A Sustainable Solar Project in Lagos State: Key Considerations

Siemens Energy Sector
Shaping the next generation of solar power

Lagos 8th February 2012

© Siemens Energy 2012


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Solar Power Potential in Lagos State Factors Impacting Solar System Performance Siemens Solution for Photovoltaic Solar Projects Siemens References Q&A

© Siemens Energy 2012

049 Switzerlands B 450 km x 450 km 4.What area of photovoltaic panels in the Sahara desert would cover the world's energy demand? 450 km 450 km B 450 km x 450 km 4.9 Switzerlands A 45 km x 45 km 0.9 Switzerlands C 4500 km x 4500 km 490 Switzerlands Source: Paul Scherrer Institut. Zentrum für Luft & Raumfahrt Page 3 © Siemens Energy 2012 . Dt.

7OC Mean daily sunshine duration 4.Maximum of 5861Wh/M2/day o In July .26. satisfying about 2.Lagos State has a high potential for utilization of solar power.Minimum of 3231Wh/M2/day o Average annual rainfall . installed capacity of solar plants is 4GW.7% of the annual electricity demand IN 2010 © Siemens Energy 2012 . However.111ml Average relative humidity . the business case for both off-grid stand alone systems and utility scale solar systems can be attractive in Lagos. with the right conditions. similar to that in Spain* Statistics Dash Board Annual average daily irradiation 4323Wh/M2/day The monthly average irradiation: In February .82% Mean average temperature .9hours The irradiation level in Lagos is moderate compared to the North. Page 4 *In Spain.

Is Solar right for you? Efficiency First! Before considering a solar energy system. It is far cheaper to save electricity than it is to generate it even with solar panels or solar thermal systems. Page 5 © Siemens Energy 2012 . energy-efficient measures should be incorporated into the building.

Equipment Factors Environmenta l Factors Site Location Factors Page 6 © Siemens Energy 2012 .Factors Impacting System Performance Factors impacting the performance of a residential and commercial solar system fall into three groups. environmental. site location and equipment.

Sun hours . "One Sun Hour" is energy produced by the peak noon sunlight intensity in the middle of summer. over one hour Daily Sun Profile and Sun Hour relation Before you install a solar system. the more energy will be produced from a module installed at that location. a feasibility analysis must be conducted to confirm that your site has enough solar energy to meet your electricity needs efficiently and economically Page 7 © Siemens Energy 2012 .Irradiation The more Sun Hours a location receives.Factors Impacting System Performance Environmental Factors 1.

Temperature Module operating temperature increases when placed in the sun As the operating temperature increases. whilst the voltage decreases rapidly.this is true for all solar modules…but different per technology A typical decrease in power output is approximately 12% for crystalline based solar modules This figure displays the response of a solar cell to varying temperature. Make sure air is able to cool on all sides. you will see that the current increases slightly. the power output decreases due to the properties of the conversion material . including the underside Page 8 © Siemens Energy 2012 . If you look carefully.Factors Impacting System Performance Environmental Factors 2. It is therefore extremely important to keep your solar panels well ventilated. The result is a lower overall power yield (P=V*I).

Dusty Solar Panels It is therefore extremely important to clean your solar panels regularly to ensure that the maximum amount of sunshine hits the panels Page 9 © Siemens Energy 2012 .Factors Impacting System Performance Environmental Factors 3. debris) settle on the glass surface of the module. airborne particulates (e. These particulates block the amount of light reaching the module and therefore reduce the power produced by the module. The reduction in power from particulate build up can range from 5%-15%. dust. similar to dust settling on glass automobile windshields. Soiling – Particulate Build Up When a module is placed outdoors.g.

Therefore. Solar Module Tilt Angle The module produces more power when the light source is located perpendicular to the surface of the module. Large commercial systems have solar tracking systems that automatically follow the sun’s tilt through the day Page 10 © Siemens Energy 2012 .Factors Impacting System Performance Site Location Factors 4. as does the energy output. solar module installations are often tilted towards the sun to maximize the amount and intensity of light exposure. As the sun angle changes throughout the year . the amount of light falling directly on the module changes.

should be avoided as this decreases exposure to the sun’s radiation Page 11 © Siemens Energy 2012 . no matter what time of year Shading from obstructions. Shading Trees. roof gables and other buildings that cast a shadow on the solar panels during peak sun light hours will negatively impact performance With poor solar design.Factors Impacting System Performance Site Location Factors 5. Installers use special gadgets to instantly reveal any shady spots on your roof. even a little shade on one panel can shut down solar production on all of your other panels. chimneys. such as trees and buildings.

Factors Impacting System Performance Equipment Factors 6. Any differences from these specific test conditions affect the power output of the solar module. Modules with the appropriate performance rating. and module temperature. Module ratings All solar module manufacturers test the power of their solar modules under specific Standard Test Conditions (STC)*1 in the factory The Standard Test Conditions include. best suited to the business case of the project must be selected Page 12 © Siemens Energy 2012 . but are not limited to. light angle. a specific light intensity.

In addition. A typical value for these losses is 5% Page 13 © Siemens Energy 2012 . The wires used to connect the modules create a slight resistance in the electrical flow. decreasing the total power output of the system. slight differences in power output from module-to-module reduces the maximum power output available from each module.Factors Impacting System Performance Equipment Factors 7. System Wiring Typical solar electric systems require more than one module to be connected to one another.

A typical value for this loss is 6% Page 14 © Siemens Energy 2012 .Factors Impacting System Performance Equipment Factors 8. Inverter Connection Losses Conversion from DC to AC power results in an energy decrease from approximately 6%-10% This energy decrease varies for each inverter (primarily due to energy lost in the form of heat).

Siemens Solar Power within Siemens’ comprehensive energy chain Page 15 © Siemens Energy 2012 .

From sun to grid: Proven in-house components along the entire value chain Page 16 © Siemens Energy 2012 .

de / verlinfri Plant size (nominal power) > 1MWp tendency > 5-10 MWp up to few MWp > 3 MWp < 3MWp selectively EPC 2) up to few hundred kWp - E R PV target markets Value Chain (Utility scale) Modules Electrical Equipment 1) Civil works Cables Structures Switch gear Transformer Install.aboutpixel. PV field connect. & Comiss.Siemens Energy Photovoltaics focuses on utility-scale PV plants (> 1 MWp) as a turnkey solution provider Utility scale  PV power plants Commercial & Industrial Residential source: © Petra Spannheimer / PIXELIO source: © Henrik G Vogel / PIXELIO source: Siemens Photovoltaics. and construction Page 17 © Siemens Energy 2012 . procurement. Engineering Service & Maintenance Preferred supplier scope 1) 2) Siemens scope Third party Including inverter EPC = Engineering. France source: www.

Siemens optimizes the overall PV solution for maximized output and minimized failures Your benefit PV field design Minimized shading losses thanks to optimized module table distribution and module row spacing Minimized cable losses through optimized cable layout Ensures maximum safety in PV system with grounding and lightning protection E R SP solutions Transformer / switchgear Inverter Component configuration Optimized inverter input currents thanks to module table configuration and string definition Adaption of environmentally friendly transformers and efficient switchgear Utility requirements are exactly met thanks to individual grid connection concept Modules Electrical installations Civil work Page 18 © Siemens Energy 2012 .

The Siemens service concept will ensure a longterm high performance ratio for your PV plant Performance ratio guaranteed by Siemens for up to 25 years Modification and upgrades Yield optimization Performance monitoring Operation support State-of-the-art remote controlling and plant monitoring Extensions and modifications Effective prevention Fast response Local service organizations Fast and comprehensive fault analysis Express repairs 1) High spare part availability 1) Preventive maintenance Condition monitoring 1) Only for full service and maintenance contract Page 19 © Siemens Energy 2012 .

Sparta 3.g. e. Project Beneixama from 2007) Active in > 30 countries © Siemens Energy 2012 Page 20 .5 MWp Germany e. First Light II 10.g.g.1 MWp Spain e. Dobré Pole 4 MWp USA e.Comprehensive practical experience in PV business – selected references Canada e.g.g. Ketura 5 MWp > 160 MWp EPC* *) installed or under construction (incl.g. San Donaci 15 MWp Israel e. Forchheim 800 kWp Czech Rep.g. Beneixama 20 MWp France e.g. Les Meés 31 MWp Italy e.

Questions? Toyin Abegunde Siemens Limited Nigeria Head of Business Development 98/100 Oshodi-Apapa Expressway.com URL: www. Isolo.ng Page 21 © Siemens Energy 2012 .siemens.com. Lagos Mob: +234 8085856206 Tel: 234-1-4480186 E-mail: oluwatoyin.abegunde@siemens.

through easy maintenance and repair service Page 22 © Siemens Energy 2012 .Build on Photovoltaics now! Use direct and indirect sun irradiation as a free resource PV energy support the country targets to achieve committed CO2 reductions PV with strong benefits Siemens Photovoltaics Offer independence from fossil fuels Once built up. 25 years at fixed costs Energy demand in sunny regions matches best with PV energy production Off-grid solutions in regions with very remote from grid can be installed cost-effectively Fast installation from design to grid Lower administrative and O&M costs. their power output comes without additional effort A PV System produces electricity for min.

Siemens Photovoltaics covers the entire value chain Solutions and products Technical consulting & Finance Balance of Plant & EPC Operations support & Maintenance Performance-proven services Comprehensive portfolio for customer benefits Solutions and products .. along the entire value chain: Secured financing with equity and debt contribution for maximized IRR Guaranteed performance contracting for sustainable business success Full-scope service contracting from a single source Page 23 Page 23 © Siemens AG 2011 © Siemens Energy 2012 ... designed for large-scale photovoltaic plants: Customized Balance of Plant (BoP) concepts for individualized solutions Proven engineering knowledge with unique layout system for optimized Levelized Costs of Electricity (LCoE) Qualified and reliable in-house industry products to meet local requirements Performance-proven services ..

Game changers on the radar: To succeed we need to control the entire PV system Game changers: Photovoltaic Innovations for large scale (flat plate) PV plants Functional Coating Workbench Module Web Monitoring for PV plants onsite Energy Storaging Siemens Support Structure Off-Grid Solution Data logger PV Testified. Qualified testing & Equipment Highly Concentrated PV Future Grid Functionality PVplanet Next Generation Inverter & E-box Automated Cleaning Page 24 © Siemens Energy 2012 .

Masdar Institute Re-application on-site possible In development: spectral selective AR coating Temperature dissipation Facilitates cleaning of modules Cleaning w/ salt water possible Benefits Reduces cleaning effort and repels dirt Improving operation and maintenance performance Higher module efficiency due to cleanliness Higher IRR Outlook Siemens develops business model with supplier. Details Cooperation Partners: Siemens CT.Game changers on the radar: To succeed we need to control the entire PV system Functional Coating What is Functional Coating? Functional coating is the process of covering the solar modules with a layer in order to protect them from dirt. preparation of test modules for Masdar Institute to be delivered Q2 FY2012. technology is ready to use in the end of FY 2012 Page 25 © Siemens Energy 2012 .

Details Today‘s modules were optimized for the largest market: rooftop applications Optimization of modules in frame and size Increase EBIT through own production of junction boxes System optimization through improving absorber. cooling and wiring Result: about 2ct/kWh or up to 30ct/kWp are expected Benefits Lower system costs Lower logistic costs Decreasing LCoE Outlook Close collaborations with module manufacturers Page 26 © Siemens Energy 2012 . diodes.Game changers on the radar: To succeed we need to control the entire PV system Workbench Module What is the Workbench Module? One of the goals of Siemens PV is to develop modules tailored for utility-scale projects as well as to foster system optimization.

trend analysis Monitoring for all management levels Maintenance management. communication infrastructure. operation logs and service tickets. Online Diagnosis Yield/PR Forecasting Service Forecasting Outlook Pilot plant to be equipped in Q2 FY2012 Page 27 © Siemens Energy 2012 . ROI. interfaces to sensors and signal conversion. service history corrective maintenance and commercial information for multiple plants worldwide within one software tool Information will be presented role specific Web monitoring solution is based on long year proven M3000 Energy Management system Provides extensions for PR/Yield and maintenance forecasting Benefits Management all plants from one single platform Comparison between different plants. processing and storage. .. supervision and control.Game changers on the radar: We succeed by controlling the whole PV system Web Monitoring for PV plants onsite Web Monitoring for PV plants Web Monitoring for photovoltaic plants includes human-machine interface (HMI). Data logger Details New Siemens Web Monitoring provides asset information. data acquisition.. investment management.

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