçò (ÍÅ) óõíÝâáëáí óôç äéüãêùóç ôïõ
äçìüóéïõ åëëåßììáôïò, ôçí áýîçóç ôïõ äáíåéóìïý,
ôçí êñßóç ÷ñÝïõò êáé ôç óõíáêüëïõèç ïéêïíïìéêÞ
êñßóç. Óôï óýíôïìï áõôü óçìåßùìá äåí åßíáé
äõíáôüí íá åìâáèýíù óôá åããåíÞ ðñïâëÞìáôá ôùí
óõóôçìÜôùí êïéíùíéêÞò ðñïóôáóßáò óôç ÍÅ ïýôå
êáé óôéò áëëçëåðéäñÜóåéò áíÜìåóá óôçí ïéêïíïìéêÞ
êñßóç êáé ôéò ìåôáññõèìßóåéò ðïõ âñßóêïíôáé óå
åîÝëéîç. Óôü÷ïò ìïõ åßíáé íá åðéóçìÜíù ôéò áäõíáìßåò
ôïõ ðáñáðÜíù åðé÷åéñÞìáôïò ôï ïðïßï áðïôåëåß
áöåôçñßá ãéá ôçí éäåïëïãéêü-ðïëéôéêÞ íïìéìïðïßçóç
ôçò óõññßêíùóçò ôçò äçìüóéáò, óõëëïãéêÞò åõèýíçò
ãéá ôçí êïéíùíéêÞ ðñïóôáóßá, êáé íá äéáãñÜøù óå
ðïëý áäñÝò ãñáììÝò Ýíá áñêåôÜ ðéèáíü (áí êáé
æïöåñü) óåíÜñéï êïéíùíéêþí åîåëßîåùí.
1⁄4ðùò åßíáé ãíùóôü ôï êïéíùíéêü êñÜôïò óôç
ÍÅ áíáðôý÷èçêå ìå óçìáíôéêÞ êáèõóôÝñçóç
óå óýãêñéóç ìå ôç Âüñåéï-äõôéêÞ (ÂÄ) Åõñþðç.
ÅðéðëÝïí, ðñïôïý öèÜóåé óå Ýíá åðßðåäï
ùñéìüôçôáò áíÜëïãï ìå áõôü ôùí ÷ùñþí ôçò ÂÄ
Åõñþðçò (üðïõ ç ùñéìüôçôá ìåôñÜôáé ìå âÜóç ôï
åýñïò åðéññïÞò ôçò áñ÷Þò ôçò êáèïëéêüôçôáò êáé ôïí
âáèìü áðïôåëåóìáôéêÞò áíáäéáíïìÞò) áíôéìåôþðéóå
óïâáñïýò äçìïóéïíïìéêïýò ðåñéïñéóìïýò êõñßùò
êáôÜ ôçí ðñïóðÜèåéá ôùí ÷ùñþí ôçò ÍÅ
íá

åíôá÷èïýí óôçí ÅõñùðáúêÞ ÍïìéóìáôéêÞ ¸íùóç.
ÐáñÜëëçëá, óôï ðëáßóéï åíüò áíáäõüìåíïõ
õðåñåèíéêïý (Åõñùðáúêïý) ÷þñïõ äéáìüñöùóçò
êáôåõèýíóåùí ãéá ôçí êïéíùíéêÞ ìåôáññýèìéóç,
ç óôñïöÞ ðñïò ôçí ðåñéóôïëÞ äáðáíþí, ôç
óôü÷åõóç êáé ôçí éäéùôéêïðïßçóç öñÝíáñå ôéò
ôÜóåéò äéåýñõíóçò ôùí êïéíùíéêþí äéêáéùìÜôùí
óôéò ÷þñåò áõôÝò. Íá óçìåéþóïõìå üôé Þäç ðñéí
áðü ôï îÝóðáóìá ôçò êñßóçò ôá êïéíùíéêÜ êñÜôç
ôçò ÍÅ áäõíáôïýóáí íá áíôéìåôùðßóïõí Ýíá åõñý
öÜóìá áíáãêþí. Ç ðåñéïñéóìÝíç áíáäéáíïìÞ êáé ôá
õøçëÜ ðïóïóôÜ öôþ÷åéáò (20% óôçí ÅëëÜäá êáé ôçí
Éóðáíßá êáé 19% óôçí Éôáëßá êáé ôçí Ðïñôïãáëßá, ôï
2008) õðïäçëþíïõí ôçí áäõíáìßá áõôÞ.
Ç ïéêïíïìéêÞ êñßóç Ýöåñå óôï ðñïóêÞíéï ôçí
åðéôáêôéêÞ áíÜãêç ìåôáññõèìßóåùí (åîïñèïëïãéóìüò
ôùí äáðáíþí, áðïôåëåóìáôéêÞ áíáäéáíïìÞ ãéá
ôçí áíôéìåôþðéóç ôùí äéïãêïýìåíùí êïéíùíéêþí
áíáãêþí). Ùóôüóï ôá äéáäï÷éêÜ ðáêÝôá ìÝôñùí
ëéôüôçôáò áíáäåéêíýïõí ùò ðñùôáñ÷éêü óôü÷ï ôùí
ìåôáññýèìéóåùí ôç óõññßêíùóç ôçò óõëëïãéêÞò
åõèýíçò ãéá ôçí êïéíùíéêÞ ðñïóôáóßá, ãåãïíüò ðïõ
ôåßíåé íá áíáôñÝøåé ïðïéåóäÞðïôå ôÜóåéò åíßó÷õóçò
ôçò êáèïëéêÞò êÜëõøçò ðïõ óôïí Ýíá Þ Üëëï âáèìü
åêäçëþèçêáí óôéò ÷þñåò ôçò ÍÅ. Ãéá ðáñÜäåéãìá,
åßíáé ïñáôüò ï êßíäõíïò ïõóéáóôéêÞò áðïäõíÜìùóçò
ôùí åèíéêþí óõóôçìÜôùí õãåßáò êáé áäñáíïðïßçóçò
ðñüóöáôùí èåóìéêþí áëëáãþí, üðùò ôï êáèïëéêü
äéêáßùìá óôçí êïéíùíéêÞ öñïíôßäá ðïõ èåóðßóôçêå ôï

5

Åíçìåñùôéêü Äåëôßï (Newsletter) • Ôåý÷ç 10/11

2007 óôçí Éóðáíßá (la Ley de Dependencia) áëëÜ ôåßíåé
íá áðïäõíáìùèåß åí ôç ãåíÝóåé ôïõ ëüãù áíåðáñêþí
ðüñùí.
Ç óôñïöÞ áõôÞ Ý÷åé óõíÞèùò ùò áöåôçñßá
ôï åðé÷åßñçìá üôé ìåôáîý ôùí áéôéþí ôçò êñßóçò
óõãêáôáëÝãåôáé êáé ç «õðåñâïëéêÞ» (ãéá ôéò
«ïéêïíïìéêÝò äõíáôüôçôåò» ôùí ÍÅ ÷ùñþí) áýîçóç
ôùí êïéíùíéêþí äáðáíþí.
ÏìïëïãïõìÝíùò ïé
÷þñåò ôçò ÍÅ ðáñïõóßáóáí èåáìáôéêÞ äéåýñõíóç
ôùí êïéíùíéêþí äáðáíþí ùò ðïóïóôïý ôïõ ÁÅÐ
áðü ôéò áñ÷Ýò ôçò äåêáåôßáò ôïõ 1980 ìÝ÷ñé
ôï 20071: ç áýîçóç áõôÞ áíÝñ÷åôáé óå ðåñßðïõ
äþäåêá ðïóïóôéáßåò ìïíÜäåò óôçí ÅëëÜäá, äÝêá
óôçí Ðïñôïãáëßá, åðôÜ óôçí Éôáëßá êáé ôñåéò óôçí
Éóðáíßá. Ðáñüëá áõôÜ êáôÜ ôçí Ýíáñîç ôçò êñßóçò
óôçí Éóðáíßá, ôçí Ðïñôïãáëßá êáé ôçí ÅëëÜäá ôï
ðïóïóôü ôùí êïéíùíéêþí äáðáíþí åðß ôïõ ÁÅÐ
õðïëåßðïíôáí ôïõ ìÝóïõ üñïõ ôçò ÅÅ-15 (27%).
ÐåñéïñéóìÝíï åßíáé êáé áíèñþðéíï äõíáìéêü ðïõ
áðáó÷ïëåßôáé óôéò äçìüóéåò êïéíùíéêÝò õðçñåóßåò
óôéò ÷þñåò áõôÝò: ðåñßðïõ 7% ôïõ åñãáôéêïý
äõíáìéêïý óôçí Ðïñôïãáëßá, 9% óôçí Éóðáíßá êáé
11% óôçí ÅëëÜäá (Þ ôï Ýíá ôñßôï ìüíïí ôïõ óõíüëïõ
ôùí áðáó÷ïëïõìÝíùí óôï äçìüóéï ôïìÝá)· ï ìÝóïò
üñïò óôçí ÅÅ-15 åßíáé 15%, åíþ óôç Óïõçäßá ïé
êïéíùíéêÝò õðçñåóßåò áðïññïöïýí ðåñßðïõ ôï Ýíá
ôÝôáñôï ôïõ åñãáôéêïý äõíáìéêïý).
Ðßíáêáò
1
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ÐçãÞ: Ðåôìåæßäïõ (õðü äçìïóßåõóç).

ÅíäéáöÝñïí ðáñïõóéÜæåé ç óýãêñéóç ôïõ êáôÜ
êåöáëÞ ÁÅÐ ìå ôçí êáôÜ êåöáëÞ êïéíùíéêÞ äáðÜíç

óôïí ðáñáðÜíù ðßíáêá. ÐáñÜ ôçí áõîáíüìåíç
óýãêëéóç ôïõ êåöáëÞ ÁÅÐ ìå ôïí Åõñùðáúêü ìÝóï
üñï (áðü ôï 2000 Ýùò ôï 2008, ìå âÜóç ôçí ÅÅ-15),
ç Éóðáíßá, ç Ðïñôïãáëßá êáé ç ÅëëÜäá äéáôçñïýí
óçìáíôéêÞ áðüêëéóç áðü ôïí ìÝóï üñï ôçò ÅÅ-15 ùò
ðñïò ôçí êáôÜ êåöáëÞ êïéíùíéêÞ äáðÜíç: ôï 2008,
óôçí Éóðáíßá ôï êáôÜ êåöáëÞ ÁÅÐ áíåñ÷üôáí óå
93% ôïõ ìÝóïõ üñïõ ôçò ÅÅ-15, åíþ ç êáôÜ êåöáëÞ
êïéíùíéêÞ äáðÜíç Ýöèáíå ìüíï óôï 78% ôïõ ìÝóïõ
üñïõ ôçò ÅÅ-15· ôá áíôßóôïé÷á ðïóïóôÜ ãéá ôçí
ÅëëÜäá ôçí ßäéá ðåñßïäï Þôáí 87% êáé 81%. Åõëüãùò
èá õðïóôÞñéæå êáíåßò üôé áí óôéò ôñåéò áõôÝò ÷þñåò
ç êáôÜ êåöáëÞ êïéíùíéêÞ äáðÜíç áõîáíüôáí þóôå
íá ðñïóåããßóåé ôçí áíáëïãßá ôïõ êáôÜ êåöáëÞ ÁÅÐ
ôçò êÜèå ÷þñáò ðñïò áõôü ôçò ÅÅ-15 (äçëáäÞ ç
êáôÜ êåöáëÞ êïéíùíéêÞ äáðÜíç áõîáíüôáí áðü
81% óå 87% óôçí ÅëëÜäá êáé áðü 78% óå 93% óôçí
Éóðáíßá) èá åß÷áìå ìéá áîéïóçìåßùôç áýîçóç ôùí
ðüñùí ãéá ôçí êïéíùíéêÞ ðñïóôáóßá.
Óõíåðþò ìðïñïýìå íá éó÷õñéóôïýìå üôé ç
ÅëëÜäá, ç Éóðáíßá êáé ç Ðïñôïãáëßá äáðáíïýóáí
ãéá ôçí êïéíùíéêÞ ðñïóôáóßá «ðÜíù áðü ôéò äõíÜìåéò
ôïõò». Áíôßèåôá äáðáíïýóáí ðïëý ëéãüôåñï áðü
ü,ôé èá ìðïñïýóáí ìå âÜóç ôïí ðëïýôï ôïõò. Ðñïò
åðßññùóç ôùí ðáñáðÜíù, åéäéêüôåñá ãéá ôçí ÅëëÜäá,
ôá äéáèÝóéìá óôïé÷åßá äåß÷íïõí üôé ï êáèáñüò
êïéíùíéêüò ìéóèüò (ðïõ ðñïêýðôåé áí áöáéñÝóïõìå
ôï óýíïëï ôùí öüñùí ðïõ êáôáâÜëëïíôáé áðü ôïõò
ìéóèùôïýò áðü ôï óõíïëéêü üöåëïò ðïõ áðïêïìßæïõí
áðü ôéò äçìüóéåò äáðÜíåò) Þôáí óõóôçìáôéêÜ
áñíçôéêüò êáôÜ ôá ôåëåõôáßá ðåñßðïõ 15 ÷ñüíéá
(ÌáíéÜôçò 2011). Ùò åê ôïýôïõ ç äçìïóéïíïìéêÞ
êñßóç ôçò ÷þñáò êÜèå Üëëï ðáñÜ ïöåßëåôáé óå
«äéïãêùìÝíåò» êïéíùíéêÝò ðáñï÷Ýò.
ÕðÜñ÷åé ìÝëëïí ãéá ìéá «ðïëéôéêÞ áëëçëåããýçò»;
Ìå äåäïìÝíç ôçí óõãêñéôéêÜ áäýíáìç «ðïëéôéêÞ
áëëçëåããýçò» óôï ðáñåëèüí óôéò ÷þñåò ôçò
ÍÅ, ðïéåò åßíáé ïé ðñïïðôéêÝò õðü ôçí åðßäñáóç
ôùí ìÝôñùí äïìéêÞò ðñïóáñìïãÞò; ÓçìáíôéêÝò
åðéðôþóåéò ðïõ êáôáãñÜöïíôáé ìÝ÷ñé ôþñá åßíáé
ç äñáóôéêÞ ìåßùóç ôùí åéóïäçìÜôùí êõñßùò ôùí
ìåóáßùí êáé ÷áìçëþí óôñùìÜôùí2, ï ðåñéïñéóìüò
ôùí åõêáéñéþí êõñßùò ãéá ôïõò íÝïõò3, ç åíôåéíüìåíç

1

ÐçãÞ ôùí ðïóïôéêþí óôïé÷åßùí åßíáé ç âÜóç äåäïìÝíùí ôçò Eurostat (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home/).

2

1⁄4ðùò ðñïêýðôåé áðü ôéò áõîáíüìåíåò öïñïëïãéêÝò åðéâáñýíóåéò êáé ôéò äñáóôéêÝò ìåéþóåéò ìéóèþí êáé óõíôÜîåùí ðïõ ðëÞôôïõí äõóáíÜëïãá

ôá ìåóáßá êáé ÷áìçëÜ åéóïäÞìáôá. ÅîÜëëïõ ôï öïñïëïãéêü óýóôçìá óôéò ÷þñåò áõôÝò Þôáí áíÝêáèåí áíôßèåôá ðñïïäåõôéêü. Åíäåéêôéêü óôïé÷åßï
ôçò Üíéóçò êáôáíïìÞò ôùí åðéðôþóåùí ôçò êñßóçò áðïôåëåß ôï ãåãïíüò üôé ìßá åðé÷åßñçóç ôïõ ôñáðåæéêïý ôïìÝá óôçí Éóðáíßá, ç Santander, ç
ïðïßá óõíÝâáëå óôçí ÷ñçìáôïðéóôùôéêÞ êñßóç, ðñáãìáôïðïßçóå êÝñäïò 9 äéóåêáôïììõñßùí Åõñþ ôï 2009 åí ìÝóù ïîåßáò ýöåóçò óôç ÷þñá (http:
//www.ft.com/cms/s/0/8ee02070-f3aa-11dd-9c4b-0000779fd2ac.html#axzz1CcqMr000).

6

ÅðéóôçìïíéêÞ Åôáéñåßá ÊïéíùíéêÞò ÐïëéôéêÞò

áíáóöÜëåéá4, ç áâåâáéüôçôá ãéá ôéò óõíèÞêåò
óõíôáîéïäüôçóçò, åíþ ðáñÜëëçëá åíéó÷ýïíôáé ïé
áíÜãêåò ðáñï÷Þò êïéíùíéêÞò ðñïóôáóßáò ìïëïíüôé
áðü Ýíá äéáñêþò åîáóèåíïýìåíï êïéíùíéêü êñÜôïò.
ÁíáìöéóâÞôçôá õößóôáíôáé äéáöïñÝò áíÜìåóá óôéò
÷þñåò ôçò ÍÅ ùò ðñïò ôï åýñïò, ôçí êëßìáêá êáé
ôï ñõèìü ôùí ìåôáññõèìßóåùí, æçôÞìáôá óôá ïðïßá
äåí ìðïñþ íá åðåêôáèþ åäþ. Êõñßùò èá Þèåëá íá
åðéóôÞóù ôçí ðñïóï÷Þ óôï áí êáé êáôÜ ðüóï ôá
«ìÝôñá äéÜóùóçò» êáé äïìéêÞò ðñïóáñìïãÞò (ðïõ
óôïí Ýíá Þ Üëëï âáèìü åöáñìüæïíôáé óôéò ÷þñåò ôçò
ÍÅ) èá áðïäåêáôßóïõí ìåãÜëá ôìÞìáôá ôùí ìåóáßùí
óôñùìÜôùí êáé èá ïäçãÞóïõí óå åíôåéíüìåíç
åîáèëßùóç. Áí êáé äåí äéáèÝôïõìå ðñïò ôï ðáñüí
ðïóïôéêÞ ôåêìçñßùóç ðÜíù óôá æçôÞìáôá áõôÜ,
áíåðßóçìá óôïé÷åßá áðü ÌÊÏ, ÌÌÅ êáé Üëëåò ðçãÝò
õðïäçëþíïõí üôé üëï êáé ðåñéóóüôåñá íïéêïêõñéÜ
óôçí ÅëëÜäá, ôçí Ðïñôïãáëßá êáé ôçí Éóðáíßá,
ðïõ ìÝ÷ñé ôþñá áðïôåëïýóáí ôç ìåóáßá ôÜîç, ìå
äõóêïëßá áíôáðïêñßíïíôáé óôéò áíÜãêåò äéáâßùóçò
êáé óõ÷íÜ ðñïóöåýãïõí óå öéëáíèñùðéêÝò
ïñãáíþóåéò ãéá âïÞèåéá. Åßíáé ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêü üôé ç
MKO Cáritas (2011) äçëþíåé üôé üëï êáé ðåñéóóüôåñï
áðåõèýíïíôáé óå áõôÞí ãéá âïÞèåéá Üôïìá ðïõ ðïôÝ
Ýùò ôþñá äåí åß÷áí ÷ñçóéìïðïéÞóåé ôéò õðçñåóßåò ôçò
(Üôïìá ðïõ áðïëýèçêáí áðü ôçí åñãáóßá ôïõò, ìéêñïåðé÷åéñçìáôßåò ðïõ ÷ñåïêüðçóáí êáé/Þ íïéêïêõñéÜ ðïõ
Ý÷áóáí ôï óðßôé ôïõò ëüãù áäõíáìßáò áðïðëçñùìÞò
äáíåßùí).
Ç ðñïóêüëëçóç óôç íåïöéëåëåýèåñç ïéêïíïìéêÞ
óõíôáãÞ ôùí åðá÷èþí ìÝôñùí ëéôüôçôáò èá
åðéöÝñåé ðáñáôåôáìÝíç ýöåóç, áíåñãßá êáé
ïéêïíïìéêÞ äõóðñáãßá. Õðü ôéò óõíèÞêåò áõôÝò
Ýíáò óçìáíôéêüò áñéèìüò íïéêïêõñéþí ðïõ
áíÞêïõí óôá ìåóáßá (êáé ìéêñï-ìåóáßá) óôñþìáôá
èá âõèéóôåß óôç öôþ÷åéá êáé ôçí áðïóôÝñçóç,
êáèþò ìåãÜëï ìÝñïò ôùí óôñùìÜôùí áõôþí
(áõôïáðáó÷ïëïýìåíïé,
ìéêñïåðé÷åéñçìáôßåò,
õðÜëëçëïé ãñáöåßïõ) èá áðïäåêáôéóèåß áðü ôéò
êõïöïñïýìåíåò ìåôáññõèìßóåéò. Íá óçìåéþóïõìå
üôé ç áíáäéÜôáîç ðïõ èá åðÝëèåé óôïõò êüëðïõò
ôùí ìåóáßùí óôñùìÜôùí, ùò ðñïò ôçí áðáó÷üëçóç
(ôïí êßíäõíï áíåñãßáò) êáé ôá åéóïäÞìáôá åßíáé
ðïëý ðéèáíü íá åäñáéþóåé Ýíá ÷Üóìá áíÜìåóá óå

3

ìéá ïéêïíïìéêÞ åëßô ðïõ ìå Üíåóç èá áõîÜíåé ôá
åéóïäÞìáôÜ ôçò êáé Ýíá öÜóìá õðïâáèìéóìÝíùí
êïéíùíéêþí óôñùìÜôùí ðïõ ðñïïäåõôéêÜ èá ÷Üíïõí
Ýäáöïò. Åßíáé áíçóõ÷çôéêü ôï ãåãïíüò üôé ôÝôïéïõ
åßäïõò åîåëßîåéò ðñïóïìïéÜæïõí ðåñéóóüôåñï
ìå Ýíá óåíÜñéï ôýðïõ «ËáôéíéêÞò ÁìåñéêÞò» ãéá
ôçí ÅõñùðáúêÞ ðåñéöÝñåéá, ìå ìåãÜëá, Üêáìðôá
êïéíùíéêÜ ÷Üóìáôá· ðñïïðôéêÞ ç ïðïßá áöÞíåé
åëÜ÷éóôá ðåñéèþñéá áéóéïäïîßáò ãéá ìéá ðïëéôéêÞ
êïéíùíéêÞò áëëçëåããýçò (ðïõ üðùò Ý÷åé äåßîåé
ç éóôïñßá ôïõ óïóéáëäçìïêñáôéêïý êïéíùíéêïý
êñÜôïõò ðñïûðïèÝôåé ôçí ýðáñîç ìéáò «óõíåêôéêÞò»
ðëáôéÜò ìåóáßáò ôÜîçò). Ðñüêåéôáé üìùò ãéá ðéèáíü
óåíÜñéï, óôï âáèìü ðïõ ìéá âáèýôåñç ïéêïíïìéêÞ
êáé ðïëéôéêÞ Ýíùóç óôçí Åõñþðç ìå ðáñÜëëçëç
åíßó÷õóç ôïõ Åõñùðáúêïý êïéíùíéêïý ìïíôÝëïõ äåí
åßíáé ïñáôÜ óôïí ïñßæïíôá.
Âéâëéïãñáößá:
Cáritas, 2011. Cáritas ante la crisis (Cáritas
against the crisis). 6th Report of the Caritas Observatory on Social Reality. Available at http://www.caritaseuropa.org/code/en/soci.asp?Page=1200
[Accessed 10 September 2011].
Lucchini, L. and Pérez-Lanzac, C., 2011. Germany
calling, Germany calling. Newspaper “El País” (English edition), 1 February, p. 4.
ÌáíéÜôçò, È., 2011. Ç äçìïóéïíïìéêÞ êñßóç êáé
ï êïéíùíéêüò ìéóèüò óôçí ÅëëÜäá. Óôï: Á. ÂëÜ÷ïõ,
Í. Èåï÷áñÜêçò êáé Ä. ÌõëùíÜêçò, åðéì. ÏéêïíïìéêÞ
êñßóç êáé ÅëëÜäá. ÁèÞíá: Gutenberg.
Petmesidou, M., 2012 (õðü äçìïóßåõóç). Southern Europe. In: B. Greve, ed. International handbook
of the welfare state, London: Routledge.

Ç áíåñãßá ôùí íÝùí áíÝñ÷åôáé óôï 44% óôçí Éóðáíßá, 36% óôç ÅëëÜäá, 29% óôçí Éôáëßá êáé 28% óôçí Ðïñôïãáëßá. Ôï éäéáßôåñï ïîõìÝíï áõôü

ðñüâëçìá êáèéóôÜ ìéá “brain-drain ìåôáíÜóôåõóç” åðéêåßìåíï æïöåñü óåíÜñéo (âë. Lucchini L. and Pérez-Lanzac C., 2011).
4

Óôçí Éóðáíßá ðåñßðïõ Ýíá ôñßôï ôïõ åñãáôéêïý äõíáìéêïý åßíáé ðñïóùñéíÜ åñãáæüìåíïé ðïõ ìðïñïýí íá áðïëõèïýí ÷ùñßò ðñïåéäïðïßçóç êáé

ìå ðåíé÷ñÞ áðïæçìßùóç. Ç ïéêïíïìéêÞ áíáóöÜëåéá åðéôåßíåôáé åðßóçò áðü ôçí áðïäõíÜìùóç ôùí óõëëïãéêþí óõìâÜóåùí êáé ôç äéåõêüëõíóç ôùí
áðïëýóåùí, åíþ ðáñÜëëçëá ç áýîçóç ôùí ðôù÷åýóåùí óôéò ÷þñåò ôçò ÍÅ, ðïõ ðëÞôôïõí óïâáñÜ ôéò ìéêñÝò åðé÷åéñÞóåéò åðåêôåßíåé ôïí êßíäõíï
áíáóöÜëåéáò óå Ýíá åõñý öÜóìá ôùí ìåóáßùí óôñùìÜôùí.

7

Åíçìåñùôéêü Äåëôßï (Newsletter) • Ôåý÷ç 10/11

ÏéêïíïìéêÞ Êñßóç, Öôþ÷åéá êáé ÊïéíùíéêÞ Ðñïóôáóßá:
1⁄4ôáí óôñåâëþóåéò ôçò ðñáãìáôéêüôçôáò
õðáãïñåýïõí ôéò êõñßáñ÷åò ðïëéôéêÝò
×ñßóôïò Ðáðáèåïäþñïõ, Áí. ÊáèçãçôÞò, ÔìÞìá ÊïéíùíéêÞò Äéïßêçóçò Ä.Ð.È., Ðñüåäñïò ôçò ÅÅÊÐ
Ç ïéêïíïìéêÞ êñßóç åðáíáöÝñåé óôçí åðéêáéñüôçôá ôçí
ðñïâëçìáôéêÞ ùò ðñïò ôéò åããåíåßò áíôéöÜóåéò êáé ôá
ïñãáíéêÜ ðñïâëÞìáôá ôùí óýã÷ñïíùí êáðéôáëéóôéêþí
ïéêïíïìéþí. ÁíåîáñôÞôùò üìùò áðü ôç óõæÞôçóç
ãéá ôá áßôéá êáé ôçí öýóç ôçò ðáñïýóáò êñßóçò,
åëÜ÷éóôá áìöéóâçôåßôáé ç åðßðôùóÞ ôçò óôç öôþ÷åéá
êáé óôï åðßðåäï äéáâßùóçò ôùí áíèñþðùí. Åíôýðùóç
üìùò ðñïîåíåß ôï ãåãïíüò üôé ðáñÜ ôçí áñ÷éêÞ
åõöïñßá ãéá áìöéóâÞôçóç ôïõ íåïöéëåëåýèåñïõ
ìïíôÝëïõ ïñãÜíùóçò êáé äéá÷åßñéóçò ôùí óýã÷ñïíùí
ïéêïíïìéêþí, ïé ðñüóöáôåò åîåëßîåéò äåß÷íïõí
üôé ç ðáãêüóìéá êñßóç áðïôåëåß ôï ðñüó÷çìá ãéá
ðåñáéôÝñù åíäõíÜìùóç ôùí ðïëéôéêþí ëéôüôçôáò,
äçìïóéïíïìéêÞò ðåéèáñ÷ßáò, ðåñéïñéóìïý ôùí
äáðáíþí ãéá êïéíùíéêÞ ðñïóôáóßá êáé áðïññýèìéóçò
ôçò áãïñÜò åñãáóßáò. Ç ñçôïñåßá ðåñß åðáíáöïñÜò
ôùí êåúíóéáíþí ðáñáäï÷þí ãéá ôçí åìðëïêÞ ôïõ
êñÜôïõò óôçí ïéêïíïìßá áðïäåß÷ôçêå âñá÷ýâéá êáé
ðåñéïñßóôçêå ìüíï óôçí ðåñßïäï ðïõ áíáæçôåßôï ôï
íïìéìïðïéçôéêü ðëáßóéï ãéá ôçí ãåííáßá óôÞñéîç ôïõ
÷ñçìáôïðéóôùôéêïý óõóôÞìáôïò áðü êñáôéêïýò êáé
õðåñåèíéêïýò èåóìïýò. ÁíôéèÝôùò, óôï ðåäßï ôçò
êïéíùíéêÞò ðïëéôéêÞò ç ðñüóöáôç êñßóç ïäÞãçóå
óå éó÷õñÝò ðéÝóåéò ãéá ðåñáéôÝñù ìåßùóç ôùí
êïéíùíéêþí äáðáíþí êáé ìåôáó÷çìáôéóìïý ôùí
óõóôçìÜôùí êïéíùíéêÞò ðñïóôáóßáò óôï ðñüôõðï
ôùí öéëåëåýèåñùí êáèåóôþôùí. Áõôü åßíáé éäéáßôåñá
ðñïöáíÝò óôçí ÅëëÜäá üðïõ ïé åðéðôþóåéò ôçò
êñßóçò åßíáé éäéáéôÝñùò óïâáñÝò.
Ç åðéâïëÞ êáé íïìéìïðïßçóç ôùí ðñïãñáììÜôùí
ëéôüôçôáò êáé äçìïóéïíïìéêÞò ðåéèáñ÷ßáò âáóßóôçêå
óå óõãêåêñéìÝíåò óôñåâëþóåéò ôçò ðñáãìáôéêüôçôáò
ðïõ, ðáñüëï ðïõ äåí åðáëçèåýïíôáé áðü ôá
äéáèÝóéìá äåäïìÝíá, óõóôçìáôéêÜ êáëëéåñãÞèçêáí
óå åèíéêü êáé åõñùðáúêü åðßðåäï êáé õðïóôçñß÷ôçêáí
áðü ôçí ðëåéïøçößá ôùí ÌÌÅ. ÁíÜìåóá óå áõôÝò ôéò
óôñåâëþóåéò åßíáé üôé ïé ¸ëëçíåò, óõãêñéíüìåíïé ìå
ôïõò õðïëïßðïõò Åõñùðáßïõò, äåí åñãÜæïíôáé áñêåôÜ
åíþ áðïëáìâÜíïõí Ýíá õøçëü åðßðåäï äéáâßùóçò.
Ôá äéáèÝóéìá üìùò äåäïìÝíá áìöéóâçôïýí ôá
åðé÷åéñÞìáôá áõôÜ. Óýìöùíá ìå ôá óôïé÷åßá ôçò
Eurostat ïé Ýëëçíåò åñãÜæïíôáé ôéò ðåñéóóüôåñåò

1

þñåò åâäïìáäéáßùò óôçí êýñéá áðáó÷üëçóç áðü
ïðïéáäÞðïôå Üëëç ÷þñá ôçò ÅÅ-27.1 Åðßóçò, áðü
ôá ìÝóá ôïõ 1990 üðïõ Ý÷ïõìå óõãêñßóéìá êáé
áîéüðéóôá äåäïìÝíá óå åðßðåäï ÅÅ, ôï ðïóïóôü
ó÷åôéêÞò öôþ÷åéáò óôçí ÅëëÜäá âñßóêåôáé ìïíßìùò
óå áñêåôÜ õøçëüôåñï åðßðåäï áðü ôï áíôßóôïé÷ï
ìÝóï ôùí ÷ùñþí ôçò ÅÅ. Óýìöùíá ìå ôá ðñüóöáôá
äéáèÝóéìá äåäïìÝíá áðü ôçí Eurostat, ðïõ áöïñïýí
ôï Ýôïò 2009 êáé áíáöÝñïíôáé óå åéóïäÞìáôá ôïõ
2008, ç ÅëëÜäá ðáñïõóéÜæåé ôï õøçëüôåñï ðïóïóôü
öôþ÷åéáò óôçí ÅÅ-15 êáé Ýíá áðü ôá õøçëüôåñá
ìåôáîý ôùí ÷ùñþí ôçò ÅÅ-27. Ðñüêåéôáé üìùò ãéá
åêôéìÞóåéò ðïõ áöïñïýí ôçí ðåñßïäï ðñéí áðü
ôçí åìöÜíéóç ôçò êñßóçò. ¸êôïôå Ý÷åé åðéäåéíùèåß
äñáìáôéêÜ ôï åðßðåäï äéáâßùóçò ôùí ÅëëÞíùí. Ïé
åêôéìÞóåéò áõôÝò âáóßæïíôáé üìùò óå óôéò åèíéêÝò
ãñáììÝò ó÷åôéêÞò öôþ÷åéáò ðïõ ïñßæïíôáé óôï 60%
ôïõ äéáìÝóïõ éóïäýíáìïõ äéáèÝóéìïõ åéóïäÞìáôïò.
1⁄4ôáí üìùò ç óýãêñéóç âáóßæåôáé óå ßäéá üñéá
öôþ÷åéáò áðïêáëýðôïíôáé ïé ôåñÜóôéåò äéáöïñÝò
óôï åðßðåäï äéáâßùóçò ìåôáîý ôùí êáôïßêùí ôçò ÅÅ.
¸ôóé, ëéãüôåñï áðü ôï 6% ôïõ ðëçèõóìïý óôéò ÷þñåò
ôçò ÅÅ-15 (ìå ôçí åîáßñåóç ôùí ÷ùñþí ôçò Íïôßïõ
Åõñþðçò) äéáâéþíïõí óå óõíèÞêåò áíôßóôïé÷åò
ìå áõôÝò ôïõ 20% ôùí öôù÷üôåñùí ÅëëÞíùí
(Ðáðáèåïäþñïõ êáé ÄáöÝñìïò 2010).
Ìßá Üëëç äéáóôñÝâëùóç ôçò ðñáãìáôéêüôçôáò ðïõ
êõñéáñ÷åß óôïí åèíéêü êáé åõñùðáúêü äéÜëïãï áöïñÜ
ôçí ôáýôéóç ôçò öôþ÷åéáò ìå ôçí áíåñãßá. Ç áíåñãßáò
áíáãíùñßæåôáé ùò äéáèñùôéêÞ êáé ùò áðïôÝëåóìá
áíåëáóôéêïôÞôùí óôéò åñãáóéáêÝò ó÷Ýóåéò. Ç åõèýíç
ãéá ôçí ýðáñîÞ ôçò áíåñãßáò, êáé Üñá ôçò öôþ÷åéáò,
ìåôáôßèåôáé óôéò åðéëïãÝò ôùí ßäéùí ôùí áôüìùí
ðïõ äåí ìåñßìíçóáí íá áðïêôÞóïõí ôéò êáôÜëëçëåò
äåîéüôçôåò þóôå íá Ý÷ïõí êáëýôåñç ðñüóâáóç óôçí
áãïñÜ åñãáóßáò. Êáëëéåñãåßôáé Ýôóé ç å÷èñüôçôá
ðñïò ôéò åéóïäçìáôéêÝò åíéó÷ýóåéò ôùí áíÝñãùí
ìÝóù ôïõ óõóôÞìáôïò êïéíùíéêÞò ðñïóôáóßáò,
åöüóïí èåùñïýí üôé ïäçãïýí óå ïêíçñßá êáé óå
åîÜñôçóç áðü ðñïíïéáêÝò ðáñï÷Ýò. Ç ñáãäáßá
áýîçóç ôçò áíåñãßáò ùò áðïôÝëåóìá ôçò êñßóçò äåí
ïäÞãçóå óå ïõóéáóôéêÞ ìåôáóôñïöÞ ôçò êõñßáñ÷çò

http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=lfsa_ewhun2&lang=en (ðñüóâáóç óôéò 30/10/2011)

8

ÅðéóôçìïíéêÞ Åôáéñåßá ÊïéíùíéêÞò ÐïëéôéêÞò

áõôÞò Üðïøçò. Ç êõñßáñ÷ç ñçôïñåßá óõíáéíåß
óôçí åðéâïëÞ ôùí íåïöéëåëåýèåñùí óõíôáãþí ãéá
áðïññýèìéóç ôùí áãïñþí êáé ôçí ðñïþèçóç ôùí
åõÝëéêôùí ìïñöþí áðáó÷üëçóçò, êáé ôùí óõìâïëáßùí
ìåñéêÞò Þ ðñïóùñéíÞò áðáó÷üëçóçò. Ôï ìåãáëýôåñï
üìùò ðïóïóôü ôùí öôù÷þí óôéò ÷þñåò ôçò ÅÅ åßíáé
åñãáæüìåíïé (Ðáðáèåïäþñïõ êáé ÄáöÝñìïò 2010).
ÓõíïëéêÜ óôçí ÅëëÜäá 4 óôïõò 5 öôù÷ïýò æïõí óå
íïéêïêõñéÜ ìå õðåýèõíï åñãáæüìåíï Þ óõíôáîéïý÷ï.
Ìüëéò ôï 4,5% ôïõ óõíüëïõ ôùí öôù÷þí æïõí óå
íïéêïêõñéÜ ìå õðåýèõíï Üíåñãï. Ôá äåäïìÝíá åðßóçò
áðïêáëýðôïõí üôé éäéáßôåñá õøçëü êßíäõíï öôþ÷åéáò
áíôéìåôùðßæïõí êáé üóïé åñãÜæïíôáé ìå óõìâüëáéá
ìåñéêÞò Þ ðñïóùñéíÞò áðáó÷üëçóçò. Ç ìåãáëýôåñç
åëáóôéêïðïßçóç ôùí åñãáóéáêþí ó÷Ýóåùí Ý÷åé
äõóìåíåßò åðéðôþóåéò óôç öôþ÷åéá ôùí åñãáæïìÝíùí.
ÅíäÝ÷åôáé íá ïäçãÞóåé óå ìåßùóç ôçò áíåñãßáò Þ
óõãêñÜôçóç ôçò áýîçóÞò ôçò, áëëÜ ôáõôü÷ñïíá êáé
óå ìåßùóç ôùí áðïëáâþí ôùí åñãáæïìÝíùí. Áõôü èá
Ý÷åé ùò áðïôÝëåóìá ôçí áýîçóç ôùí åñãáæüìåíùí
öôù÷þí, åöüóïí èÝóåéò åñãáóßáò ìå Þäç ÷áìçëÝò
áðïëáâÝò ìïéñÜæïíôáé óå äýï Þ ðåñéóóüôåñïõò
åñãáæüìåíïõò.
Óôï ðëáßóéï ôçò êõñßáñ÷çò ñçôïñåßáò ôï
óýóôçìá êïéíùíéêÞò ðñïóôáóßáò êáé ïé áíôßóôïé÷åò
äáðÜíåò åíï÷ïðïéïýíôáé ùò âáóéêïß óõíôåëåóôÝò
ôçò óýã÷ñïíçò ïéêïíïìéêÞò êñßóçò. Ç êïéíùíéêÞ
ðïëéôéêÞ èåùñåßôáé üôé áðëÜ åðéâáñýíåé ôï äçìüóéï
ðñïûðïëïãéóìü êáé êáôÜ óõíÝðåéá ôá äçìüóéá
åëëåßììáôá. Êáëëéåñãåßôáé Ýôóé ç å÷èñüôçôá ùò ðñïò
ôçí êïéíùíéêÞ ðïëéôéêÞ ç ïðïßá êáé áíôéìåôùðßæåôáé
ùò ìÝñïò ôïõ ðñïâëÞìáôïò êáé ü÷é ôçò ëýóçò,
üðùò ç åìðåéñßá áðü ôçí êñßóç ôïõ 1929 Ý÷åé äåßîåé.
Äçìéïõñãåßôáé Ýôóé ôï êáôÜëëçëï íïìéìïðïéçôéêü
ðëáßóéï ãéá ôçí õðïâÜèìéóç ôçò äçìïóéïíïìéêÞò
ðïëéôéêÞò êáé ôïí ðåñéïñéóìü ôçò êñáôéêÞò
ðáñÝìâáóçò óôçí Üóêçóç íïìéóìáôéêÞò ðïëéôéêÞò ðïõ
óôï÷åýåé êõñßùò óôïí ðåñéïñéóìü ôïõ ðëçèùñéóìïý,
üðùò
åðéâÜëëåé ôï êõñßáñ÷ï ðáñÜäåéãìá êáé
áíôáíáêëÜôáé óôïí ôñüðï óõãêñüôçóçò ôïõ Åõñþ
êáé ôçò ëåéôïõñãßáò ôçò ÅõñùðáúêÞò ÊåíôñéêÞò
ÔñÜðåæáò. ÅîÜëëïõ, óôï ðëáßóéï ôçò ÓõíèÞêçò
ôïõ ÌÜáóôñé÷ô êáé ôïõ Óõìöþíïõ Óôáèåñüôçôáò
äõó÷åñáßíåôáé ç äõíáôüôçôá Üìâëõíóçò ôçò êñßóçò
ìÝóù äçìïóéïíïìéêþí ðïëéêþí êáé åíßó÷õóçò ôïõ
ñüëïõ ôçò êïéíùíéêÞò ðïëéôéêÞò, ðïõ Ý÷ïõí áðïäåé÷èåß
éäéáßôåñá áðïôåëåóìáôéêÝò óå áíôßóôïé÷å êáôáóôÜóåéò
óôï ðáñåëèüí. Óôçí ÅëëÜäá ïé äáðÜíåò ãéá êïéíùíéêÞ
ðñïóôáóßá, ùò ðïóïóôü ôïõ ÁÅÐ, åßíáé ÷áìçëüôåñåò

2

áðü ôï ìÝóï üñï ôçò ÅÅ. Åðéðñüóèåôá, ôï óýóôçìá
êïéíùíéêÞò ðñïóôáóßáò åßíáé éäéáéôÝñùò áóèåíÝò óôçí
ìåßùóç ôçò áíéóüôçôáò êáé ôçò öôþ÷åéáò. Åéäéêüôåñá,
ïé åêôüò óõíôÜîåùí êïéíùíéêÝò ìåôáâéâÜóåéò óå
÷ñÞìá (äçëáäÞ ôá äéÜöïñá êïéíùíéêÜ åðéäüìáôá)
Ý÷ïõí óôçí ÅëëÜäá ôçí áóèåíÝóôåñç áíáäéáíåìçôéêÞ
åðßäñáóç óôçí ìåßùóç ôçò öôþ÷åéáò ìåôáîý ôùí
÷ùñþí ôçò ÅÅ (âë. ÄáöÝñìïò êáé Ðáðáèåïäþñïõ
2011). 1⁄4ðùò ìðïñïýìå íá äïýìå óôï äéÜãñáììá 1
ðåñéóóüôåñï áðïôåëåóìáôéêÝò ùò ðñïò ôçí ÷ñÞóç ôùí
ðüñùí ãéá êïéíùíéêÞ ðñïóôáóßá óôçí êáôáðïëÝìçóç
ôçò öôþ÷åéáò åßíáé ïé óêáíäéíáâéêÝò ÷þñåò, ðïõ
áíôéðñïóùðåýïõí ôï óïóéáëäçìïêñáôéêü êïéíùíéêü
êñÜôïò (óýìöùíá ìå ôçí ôõðïëïãßá ôïõ EspingAndersen).2 Ïé ÷þñåò áõôÝò ÷áñáêôçñßæïíôáé áðü
ãåííáéüäùñåò êáé êáèïëéêÝò ðáñï÷Ýò, ðïõ äßíïíôáé
÷ùñßò Ýëåã÷ï ðüñùí ôùí äéêáéïý÷ùí. ÁíôéèÝôùò ðéï
áíáðïôåëåóìáôéêÝò åßíáé ïé ÷þñåò ìå öéëåëåýèåñï
êáèåóôþò (Ç êáé Éñëáíäßá) ðïõ ÷áñáêôçñßæïíôáé áðü
óôï÷åõüìåíåò ðáñï÷Ýò ïé ïðïßåò äßíïíôáé ìåôÜ áðü
Ýëåã÷ï ðüñùí ôùí äéêáéïý÷ùí.

ÄéÜãñáììá 1:

Äåßêôçò ó÷åôéêÞò áðïôåëåóìáôéêüôçôáò ôùí äáðáíþí
ãéá êïéíùíéêÞ
ðñïóôáóßá
ùò ðñïò ôç���
öôþ÷åéá,
������µµ�
1: ������� ��������
��������µ����������
������� ��� ���������
µ���� ����
1995-2008
�������, ��-15,ÅÅ-15,
ìÝóïò
üñïò 1995-2008

����: �����µ�� ��� ������������ (2011)

ÐçãÞ: ÄáöÝñìïò êáé Ðáðáèåïäþñïõ (2011)

Ðáñüëï ëïéðüí ðïõ ôá äåäïìÝíá áìöéóâçôïýí ôçí
áðïôåëåóìáôéêüôçôá ôïõ öéëåëåýèåñïõ ìïíôÝëïõ,
óôçí êõñßáñ÷ç ñçôïñåßá åðéóçìáßíåôáé ç áíÜãêç
ãéá áíáìüñöùóç ôïõ Åëëçíéêïý óõóôÞìáôïò
êïéíùíéêÞò ðñïóôáóßáò ìÝóù ôçò ìåãáëýôåñçò

1⁄4óï õøçëüôåñïò åßíáé ï äåßêôçò ó÷åôéêÞò áðïôåëåóìáôéêüôçôáò ôüóï ÷áìçëüôåñï åßíáé ôï ðïóïóôü öôþ÷åéáò ðïõ åðéôõã÷Üíïõí ïé ÷þñåò

äáðáíþíôáò ôï ßäéï ðïóïóôü ôïõ ÁÅÐ ãéá êïéíùíéêÞ ðñïóôáóßá.

9

Åíçìåñùôéêü Äåëôßï (Newsletter) • Ôåý÷ç 10/11

óôü÷åõóçò ôùí ðáñï÷þí êáé ôïõ åëÝã÷ïõ ôùí
ðüñùí ôùí äéêáéïý÷ùí. ¹äç ïé ðïëéôéêÝò ëéôüôçôáò
êáé äçìïóéïíïìéêÞò ðåéèáñ÷ßáò, ìåôáîý Üëëùí,
Ý÷ïõí ïäçãÞóåé óå ðåñáéôÝñù åîáóèÝíçóç ôïõ
óõóôÞìáôïò êïéíùíéêÞò ðñïóôáóßáò. Ïé óõíôÜîåéò
êáé ôá êïéíùíéêÜ åðéäüìáôá Ý÷ïõí ìåéùèåß óçìáíôéêÜ
åíþ ðåñéïñßæïíôáé êáé ïé ðáñï÷Ýò óå åßäïò. Ç
âáóéêÞ óýíôáîç (÷ñçìáôïäïôïýìåíç áðü ôç ãåíéêÞ
öïñïëïãßá) êáé ôï åðßäïìá áíåñãßáò âñßóêïíôáé óå
ðïëý ÷áìçëüôåñá åðßðåäá áðü ôçí ãñáììÞ öôþ÷åéáò
ðïõ åß÷å ç ÷þñá ìå âÜóç ôá åéóïäÞìáôá ôïõ 2008. Ïé
êáèáñÝò áðïëáâÝò ôùí íåïåéóåñ÷üìåíùí óôçí áãïñÜ
åñãáóßáò, êáé ãéá ðëÞñç áðáó÷üëçóç, âñßóêïíôáé
åðßóçò óôá üñéá ôçò öôþ÷åéáò. Åðéðñüóèåôá, ìå
ôéò ðñüóöáôåò öïñïëïãéêÝò ñõèìßóåéò, Ý÷ïõìå ôçí
ðáñÜäïîç êáôÜóôáóç íïéêïêõñéÜ ìå åéóïäÞìáôá
÷áìçëüôåñá áðü ôï üñéï öôþ÷åéáò, áíôß íá åíéó÷ýïíôáé
áðü ôï óýóôçìá êïéíùíéêÞò ðñïóôáóßáò, íá êáëïýíôáé
íá ðëçñþóïõí öüñï åéóïäÞìáôïò.
Åßíáé ðñïöáíÝò üôé
ìÝôñá ëéôüôçôáò êáé
äçìïóéïíïìéêÞò ðåéèáñ÷ßáò èá ïäçãÞóïõí óå
åðéäåßíùóç ôùí óõíèçêþí äéáâßùóçò ìåãÜëùí
ôìçìÜôùí ôïõ ðëçèõóìïý óôçí ÅëëÜäá, åðéöÝñïíôáò
ðåñáéôÝñù ìåßùóç ôùí åéóïäçìÜôùí ôïõ ðëçèõóìïý
ìå ÷áìçëÜ êáé ìåóáßá åéóïäÞìáôá. Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá
ôïí ðëçèõóìü ðïõ Ý÷åé êáé ôçí õøçëüôåñç ïñéáêÞ
ñïðÞ ðñïò êáôáíÜëùóç. Áõôü áíáìÝíåôáé íá Ý÷åé
äõóìåíåßò åðéðôþóåéò óôçí óõíïëéêÞ æÞôçóç êáé
êáôÜ óõíÝðåéá óôçí ïéêïíïìéêÞ ìåãÝèõíóç êáé
áíÜðôõîç. Åßíáé âÝâáéá äýóêïëï íá åêôéìÞóåé êáíåßò

ìå áóöÜëåéá áí êáé óå ðïéü âáèìü ç åðéäåßíùóç
áõôÞ ôùí óõíèçêþí äéáâßùóçò èá áðïôõðùèåß óôïõò
äåßêôåò ó÷åôéêÞò öôþ÷åéáò. Áõôü èá åîáñôçèåß áðü
ôéò åðéìÝñïõò åðéðôþóåéò óôá äéÜöïñá åéóïäçìáôéêÜ
êëéìÜêéá êáé éäéáßôåñá óå üóïõò âñßóêïíôáé óôï ìÝóïí
ôçò äéáíïìÞò (ìå âÜóç ôï åéóüäçìá ôùí ïðïßùí
õðïëïãßæåôáé ôï üñéï ó÷åôéêÞò öôþ÷åéáò). Èá ðñÝðåé
íá åðéóçìáíèåß üôé ïé åðéðôþóåéò ôçò êñßóçò óôéò
óõíèÞêåò äéáâßùóçò ôùí íïéêïêõñéþí äåí ðåñéïñßæåôáé
óôçí åðßäñáóç ðïõ áóêåß ç áýîçóç ôçò áíåñãßáò êáé
ç ìåßùóç ôïõ ÁÅÐ. ÉäéáéôÝñùò åðéâáñõíôéêÞ åßíáé ç
áðïññýèìéóç ôçò áãïñÜò åñãáóßáò êáé ç ðñïþèçóç
ôùí åðéóöáëþí êáé åëáóôéêþí ìïñöþí áðáó÷üëçóçò
êáèþò êáé ç åîáóèÝíéóç ôïõ óõóôÞìáôïò êïéíùíéêÞò
ðñïóôáóßáò êáé ï ìåôáó÷çìáôéóìüò ôïõ óôï ðñüôõðï
ôùí öéëåëåýèåñùí êáèåóôþôùí.
ÁíáöïñÝò
ÄáöÝñìïò, Ã. êáé Ðáðáèåïäþñïõ, ×. (2011) «Ôï
ðáñÜäïîï ôçò êïéíùíéêÞò ðïëéôéêÞò óôçí ÅëëÜäá: Ãéáôß
ç áýîçóç ôùí äáðáíþí ãéá êïéíùíéêÞ ðñïóôáóßá äåí
ìåßùóå ôç öôþ÷åéá;» Êåßìåíá ÐïëéôéêÞò, 1, ÁèÞíá: ÉÍÅÃÓÅÅ.
Ðáðáèåïäþñïõ, ×. êáé ÄáöÝñìïò, Ã. (2010) ÄïìÞ
êáé ôÜóåéò ôçò ïéêïíïìéêÞò áíéóüôçôáò êáé ôçò öôþ÷åéáò óôçí ÅëëÜäá êáé ôçí ÅÅ, 1995-2008. ÅðéóôçìïíéêÝò ÅêèÝóåéò 2, ÁèÞíá: ÉÍÅ-ÃÓÅÅ.

Áðü ôçí ÄçìïóéïíïìéêÞ Êñßóç
óôçí ÊáôÜññåõóç ôçò Áðáó÷üëçóçò
Áðüóôïëïò Äåäïõóüðïõëïò, ÊáèçãçôÞò, ÔìÞìá ÏéêïíïìéêÞò ÐåñéöåñåéáêÞò ÁíÜðôõîçò, ÐÜíôåéï ÐáíåðéóôÞìéï
1. ÕðÜñ÷åé ùò êõñßáñ÷ç Üðïøç üôé óôçí ÅëëÜäá ôï êýñéï ðñüâëçìá – áí ü÷é ôï ìïíáäéêü – åßíáé
ç äçìïóéïíïìéêÞ êñßóç: Ôá åëëåßììáôá ôïõ äçìüóéïõ ôïìÝá êáé, óõíåðåßá áõôþí, ç óõóóþñåõóç ôïõ
äçìüóéïõ ÷ñÝïõò ìå ôá ãíùóôÜ åðáêüëïõèá. Ç ðñïóðÜèåéá ìåßùóçò ôùí äçìüóéùí äáðáíþí, êõñßùò
ìå ôç ìåßùóç ìéóèþí êáé óõíôÜîåùí, üðùò êáé ôïõ ðñïãñÜììáôïò äçìüóéùí åðåíäýóåùí, êáèþò êáé ç
áýîçóç ôùí Üìåóùí êáé Ýììåóùí öüñùí Ýöåñå íïìïôåëåéáêÜ ôçí åëëçíéêÞ ïéêïíïìßá áíôéìÝôùðç ìå ýöåóç
ðñùôïöáíÞ óå Ýêôáóç êáé óå äéÜñêåéá.
2. Ïé åðéðôþóåéò ôçò ýöåóçò åðß ôçò áðáó÷üëçóçò åßíáé ðïëý óçìáíôéêÝò. Èá áñêåóèïýìå íá
óêéáãñáöÞóïõìå ìüíï ôï ðñüâëçìá óå ðïëý áäñÝò ãñáììÝò, áöÞíïíôáò ôç äéåñåýíçóç ôùí óïâáñþí
åðéðôþóåùí ãéá Üëëç åõêáéñßá.
3. 1⁄4ðùò ðñïêýðôåé áðü ôá äéáèÝóéìá óôïé÷åßá ôçò ¸ñåõíáò Åñãáôéêïý Äõíáìéêïý, ìåôáîý â´ ôñéìÞíïõ
2010 êáé â´ ôñéìÞíïõ 2011, ç åëëçíéêÞ ïéêïíïìßá ïäçãÞèçêå óå óõíïëéêÞ áðþëåéá èÝóåùí åñãáóßáò ßóç ìå
270.661, Þ óå ðïóïóôü, ç áðáó÷üëçóç óôçí ÅëëÜäá ìåéþèçêå åíôüò åíüò Ýôïõò ìå ñõèìü 6,1%, ðïóïóôü
÷ùñßò ðñïçãïýìåíï óôá ðáãêüóìéá ÷ñïíéêÜ. ÁõôÞ ç äñáìáôéêÞ ìåßùóç ôçò áðáó÷üëçóçò ïäÞãçóå, üðùò

10

ÅðéóôçìïíéêÞ Åôáéñåßá ÊïéíùíéêÞò ÐïëéôéêÞò

Þôáí áíáìåíüìåíï, óôçí åêôüîåõóç ôïõ ìåãÝèïõò ôçò áíåñãßáò óôá 810.820 Üôïìá, ÷ùñßò íá ëÜâïõìå õð´
üøç ôçí «ëáíèÜíïõóá» áíåñãßá ðïõ ðáñáâëÝðåé ï åðßóçìïò ôñüðïò êáôáìÝôñçóçò ôùí áíÝñãùí.
4. Óôï ÄéÜãñáììá 1 âëÝðïõìå ôéò áðþëåéåò ôùí èÝóåùí åñãáóßáò êáôÜ çëéêéáêÞ ïìÜäá. Ïé áðþëåéåò
åßíáé ìåãÜëåò óôïõò íÝïõò ðïõ îåêéíïýí ôçí åðáããåëìáôéêÞ ôïõò äñáóôçñéüôçôá (çëéêßåò 20 ùò 29 åôþí),
áëëÜ êáé óôçí áìÝóùò ìåãáëýôåñç çëéêéáêÞ ïìÜäá (30 – 34 åôþí), ÷ùñßò íá ãëõôþíïõí ôéò áðþëåéåò Üôïìá
çëéêßáò Üíù ôùí 40 åôþí. Ó÷åäüí ïé ìéóÝò áðü ôéò áðþëåéåò áöïñïýí åêåßíïõò (êáé êõñßùò åêåßíåò) ðïõ åßíáé
ìåôáîý 25 êáé 35 åôþí, åíþ ôï 20% ôùí áðùëåéþí óõãêåíôñþíåôáé óôéò çëéêßåò 40 ùò 50 åôþí.
Åßíáé ó÷åäüí ðñïöáíåßò ïé êïéíùíéêÝò êáé ïéêïíïìéêÝò óõíÝðåéåò áõôþí ôùí ìåôáâïëþí: ÐëÞôôïíôáé
üëåò ïé çëéêéáêÝò ïìÜäåò, áëëÜ êõñßùò åêåßíåò ðïõ áíôéðñïóùðåýïõí Üôïìá óå äýóêïëåò êáìðÝò ôïõ
åñãáóéáêïý ôïõò âßïõ: Óôçí ðåñßïäï áìÝóùò ìåôÜ ôçí Ýíáñîç ôçò åðáããåëìáôéêÞò ôïõò äñáóôçñéüôçôáò
êáé åêåßíïõò óôç ìÝóç ôçò åðáããåëìáôéêÞò ôïõò êáñéÝñáò.

ÄéÜãñáììá 1

5. ÌåãÜëç óçìáóßá Ý÷åé ç åîáêñßâùóç ôùí êëÜäùí ïéêïíïìéêÞò äñáóôçñéüôçôáò ðïõ ðëÞôôïíôáé
ðåñéóóüôåñï. Ï Ðßíáêáò ðïõ áêïëïõèåß ìáò ðáñïõóéÜæåé ôç ó÷åôéêÞ åéêüíá:

11

Åíçìåñùôéêü Äåëôßï (Newsletter) • Ôåý÷ç 10/11

Áí åîáéñÝóïõìå ôçí áãñïôéêÞ ðáñáãùãÞ, ïé áðþëåéåò óôçí áðáó÷üëçóç óôç ìåôáðïßçóç óõãêåíôñþíïõí
ôï 25% ðåñßðïõ ôçò óõíïëéêÞò ìåßùóçò ôçò áðáó÷üëçóçò, óôéò êáôáóêåõÝò ïìïßùò, óôï åìðüñéï ôï 10%,
åíþ áéóèçôÞ åßíáé ç óõììåôï÷Þ ôçò åêðáßäåõóçò êáé ôçò õãåßáò.
Óå áñéèìïýò, óôéò êáôáóêåõÝò ÷Üèçêáí ó÷åäüí 70.000 èÝóåéò åñãáóßáò, ãýñù óôéò 67.000 óôç
ìåôáðïßçóç, 28.000 óôï åìðüñéï êáé ó÷åäüí 20.000 óôçí åêðáßäåõóç.
6. Ôï 77% ôùí áðùëåéþí áöïñïýí ìéóèùôïýò åñãáæüìåíïõò, åíþ áéóèçôÝò åßíáé ïé áðþëåéåò ìåôáîý ôùí
åñãïäïôþí (11%) êáé áõôáðáó÷ïëïõìÝíùí (8%), ãåãïíüò ðïõ äçëþíåé ôç óõññßêíùóç, ðÝñáí ôùí Üëëùí,
êáé ôçò ðáñáãùãéêÞò âÜóçò ôçò ïéêïíïìßáò, éäéáßôåñá óôï ÷þñï ôùí ìéêñþí êáé ìåóáßùí åðé÷åéñÞóåùí.

ÐïëéôéêÞ óå Ðôþ÷åõóç, Ïéêïíïìßá óå Êñßóç,
ÊïéíùíéêÞ ÐïëéôéêÞ óå Áðïññýèìéóç
ÄçìÞôñçò ÂåíéÝñçò, Áí. ÊáèçãçôÞò, ÔìÞìá ÊïéíùíéêÞò êáé ÅêðáéäåõôéêÞò ÐïëéôéêÞò, ÐáíåðéóôÞìéï ÐåëïðïííÞóïõ
Ç ðïñåßá ôçò êïéíùíéêÞò ðïëéôéêÞò åßíáé éóôïñéêÜ
óõíõöáóìÝíç ìå ôçí åîÝëéîç ôùí äéêáéùìÜôùí ôùí
åñãáæïìÝíùí êáé ìå ôï óçìåßï éóïññïðßáò ìåôáîý
êåöáëáßïõ êáé åñãáóßáò. Ôï êïéíùíéêü êñÜôïò
äéÜâçêå óôïõò äñüìïõò ðïõ Üíïéîáí ôá êïéíùíéêÜ
äéêáéþìáôá ðïõ, óå ìéêñüôåñï Þ ìåãáëýôåñï âáèìü,
êáôÝêôçóå ç åñãáôéêÞ ôÜîç. Ôá áíáãíùñéóìÝíá
åõñùðáúêÜ êïéíùíéêÜ äéêáéþìáôá - êïéíùíéêÝò
ðáñï÷Ýò ðïõ óõíáñìüæïõí ôï óêáñß ôïõ åõñùðáúêïý
êïéíùíéêïý ìïíôÝëïõ. ÁíáãíùñéóìÝíá êáé, óå
ìåãÜëï âáèìü, åðáñêþò äéáóöáëéóìÝíá äéêáéþìáôá
óôï ãåùðïëéôéêü ÷þñï ôçò ìåôáðïëåìéêÞò
êáðéôáëéóôéêÞò Åõñþðçò. ÐáñÜ ôéò õóôåñÞóåéò,
ôéò áíáíôéóôïé÷ßåò êáé ôéò áóôï÷ßåò, ôá äéêáéþìáôá
áõôÜ áíáäåß÷èçêáí ìå ó÷åôéêÞ áîéïðñÝðåéá óôç
ìåôáðïëåìéêÞ êáé, êõñßùò, óôç ìåôáðïëéôåõôéêÞ
ÅëëÜäá. Äéáóöáëßóôçêáí üìùò êáôÜ êáíüíá óå
áíôéäéáóôïëÞ ìå ôïí âáèìü ôçò êïéíùíéêÞò áíÜãêçò
êáé óå áíôßèåóç ìå ôçí Ýííïéá ôçò êïéíùíéêÞò
äéêáéïóýíçò, åñÞìçí äçëáäÞ óõëëïãéêþí áîéþí êáé
âáèýôåñùí óôü÷ùí êïéíùíéêÞò âåëôßùóçò.
Ç ðáãêüóìéá ïéêïíïìéêÞ êñßóç åðÝäñáóå Ýíôïíá
óôçí Åõñùæþíç êáé åðéôÜ÷õíå ìå áðñüâëåðôç
Ýíôáóç ôéò áñ÷Ýò ôïõ 2010 ôï ôÝëïò ôçò åëëçíéêÞò
ïéêïíïìßáò ðïõ Þôáí ï ðéï áäýíáìïò êñßêïò ôçò
ÏÍÅ. Ç åéñùíåßá ôçò ôý÷çò åßíáé üôé ç ïéêïíïìéêÞ
ðáãêïóìéïðïßçóç åðÝâáëëå ôçí áíáãêáéüôçôá
íåêñáíÜóôáóçò ôçò, ‘óôáõñþíïíôáò’ üìùò ìéá
Üíáõäç áëëÜ êáèåýäïõóá êïéíùíßá. ÌÝóïí,
ç óõññßêíùóç åéóïäçìÜôùí êáé ðáñï÷þí êáé
óêïðüò, ç áíáâÜèìéóç ôçò áíôáãùíéóôéêüôçôáò
ìÝóù õðïâÜèìéóçò ôçò åñãáóßáò ãéá ôéèÜóåõóç
ôïõ ôåñÜóôéïõ ÷ñÝïõò. Èõóßåò êáé ðåñéêïðÝò
åðéâëÞèçêáí ÷ùñßò øÞãìáôá äßêáéïõ åðéìåñéóìïý êáé
ðïëéôéêÞò åðßãíùóçò. ÐÝñáí ôçò êáôáðÜôçóçò ôùí

êïéíùíéêþí äéêáéùìÜôùí, ç áðïññýèìéóç äéáâñþíåé
êáé ôá ðïëéôéêÜ äéêáéþìáôá, åêöõëßæåé ôéò Üíéóåò
äõíáôüôçôåò êïéíùíéêÞò óõììåôï÷Þò, âáèáßíåé
ôïõò áðïêëåéóìïýò. Ç äéÜâñùóç ôùí ðïëéôéêþí
äéêáéùìÜôùí áðïññÝåé áðü ôçí åðéêõñéáñ÷ßá ôùí
äõíÜìåùí ôùí áãïñþí åðß åêëåãìÝíùí êõâåñíÞóåùí
êáé åðß õðåñåèíéêþí ïñãáíéóìþí. Ç ðëÝïí
áíçóõ÷çôéêÞ, ìç êïéíùíéêÞ, ðôõ÷Þ ôçò ôñÝ÷ïõóáò
ðïëéôéêïïéêïíïìéêÞò êñßóçò åßíáé ç áìöéóâÞôçóç
ôïõ ñüëïõ ôùí åêëåãìÝíùí êõâåñíÞóåùí ëüãù
áäõíáìßáò åëÝã÷ïõ ôùí ìç÷áíéóìþí áõôïññýèìéóçò
ôïõ áãïñáßïõ êáðéôáëéóìïý ìÝóù äçìïêñáôéêþí
áîéþí êáé ðïëéôéêþí äéáäéêáóéþí.
Ïé ìåãÜëåò áëëáãÝò ôïõ 2010-11 óôçí ÅëëÜäá
ðëÞôôïõí óôçí êáñäéÜ ìéá ðáñáðáßïõóá êïéíùíéêÞ
ðïëéôéêÞ âáóéóìÝíç óå óõíôÜîåéò, éóïðåäþíïíôáò
ðñùôßóôùò ôéò óõíôÜîåéò. Ïé âáèýôåñåò åðéðôþóåéò
üìùò åðéêåíôñþíïíôáé óôçí áðïäéÜñèñùóç ôùí
üñùí áðáó÷üëçóçò. Ôá ìÝôñá ãéá ôçí åñãáóßá åßíáé
áñéèìçôéêÜ ëéãüôåñá áëëÜ êïéíùíéêÜ âáñýôåñá.
Ïé áëëáãÝò óôçí áãïñÜ åñãáóßáò áðïôõðþíïõí
ôçí ðáíôïäõíáìßá ôïõ êåöáëáßïõ óÞìåñá.
Ìåôáìïó÷åýïõí ñõèìßóåéò áãíïþíôáò ôéò åëëçíéêÝò
éäéáéôåñüôçôåò –êõñßùò ôçí Ýëëåéøç ðáñáãùãéêþí
äïìþí, äçìüóéáò äéïßêçóçò, ìç÷áíéóìþí åöáñìïãÞò
êáé äéåñãáóéþí åëÝã÷ïõ. ÐáñáêÜìðôïõí ôïõò
êïéíùíéêïýò åôáßñïõò êáé ôïí êïéíùíéêü äéÜëïãï.
ÌÝóïí åäþ, ç áðïññýèìéóç ôùí üñùí äéáìüñöùóçò
ôùí åñãáóéáêþí ó÷Ýóåùí êáé óêïðüò, ç óõññßêíùóç
ôïõ êüóôïõò åñãáóßáò óå äçìüóéï êáé éäéùôéêü
ôïìÝá. Ç áéöíéäéáóôéêÞ äéáäéêáóßá åðéâïëÞò ôùí
áëëáãþí áõôþí -ðïõ äåí Ý÷åé áíÜëïãï ðñïçãïýìåíï
óôçí êáðéôáëéóôéêÞ Åõñþðç- ðñïêáëåß êáôáðëçîßá
óôçí ïéêïíïìßá êáé ôçí êïéíùíßá, åêôéíÜæåé ôçí
ýöåóç êáé ôçí áíåñãßá. Ìå Üëëá ëüãéá, ç áíÜôáîç

12

ÅðéóôçìïíéêÞ Åôáéñåßá ÊïéíùíéêÞò ÐïëéôéêÞò

ôçò ïéêïíïìßáò åðé÷åéñåßôáé ìÝóù ìéáò íÝáò Üäéêçò
áíáäéáíïìÞò ðüñùí óå âÜñïò ôçò åñãáóßáò. Ôçí
ßäéá óôéãìÞ áíáäåéêíýåôáé ç áíÜãêç áíáæÞôçóçò
äéêáéüôåñùí ðïëéôéêþí áíáäéáíïìÞò ôçò åñãáóßáò.
Ïé ñéæïóðáóôéêÝò áõôÝò áëëáãÝò äçìéïõñãïýí ìéá
áãïñÜ åñãáóßáò ÷ùñßò èåóìïýò -ìéá áññýèìéóôç,
áíåëåýèåñç áãïñÜ õðïôáãìÝíç óôéò áññýèìéóôåò
êåñäïóêïðéêÝò áãïñÝò. Ìå Üëëá ëüãéá, Ýíá íÝï
êÝíôñï âÜñïõò êåöáëáßïõ êáé åñãáóßáò, ìéá íÝá
ó÷Ýóç ïéêïíïìßáò êáé ðïëéôéêÞò, Ýíá íÝï ëåüíôåéï
êïéíùíéêü óõìâüëáéï.
Ç «ëýóç» ìáêñï÷ñüíéáò ëéôüôçôáò ðïõ
õðáãïñåýèçêå áðü ôçí ÅÅ êáé ôï ÄÍÔ êáé
áðïôõðþèçêå óôï Ìåóïðñüèåóìï Ðñüãñáììá
2011-15 ðñùôïãåíþò áìáõñþíåé ôï ìåôáðïëéôåõôéêü
ðïëéôéêü óýóôçìá êáé äåõôåñïãåíþò áêõñþíåé,
åõôõ÷þò, ìÝñïò áðü ôá áîéáêÜ êáé êïéíùíéêÜ ðñüôõðá
ðïõ åîÝèñåøå. Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá Ýíá áíôéáíáðôõîéáêü êáé
áíôéêïéíùíéêü ìåßãìá íåïöéëåëåõèåñéóìïý –ðåñéêïðÞ
ìéóèþí êáé êïéíùíéêþí äáðáíþí-, óå óõíäõáóìü
ìå öïñïåéóðñáêôéêÝò óõíôáãÝò íåïêñáôéóìïý
–áõîÞóåéò öïñïëïãßáò êáé åéóöïñþí. Óêïðüò ç
ìåßùóç ôïõ êñÜôïõò êáé ç áýîçóç ôùí åóüäùí ôïõ.
ÐáñÜëëçëá, ç áôïìéêÞ áíáóöÜëåéá êáé ç êáëëéÝñãåéá
óõíèçêþí êïéíùíéêïý áõôïìáôéóìïý, ìå äéáêýâåõìá
ôïí åðéìåñéóìü èõóéþí êáé ôïí ðåñéïñéóìü ðñïíïìßùí,
äé÷Üæåé áêüìç ðåñéóóüôåñï Ýíá êáôáêåñìáôéóìÝíï
êáé áíÜäåëöï êïéíùíéêü óþìá.
Óôï ðåäßï ôçò êïéíùíéêÞò ðïëéôéêÞò, ôï
Ìåóïðñüèåóìï Ðñüãñáììá áðïôõðþíåé áìç÷áíßá
äéáôýðùóçò êáé áäõíáìßá ôåêìçñßùóçò, åðéäÝ÷åôáé
ìéêñÞ áíÜëõóç êáé ìåãÜëç êñéôéêÞ.1 Ðñþôç áîßá
ôçò íÝáò êïéíùíéêÞò ðïëéôéêÞò áíáãïñåýåôáé
ôï äéêáßùìá üëùí óå «Ýíá äß÷ôõ óôÞñéîçò óôéò
äýóêïëåò óôéãìÝò», ìå ôç äéåýñõíóç ôçò éáôñéêÞò
êÜëõøçò óôïõò áíáóöÜëéóôïõò áíÝñãïõò êáé ìå
âÜóç ôçí «åëÜ÷éóôç ðñïíïéáêÞ óýíôáîç ãéá üëïõò»
áðü ôï 2018. Äéêáßùìá ðïõ ãéá ðñþôç öïñÜ ñçôÜ
áíáãíùñßæåôáé
óçìáôïäïôþíôáò
ìåôáóôñïöÞ,
áëëÜ ðïõ óôçí ïõóßá ïõäüëùò äéáóöáëßæåôáé –ôï
«õðåó÷çìÝíï» åðßðåäï ôçò óýíôáîçò ôçí áðïóõíäÝåé
áðü ôçí Ýííïéá ôïõ êïéíùíéêïý äéêáéþìáôïò. Äåýôåñç
áîßá áíáêáëýðôåôáé ç «äéáãåíåáêÞ äéêáéïóýíç».
1⁄4øéìç êáé õðïêñéôéêÞ óðïõäÞ ãéá «áðïöÜóåéò
åõèýíçò, õðÝñ ôùí ðáéäéþí ìáò, …ôùí ìåëëïíôéêþí
óõíôáîéïý÷ùí». Óå âÜñïò âåâáßùò ôùí óçìåñéíþí
áëëÜ êáé êÜèå Ýííïéáò äéêáéïóýíçò, éäéáßôåñá áí áõôïß
Ý÷ïõí êáôáâÜëëåé êáé ôéò áðáéôïýìåíåò åéóöïñÝò.

Ïé ÷áìçëïóõíôáîéïý÷ïé åßíáé ïýôùò Þ Üëëùò ôá
ìåãáëýôåñá èýìáôá ôùí «êïéíùíéêþí ðïëéôéêþí» ôùí
ìíçìïíßùí. Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá ìéá ðñü÷åéñç, ãåíéêüëïãç
êáé áíôéöáôéêÞ Ýêèåóç éäåþí ìå èÝìá ìéá áíåñìÜôéóôç
êïéíùíéêÞ ðïëéôéêÞ ðïõ áíáôñÝðåôáé ïñèþò, áëëÜ
óå ëÜèïò êáôåýèõíóç. Ðñüêåéôáé óõíïëéêÜ, ãéá ìéá
ìåôáññýèìéóç ðïõ åíþ êáëåßôáé íá äéáóöáëßóåé ôçí
«äßêáéç ìïéñáóéÜ ôïõ âÜñïõò êáé ôùí êåñäþí ôçò»,2
ìïéñÜæåé ôá âÜñç ïñéæüíôéá êáé Üäéêá, ÷ùñßò êáí íá
ðñïóöÝñåé ôçí åëðßäá êåñäþí. Ôá åëÜ÷éóôá ìÝôñá
üðïõ áíáêáëýðôïíôáé ß÷íç äéêáéïóýíçò Þ ðíåýìá
áëëçëåããýçò Ý÷ïõí äýï üøåéò. Ðñþôïí, êáôáíïìÞ
êÜðïéùí íÝùí åðéâáñýíóåùí –êëéìáêùôÝò êñáôÞóåéò
óôéò õøçëüôåñåò óõíôÜîåéò êáé êáèïëéêÞ åéóöïñÜ
õðÝñ ôùí áíÝñãùí. Äåýôåñïí, áõóôçñïðïßçóç
åëÝã÷ùí êáé êñéôçñßùí ãéá ïñèüôåñï åíôïðéóìü ôçò
ðñáãìáôéêÞò áíÜãêçò -óôï ÅÊÁÓ, óôá ðñïíïéáêÜ
åðéäüìáôá, óôéò áíáðçñéêÝò óõíôÜîåéò.
Óôç èåùñßá, ç óôñáôçãéêÞ ìåôáóôñïöÞ óôç íÝá
êïéíùíéêÞ ðïëéôéêÞ áöïñÜ ôï íÝï ìßãìá ìåôáîý
ôïõ áóöáëéóôéêïý êáé ôïõ ðñïíïéáêïý óôïé÷åßïõ
ðïõ ðñïïéùíßæåôáé. Ðñþôïí, ìå ôçí êáèéÝñùóç ôïõ
óõóôÞìáôïò âáóéêÞò ðñïíïéáêÞò óõíôáîéïäüôçóçò
ãéá üëïõò ôïõò ðïëßôåò áðü ôï 2018. Äåýôåñïí, ìå
ôçí êáôÜñãçóç ôçò ôñéìåñïýò ÷ñçìáôïäüôçóçò óôçí
êïéíùíéêÞ áóöÜëéóç, ðïõ áðïôõðþíåôáé êáé óôçí
ðñïúïýóá ìåßùóç ôçò äçìüóéáò ÷ñçìáôïäüôçóçò
ìÝ÷ñé ôï 2015 êáé ðëáéóéþíåôáé ìå ôçí åéóáãùãÞ
êåöáëáéïðïéçôéêþí óôïé÷åßùí óôçí áíôáðïäïôéêÞ
óõíôáîéïäüôçóç. Ôï íÝï ìßãìá êïéíùíéêÞò ðïëéôéêÞò
ðáñÜãåôáé áðü ôçí áíáìü÷ëåõóç åíüò êáêÝêôõðïõ
‘âéóìáñêéáíïý’ óõóôÞìáôïò, ìå ôá íÝá óõóôáôéêÜ
ìéáò êáèïëéêïý ÷áñáêôÞñá ‘ìðåâåñéôæéáíïý’ ôýðïõ
õðïôõðþäïõò ðñïóôáóßáò -ðïëý õðïäåÝóôåñçò
áðü ôá üñéá ôçò öôþ÷åéáò. Ìå Üëëá ëüãéá, ôï
óõíôáîéïäïôéêü áíôáðïäïôéêü Üäéêï óýóôçìá
áóöÜëéóçò áíáðñïóáíáôïëßæåôáé óôçí êáôåýèõíóç
åíüò
ðñïíïéáêïý
óõóôÞìáôïò
åããõçìÝíùí
ôñéôïêïóìéêþí åëá÷ßóôùí, óôï ðíåýìá åíüò
Üêñùò õðïëåéììáôéêïý öéëåëåýèåñïõ «ìïíôÝëïõ
êïéíùíéêÞò åõçìåñßáò». Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá ìéá ìåôÜëëáîç
ôïõ åëëçíéêïý óõóôÞìáôïò êïéíùíéêÞò ðïëéôéêÞò
ðïõ êáôáíïÞèçêå áðü ëßãïõò êáé Ýðåéóå ëéãüôåñïõò
êáé ãéá åëÜ÷éóôá.
ÓõíïðôéêÜ, ç åëÝù ïéêïíïìéêÞò êñßóçò êáé
ðÜóç êïéíùíéêÞ èõóßá íÝá åëëçíéêÞ êïéíùíéêÞ
ðïëéôéêÞ 2011-15 åßíáé ìéá ðïëéôéêÞ ïéêïíïìéêÞò
êáé êïéíùíéêÞò áöáßìáîçò. Äéáìïñöþèçêå õðü ôçí

1

Âë. ÁéôéïëïãéêÞ ¸êèåóç óôï Ó÷Ýäéï Íüìïõ, Ìåóïðñüèåóìï Ðëáßóéï ÄçìïóéïíïìéêÞò ÐñïóáñìïãÞò 2011-15, óåë. 16-18 (ðçãÞ: www.minln.gr.).

2

OECD (2011), OECD Economic Surveys - Greece, Overview, óåë. 3, (ðçãÞ: http://www.oecd.org/eco/surveys/Greece ).

13

Åíçìåñùôéêü Äåëôßï (Newsletter) • Ôåý÷ç 10/11

áóöõêôéêÞ êáèïäÞãçóç ôçò ÅÅ êáé ôïõ ÄÍÔ êáé õðü
ôï âÜñïò ôçò åëëçíéêÞò êñßóçò ÷ñÝïõò ìå óêïðü
íá åðéâñáäýíåé ôç äçìïóéïíïìéêÞ êáôÜññåõóç.
Ðåñéïñßæåé êïéíùíéêÜ äéêáéþìáôá êáé äéåõñýíåé áôïìéêÝò
õðï÷ñåþóåéò. Åßíáé ìéá áíôéêïéíùíéêÞ óõíôáãÞ
óêëçñÞò ëéôüôçôáò ðïõ óôåñåßôáé íïìéìïðïßçóçò
ãéá ìéá óåéñÜ ëüãïõò. ÅðéâëÞèçêå åðåéãüíôùò áðü
ôïõò äáíåéóôÝò ôïõ åîùôåñéêïý êáé åöáñìüæåôáé
áðñïèýìùò áðü ôïõò äéá÷åéñéóôÝò ôïõ åóùôåñéêïý
÷ùñßò êïéíùíéêü äéÜëïãï, ÷ùñßò ó÷åäéáóìü ãéá
äßêáéï êïéíùíéêü åðéìåñéóìü, ÷ùñßò óôïé÷åéþäåéò
êïéíùíéêÝò åããõÞóåéò, ÷ùñßò å÷Ýããõá ïéêïíïìéêÞò
Ýóôù áðïôåëåóìáôéêüôçôáò. Ôï ìßãìá äçìüóéïõ /
éäéùôéêïý êáé ç ó÷Ýóç áíôáðïäïôéêïý / ðñïíïéáêïý
áíáôñÝðïíôáé ìå ôç äñáóôéêÞ ìåßùóç ôçò êïéíùíéêÞò
äáðÜíçò, ìå ôçí åîáôïìßêåõóç ôçò êïéíùíéêÞò
ðñïóôáóßáò, ìå ôçí åéóáãùãÞ åëá÷ßóôùí áíÝ÷åéáò,
ìå ôçí ðñïáãùãÞ ôçò åìðïñåõìáôïðïßçóçò. Ìå
ëßãá ëüãéá, ç íÝá åëëçíéêÞ êïéíùíéêÞ ðïëéôéêÞ –ðïõ
äåí åßíáé ïýôå åëëçíéêÞ, ïýôå êïéíùíéêÞ- áðïäïìåß
Ýíá óôñåâëü êïéíùíéêü êñÜôïò áíôß íá ïéêïäïìåß Ýíá

äßêáéï óýóôçìá áîéïðñåðþí âáóéêþí êïéíùíéêþí
äéêáéùìÜôùí.

ÓõìðåñáóìáôéêÜ, ç åðßäñáóç ôçò åèíéêÞò
ðïëéôéêÞò áêñéóßáò óõíäõáóìÝíç ìå ôçí åðÞñåéá ôçò ðáãêüóìéáò ïéêïíïìéêÞò êñßóçò óôçí
åëëçíéêÞ êïéíùíéêÞ ðïëéôéêÞ åßíáé äñáìáôéêÞ. Ïé
áðïöÜóåéò êáèïñßæïíôáé áðü ôéò ðáãêüóìéåò
áãïñÝò, äéáìïñöþíïíôáé áðü ôïõò õðåñåèíéêïýò èåóìéêïýò äáíåéóôÝò êáé êáêïðïéïýíôáé
áðü ôïõò åèíéêïýò ðïëéôéêïýò äéá÷åéñéóôÝò. Ïé
áðïöÜóåéò åëÞöèçóáí åí èåñìþ, åðéâëÞèçêáí
âßáéá, ðáñÝâëåøáí ôçí êïéíùíéêÞ ðñáãìáôéêüôçôá. Ïé áðïöÜóåéò åðÝðåóáí åðß äéêáßùí êáé áäßêùí, åêðïñåýèçêáí áðü ôçí ðïëéôéêÞ ÷ñåïêïðßá,
äñïìïëïãÞèçêáí áðü ôçí ïéêïíïìéêÞ õðåñ÷ñÝùóç, åêðüñèçóáí êïéíùíéêÜ äéêáéþìáôá. Ç íÝá
åëëçíéêÞ êïéíùíéêÞ ðïëéôéêÞ áßñåé ôï êïéíùíéêü
êñÜôïò, åîáíåìßæåé ôï éó÷íü óõëëïãéêü êáé áéìïäïôåß ôï Ýìöõôï áôïìéóôéêü ìéáò áðáßäåõôçò
êïéíùíßáò.

ÅñãáóéáêÝò Ó÷Ýóåéò êáé Ìíçìüíéï
ÃéÜííçò ÊïõæÞò, Áí. ÊáèçãçôÞò, ÔìÞìá ÊïéíùíéêÞò ÐïëéôéêÞò, ÐÜíôåéï ÐáíåðéóôÞìéï
Ç êñßóç êáé ôï ìíçìüíéï åßíáé ç áöïñìÞ ìéáò ìåèïäåõìÝíçò ðáñÝìâáóçò áðÝíáíôé óôçí åñãáóßá. Ç
÷ñçóéìïðïéïýìåíç ìÝèïäïò Ý÷åé ùò áöåôçñßá ôïí äçìüóéï ôïìÝá, ï ïðïßïò, åêôüò áðü ôçí êáêüâïõëç
áðáîßùóç ðïõ äÝ÷åôáé ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ðáñá÷ùñÞóåé Ýäáöïò óôá éäéùôéêÜ óõìöÝñïíôá, êáé ðáñÜëëçëá ìå
ôçí åýëïãç áðïóéþðçóç ôùí áéôéþí ôùí ðáèïãåíåéþí ôïõ, õößóôáôáé óïâáñÝò áðþëåéåò óôï åðßðåäï ôçò
áðáó÷üëçóçò, ôùí áìïéâþí êáé ôùí åõñýôåñùí åñãáóéáêþí äéêáéùìÜôùí õðü ôçí åðßêëçóç ôçò ìåßùóçò
ôùí äçìïóßùí åëëåéììÜôùí. Ìå ôçí äçìéïõñãßá üñùí êïéíùíéêïý áõôïìáôéóìïý êáé ôå÷íçôþí äéáéñÝóåùí
áíÜìåóá óôïõò åñãáæüìåíïõò ìåèïäåýåôáé , ìÝóù ôùí ðáñåìâÜóåùí óôï åñãáóéáêü êáèåóôþò ôïõ
äçìüóéïõ ôïìÝá, ç ãåíéêüôåñç õðïâÜèìéóç ôùí üñùí åñãáóßáò. Ìå áõôü ôïí ôñüðï äçìéïõñãåßôáé ôï
êáôÜëëçëï êëßìá, êáé õðü ôçí åðßêëçóç, ôþñá, ôïõ ÷ñÝïõò êáé ôçò ÷áìçëÞò áíôáãùíéóôéêüôçôáò, ãéá ôçí
åðéâïëÞ ìÝôñùí áðïññýèìéóçò êáé ðåñéóôïëÞò ôùí åñãáóéáêþí äéêáéùìÜôùí óôéò éäéùôéêÝò åðé÷åéñÞóåéò.
Åôóé, ëïéðüí, ïé åñãáæüìåíïé óôïí éäéùôéêü ôïìÝá ü÷é ìüíï óôåñïýíôáé ôùí üðïéùí óõãêñéôéêþí áíáöïñþí
ãéá ôç äéåêäßêçóç ôçò âåëôßùóçò ôçò èÝóçò ôïõò êáé ôçò óýãêëéóçò ìå ôïõò óõíáäÝëöïõò ôïõò óôï
Äçìüóéï ìå üñïõò ãåíéêÞò áíáâÜèìéóçò, áëëÜ áíôßèåôá, êáëïýíôáé íá áðïäå÷èïýí êáé ðåñáéôÝñù
õðïâáèìßóåéò, üôáí ôï èåóìéêÜ ðåñéóóüôåñï ðñïóôáôåõìÝíï åñãáóéáêü êáèåóôþò , ìå ôá õøçëÜ ðïóïóôÜ
óõíäéêáëéóìïý, ôïõ äçìüóéïõ ôïìÝá õößóôáôáé ðñùôïöáíÞ êáé ñáãäáßá õðï÷þñçóç.
Óôï ðëáßóéï áõôü åðéôõã÷Üíåôáé ç äñáìáôéêÞ, êáé ìå ðïëëáðëÝò åðéðôþóåéò, óõññßêíùóç ôçò äçìüóéáò
áðáó÷üëçóçò ìå ôçí êáèéÝñùóç ôçò ó÷Ýóçò 1:10 ìåôáîý ðñïóëÞøåùí êáé áðï÷ùñÞóåùí ðïõ óõìðëçñþíåôáé
êáé ìå áðïëýóåéò õðü ôïõò øåõäåðßãñáöïõò èåóìïýò ôçò ðñïóõíôáîéïäïôéêÞò äéáèåóéìüôçôáò êáé
ôçò åñãáóéáêÞò åöåäñåßáò(ìå ôï 60% ôïõ âáóéêïý ìéóèïý), ôçí óôéãìÞ ðïõ ç óõíôáãìáôéêÞ áñ÷Þ ôçò
ìïíéìüôçôáò âÜëëåôáé ìå ôï åðé÷åßñçìá ôçò êáôÜñãçóçò ïñãáíéóìþí êáé ïñãáíéêþí èÝóåùí. Ç ìåßùóç
ôçò áðáó÷üëçóçò óôï Äçìüóéï óõíïäåýåôáé áðü ôï ðÜãùìá ìéóèþí, ôçí ïñéæüíôéá ðåñéêïðÞ áðïäï÷þí ,
ôç ìåßùóç Þ êáé êáôÜñãçóç ôïõ 13ïõ êáé 14ïõ ìéóèïý êáé ôçí êáèéÝñùóç ôïõ åíéáßïõ ìéóèïëïãßïõ ìå üñïõò
ãåíéêÞò õðïâÜèìéóçò óå âáèìü ðïõ ïé åéóïäçìáôéêÝò áðþëåéåò óå ïñéóìÝíåò êáôçãïñßåò íá õðåñâáßíïõí

14

ÅðéóôçìïíéêÞ Åôáéñåßá ÊïéíùíéêÞò ÐïëéôéêÞò

êáé ôï 40% óå äéÜóôçìá ìüëéò äýï åôþí. Óå áõôÜ ðñïóôßèåíôáé ç êáôÜñãçóç ôùí êáíïíéóìþí ðñïóùðéêïý êáé
ç ïõóéáóôéêÞ êáôÜñãçóç ôùí óõëëïãéêþí óõìâÜóåùí óôéò áóôéêÝò óõãêïéíùíßåò, ùò ìïíôÝëï åðÝêôáóçò ôùí
ìÝôñùí áõôþí êáé óôéò õðüëïéðåò ÄÅÊÏ, ç áýîçóç ôïõ ùñáñßïõ óôéò 40 þñåò êáé ç áðåëåõèÝñùóÞ ôïõ.
Ï ðõñÞíáò ôùí ðáñåìâÜóåùí ðïõ áðïóêïðåß óôçí áðïôåëåóìáôéêÞ êáé ìáêñïðñüèåóìç óõññßêíùóç
ôùí äáðáíþí(«êüóôïõò») åñãáóßáò Ýãêåéôáé óôçí áðïññýèìéóç ôùí üñùí äéáìüñöùóçò ôùí ìéóèþí êáé
ôïõ óõóôÞìáôïò ôùí óõëëïãéêþí óõìâÜóåùí ìå ôç íüìéìç äéÜâñùóç ôïõ êëáäéêïý ìéóèïý ìÝóá áðü ôç
ó÷åôéêÞ äõíáôüôçôá ðïõ åéóÜãåôáé áðü ôéò åðé÷åéñçóéáêÝò óõëëïãéêÝò óõìâÜóåéò, äéåõêïëýíïíôáò êáé
öáéíüìåíá åñãïäïôéêïý óõíäéêáëéóìïý, ìå ôï åðé÷åßñçìá ôçò äéÜóùóçò ôùí èÝóåùí åñãáóßáò áëëÜ êáé
ôçò åíßó÷õóçò ôçò áíôáãùíéóôéêüôçôáò ðïõ äßíåé ôï Ýíáõóìá ãéá ôçí åöáñìïãÞ ôïõò êáé óå åðé÷åéñÞóåéò
ìå õøçëÞ êåñäïöïñßá. Ïé ñõèìßóåéò áõôÝò áíáôñÝðïõí ôç âáóéêÞ áñ÷Þ ôçò åõíïúêüôåñçò ñýèìéóçò ãéá ôçí
åñãáóßá êáé åðéâïõëåýïíôáé óïâáñÜ ôïí ñüëï ôùí êëáäéêþí óõìâÜóåùí, åíþ ï èåóìüò ôçò åðÝêôáóÞò
ôïõò áíáóôÝëëåôáé ìÝ÷ñé ôï 2014 ïäçãþíôáò óå ãåíéêÞ áðïäéÜñèñùóç ôï ðëáßóéï äéáìüñöùóçò ôùí
ìéóèþí êáé óôçí êáèÞëùóÞ ôïõò óôá üñéá ôïõ ãåíéêïý êáôþôáôïõ ìéóèïý.
Ùóôüóï êáé ç åèíéêÞ ãåíéêÞ óõëëïãéêÞ óýìâáóç âÜëëåôáé Ýììåóá, õðü ôï Üëëïèé ôùí óõìâÜóåùí
ìáèçôåßáò(stages) êáé áðüêôçóçò åðáããåëìáôéêÞò åìðåéñßáò ôùí íåïðñïóëáìâáíüìåíùí íÝùí ìÝ÷ñé 25
åôþí, ìå ôç äõíáôüôçôá äéÜâñùóçò ôïõ ðåñéå÷ïìÝíïõ ôçò êáôÜ 20%. ÐáñÜëëçëá ï ãåíéêüò êáôþôáôïò
ìéóèüò áðåéëåßôáé êáé Üìåóá áðü ôçí óôéãìÞ ðïõ ï ðñþôïò ìíçìïíéáêüò íüìïò(3845/10) ðñïâëÝðåé êáé áõôÞ
ôç äéÜâñùóÞ ôïõ ìÝóá áðü åéäéêüôåñåò ôçò åèíéêÞò ãåíéêÞò óõëëïãéêÝò óõìâÜóåéò, äéÜôáîç ðïõ, áðëÜ äåí
Ý÷åé åîåéäéêåõèåß ìÝ÷ñé ôþñá þóôå íá ôåèåß óå åöáñìïãÞ.
Óôï ßäéï ðëáßóéï, ôï ôñéåôÝò ðÜãùìá ôùí ìéóèþí, ç áðáãüñåõóç êáé êáôÜñãçóç êÜèå óõëëïãéêÞò
ñýèìéóçò ðïõ õðåñâáßíåé ôçí åéóïäçìáôéêÞ ðïëéôéêÞ óõìðëçñþíïõí ôçí ðïëéôéêÞ ìéóèþí óôïí éäéùôéêü
ôïìÝá. Óôá ðáñáðÜíù ðñïóôßèåôáé êáé ï ðåñéïñéóìüò ôïõ ñüëïõ ôïõ ÏÌÅÄ êáé ôçò éó÷õñïðïßçóçò ôçò
ðëåõñÜò ôïõ êåöáëáßïõ óôéò äéáäéêáóßåò åðßëõóçò ôùí óõëëïãéêþí äéáöïñþí ìå óçìáíôéêüôåñç åêåßíç ôïõ
ðåñéïñéóìïý ôçò äéáéôçóßáò óôïí êáèïñéóìü ôùí âáóéêþí ìéóèþí óôéò ðñïò åðßëõóç äéáöïñÝò áöÞíïíôáò
ìåôÝùñï ôï ðåäßï ôùí åðéäïìÜôùí êáé ôï ãåíéêüôåñï èåóìéêü ðëáßóéï ôùí åñãáóéáêþí ó÷Ýóåùí ðïõ åßíáé
áíôéêåßìåíï ôùí óõëëïãéêþí äéáðñáãìáôåýóåùí. Åðßóçò, ç ìåßùóç ôïõ êüóôïõò õðÝñâáóçò ôïõ ùñáñßïõ ìå
ôç óõìðßåóç êáôÜ 20% ôïõ êüóôïõò ôçò õðåñåñãáóßáò êáé ôçò êÜèå ìïñöÞò õðåñùñßáò áðïôåëåß ìéá áêüìç
ñýèìéóç óôçí êáôåýèõíóç ôïõ ðåñéïñéóìïý ôùí äáðáíþí ãéá ôçí åñãáóßá, ùò åðá÷èïýò êüóôïõò ãéá ôï
êåöÜëáéï. ÔÝëïò, ç äéåõêüëõíóç ôùí óõëëïãéêþí ñõèìßóåùí ãéá ôçí åöáñìïãÞ åëáóôéêþí äéåõèåôÞóåùí ôïõ
÷ñüíïõ åñãáóßáò, áêüìç êáé ìå êáñéêáôïýñåò óõëëïãéêüôçôáò(15% ôïõ ðñïóùðéêïý ãéá åðé÷åéñÞóåéò<20
åñãáæïìÝíùí!).
Ç Üñóç ôïõ ðëáéóßïõ ðñïóôáóßáò áðü ôéò áðïëýóåéò, éäéáßôåñá óå ìéá ðåñßïäï Ýîáñóçò ôçò êñßóçò êáé ôçò
áíåñãßáò, áðïôåëåß ìéá áêüìç êåíôñéêÞò óçìáóßáò ðáñÝìâáóç þóôå ç äéåõêüëõíóç êáé ç áðåëåõèÝñùóç ôùí
áðïëýóåùí íá áðïôåëåß êáé ìÝóï ðñüóèåôçò ðßåóçò ãéá ôçí åðéâïëÞ ôùí ìÝôñùí óõìðßåóçò ôïõ êüóôïõò
åñãáóßáò(ð÷. åðé÷åéñçóéáêÝò óõìâÜóåéò, áðïäï÷Þ ôçò ìåñéêÞò áðáó÷üëçóçò êáé ôçò åê ðåñéôñïðÞò
åñãáóßáò õðü ôçí áðåéëÞ ôçò ôñïðïðïéçôéêÞò êáôáããåëßáò ôçò óýìâáóçò).Óå áõôü ôï ðëáßóéï åíôÜóóåôáé ç
åðÝêôáóç ôçò äïêéìáóôéêÞò óýìâáóçò óôï Ýíá Ýôïò ìå óõíÝðåéá ôç ìç êáôáâïëÞ áðïæçìßùóçò áðüëõóçò
êáé ôçí ðñïóèÞêç êáé áíÜðôõîç ìéáò íÝáò ìïñöÞò åðéóöÜëåéáò, ç ìåßùóç Ýùò êáé êáôÜ � ôïõ ÷ñüíïõ
ðñïåéäïðïßçóçò óôçí ôáêôéêÞ êáôáããåëßá ôùí óõìâÜóåùí ðïõ óõíåðÜãåôáé ìÝ÷ñé êáé 18 ìéóèïýò ìéêñüôåñç
áðïæçìßùóç ãéá åñãáæüìåíïõò ìå ìåãÜëç ðñïûðçñåóßá, ôçí áðåñéüñéóôç áýîçóç ôùí äüóåùí êáôáâïëÞò
ôùí áðïæçìéþóåùí áðüëõóçò, ìå ôçí ðáñÜëëçëç ìåßùóç ôïõ ðïóïý êÜèå äüóçò. Åðßóçò, ç áýîçóç ôïõ
ïñßïõ ãéá ôéò ïìáäéêÝò áðïëýóåéò êáôÜ 50% ãéá ôéò åðé÷åéñÞóåéò Ýùò 150 åñãáæüìåíïõò êáé êáôÜ 150% ãéá
ôéò ìåãáëýôåñåò óõíéóôÜ Ýíá áêüìç ìÝôñï äéåõêüëõíóçò ôùí áðïëýóåùí êáé åðÝêôáóçò ôçò êïéíùíéêÞò
áíáóöÜëåéáò.
Ç ëÞøç ìÝôñùí ãéá ôçí åíßó÷õóç ôùí åõÝëéêôùí ìïñöþí åñãáóßáò áðïôåëåß ìéá áêüìç óçìáíôéêÞ
ðáñÜìåôñï ôùí ìÝôñùí ôïõ ìíçìïíßïõ ìå Ýìöáóç óôçí áíÜðôõîç êáé ôçí åðÝêôáóç ôçò äéÜñêåéáò
ôçò ðñïóùñéíÞò áðáó÷üëçóçò ðÝñáí ôùí 2 åôþí, óôïõò 36 ìÞíåò, ìÝóá áðü ôá ãñáöåßá äáíåéóìïý
åñãáæïìÝíùí ìå ôç äõíáôüôçôá ôñéðëáóéáóìïý ôïõ ÷ñüíïõ åíïéêßáóçò, áëëÜ êáé áðü ôçí äéÜñêåéá ôùí
áíáíåþóåùí ôùí óõìâÜóåùí ïñéóìÝíïõ ÷ñüíïõ ìÝ÷ñé ôçí ôñéåôßá ðïõ, ùóôüóï, ìðïñåß êáé íá áíáíåþíïíôáé

15

Åíçìåñùôéêü Äåëôßï (Newsletter) • Ôåý÷ç 10/11

÷ùñßò ðåñéïñéóìïýò ãéá ìéá óåéñÜ áðü «áíôéêåéìåíéêïýò» ëüãïõò.. ÅðéðëÝïí åðåêôåßíåôáé ç åôÞóéá äéÜñêåéá
ôçò åê ðåñéôñïðÞò åñãáóßáò (3Þìåñá,4Þìåñá) óôïõò 9 ìÞíåò (ìå äõíáôüôçôá äéáäï÷Þò 2 åôÞóéùí ðåñéüäùí
ìÝ÷ñé ôïõ 18ìçíïõ) ðïõ, óå óõíäõáóìü ìå ôçí êáôÜñãçóç ôùí üðïéùí ðñïóáõîÞóåùí óôçí õðåñùñéáêÞ
áðáó÷üëçóç êáé óôéò áìïéâÝò ôçò «ðåñéïñéóìÝíçò» ìåñéêÞò áðáó÷üëçóçò, åíèáññýíåé ôçí ðåñáéôÝñù
áíÜðôõîç ôçò áðáó÷üëçóçò ìå ìåéùìÝíá ùñÜñéá. Ôá ìÝôñá áõôÜ óõìâÜëëïõí óôçí åêôüîåõóç ôùí
äéÜöïñùí ìïñöþí åõÝëéêôçò áðáó÷üëçóçò ðïõ êõñéáñ÷ïýí óôï ðåñéå÷üìåíï ôùí íÝùí ðñïóëÞøåùí Þ
ðñïêýðôïõí áðü ðñáêôéêÝò ìåôáôñïðÞò ôçò ôõðéêÞò áðáó÷üëçóçò óå áôõðéêÞ.
Ôï íÝï åñãáóéáêü ôïðßï ðïõ äéáìïñöþíåôáé ìåôÜ áðü ôï ìíçìüíéï óå ìéá, êáé èåóìéêÜ ðëÝïí,
áðïñõèìéóìÝíç áãïñÜ åñãáóßáò ïäçãåß óôçí ãåíßêåõóç ôçò åðéóöÜëåéáò ðïõ èá åðéâÜëëïõí óùñåõôéêÜ
ç åðÝêôáóç ôçò åõÝëéêôçò åñãáóßáò, ïé ÷áìçëÝò áìïéâÝò ìÝóá áðü ôçí áðïäéÜñèñùóç ôïõ óõóôÞìáôïò
äéáìüñöùóÞò ôïõò êáé õðü ôçí ðßåóç ôçò áíåñãßáò ìå ôéò öèçíÝò êáé åýêïëåò áðïëýóåéò ðïõ èá êáèéóôïýí
áâÝâáéç ôçí ðñïïðôéêÞ óõíôáîéïäüôçóçò ðïõ èá õðïëïãßæåôáé, üôáí èá óõìðëçñþíïíôáé ïé ðñïûðïèÝóåéò,
ìå âÜóç ôéò áðïäï÷Ýò åíüò ïëüêëçñïõ åñãÜóéìïõ âßïõ. ¹äç ç ìåßùóç ôùí áðïäï÷þí êáé óôïí éäéùôéêü
ôïìÝá êõìáßíïíôáé áðü 10-20% áðü ôçí åêäÞëùóç ôçò êñßóçò.
ÔÝëïò, ç áðïññýèìéóç ôïõ óõóôÞìáôïò ôùí óõëëïãéêþí óõìâÜóåùí, åêôüò áðü ôï ðëÞãìá ðïõ äÝ÷ïíôáé
ôá êåíôñéêÜ óõíäéêÜôá êáé ãåíéêüôåñá ï óõíäéêáëéóìüò, áðïôåëåß ôï åíäéÜìåóï óôÜäéï ðñéí áðü ôçí åðéâïëÞ
üñùí ðëÞñïõò åîáôïìßêåõóçò ôùí áìïéâþí êáé ôùí åñãáóéáêþí ó÷Ýóåùí ðïõ áðïôåëåß êáé ôïí áðþôåñï
óôü÷ï ôïõ íåïöéëåëåýèåñïõ äüãìáôïò.

ÌåôáíÜóôåõóç êáé Êñßóç óôçí ÅëëçíéêÞ Êïéíùíßá
ÄÝóðïéíá Ðáðáäïðïýëïõ, Åðßêïõñç ÊáèçãÞôñéá, ÔìÞìá ÊïéíùíéêÞò ÐïëéôéêÞò, ÐÜíôåéï ÐáíåðéóôÞìéï
Ç ìåôáíÜóôåõóç óÞìåñá óå ðáãêüóìéá êëßìáêá
Ý÷åé áëëÜîåé ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ óå ó÷Ýóç ìå ôéò
ìåôáíáóôåýóåéò ôïõ 20ïõ áéþíá. Êáô’åðÝêôáóç ç
ìåôáíÜóôåõóç ôùí åëëÞíùí óÞìåñá êÜôù áðü ôï
âÜñïò ôçò ïéêïíïíïìéêÞò êñßóçò äåí èá Ý÷åé ôá
ßäéá ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ ìå áõôÜ ôùí ìåôáíáóôåýóåùí
ôïõ 60 óôçí Åõñþðç. Ïé êïéíùíéêï-ïéêïíïìéêÝò
êáé ðïëéôéêÝò óõíèÞêåò åßíáé ðïëý äéáöïñåôéêÝò
áðü áõôÝò ôçò Åõñþðçò ôïõ ’60. Ôá åèíéêÜ êñÜôç
äåí ðáßñíïõí áðïöÜóåéò áðü ìüíá ôïõò, ïýôå
åðåíäýïõí áðïêëåéóôéêÜ óôçí áíÜðôõîç ìéáò
åèíéêÞò ïéêïíïìßáò. ÅðçñåÜæïõí êáé åðçñåÜæïíôáé
áðü ìßá ðáãêïóìéïðïéçìÝíç óõãêõñßá êáé ïéêïíïìßá
ìå áðïôÝëåóìá ôá êÝíôñá ëÞøçò áðïöÜóåùí íá
Ý÷ïõí ìåôáôåèåß óôïõò õðåñ-åèíéêïýò ìç÷áíéóìïýò.
Áí ç åëëçíéêÞ ìåôáíÜóôåõóç õëïðïéçèåß, üðùò
ðéóôåýåôáé, ôüóï ïé ðñïïñéóìïß èá åßíáé åíôåëþò
äéáöïñåôéêïß åêôüò ôùí ÷ùñþí ôïõ åõñþ (ð.÷.
ÊáíáäÜò, Áõóôñáëßá), üóï êáé ôá ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ
ôùí ðëçèõóìþí ðïõ èá ìåôáíáóôåýóïõí èá
åßíáé äéáöïñåôéêÜ. Èá ìéëÜìå ü÷é ãéá áíåéäßêåõôç
åñãáôéêÞ ìåôáíÜóôåõóç, áëëÜ ãéá ìßá ðïëý
åîåéäéêåõìÝíç êáé óôï÷åõìÝíç ìåôáíÜóôåõóç óôïí
ôïìÝá ôùí õðçñåóéþí. Åðßóçò, èá ðñüêåéôáé ãéá ìßá
ìåôáíÜóôåõóç ìå åëëéôßóôéêá ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ, áöïý
ïé Üíèñùðïé ðïõ èá ìðïñïýí íá ìåôáíáóôåýóïõí

èá ðñÝðåé íá äéáèÝôïõí Ýíá ðïëý êáëü åðßðåäï
åðéóôçìïóýíçò êáé ôå÷íïãíùóßáò. ÁõôÝò öáßíïíôáé
íá åßíáé ïé ìåôáíáóôåýóåéò ôïõ ìÝëëïíôïò êáé ãé
áõôïýò ôïõò ðëçèõóìïýò ôá óýíïñá åßíáé áíïéêôÜ.
´Ïóïí áöïñÜ ôç èÝóç ôçò ÅëëÜäáò ùò ÷þñá
õðïäï÷Þò ìåôáíáóôþí êáé êõñßùò ôï êáôÜ ðüóï
÷ñåéÜæåôáé ôïõò ìåôáíáóôåõôéêïýò ðëçèõóìïýò
ôçò ç ðñáãìáôéêüôçôá åìöáíßæåôáé ðéï ðïëýðëïêç.
ÕðÜñ÷åé óÞìåñá óôçí åëëçíéêÞ êïéíùíßá ìßá
ìåãÜëç óõæÞôçóç ãýñù áðü ôçí ðáñïõóßá êáé
ôçí ðáñáìïíÞ ôùí ìåôáíáóôþí. Ç óõæÞôçóç
áõôÞ Ý÷åé ðÜñåé êõñßùò éäåïëïãéêÝò êáé ðïëéôéêÝò
äéáóôÜóåéò õðáêïýïíôáò ü÷é óôï åõèý åñþôçìá
áí ÷ñåéáæüìáóôå ôïõò ìåôáíÜóôåò áëëÜ óôï çèéêü
åñþôçìá áí èÝëïõìå ôïõò ìåôáíÜóôåò. Åôóé ôá
êüììáôá ôçò äåîßáò êáé áêñïäåîéÜò éäåïëïãßáò
åóôéÜæïõí ôçí åðé÷åéñçìáôïëïãßá ôïõò ãýñù áðü
ôçí áðï÷þñçóç ôùí ìåôáíáóôþí áðü ôéò äõôéêÝò
åèíéêÝò êïéíùíßåò êáé ôç ìç ÷ñçóéìüôçôá ôçò
ìåôáíáóôåõôéêÞò ðáñïõóßáò, êáèþò åðßóçò êáé
óôï ãåãïíüò üôé ïé ìåôáíÜóôåò áëëïéþíïõí ôá
÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ ôçò åèíéêÞò ôáõôüôçôáò. Áíôßèåôá,
ôá êüììáôá ôçò êåíôñïáñéóôåñÞò êáé ôçò áñéóôåñÞò
éäåïëïãßáò åóôéÜæïõí ôçí åðé÷åéñçìáôïëïãßá ôïõò
óôçí áðïäï÷Þ ôçò ðáñïõóßáò ôùí ìåôáíáóôþí,

16
óôçí ðáñáìïíÞ ôïõò óôçí êïéíùíßá õðïäï÷Þò êáé
óôçí êïéíùíéêÞ åíóùìÜôùóÞ ôïõò. Ïìùò, ôüóï ôá
ìåí üóï êáé ôá äå áêïëïõèïýí ìßá óôñáôïëïãçìÝíç
óôÜóç ìå Ýíôïíá óôïé÷åßá çèéêïðïßçóçò ôçò
ìåôáíáóôåõôéêÞò ðáñïõóßáò, ÷ùñßò íá ìðïñïýí íá
åðé÷åéñçìáôïëïãÞóïõí ðÜíù óå ìßá áíôéêåéìåíéêÞ
âÜóç. Óôçí ðñáãìáôéêüôçôá óÞìåñá ãíùñßæïõìå
üôé ç ìåôáíáóôåõôéêÞ ðáñïõóßá áðïôåëåß Ýíáí
êáèáñü ìç÷áíéóìü óôçí áãïñÜ åñãáóßáò ìåßùóçò
ôïõ åñãáôéêïý êüóôïõò, áýîçóçò ôïõ ÁÅÐ,
äçìïãñáöéêÞò åíßó÷õóçò áöïý ç ÅëëÜäá Ý÷åé
óïâáñü ðñüâëçìá õðïãåííçôéêüôçôáò, åíßó÷õóçò
ôçò ìéêñïìåóáßáò åðé÷åßñçóçò, óõììåôï÷Þò óôá
áóöáëéóôéêÜ ôáìåßá êáé óôï åêðáéäåõôéêü óýóôçìá.
Ïìùò ç õðåñóõãêÝíôñùóÞ ôïõò ðïõ ðáñáôçñåßôáé
óå êÜðïéïõò åðáããåëìáôéêïýò êëÜäïõò (ïéêïäïìÞ,
ïéêéáêÜ åðáããÝëìáôá, ôïõñéóìüò) äåí âïçèÜåé óôçí
éóïññïðçìÝíç áíÜðôõîç ôçò áãïñÜò åñãáóßáò êáé
óôçí êáôáðïëÝìçóç ôçò áäÞëùôçò åñãáóßáò.
Ç êïéíùíéêÞ åíóùìÜôùóç ôùí ìåôáíáóôþí
áðïôåëåß Ýíá åðßóçò ðïëý áêáíèþäåò æÞôçìá ìå
ðïëëÝò ðñïåêôÜóåéò óôï óýíïëï ôçò åëëçíéêÞò
êïéíùíßáò. Êáô’áñ÷Þí èá ðñÝðåé íá áðïóáöçíßóïõìå
üôé ç åíóùìÜôùóç áöïñÜ üëïõò ôïõò ðëçèõóìïýò
ðïõ áíÞêïõí, óõììåôÝ÷ïõí êáé äñáóôçñéïðïéïýíôáé
óå ìßá êïéíùíßá. Áñá áöïñÜ ôïõò áðü êáôáãùãÞò
åëëçíéêïýò áëëÜ êáé ôïõò ìåôáíáóôåõôéêïýò
ðëçèõóìïýò. ÓõíÞèùò ïé ìç÷áíéóìïß êïéíùíéêÞò
åíóùìÜôùóçò åßíáé êïéíïß êáé ãéá ôïõò äýï
ðëçèõóìïýò êáé áöïñïýí óôïõò åèíéêïýò èåóìïýò
ìéáò ïñãáíùìÝíçò êïéíùíßáò. Áñá üóï êáëýôåñá
ëåéôïõñãïýí ïé êïéíùíéêïðïéçôéêïß èåóìïß ôüóï
áñôéüôåñç êáé åõêïëüôåñç ãßíåôáé ç åíóùìÜôùóç
üëùí ôùí ðëçèõóìþí. Ïôáí üìùò ç ëåéôïõñãßá
ôùí èåóìþí åßíáé ðëçììåëÞò ôüôå Ý÷ïõìå çìéôåëÞ Þ
êáèüëïõ åíóùìÜôùóç, ìå óïâáñïýò óôéãìáôéóìïýò
êáé ðñïâëÞìáôá óôéò ôáõôüôçôåò ôùí ïìÜäùí êáé
óôçí êïéíùíéêÞ áðïäï÷Þ ðïõ ôïõò åðéöõëÜóóåôáé.
Ãéá ôïõò ìåôáíÜóôåò ç äéáäéêáóßá ôçò åíóùìÜôùóçò
ðáñïõóéÜæåé Ýôóé êé áëëéþò ðñïâëÞìáôá êáé
äõóêïëßåò ãéáôß ðñïÝñ÷ïíôáé áðü ìßá Üëëç êïéíùíßá,
Ý÷ïõí êïéíùíéêïðïéçèåß êÜôù áðü äéáöïñåôéêÝò
óõíèÞêåò êáé óõíÞèåéåò êáé åßíáé âåâáñçìÝíïé ìå
áõîçìÝíá áñíçôéêÜ óôåñÝôõðá óå ó÷Ýóç ìå ôïõò
Ýëëçíåò. Åðßóçò õðÜñ÷åé ç ôÜóç íá ÷ñåþíïõìå
óôïõò ìåôáíÜóôåò üëá ôá êáêþò êåßìåíá ìéáò
êïéíùíßáò, ôéò äõóëåéôïõñãßåò ôçò êáé ïðïéïäÞðïôå
ãåãïíüò ÷áñáêôçñßæåôáé áñíçôéêü êáé áíåðéèýìçôï.
Ïëá áõôÜ ôá óôïé÷åßá ìáæß ìå ôç äýóêïëç óõãêõñßá
ôçò ïéêïíïìéêÞò êñßóçò, ôçò ðïëý õøçëÞò áíåñãßáò
êáé ôçò Ýëëåéøçò èÝóåùí åñãáóßáò, ïäçãïýí
óå ìßá áõîçìÝíç äõóêïëßá íá åíóùìáôùèïýí ïé

ÅðéóôçìïíéêÞ Åôáéñåßá ÊïéíùíéêÞò ÐïëéôéêÞò

ìåôáíÜóôåò óôçí Þäç ðïëý äýóêïëç äéáäéêáóßá
åíóùìÜôùóÞò ôïõò. Ç åìðåéñßá ôùí ðáñáäïóéáêþí
÷ùñþí õðïäï÷Þò ìåôáíáóôþí, üðùò åßíáé ç Ãáëëßá
êáé ç Ãåñìáíßá, äåß÷íåé üôé ç åíóùìÜôùóç Ýãéíå
ìüíï êÜôù áðü óõãêåêñéìÝíïõò êáé ðïëý åõíïéêïýò
üñïõò üðùò åßíáé ç áíïé÷ôÞ áãïñÜ åñãáóßáò êáé ïé
õøçëïß ñõèìïß áíÜðôõîçò. Óå êÜèå ðåñßðôùóç ç
åëëçíéêÞ êïéíùíßá Ý÷åé õðï÷ñÝùóç áðÝíáíôé óôïõò
ìåôáíÜóôåò ôçò ðïõ «êÜðïôå» åß÷å áíÜãêç, íá ôïõò
åíóùìáôþóåé óå Ýíá õãéÝò êïéíùíéêü óýóôçìá êáé íá
ôïõò åðéôñÝøåé íá óõììåôÜó÷ïõí óôçí êáèçìåñßíç
ïñãÜíùóç êáé æùÞ.
Ç óõììåôï÷Þ ôùí ìåôáíáóôþí óôçí åëëçíéêÞ
áãïñÜ åñãáóßáò Ý÷åé êÜðïéåò éäéáéôåñüôçôåò êáé
ìïíáäéêÜ ÷áñáêêôçñéóôéêÜ. ÌÝ÷ñé ðñüóöáôá
ìßá éäéáßôåñç áãïñÜ åñãáóßáò, óõãêåêñéìÝíá ç
áäÞëùôç, Þôáí áíïéêôÞ óôïõò ìåôáíÜóôåò êáé
ìÜëéóôá ðñïíïìéáêÜ óå ó÷Ýóç ìå ôïõò åëëçíéêïýò
ðëçèõóìïýò. Ç ÅëëÜäá ìÝ÷ñé ðñüóöáôá (2008)
Þôáí ç ìïíáäéêÞ åõñùðáéêÞ ÷þñá üðïõ ïé äåßêôåò
áíåñãßáò óôïõò ìåôáíÜóôåò Þôáí ÷áìçëþôåñïé áðü
áõôïýò ôùí åëëÞíùí. Êáé áõôü äéêáéïëïãïýíôáí
ìÝóá áðü ôç åõêïëßá ðñüóâáóçò ôùí ìåôáíáóôþí
óôçí áãïñÜ åñãáóßáò, üìùò óå óõãêåêñéìÝíïõò
êëÜäïõò êáé ìå áäÞëùôç åñãáóßá. Ïé Ýëëçíåò
åñãïäüôåò êõñßùò óôéò ìéêñïìåóáßåò åðé÷åéñÞóåéò
ðñïôéìïýóáí Ýíáí ìåôáíÜóôç áðü Ýíáí Ýëëçíá
ãéáôß ôïõò êüóôéæå ðéï öôçíÜ. Åôóé åîáóöÜëéæáí êáé
ôç âéùóßìïôçôá ôçò åðé÷åßñçóÞò ôïõò. Åôóé åß÷áìå
ôï ðáñÜäïîï ó÷Þìá, Ýñåõíåò ôï áðïäåéêíýïõí, üôé
üôáí Ýíáò ìåôáíÜóôçò áðïêôïýóå íüìéìï êáèåóôþò
ðáñáìïíÞò óôç ÷þñá äõóêïëåýïíôáí ìåôÜ íá âñåé
äïõëåéÜ ðïëý ðåñéóóüôåñï áðü üóï üôáí æïýóå óôç
÷þñá ÷ùñßò ÷áñôéÜ. ÅöåîÞò üìùò ìå ôçí ïéêïíïìéêÞ
êñßóç, ç áýîçóç ôçò áíåñãßáò êáé ç ìåßùóç ôùí
èÝóåùí åñãáóßáò áöïñÜ ôï óýíïëï ôùí ðëçèõóìþí
ðïõ äéáìÝíïõí óôçí ÅëëÜäá. Ç áíåñãßá öáßíåôáé
üôé ÷ôõðÜåé ôçí ðüñôá ôüóï óôïõò Ýëëçíåò üóï
êáé óôïõò ìåôáíÜóôåò. ÓõãêåêñéìÝíá êëÜäïé üðùò
ïé ïéêïäïìéêÝò åðé÷åéñÞóåéò êáé ï ôïõñéóìüò, üðïõ
óõììåôåß÷áí êõñßùò ìåôáíÜóôåò, ãíùñßæïõí õøçëÞ
êÜìøç ôçò ôÜîçò ôïõ 40% êáé 50% êáé êáôÜ óõíÝðåéá
áõôü ôïõò áöïñÜ. ÐñÝðåé íá åðéóçìÜíïõìå üôé ç
åñãáôéêÞ íïìïèåóßá êáé ïé óõëëïãéêÝò óõìâÜóåéò
åñãáóßáò êáôáñôßæïíôáé ãéá íá áöïñïýí ôï óýíïëï
ôïõ åñãáæüìåíïõ ðëçèõóìïý êáé Ý÷ïõí óáí ãíþìïíá
ôéò åðáããåëìáôéêÝò êáôçãïñßåò êáé ôéò êáôçãïñßåò
óýìâáóçò åñãáóßáò êáé ü÷é ôïõò ðëçèõóìïýò. Åôóé
êáôï÷õñþíïíôáé óôçí ÅëëÜäá êáé óôçí Åõñþðç ôá
êïéíùíéêÜ äéêáéþìáôá ãåíéêüôåñá, ðïõ áöïñïýí
óôï óýíïëï ôùí åñãáæïìÝíùí êáé ôá åñãáóéáêÜ
äéêáéþìáôá åéäéêüôåñá ðïõ ðñïóôáôåýïõí üëïõò

17

Åíçìåñùôéêü Äåëôßï (Newsletter) • Ôåý÷ç 10/11

ôïõò êïéíùíéêïýò åôáßñïõò ôçò áãïñÜò åñãáóßáò.
Áðü ôç óôéãìÞ ëïéðüí ðïõ ç åñãáóßá Ýíïò
åñãáæïìÝíïõ ìåôáíÜóôç åßíáé äçëùìÝíç, áõôüìáôá
Ý÷åé üëá ôá åñãáóéáêÜ äéêáéþìáôá ðïõ äéáèÝôåé
Ýíáò Ýëëçíáò. Èá ðñÝðåé íá Ý÷ïõìå êáôÜ íïõ üôé
êÜèå ìïñöÞ äéÜêñéóçò ìå êñéôÞñéï ôçí åèíéêüôçôá
ôéìùñåßôáé áðü ôï íüìï ãéáôß ðáñáâéÜæåé Üìåóá ôï
äßêáéï êáé ôç äçìïêñáôßá.
ÔÝëïò, ôï ðëÝïí äýóêïëï èÝìá ôùí óýã÷ñïíùí
ìåôáíáóôåýóåùí
åíôïðßæåôáé
óôïõò
üñïõò
óõììåôï÷Þò óôçí åèíéêÞ êïéíùíßá ôçò äåýôåñçò
ãåíéÜò ìåôáíáóôþí. Óôï áêáíèþäåò æÞôçìá ôçò
ìåôáâßâáóçò éèáãÝíåéáò ãéá ôá ðáéäéÜ áõôÜ, ï ðïëý
ðñüóöáôïò íüìïò ðåñß áðüêôçóçò ôçò åëëçíéêÞò
éèáãÝíåéáò äßíåé ôç äõíáôüôçôá óôá ðáéäéÜ ôùí
ìåôáíáóôþí ðïõ Ý÷ïõí ãåííçèåß êáé/Þ Ý÷ïõí ðÜåé
ôïõëÜ÷éóôïí Ýîé ÷ñüíéá åðéôõ÷þò óå åëëçíéêü ó÷ïëåßï
íá áðïêôÞóïõí ôçí åëëçíéêÞ éèáãÝíåéá ìÝóá áðü ìßá
ðéï áðëÞ êáé ëéãüôåñï äáðáíçñÞ äéáäéêáóßá áðü ôç
äéáäéêáóßá ôçò ðïëéôïãñÜöçóçò, ìå ìßá áðëÞ áßôçóç.
Ç äõíáôüôçôá áõôÞ äßíåé ôï ðëåïíÝêôçìá óôá ðáéäéÜ
ôçò äåýôåñçò ãåíéÜò ìåôáíáóôþí ðïõ ôá ßäéá äåí
åßíáé ìåôáíÜóôåò íá åíóùìáôùèïýí óôçí åëëçíéêÞ
êïéíùíßá üíôáò Ýëëçíåò. Óôçí ðñáãìáôéêüôçôá
ðñüêåéôáé ãéá ìéá ðïëéôéêÞ êáôáóêåõÞò åèíéêÞò
ôáõôüôçôáò âáóéóìÝíçò ðÜíù óôï êñéôÞñéï ôçò
êïéíùíéêïðïéÞóçò óôï Ýäáöïò õðïäï÷Þò êáé óôï
åêðáéäåõôéêü óýóôçìá ôçò êïéíùíßáò õðïäï÷Þò.
Äéáêñßíåôáé áðü ôï Üëëï ìïíôÝëï ìåôáâßâáóçò
éèáãÝíåéáò, ôï ðéï ðáñáäïóéáêü, ôï üðïéï
áêïëïõèïýóå ç ÅëëÜäá ìÝ÷ñé ðñüóöáôá óôá

ðñüôõðá ôïõ ãåñìáíéêïý êáé óôçñßæïíôáí ðÜíù
óôï äßêáéï ôïõ áßìáôïò (jus sanguinis). Áíôßèåôá, ç
õéïèÝôçóç Ýíüò ôÝôïéïõ êáíüíá üðùò åßíáé ôï äßêáéï
ôïõ åäÜöïõò (jus soli) åðéêåíôñþíåé óôç õéïèÝôçóç
ôùí áîéþí ôçò êïéíùíßáò õðïäï÷Þò, ìÝóá áðü ôçí
êáëÞ ãíþóç ôçò ãëþóóáò, ôïõ ôñüðïõ æùÞò, ôùí
êïéíùíéêþí ó÷Ýóåùí êáé ôùí áîéþí ðïõ ìåôáäßäïíôáé
ìÝóù ôïõ ó÷ïëåßïõ. Ìå ôïí ôñüðï áõôü ôï ðáéäß
ôïõ ìåôáíÜóôç êáëåßôáé íá óõììåôÜó÷åé åíåñãÜ
óôçí åëëçíéêÞ êïéíùíßá. Å÷ïíôáò áõôü ôï êïéíùíéêü
êåöÜëáéï èá ìðïñåß áýñéï íá áðïêôÞóåé Ýíá
ðôõ÷ßï, íá âñåé ìßá èÝóç óôçí áãïñÜ åñãáóßáò êáé
íá æÞóåé áîéïðñåðþò óôçí åëëçíéêÞ êïéíùíßá õðü
êáíïíßêåò óõíèÞêåò. ÊáôÜ óõíÝðåéá, ç ìåôáâßâáóç
ôçò åëëçíéêÞò éèáãÝíåéáò óå Ýíá ðáéäß äåýôåñçò
ãåíéÜò ìåôáíáóôþí åßíáé áðïôÝëåóìá ôùí óõíèçêþí
ðïõ ìåãÜëùóå êáé ü÷é ìßá ðëáóìáôéêÞ êáôáóêåõÞ
Ýëëçíá üðùò õðïóôçñßæåôáé áðü ðïëëïýò. Åðßóçò
äåí áðåéëåßôáé óå êáìßá ðåñßðôùóç ç åëëçíéêÞ
ôáõôüôçôá ìÝóá áðü ìßá ôÝôïéá ðïëéôéêÞ åðéëïãÞ
áöïý óôçí ðñáãìáôéêüôçôá ç êïéíùíéêïðïßçóç
Ý÷åé ãßíåé ìå åëëçíéêïýò üñïõò. Ïé Ýñåõíåò ìÜëéóôá
áðïäåéêíýïõí üôé ôá ðáéäéÜ áõôÜ åîåëßóóïíôáé óå
«öáíáôéêïýò» Ýëëçíåò áöïý õðåñáóðßæïíôáé ìå
óèÝíïò áõôü ðïõ Ý÷ïõí áðïêôÞóåé êáé äåí Þôáí
äåäïìÝíï. Ïé Ýñåõíåò áêüìç Ý÷ïõí áðïäåßîåé
üôé ôá ðáéäéÜ áõôÜ ðïëý óõ÷íÜ õéïèåôïýí Ýíôïíá
ñáôóéóôéêÝò óõìðåñéöïñÝò áðÝíôáíôé óôïõò íÝïõò
ìåôáíÜóôåò êáé äåí ôïõò èÝëïõí. Óå êÜèå ðåñßðôùóç,
ç ÅëëÜäá Ý÷åé ôçí õðï÷ñÝùóç áðÝíáíôé óôá ðáéäéÜ
áõôÜ íá ôá åíóùìáôþóåé ìå êÜèå ôñüðï êáé íá ôá
êïéíùíéêïðïéÞóåé ìå ïìáëü ôñüðï.

Ç Áêýñùóç ôçò ÊïéíùíéêÞò Ðñïóôáóßáò óôï Ôïðéêü Åðßðåäï
×ñéóôüöïñïò ÓêáìíÜêçò, ËÝêôïñáò, ÔìÞìá ÊïéíùíéêÞò Äéïßêçóçò ÄÐÈ
Ç áðïêÝíôñùóç ðôõ÷þí ôçò êïéíùíéêÞò ðñïóôáóßáò óôçí ÅëëÜäá Þñèå ùò óõìðëÞñùìá ìéáò åõñýôåñçò
ôÜóçò åíßó÷õóçò ôùí ôïðéêþí åîïõóéþí óôç ñýèìéóç ôùí õðïèÝóåùí ðïõ áöïñïýí ôéò ôïðéêÝò êïéíüôçôåò
ìå åõèýíç ôçò èåóìéêÞò ôïõò Ýêöñáóçò. Ç äéåýñõíóç ôùí áñìïäéïôÞôùí ôùí èåóìþí áõôïäéïßêçóçò Ýùò
óÞìåñá áêïëïýèçóå, ðÜíôïôå ìå ó÷åôéêÞ õóôÝñçóç, ôéò ôÜóåéò óôïí åõñùðáúêü ÷þñï êáé óõ÷íÜ ïäçãÞèçêå
áðü áõôÝò. Ç êïéíùíéêÞ ðñïóôáóßá äåí âñÝèçêå ðïôÝ óôï åðßêåíôñï ôçò óõãêåêñéìÝíçò äéáäéêáóßáò.
ÁðïôÝëåóå ðÜíôïôå éó÷íü óõìðëÞñùìá êáé Üëëïèé ôçò áðïêÝíôñùóçò. Ç ôåëåõôáßá öïñôßóôçêå ìüíïí
èåôéêÜ áöïý åñ÷üôáí ðÜíôïôå ùò áíôßâáñï óå Ýíá óõãêåíôñùôéêü êñÜôïò óõíþíõìï ìéáò ðñïâëçìáôéêÞò
ãñáöåéïêñáôßáò ðïõ ëåéôïõñãïýóå ùò åìðüäéï óôçí ó÷Ýóç ôïõ ðïëßôç ìå ôï êñÜôïò. Ïé õðçñåóßåò ðïõ
ïñãáíþèçêáí óôï ôïðéêü åðßðåäï -êáôÜ êýñéï ëüãï ìå ðüñïõò ôùí Äéáñèñùôéêþí Ôáìåßùí-ìåôÜ áðü ìéá
óýíôïìç ðåñßïäï áíÜðôõîçò âñßóêïíôáé óÞìåñá óå öÜóç ýöåóçò ðéåæüìåíåò áðü ôçí áäõíáìßá óôÞñéîÞò
ôïõò áðü ôï êñÜôïò êáé ôçí áõôïäéïßêçóç.
Ç áíÜðôõîç ôùí áõôïäéïéêçôéêþí èåóìþí óôçí ÅëëÜäá óõíüäåøå ìéá ðåñßïäï êáôÜ ôçí ïðïßá ôï
êñÜôïò åðé÷åéñåß íá ðáñáêïëïõèÞóåé ôéò åîåëßîåéò óôïí åõñùðáúêü ÷þñï. ÊáèïñéóôéêÞ óôÜèçêå ç óõìâïëÞ

18

ÅðéóôçìïíéêÞ Åôáéñåßá ÊïéíùíéêÞò ÐïëéôéêÞò

ôùí ðüñùí ôùí Äéáñèñùôéêþí Ôáìåßùí ìÝóù ôùí ïðïßùí åîáóöáëßóèçêáí õðïäïìÝò êáé ðñáêôéêÝò. Ïé
ðñüóöáôåò áëëáãÝò óôï ôïðßï ôçò áõôïäéïßêçóçò áðïôÝëåóáí Ýíá áêüìç âÞìá óôçí áíôáðüêñéóç ôùí
ôÜóåùí óôï åõñýôåñï åõñùðáúêü ðåäßï ìå ôçí ïñãÜíùóç ÏÔÁ ìå áõîçìÝíåò äéïéêçôéêÝò êáé äéá÷åéñéóôéêÝò
äõíáôüôçôåò. Ïé ÏÔÁ ðïõ ðñïÝêõøáí áðü ôï ðñüóöáôï êýìá ôùí åíïðïéÞóåùí åßíáé óçìáíôéêÜ ëéãüôåñïé
óå ðëÞèïò êáé óáöþò ðåñéóóüôåñï åðáñêåßò óõãêñéôéêÜ ìå ôï Üìåóï ðáñåëèüí. Ïé äÞìïé ìå ðëçèõóìü
ôïõëÜ÷éóôïí äÝêá ÷éëéÜäåò êáôïßêïõò áèñïßæïõí Ýíá ðïóïóôü ëßãï êÜôù áðü ôï 80% ôïõ óõíüëïõ, åíþ
êáôÜ ôï ðñïçãïýìåíï êýìá ôùí óõíåíþóåùí ôï ðïóïóôü áõôü Üèñïéæáí áíôßóôñïöá ïé ÏÔÁ ìå ðëçèõóìü
Ýùò äÝêá ÷éëéÜäåò êáôïßêïõò.
Ç ðïñåßá ôçò åíßó÷õóçò ôùí áõôïäéïéêçôéêþí èåóìþí óôç ÷þñá ìáò äåí ðåñéÝëáâå óôéò êåíôñéêÝò
ôçò óôï÷åýóåéò ôï ðåäßï ôçò êïéíùíéêÞò ðñïóôáóßáò. Âåâáßùò ðåñéëáìâÜíåôáé óôï åõñýôåñï ðëáßóéï
ôùí óôü÷ùí ôçò ùò óôïé÷åßï ôùí áíôéêåéìÝíùí ðáñÝìâáóçò ôùí äéáöüñùí åðéðÝäùí áõôïäéïßêçóçò.
Ùóôüóï óå êáìßá ðåñßðôùóç äåí åíôÜóóåôáé óôïí ðõñÞíá ôçò äéáäéêáóßáò. Ïé ìç÷áíéóìïß êïéíùíéêÞò
ðñïóôáóßáò ðïõ áíáðôýóóïíôáé óôï ôïðéêü åðßðåäï âñßóêïíôáé óôï ìåãáëýôåñï åýñïò ôïõò õðü ôçí
áéãßäá ôçò áõôïäéïßêçóçò êáé ôçí ïõóéáóôéêÞ õðïóôÞñéîç áðü ôï êñÜôïò êáé ôéò êåíôñéêÝò ôïõ åðéëïãÝò.
Ïé áõôïäéïéêçôéêïß èåóìïß óôçí ïõóßá ëåéôïõñãïýí ùò ôïðéêïß äéáíïìåßò ðáñï÷þí êáé õðçñåóéþí ïé ïðïßåò
ïñãáíþíïíôáé óôï êÝíôñï õðü ôçí åõèýíç êáé ôçí êáèïäÞãçóç ôïõ êñÜôïõò. Óå åëÜ÷éóôåò ðåñéðôþóåéò
áðïêôïýí ôïðéêÜ ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ êáé äéáèÝôïõí ôçí áðáñáßôçôç åõåëéîßá ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá áîéïðïéÞóïõí ôï
óõãêñéôéêü ðëåïíÝêôçìÜ ôïõò Ýíáíôé ôùí êåíôñéêþí ìç÷áíéóìþí.
Ïé êïéíïôéêïß ðüñïé-ìå ôç óõìâïëÞ áíôßóôïé÷ùí åèíéêþí- õðïóôÞñéîáí åðß ìáêñüí ôç äçìéïõñãßá õðïäïìþí
êáèþò êáé ôçí áñ÷éêÞ ëåéôïõñãßá õðçñåóéþí êïéíùíéêÞò öñïíôßäáò óôï ôïðéêü åðßðåäï. Ùò óôïé÷åßï
êåíôñéêþí åðéëïãþí ôïõ êñÜôïõò êáôÝóôç äõíáôÞ ç ëåéôïõñãßá ìç÷áíéóìþí êïéíùíéêÞò ðñïóôáóßáò ïé ïðïßïé
áíôáðïêñßíïíôáí, êáôÜ ôç ó÷åäßáóç ôïõëÜ÷éóôïí, óå óýã÷ñïíá êáé õðáñêôÜ æçôÞìáôá. Ïñãáíþèçêå Ýíá
êñßóéìï öÜóìá õðçñåóéþí óôï÷åõìÝíùí êáôÜ êýñéï ëüãï óôç öñïíôßäá ôçò ôñßôçò çëéêßáò êáé ôùí ðáéäéþí.
Ç åðéôõ÷ßá ôùí õðçñåóéþí áíÝäåéîå ðñáãìáôéêÝò êïéíùíéêÝò áíÜãêåò åéäéêÜ óôï ðåäßï ôçò öñïíôßäáò, ïé
ïðïßåò êáëýðôïíôáí ðáñáäïóéáêÜ áðü ôçí ïéêïãÝíåéá, ôïí Üôõðï ÷þñï ôçò öñïíôßäáò ìå Üìéóèç Þ áäÞëùôç
åñãáóßá. Óõíåðþò óôï ôïðéêü åðßðåäï ìå ôç óôÞñéîç Êïéíïôéêþí êáé åèíéêþí ðüñùí êáé ôçí ôåëéêÞ åõèýíç
ôùí ÏÔÁ ðáñÞ÷èç Ýíá ðëÝãìá óýã÷ñïíùí êïéíùíéêþí õðçñåóéþí. Ôï êåíôñéêü êñÜôïò åî´ áñ÷Þò äåí
áíÝëáâå ñçôÝò äåóìåýóåéò áíáöïñéêÜ ìå ôçí õðïóôÞñéîç ôçò ëåéôïõñãßáò ôùí óõãêåêñéìÝíùí äïìþí. Ï
ó÷åäéáóìüò ðáñÝìåéíå óôï êÝíôñï êáé ôá ðñïãñÜììáôá áõôÜ åëÜ÷éóôç ðñïóáñìïãÞ óôéò ôïðéêÝò óõíèÞêåò
êáôüñèùóáí íá åíóùìáôþóïõí êáôÜ ôç öÜóç ôçò õëïðïßçóÞò ôïõò, ùóôüóï ç åõèýíç äéáôÞñçóçò ôùí
õðçñåóéþí ôïõò áðïäüèçêå óôïõò ÏÔÁ.
Óôï óýã÷ñïíï ðåñéâÜëëïí óôç ÷þñá ïé ÏÔÁ áäõíáôïýí óôçí ðëåéïøçößá ôïõò íá äéáôçñÞóïõí óå
ëåéôïõñãßá ôéò õðçñåóßåò áõôÝò. Ôï êåíôñéêü ðñüâëçìá ðïõ áíôéìåôùðßæïõí åßíáé ç êÜëõøç ôùí èÝóåùí
åñãáóßáò ôùí åîåéäéêåõìÝíùí óôåëå÷þí ôùí äïìþí ìå ôçí ïëïêëÞñùóç ôùí êïéíïôéêþí ÷ñçìáôïäïôÞóåùí
-åöüóïí ôï ÅÓÐÁ åëÜ÷éóôá õðïóôçñßæåé ôá ó÷åôéêÜ ëåéôïõñãéêÜ Ýîïäá- åíþ ôáõôü÷ñïíá óå óçìáíôéêÞ
åðéóöÜëåéá âñßóêïíôáé êáé üóá óôåëÝ÷ç åñãÜæïíôáé ìå ðáñáäïóéáêÜ ðåñéóóüôåñï áóöáëåßò ó÷Ýóåéò
åñãáóßáò [ÅÅÔÁÁ,2011].
Ç ðñïóðÜèåéá ïñãÜíùóçò åíéáßùí êïéíùíéêþí õðçñåóéþí ìå ôçí åõèýíç ôùí äéåõñõìÝíùí ÏÔÁ [ÂïõëÞ
ôùí ÅëëÞíùí,2010] äåí êáôïñèþíåé íá åõäïêéìÞóåé óôï óýã÷ñïíï ðåñéâÜëëïí ðïõ óõìðõêíþíåôáé óôïí üñï
êñßóç. ÁõôÞ áðïôåëåß ôçí êåíôñéêÞ áéôßá ôçò óõññßêíùóçò ôïõ ðëÞèïõò êáé ôçò ðïéüôçôáò ôùí õðçñåóéþí
ðïõ ðáñÝ÷ïíôáí ìå ôçí åõèýíç ôùí ÏÔÁ êáôÜ ôçí ôåëåõôáßá äåêáåôßá ôïõëÜ÷éóôïí. Âåâáßùò äåí áðïôåëåß
ôç ìüíç áéôßá, óçìáíôéêÞ åßíáé ç åõèýíç ôüóï ôùí öïñÝùí ôçò áõôïäéïßêçóçò ïé ïðïßïé âåâáßùíáí üôé ìå
ôç ëÞîç ôùí Êïéíïôéêþí ÷ñçìáôïäïôÞóåùí èá êáôüñèùíáí íá êáëýøïõí ôá ó÷åôéêÜ Ýîïäá, êáèþò êáé ôïõ
êñÜôïõò ôï ïðïßï áðïäå÷üôáí ôç óõãêåêñéìÝíç äÝóìåõóç ãíùñßæïíôáò ôïí Ýùëï ÷áñáêôÞñá ôïõò.
Ïé öïñåßò ôçò áõôïäéïßêçóçò äåí Ý÷ïõí óÞìåñá ôç äõíáôüôçôá íá áíôéìåôùðßóïõí ôï ðñüâëçìá ôçò
óõññßêíùóçò ôçò ðáñÝìâáóÞò ôïõò óôçí êïéíùíéêÞ ðñïóôáóßá óôï ÷ùñéêü ðëáßóéï ôçò åõèýíçò ôïõò.
ÌÜëéóôá óå ìéá ðåñßïäï êáôÜ ôçí ïðïßá ç êñáôéêÞ ëåéôïõñãßá áðïêåíôñþíåôáé êáé ïé ðåñéöåñåéáêïß ðüëïé
áðïêôïýí åõñýôåñïõò ñüëïõò, ç áõôïäéïßêçóç ðåñéïñßæåé åê ôùí ðñáãìÜôùí ôï ñüëï ôçò. Ç åõèýíç ãéá ôçí
êïéíùíéêÞ ðñïóôáóßá ìåôáêõëßåôáé ðñïò ôï ôïðéêü åðßðåäï ðñïöáíþò ÷ùñßò ôïõò áíôßóôïé÷ïõò ðüñïõò,

Åíçìåñùôéêü Äåëôßï (Newsletter) • Ôåý÷ç 10/11

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óõíåðþò åíôïðßæåôáé ìéá Ýíôïíç áíôßöáóç. Áðü ôç ìéá ðëåõñÜ ï ñüëïò êáé ç óçìáóßá ôùí áõôïäéïéêçôéêþí
èåóìþí äéåõñýíåôáé êáé öáßíåôáé íá óõíéóôïýí ðëÝïí óçìáíôéêïýò ðüëïõò Üóêçóçò ðïëéôéêÞò óôï ôïðéêü
åðßðåäï. Ôçí ßäéá óôéãìÞ ùóôüóï óôï ðåäßï ôùí êïéíùíéêþí õðçñåóéþí, åêäçëþíåôáé ç áðüëõôç áäõíáìßá
ôüóï ôùí ÏÔÁ üóï êáé ôùí êåíôñéêþí ìç÷áíéóìþí íá õðïóôçñßîïõí ëåéôïõñãßåò ïé ïðïßåò áîéïëïãïýíôáé ùò
åðßêáéñåò êáé êñßóéìåò ãéá ôéò ôïðéêÝò êïéíüôçôåò [Skamnakis,2011].
Óôç óçìåñéíÞ ðñáãìáôéêüôçôá ìå ôç äñáìáôéêÞ ðåñéêïðÞ ðñïãñáììÜôùí êáé êïéíùíéêþí õðçñåóéþí,
ç äéáäéêáóßá ôçò áðïêÝíôñùóçò ìå ôçí áðüóõñóç ôùí êñáôéêþí åããõÞóåùí, ðñïóèÝôåé êéíäýíïõò óôç
äéáôÞñçóç ôùí õðçñåóéþí êïéíùíéêÞò ðñïóôáóßáò ðïõ ïñãáíþèçêáí Ýùò óÞìåñá óôï ôïðéêü åðßðåäï.
Ç áäýíáìç ðáñÝìâáóç ôùí èåóìþí ôçò áõôïäéïßêçóçò áõîÜíåé ôïõò êéíäýíïõò êáé óõììåôÝ÷åé ìåôáîý
Üëëùí óôçí áíáâÜèìéóç ôçò áâåâáéüôçôáò êáé ôçò áíáóöÜëåéáò ôçò åëëçíéêÞò êïéíùíßáò óôç óýã÷ñïíç
óõãêõñßá.
- ÂïõëÞ ôùí ÅëëÞíùí, (2010), ÁÉÔÉÏËÏÃÉÊÇ ÅÊÈÅÓÇ ôïõ ó÷åäßïõ íüìïõ «ÍÝá Áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ ôçò
Áõôïäéïßêçóçò êáé ôçò ÁðïêåíôñùìÝíçò Äéïßêçóçò - Ðñüãñáììá ÊáëëéêñÜôçò», http://www.google.com/
url?sa=t&rct=j&q=áéôéïëïãéêÞ%20Ýêèåóç%20êáëëéêñÜôç&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBoQFjAA&url=htt
p%3A%2F%2Fwww.hellenicparliament.gr%2FUserFiles%2F7f4d3181-8c97-4d49-8212-57bdfe7l860%2F2.Ai
tiologiki_Kallikratis.pdf&ei=UbC3ToLJDcPOswabrKi8Aw&usg=AFQjCNFTBVC8aa-oj5P2PBvlHyGvtWF0vg
- ÅÅÔÁÁ, (2011), Ïé ÄÞìïé óå áñéèìïýò, ÁèÞíá, http://www.eetaa.gr:8080/ekdoseis/ekdoseis_
details.jsp?ekdosis_id=153
- Skamnakis, C. (2011), “Smaller Governments – Less Social Policy? Case study in Greek Local
Authorities, rise and fall”, paper presented at UK Social Policy Association’s conference 2011.
http://www.social-policy.org.uk/lincoln2011/Skamnakis%20P3.pdf

4

Διεθνές Επιστημονικό Συνέδριο

ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΟΝΙΚΗ ΕΠΙΤΡΟΠΗ
Δ. Βενιέρης, Σ. Βιδάλη, Σ. Γεωργούλας, Δ. Γράβαρης,
Α. Δεδουσόπουλος, Κ. Δημουλάς, Κ. Δικαίος, Ο. Θέμελη,
Γ. Κατρούγκαλος, Ν. Κοταρίδης, Γ. Κουζής, Σ. Μαυρουδέας,
Δ. Παπαδοπούλου, Χ. Παπαθεοδώρου, Ε. Πρόκου,
Μ. Πετμεζίδου, Π. Πολυζωίδης, Σ. Ρομπόλης, Χ. Σκαμνάκης,
Μ. Σπουρδαλάκης, Ε. Τσακαλώτος, Π. Τσακλόγλου,
Α. Φερώνας, Ι. Ψημμένος

ΟΡΓΑΝΩΤΙΚΗ ΕΠΙΤΡΟΠΗ
Δ. Βενιέρης, Σ. Βιδάλη, Κ. Δημουλάς, Α. Καζάνη,
Δ. Παπαδοπούλου, Χ. Παπαθεοδώρου, Χ. Σκαμνάκης, Α. Υφαντή
ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΙΑ
Α. Καζάνη, Α. Υφαντή
www.eekp.gr
info@eekp.gr
conference2011@eekp.gr
ΧΟΡΗΓΟΙ

Ο

ΡΟΛΟΣ

ΤΗΣ ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΚΗΣ ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΗΣ ΣΗΜΕΡΑ
ΚΡΙΤΙΚΕΣ ΠΡΟΣΕΓΓΙΣΕΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΟΚΛΗΣΕΙΣ

ο

9-11
Νοεμβρίου
2011

Aθήνα
Πάντειο Πανεπιστήμιο Κοινωνικών και Πολιτικών Επιστημών
Αμφιθέατρο «Σάκη Καράγιωργα» - Αμφιθέατρο 2
(Λ. Συγγρού 136, Νέο Κτίριο)

4Ï ÄéåèíÝò Åðéóôçìïíéêü ÓõíÝäñéï

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