The purest gems lie hidden in the bottom of the ocean or in the depth of rocks. One has to dive into the ocean or delve into the rocks to find them out. Similarly, truth lies concealed in the language which with the passage of time has become obsolete. Man has to learn that language before he discovers that truth. But he has neither the means nor the leisure to embark on that course. We have, therefore, planned to help him acquire knowledge by an easier course. We have started the series of Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology in English Translation. Our goal is to universalize knowledge through the most popular international medium of expression. The publication of the Puranas in English Translation is a step towards that goal.

This is the third part of the Padma Purana translated into English and the 41st Volume of the Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology series. Herein are included Chapters 1-90 of Bhumikhanda or the Section on the Earth which is the second of the seven sections into which the Purana is divided. The reader would naturally expect, as the name `Bhumikhanda' suggests, a description of the geography and history of the Earth in this section, but will actually find nothing like that. And this is true about all the sections. As a matter of fact, the names of the sections here as well as in the other Puranas are just arbitrary, having in the present shape no relevance to the contents. Perhaps in the remote past or originally they had a relevance but in the course of time their logical structure was lost and a lot of interpolation made them all alike dealing with similar topics irrespectively of the names assigned. As usual, this part contains a number of well-known legends, especially those of Vena, Prthu and Yayati, and also the oftrepeated myths of the slaying of the demons Bala and Vrtra, Hiranyakafipu and Hiranyaksa, the birth of Maruts, the anecdotes of Iksvaku's hunting, Diti's wailing and the like. The section begins with the story of givasarman and his virtuous sons whose devotion to parents is put to severe test and finally established as constant and firm. The glorification of devotion to parents (pitrbhakti) is again taken up in chapters 63 and 84 and parents are given as high a status as that of a sacred place of pilgrimage in chapter 62. One will find allegorical description of body and soul in chapters 7 and 8. In the story of Suvrata (Ch. 11) four kinds of sons are described followed in the subsequent chapters by the enumeration of the basic virtues and the post-mortem status and suffering of the virtuous and sinners respectively. The virtue of dana (charity) is highly praised and treated of in detail along with a description of those who deserve it and the fruits of making gifts to Brahmanas and other deserv-

ing persons (Chs. 38-40). The fruits of nityaddna (regular charity) and naimittikaddna (occasional charity) are described in detail separately. Devotion to god Visnu is a recurring theme of this section, though it is also said that all the gods of the Hindu TrinityBrahma, Visnu and giva, are equal. To propitiate Visnu a number of vows are enjoined and the recitation of a hymn containing a hundred names of the god is recommended as giving salvation in chapter 87. Yayati is mentioned as the greatest patron of the Vaisnava faith. It was during his reign that Vaisnavism enjoyed the greatest propularity. Chapter 37 countains (unfortunately) an adverse reference to Jainism. There a heretic, who is

none else but a follower of Jina, is described who is dead against the Vedic religion, who by his radical doctrines turns king Vena away from the practice of Dharma and makes him a sinner leading ultimately to his total ruin.

It is our pleasant duty to put on record our sincere thanks to Dr. R.N. Dandekar and the UNESCO authorities for their kind encouragement and valuable help which render this work more useful than it would otherwise have been. We are grateful to Dr. N.A. Deshpande for translating the text. We are also thankful to all those who have been helpful in our project. -Editor



Suta said: 4. I shall. killed by Visnu. describe the same before (i. destroying understanding. The cause of the doubt that arose was removed by Brahma. 0 glorious one.e. conceived) by Ka§yapa and was composed by the intelligent Vyasa. to) you. It was formerly narrated by Brahma himself before (i. The sages said: 1-2. Some descri be in the Puranas that when Prahlada was five years old he pleased Kesava (i.II BHOMIKHANDA (Section on the Earth) CHAPTER ONE The Story of giva fiarman Om. that has occurred to us. 0 you who know the significance of the essence of everything. Vydsa said: 6.e. entered his body. Visnu). 0 Suta. 3. This was formerly known (i. to) the lord Vyasa.e. 0 brahmanas. (please) listen to the terrible doubt. listen to (the account) of the birth of Prahlada as told in the Puranas .e. 0 glorious Suta. 5. How did (the war) between gods and demons come about? How did the demon fight with Visnu? He. salutation to Sri Ganesa.

0 father. sex) I cannot stand without a woman (by my side). the excellent brahmana. 11 b-12a. going with his sons to fight with Visnu. 9-10a. Listen to the birth of just this magnanimous one.e. most devoted son. my father tormented by the arrow of love. 16a. They saw their dead mother." He presented. casting her body. adopted it. Having ordered the glorious one. Siva. was born. he had all superhuman faculties. As soon as Prahlada. what can be said (by us)?" Sivasarman. givasarman). received) his father's order.e. who nourished us in her womb. Dharmasarman. and the best among those who knew abstract meditation.e. a woman full of all charm (before Vedasarman ). He came back. The son did it as he had heard (i. find it. The brave one. I have done everything as I was ordered. Today (i. bring this woman to me. thinking of the second son. he conceived a fine idea to suggest to them (what their duty was). So be favourable to him who is old. 21b-24a. seeks you. and will do so thoughtfully. learnt) from other (sources). Seeing their devotion. The best brahmanas knew no other duty than devotion to their father." 31 b-33a. being stupefied by passion of love (i. therefore. With his sons he went to the battle-field to fight with Visnu. 15b. I shall. I shall do it all. With this very sharp and whetted weapon cut off her limbs and throw them here and there. determined for me. who knew their own duties. the brahmana (i. It was full of all magnificence and all prosperity. been dead. he entered Visnu's body. who was greatly devoted to his father. There perpetually lived a divine (man) knowing abstract meditation. Having left (us). (They were:) Yajnasarman. The fifth one was Somasarman. I Ob-11 a. 28-30. He showed their mother to be dead of a great fever." 31a. called his eldest. 7. best brahmana Sivasarman. Yajnasarman and said to him. 0 . giving all happiness. and having gone from there. he resorted to the path of Visnu.e.) Vedasarman (and said to him) : "Go by my order. (He told him:) "0 boy. has. 0 glorious one. and said (these) words to their father: "0 glorious one. 14. now) entrust to me some other work. 20b-21a. she. there was a city by name Dvaraka. entered Visnu's lustre. They do not have that feeling in their mind which is found in the devotees of Visnu. (even though) it (enemy/thing) be difficult to subdue or procure". he said to her: "0 respectable lady. Thus told. thought: `I shall extort (these) learned men. The magnanimous ones (always) had thoughts about him (only). and again said (these) words to his father: "0 father. he said: "I shall do what is very dear to you. 16b-17a. Due to the favour of Visnu.and as heard (i. the intelligent. Having saluted his father. called (him viz. 19-20a. which he obtained through his own lustre. the best among those who knew Brahman.e. devoted to his father. the greatest among the devotees of Visnu and honoured by gods. the glorious Visnusarman. known as Sivasarman. 12b-13a. knowing a remedy due to the lustre of his penance. I shall narrate in brief the account of that hero-how that powerful one was born in the former Kalpa.farman said: 24b-25a. 25b-27. she has gone to heaven. 15a. 13b. 8. 0 father. The best brahmana. Being killed by Visnu. who was well-versed in all Vedas and sacred texts. Vedasarman. He had five sons who were well-versed in (all) branches of knowledge. by means of his magical power.' 18b. 17b-18a. 0 best of Brahmanas. At the extreme point in the west of the ocean. Then Sivasarman presented before them a trick.

age. Vedafiarman said 46. (Saying) "Let it be so". then show me. Indra and others. (please) resort to my father. whose mouth has malady due to phlegm. improper and mixed with sin." 33b. What will you do with (your) old father? 0 you who destroy the pride (of others). these words) spoken by Vedasarman were heard by the woman created by magic. The woman said: . I have nothing to do with the gods.e. produce in) me pure devotion to the feet of my father only. the gods left as they had come. 47. Hearing these disagreeable and evil words. the great gods with Indra. 51 b. Today I have become blessed. Vedafarman said: 44. what should we do?. the best brahmana. cutting off your head with your own hand. I shall do what is very dear to you. She took it. you are thus capable of giving me (anything). O beautiful one. see the power of my penance. there is no doubt that I shall give you everything in the three worlds. 0 you respectable lady.' 0 respectable lady. Do not talk something else. I desire to dally with you. 0 brahmana. Veda farman spoke: 0 respectable beautiful lady. then do that (which is) dear to me. there is no doubt that I shall give you whatever you desire." Vedadarman said: 49b-50a. The woman said: 42. give it to me. who possess a divine form and great prowess. covered with blood. (The woman) seeing (the gods had come) like that said to him: "I have seen the power of your penance. Thus (i. have come. 43. Having cut off his own head with a whetted and sharp weapon. by enjoying my body you will obtain all things difficult to obtain. "I do not at all long for the company of your father who is afflicted with old. I have come to you and am soliciting you for my father. I shall give my head. being invited by me. for the sake of your father. 48-49a. and went to the sage. 35b-36. and with gems of virtues. who are endowed with divine characteristics. 38a. 0 auspicious one. If the gods are pleased with me and are inclined to favour me. 0 best brahmana. 0 you one whose all limbs are charming. Indeed you are able to give me now what is difficult to be obtained." 38b-41. if you want to give me (what I want) and if you are taking me for your father. we shall give you. They said to Vedalarman 45. and who is now afflicted with diseases. (I desire to dally with you) who are adorned with good fortune like a (handsome) form. 0 you beautiful one. today only. show me what power you possess. The woman said: 34-35a. Do not talk like this to me who am devoted to my father and who am innocent. 50b-51a. 0 brahmana. do take it. then they should give (i.e. who is sick and old. 0 brahmana. your words are unjust. gave it to her and laughed. The best gods. with the mobile and the immobile-even more than the kingdom of gods. whatever you ask for. If. who is feeble. 0 respectable lady. I have been free from the three debts. 0 glorious one. There is no doubt about it. resort to my father. 37.

This glorious. Vedasarman. He is blessed. who had come (there). The brahmana heard these words full of devotion. The first is paid off by performing sacrifices. the second by learning the Vedas and the third by begetting a son. truthfulness and penance. Dharma or Yama) 9. Then Dharma said : "This will take place by my favour. said to the magnanimous Vaivasvata (i. he had himself cut off his own head. Dharma said: 5b-6. enjoy me. your son. 54-56a. Devarna. his austerities. "Give me steady devotion to the worship of my father's feet. CHAPTER TWO Life is Restored to 1Teda. your great-souled brother Vedasarman. and knowing that his son. then." Dharmalarman said 4b-5a. There is no doubt about it. If I have (properly) served the elders. devoted to his father. said to Dharmasarman: "Take this head".e. 0 best brahmana. 0 you highly intelligent one. "0 Dharmasarman. why did you invite me? I have come. he. let Vedasarman be alive.{i . Dharma. 0 Dharma. I am pleased with this your penance and devotion to your father." 56b-58. Dharmasarman attracted Dharma (i. of a great glory. virtuous one died for the sake of (our) father. Then taking it the virtuous one quickly left. and also liking for piousness and salvation. 2b-3a. and due to your devotion to your father. Then tell me about your work.. if I have devotion and steady penance. Their bodies trembled (and they said to) one another: "Our virtuous mother died with real intentness. due to that (and) due to my truthfulness. had cut off his (own) head. as a result of your purity with restraint. has sent this head." 10a. of mighty arms. For you. Well-being to you. 1. 0 you of a good vow. said these words to Dharmasarman: 3b-4a. 7. take it.farman Suta said 1-2a. By his devotion for his father. viz. if you are wellpleased with me. $sifna. 0 brahmana. and Piti na. Yama). He. he has become fortunate (as) he has done an auspicious (deed) for (our) father. Vedasarman. Attracted by the penance of that intelligent (Dharmasarman)." . I (shall) do it. 8. will again obtain (i.e. The brothers (of Vedasarman) saw the daring act of Vedasarman. Thus the virtuous brothers talked (to one another). ask for a boon difficult to be obtained by those who know righteousness. That Dharmasarman thus heard those good words.e. gave me his head. come to) life. and the power of his truthfulness and straightforwardness.52-53.atraya-Everyone that is born has three debts to pay off.

"0 brother. Now I desire to stay with this wife (of me). where has that respectable woman gone? Where would be the father?" 12. Knowing her intention of causing a great obstacle. He said to that (nymph) Menika: "Go by my order. in a sweet voice. to the place where he was). going quickly create an obstacle (in) his (way).e.rnu fiarman Suta said: 1. that pious. Speaking thus. CHAPTER THREE The Heroic Deed of Vi. Who else is there like you to me on the earth?" 14. Wellbeing to you. 2-4a. do as I say. Then Dharmasarman spoke to his father. Do that quickly so that I obtain her. She. That clever one with large and charming eyes.e Vedasarman) decided to go. Proceeding along that path. do that by which I shall. the king of gods put in an obstacle. went into the intermediate region between heaven and earth. the excellent and lustrous Sivasarman: "0 glorious one. sat on a swing in Indra's garden. He (i. who was endowed with beauty. in the company of this one dear to me. and thought. Today go to Indra's heaven and fetch nectar from there-the nectar that came up from the ocean and that destroys diseases. (but) he did not say anything to him. the best brahmana went quickly. Hearing these words of his magnanimous father. being sent by Indra. Visnusarman then said to his father of a blazing lustre: "I shall do all this that pleases you most. Both stood close together. 10-11a. singing. if you are devoted to me. "0 glorious one. (Please) take him-your son. be favourable to me today only with (my having restored your) head and life. and realising that. 18b-23. When the intelligent one was (thus) going. very intelligent Visnusarman saluted his father and went round him keeping him to his right.10b-11a." 24-25a. 7-8. and adorned with all ornaments. 0 son. knowing his devotion. He (then) spoke to the very intelligent Visnusarman. Then Visnusarman spoke to that Menika. be faultless and free from disease. who was delighted. . he went to Indra with the speed of a violent wind. 0 brother. who moved according to her will: "I am hurriedly going to Indra's heaven for my father". Do that to the son of that excellent brahmana Sivasarman by which he would not come to my house. otherwise she may go to other (man). With good (intention) she desires me. said to him: 13. He told him in brief how the father had appointed him. and virtues like generosity. due to my penance and life Vedasarman has been brought (back). with his brother Dharmasarman. like the notes of a lute. he said to Dharmasarman: 1 I b. was delighted. penance and restraint. Suta said 4b-6. Saying so to his brother he was eager to go to his father. where are you going?" 9. Menika again spoke pleasing (words) to Visnusarman. as if he had slept. Knowing his exertion. she. the very wise Vedasarman got up. who politely remained before him: "Child." Hearing these words of him. Knowing that. Menika started quickly. He was seen by the intelligent Indra. 15-17a. to their father. delighted in their minds went to their father there (i. a song (was seated on the swing). When these very significant words were uttered. and due to great power. the lord of gods. Both. She saw him and asked him "0 you highly intelligent one. would not be favourable. Knowing me to be old this young beautiful woman might think lightly of me." 25b-27." 17b-18a. he entered the heaven. Then Siva§arman. O you of beautiful waist. Dharmasarman.

. the best brahmana went hurriedly. he. it is (especially so) in the case of a brahmana who is devoted to his father. devoted to his father. The glorious one. Due to this your devotion to your father. 0 glorious one. If the best brahmanas are angered. 0 excellent brahmanas. I am not like this. fearful obstacles disappeared. Now that you have come. the lustre of a brahmana is unbearable for gods and deities. (All) those scares (put forward by her) were burnt as the heaps of hay are burnt by fire." Then Visnusarman spoke to the king of gods who had come like that: 30. I am tormented by love. "Being pierced with Cupid's arrows.11 b-12. give me nectar and steady devotion to my father. That Indra again and again presented obstacles. restraint. if you are pleased. Visnu and Hara along with their sons and grandsons. 22-25a. saw you. 29. 0 you very wise one. 32b-35. Thus the best (brahmana) became ready to destroy Indra. Please be disposed to favour me. gave it along with the pitcher. with his eyes red due to anger (said) about Indra: "Today I shall cause to fall down from his heaven Indra. truth and purity. they destroy Brahma. He. I have avoided the great blemishes like desire for sensual enjoyments right from the beginning. There is no doubt about this. with (i. When those great. "0 brahmana. I shall give it (even if) it is difficult. the best brahmana Visnusarman of great lustre became angry. 38b-42. with my mind affected by passion of love. said to him: "0 father. I shall thus make someone else as the guardian of gods. having gone to his father. the intelligent one destroyed all the obstacles created by even that magnanimous Indra. 21. then only I was burnt by fire of Cupid. Just then only Indra arrived there (and said:) 27-28. and desire to grant a boon.e. ask for a boon. I. then. he. Being asked by god Indra she repeatedly scared him in many ways. who would create an obstacle to me engaged in my own duty. all those terrible scares perished due to the lustre of that brahmana. (please) forgive all my fault. (He also said:) "0 brahmana. the brahmana of great glory destroyed them by his lustre. 0 you lovely lady. grant me such a boon." Speaking in this way. with my eyes full of anger. very difficult to endure. I with (all other) deities have been won over (by you). . choose someone else. I have today sought your shelter." Visnu arman said 13-15. self-control. 0 you killer of (your) enemies. scares) which were fierce and of fearful forms." 36-38a. 0 best brahmana. I shall punish him. Speaking thus to the brahmana. 0 you of large eyes. 19. 0 best one. the thousand-eyed (Indra) became pleased on seeing the brahmana's lustre. 25b. When I. 18. Thus by means of the lustre of his penance. 0 you respectable lady. 31-32a. and having dismissed the brahmana. would have given this best kingdom to some other person. nectar. I am bewildered. 20. Menaka was unsuccessful. 16b-17. by taking) it be healthy always. were brought about by Indra.e. other men like Visvamitra are deluded by your lustre and beauty. with his heart pleased. 16a." (Indra said:) "So I shall give you a pious boon with nectar. (please) protect me. I have brought from Indra. who would strike. (then) 0 lord of gods. magnanimous due to the prowess of his penance. if you desire to protect piety. there is none else like you in penance. 0 you of a beautiful face. the character of the lord of gods is known to me. 0 lord. Indra himself gave him nectar. Had you not come today. I also know your character. may you always have unswerving devotion to your father. Then Visnusarman. Saying so." 26. "0 great Indra. Destruction of the dignity of magnanimous brahmanas should never be done. I am going to Indra's world. 0 you auspicious one. Well-being to you. knowing that those obstacles (i. I am the son of Sivasarman who has attained divine faculties through abstract meditation and is accomplished in penance. is struck. that destroys all maladies.

May she. (But see. disc and mace in his hands and mounted upon Garucla." givafarman said: 45b-46a. in the world even one good son is had by means of religious merit. and ask for a boon difficult to be obtained on the earth. who became so due to our good fortune. glorious. When I am pleased. When the sage said good words. You. The father said 60b-61 a. may my sons enjoy inexhaustible pleasures. (said to them) : " (My) sons. meritorious and pure and affectionate women everywhere desire a son of a pleasing body and bringing about merit. and who have the prowess due to the lustre of penance. are born as loving virtue and intensely devoted to your father. and may we be your meritorious sons. 46b-47a. today you with your sons. and you do what I tell you. with his mind full of love. O father. Oh. performir_g duties peculiar to his family. who are sacrificers. being full of great joy. have won me over by your devotion. This is the power of merit. without merit. and this your devotion to (me) your father. which is free from tormentation. S°iva fiarman said : 64b-65. and this one (our) mother. and desire to give a boon now." All listened to his words with approval. even in existence after existence. of a good vow. saluted their mother. The sons said 59b-60a. Having pondered. who would bring glory to his family and race. is pleased. the heaven of Visnu. In existence after existence you two should be our mother and father. your dead mother. with your sins perished. Be pleased (my) sons. 0 my sons. Due to great religious merit (only) a mother-a good mother or a good father is obtained.) I got five great-hearted sons. The father said 58b-59a. By my favour. When these auspicious words were uttered by the sage Sivasarman. who are righteous. they. all of them said to their father: "Bring back to life that mother of us. there is no doubt about it. 6lb-64a. and having reached whose womb we were nourished as a result of our great virtue. your penance. who has gone to the dwelling of Yama." Hearing these great words of his son.Today be greatly satisfied with (this) nectar. if you are pleased. then send us to Goloka. and loving piety has become my husband. You are a virtuous mother. In the world. and who would give birth to meritorious sons. May these (four) sons of me go to the excellent heaven of Visnu. prop of the family and emancipating the father and the mother? I do not know due to which meritorious deeds (of mine) this very meritorious man. then (Visnu) having the conch. you are devoted to (me) your father. from whose semen I have obtained you as my sons. "A brave son is born from one's womb for this purpose only. Men desire a good son. having piety as his power. righteous. causing religious merit. The sons said 56b-58a. to Visnu's heaven. With your four virtuous sons and this virtuous and very loving wife come (to me)". came there. my sons. will come alive. their mother arrived (there) and being delighted said (these) words: 47b-50a. and repeatedly said this to Sivasarman with his sons : "O brahmana. having called all his sons. Sivasarman. go. superior to him. 0 father. 50b-56a. That woman. the very meritorious foetus after having gone into whose womb revolves there. the best son. 43-45a. be healthy due to your favour." When they were thus repeatedly congratulated by their mother. listen to a good boon. How can a woman obtain. affectionate to her sons. Even today. I shall pass some time . may you be (our) father.

(making) his wife also like that. excellent son. 0 very wise Somasarman. in Sivasarman's presence). The best brahmanas. . had great prowess. Using a trick the very wise one. 0 glorious one. attracted by your lustre. 5. disc and mace. to his son. do not be sorry. as they were made so by his trick. Somasarman) carefully protected the pitcher day and night. always behave like your servants. Somasarman. were endowed with the beauty of necklaces and bracelets. all the four brahmanas of truthful hearts. beyond darkness. they became absorbed in Visnu's form. by which this painful disease has appeared on your wretched body? 12b-15a. 7-12a. The two had become lumps of flesh. I shall protect the auspicious (pitcher) ". When they had gone to the Goloka of Visnu. 6. becoming (i. They entered Visnu's body when Sivasarman was looking on (i. 66-67a. Tell me the cause. who is affectionate to the elders. As lights go to another light. they looked charming due to jewelled necklaces. due to their devotion to their father.e. is capable) to create the three worlds due to her husband's favour. Somasarman. What has happened to you? 0 best of brahmanas. they resembled the sun's lustre and were covered with bright flames. of great glory. contracts an extremely painful disease like leprosy?" 5ivajarman said: 15b-16a. all deities.e. Sivasarman) having given the pitcher into the hands of the magnanimous one. with hosts of virtues and great religious merit.e. seeing them completely afflicted. 4. and who serves her husband as a god. This my meritorious mother. When the sage. was full of great compassion. the very wise Sivasarman said to his youngest (son) The brahmana said 2-3. he saluted their feet (and said:) "I have never seen (persons) like you." 67b-71. CHAPTER FOUR Sorna~arman's Devotion Put to Severe Test Suta said: 1. 0 best brahmana. the fruit due to his deeds is enjoyed by a man who has (done) a good or a bad deed. The righteous one (i.e. who (always) spoke the truth. came. uttered these auspicious words. I shall tell accurately the prowess of Somasarman. Then that Sivasarman of great fame again came back. "0 glorious one. How does she suffer pain? Is there no fruit of penance? How is it that she. With this wife I shall go on a pilgrimage. let it be so. With his neck bent through devotion. they had held conch. (I have not seen anyone else) endowed with penance. turning himself into one) afflicted with leprosy. with his wife. you are very much devoted to (me) your father. When this was said (by the Lord). Now protect this pitcher of nectar given by me. The intelligent one (i. In complexion they resembled sapphires. the lord of gods said to those good sons of Sivasarman : "May they go to the world causing salvation and free from tormentation and destruction. were charming on account of all ornaments. went to Visnu's abode. who is a loyal wife and has great religions merit. continuously practised penance for ten years. desires (i. They came near that violent (ghora?) brahmana Somasarman. getting your order.on the earth with my wife and this last. in a moment only took up Visnu's form.e.

" He condemned him with many harsh and painful words. but that son Vedasarman did a bold act. seeing his devotion. is the ocean of maladies. disgrace to the family. and with (the recitation of) auspicious. knowing which 8ivasarman considered his own behaviour. who is troubled with many afflictions. Somasarman of great glory (said:) "I shall nurse you both who are meritorious. 28b-29a.e. I shall remove his unhappiness by the favour of Visnu. Somasarman. along with truth. 17b-19a. at the present time) only?" 19b-28a. and in the presence of the sages he everyday beat his son who did his duty and did meritorious deeds. excellent. water. 35-46. treated him) like this. I think that he. he (i.e. placing them on his shoulders took them to sacred places. his cruel father (givasarman) always abused him with censurable and harsh words. The glorious Somasarman everyday gave them roots. order).e.e. then clean both of us who are suffering from the disease. good eatables etc. but I think that this one is superior since he does not swerve (from duty) even for a moment. so that I shall drink it. was never angry with him. and did not show compassion for his mother. Somasarman) who was pious.e. So at the right time I have tested his penance. He washed their feet and shampooed their bodies. the very intelligent Sivafarman.e. daily gave them whatever they desired.e. bathed them according to sacred precepts with his own hands. wellpleased with him (for food). The very intelligent one shampoos (our) feet and cleanses us (i. urine and excrement of both of them. (but) he does not have disgust for phlegm. Speaking thus. 29b-34. he said to him: "I had given (i. have not served me properly). Give it to me quickly. In this way he always pleased them. I showed the disease of leprosy on my body through illusion. of great glory. Thus my very intelligent son is unhappy. if you desire religious merit in this world. passed. throw here and there the pieces (of the dead body) of your mother. and made both of them offer oblations to the manes and worship to the deities everyday. He himself offered ghee for gods into fire and cooked excellent food. conversant with the Vedas. (Even though I) reproached and beat (him). what would one get) in this world.e.16b-17a. flowers etc. sacred hymns. beat him with the strokes of a stick. O best of brahmanas. you have not done well to me (i. Even in everyday attendance he appears excelling (others). and nurse us. Then afterwards. The virtuous (Somasarman). Again he has the prowess. our bodies).' 47-53a. He obeyed my words (i. He then called both the respectable elders. cleanses the sores with his own hand. By (drinking) that I shall today be free from the disease due to the favour of Visnufarman. speech and the three kinds of deeds Somasarman propitiated his father. Calling Somasarman. thought: `Formerly I had told by son named Yajna (i. similarly he also daily propitiated his mother. what has one to do (i. Thus addressed with good words. to himself). of a great glory. This grief of one who desires to give strokes on an inanimate body is smaller. that removes maladies.e. if one does not nurse one's elder today (i. cleansed the phlegm. He. Thinking (thus) in his mind (i. placed) in your hand nectar. The very pious Somasarman (everyday) worshipped his parents. Even though givasarman did (i. (This my) son will never perish because of his devotion and truthfulness.e. urine or excrement. He always puts up with unbearable words (uttered by) me. of great glory. (He said to him:) "0 you. he who was grieved due to their malady. 0 glorious one.e. Yajnasarman): O son. again created the illusion and took away the water (i. Always happy in mind. Somasarman) everyday put them to sleep on a bed. That righteous one has religious merit and is always devoted to (me) his father. having called that Somafarman. due to penance. (He thought:) `Visnusarman brought nectar for me. He may also again do a rash act. He himself bathed them and helped them to stand. he always talks pleasing words. The best and virtuous brahmana. Somasarman.e. That givasarman who was always sick. Daily he gave them garments. the nectar) from the pitcher. He offered very fragrant tambula to both of them. givasarman too. The brahmana (i." When the sage Sivafarman uttered .' When thus many days which can be counted in hundreds.

nectar) that has come (i. he. then this pitcher will have nectar in it. Fear of the demons entered him. uttered by) his son. When the time of death of him who was living (like that) at the great sacred place. spoke. Somafarman. "0 father.e. 3. Hearing these greatly meritorious and truthful and righteous and sweet words of (i.e. The great sound (of the words uttered by them) entered the cavity of the ears of Somasarman.e. or contemplation. he showed him that (former) body. he-my father-tormented by the disease.e. or by means of meditating upon Visnu. 11-12a. with his wife. please take this pitcher of water (i. 2. That sage entered Visnu's abode.e. some demons and goblins who knew thus (i. quickly fetching the pitcher (said to him): 58.' 56. Saying so to the son. adding to the honour of sages arrived. This place granting salvation is not obtained by means of other (kinds of) religious merit or penance. the best brahmana. Then the time of his death arrived. saluting him. 8aligrama. He had taken to the posture suited to profound and abstract meditation. or hymns of praise. became joyful. `If I tell this account before (i. Visnu is not seen by means of gifts or pilgrimages. obtain happiness from me. who were magnanimous and who resembled the orb of the sun. Somafarman hurriedly got up (and rushed to) the pitcher. to) my father. purity. Giving up all objects of senses he resorted to solitude. 12b-16. or renunciation.e. 57. will be angry. Sivafarman was full of great joy and said these words: CHAPTER FIVE The Consecration of Indra Sivafarman said: 1. to Visnu. or knowledge. Then full of great joy.' 53b-55. 0 magnanimous one. as the brahmana entered Visnu's body by means of deep and abstract meditation. who were bright. Seeing it empty (that is) without nectar (he thought:) `Which sinful person has done this deed? Who has thus harmed me?' Somafarman was thus worried and very unhappy. or have observed the proper code of conduct by means of restraint. who became as they were before. I (shall) abandon this deformed body. purity etc. and quickly be free from the disease. the best one. 6-8. and with your service to the elders and your devotion and resolution. 0 good son. the pious one went. and going to his father. Demons came to that brahmana. The highest place is seen (only) by resorting to concentration and knowledge. When the glorious one thought (like this) and saw. today I am pleased with your penance. Due to that meditation and the fear of the . 4-5. is brought by me). the pitcher was again full of nectar. his own religious merit and the practice of abstract meditation. took his leave of his son.these words. The righteous one had controlled his diet. Then that very lustrous Somafarman practised penance there. and due to Visnu's favour. he had given up sleep. his parents). He devoutly saluted the feet of both the noble ones. restraint. For a long time the very intelligent Somafarman thought (to himself) : `If I have truth and have served the elders or have practised penance with a sincre mind. a place difficult to be obtained. There is no doubt about it. Somafarman of a great glory. was desireless and had no possessions. knew that his death was imminent). He saw both the elders (i. drink it." 59-60. Seeing it. He also looked upon gold and ornaments like a stone or a clod of clay. who had adhered to knowledge and meditation. Srlta said: 9-10.

" 30b. The sages said 37. I have told you everything that you have asked. 28-30a. (of Hiranyakasipu). with their palms foldedi n obeisance. who was dear to him.e. who is killed by Visnu. Kamala. Prahlada) got an excellent birth in the womb of Kamala (i. glorious wife. excellent.e. when he was a child. 34. He will again have his name as Prahlada. Prahlada was born as the son of Kamala. 35-36. She was the mother of Prahlada and the beloved (wife) of Hiranyakasipu. he was born in the house of the demon (Hiranyakasipu) as Hiranyaka§ipu's son. who was weeping day and night: 26-27a. the lord of gods. the very intelligent one. listen. tell (us) in detail. the absolute. wise ones should not commit errors. whose son was killed. O f good lady.e. Due to the favour of Narasirhha (i. I shall tell you in detail for which best merit the best one.demons the life of the noble one quickly departed. Your son. he would also get the position of Indra. left. Visnu) he would be the king of gods in heaven. who gave (him) the position of Indra? Suta said: 38. the glorious one. 39-40. and always keep this as a great secret. called knowledge. lamented day and night. the loyal. The noble Prahlada. 31-33. abode granting salvation?" The noble Prahlada. Therefore. I shall remove your doubt: (I shall tell you about) the victory of gods and the destruction of demons brought about by the lord of gods. I whose name was Somasarman. 0 best brahmanas. wept. There are innumerable glorious individuals. he will be saluted by all gods and will enjoy the position of Indra. (Please) do not reveal this good news to anyone. and when the sinners were completely annihilated by the magnanimous Visnu. Due to his former practice of abstract meditation. pious. spoke. and (about) how he reestablished the three worlds. the noble one had the knowledge (of his former birth. will attain salvation-Visnu's abode.e. Suta said: 23-25a. "Formerly. In the war' between gods and demons he was killed by Visnu. 27b. casting) this body. He (i. he thought of Krsna (i. vidyadharas. entered the body of a demon. 0 noble and meritorious one. (So) the great-souled.e. while fighting well saw (the form of) Vasudeva. thought like this when he died formerly. Saying so. When Prahlada was killed in the battle by the discholder (i. 25b. When all the demons were killed in the great war. 0 illustrious lady. reach. the account of that illustrous one (will be narrated by me). which sustained the title of gods? 0 best of brahmanas. I have thus told you everything that removes (your) doubts. Narada. Visnu) only. and will be endowed with godhead. that beautiful woman. the brahmana. When shall I. Narada spoke to her. always be happy with that son. endowed with the universal form. gods along with gandharvas. so) he recollected all the former life of 8ivasarman: 20-22. After having obtained godhead. he. "Do not grieve. the all-wise.e. there are many forms of creation. You should feign ignorance. to Madhava (Visnu) . 19. the best sage. Visnu). nagas. Due to the grief caused by Prahlada's death she. due to my great religious merit. for your son. 0 best of brahmanas. He was named Prahlada. from (i. Who got the position of Indra. obtained the position of Indra. He will be without the demonish thoughts. 17-18. will come back endowed with his own (former) characteristics. 0 glorious one (ones) you may ask anything else. 0 brahmanas. Being full of the fear of the demons he died.

be (born as) your son. "Due to your favour we have attained to godhead. due to your favour I had become a mother. then all the victorious and best gods went with Visnu to see their father." Full of great joy. ageless. Visnu). you are one who fully satisfies all desires and gives prosperity. the twentyeighth yuga arrives. so that with you as my son I shall be delighted. Visnu). the best of brahmanas and endowed with valour and lustre. 0 goddess. take up) a human form." Vdsudeva (i. will have all your desires satisfied. 0 you illustrious ones. Vdsudeva said 60-65. granted best boons to the gods. the best pious brahmana. when the twentyseventh yuga called Treta arrives. for removing the burden of the earth. will be imperishable. Similarly. leading to prosperity. when at the end of Dvapara. Visnu) said: 43b. endowed with the Visnuite lustre. ask for a boon. thus satisfy my desire. was over. I shall certainly give you whatever is desired by your mind. when the twelfth yuga comes. and best among all those who wield weapons. "0 venerable one. Visnu said 55b-56a. (give us) a god. He.e. Well-being to you. the very powerful and very brave one will be Indra. the lord of gods. To these I (now) give a boon : Full of great love you-gods. We are going to tell you something respectfully. and for killing all the ksatriyas. who is meritorious. Suta said 48b-49.e. Ka§yapa.e. named Rama. the period of stay in my heaven of that brahmana. and will be endowed with all perfections. he (i. 0 Madhusudana (i. you should go to (i. eternal. and resorting to whom the beings in the three worlds would obtain happiness. will be your king and supporter for protecting you. I shall be undoubtedly (born as) your son. make for (i. 50. viz. Indra. Aditi spoke: 56b-59. 42-43a. and with the palms of their hands joined. 0 lord of gods. lived in my heaven for a long time. Then I shall surely remain in your womb. You have always been following the virtuous path. 0 you of pious mind. give) us a ruler. Jamadagni's son. the best brahmana. you have attained to the position of gods which is inexhaustible. Due to Visnuite lustre in him the pious one will be your guardian.e. (born as) your son. I shall be. 0 Hrsikesa. (Parasu) Rama.e. 0 lord. (please) listen: 0 Govinda. by name . gandharvas and great deities-will be immortal. and he loves righteousness. The large-hearted son of Aditi will be known as Suvrata. viz. a king. they said: 51. For the mission of gods. Full of great joy. nagas. will not be subject to old age.e. who is righteous and who would rule the worlds. The magnanimous ones saluted both (the parents) seated comfortably. 0 you best gods. he. our salutations to you. (please) understand all that. Kasyapa) spoke (these) words to the gods: Kalyapa said: 52a-55a. Due to our favour and the power of penance. 0 loyal wife.41. Visnu).e. 0 Madhava (i. that magnanimous devotee of me. In this way. 0 successful mother of gods. a protector. I obtained these sons that are immortal. Remaining in my womb (you should be born as) my son. I shall. and their mother. and righteous and affectionate. 44-48a. 0 Ke§ava (i.

" 85-89. 82b-84. The hosts of the celestial nymphs danced and the gandharvas sang songs. Gods and sages who had mastered the . bright with that penance and lustre. ascetics. when the mother of gods was (thus) practising penance. She. who was pleasing. she looked superior in her beauty (i. The gods. due to (the fruit of) his acts. who had four arms.e. having created an omniscient. 0 best of brahmanas. free from fear and full of joy. all mountains. That goddess. who was adorned with the lustre of Visnu. closely intent (on looking after her). 66b-70a. whose eyes resembled lotuses. gandharvas. who was endowed with truth and piety. 0 best of brahmanas. give me a son who will enjoy the position of Indra. who was as it were another sun. giving merit and auspiciousness. she practised penance without laziness. now please do what I tell you. engrossed in penance and meditation. When a very prosperous time arrived. praised and protected the illustrious one. A hundred divine years passed. the goddess conceived. Due to her truthful and meritorious deeds. today only you deliver the embryo. the lustrous. She practised penance difficult to be practised by gods and demons. nagas. the high-minded Aditi (said to him:) "0 revered one. the foetus is nourished by your penance and grown by your lustre. with their minds full of joy also came there. the very intelligent one. having thought for a moment." The brahmana (i. came there. who will be the creator of the three worlds and also enjoyer of the sacrifices. of a great penance. vidyadharas. He said to that illustrious Aditi. I shall give him the position of Indra. the foetus has fully developed. and due to her religious merit and penance. endowed with penance: "0 goddess. looked more beautiful). then he. You will have a son. who was charming in all limbs. all revered gods. (so that) he too will be Indra. best brahmana. the sages who had mastered the Vedas. shone with a face resembling the orb of the moon. Suta said: 70b-71. Having gone to reside in a forest. Having gone to Kasyapa after she was in menstruation. who. who was endowed with all (good) characteristics. When that glorious one of great prowess was born. 0 you auspicious one. he (i. fall from there. who was full of all (good) characteristics. whose body was huge.e. the goddess delivered a son. who grant everything. the lord of the gods went to his own abode. 95-102a. "0 illustrious one. All lords of gods happily celebrated (the occasion) with auspicious rites. she was full of great joy. resembling the sun's lustre and (looking) like another sun. Other virtuous. Speaking thus. the seven sages. Then due to the lustre of her penance. said to the highminded lady: 72-82a. resorted to meditation and shone brightly. who was very wise. practised penance. All siddhas and sages. When a full hundred years were over. would go to the womb of Aditi. let it be so. Visnu came there. Daksa's devout daughter. milky and other oceans. I shall do as you tell me. 92b-94. 66a. and gods of great prowess. the son) would always live in the heaven of Visnu. when his religious merit would be exhausted. shone more (i. be would. Krsna).e. Having heard thus that due to the favour of the lord of lords the son will be Indra. of inferior and superior prowess. for the destruction of all demons and for removing the burden of the earth. handsome son.e. 90-92a. with the desire to enjoy the position of Indra." Then all the deities. magnanimous sages. (She said:) "0 magnanimous one. looked more beautiful). who was the lord of gods. let it be so. unsullied rivers. who was covered with lustrous blazes. with other good characteristics and divine disposition. the time for delivery has come. 0 you glorious one.Vasudeva (i. all those that were affectionate and other mobile and immobile objects came there." Having put his hand on her head. whose face was like the moon. who was lustrous. and feeding herself on air.e. who was regent of a quarter. went to their own abodes. whose hands looked lovely on account of disc and lotus. Kasyapa). 0 you goddess.

Sukra uttered a verse : "In the worlds. at an auspicious time. tell me why you are having this great grief. performed the naming ceremony of that magnanimous one. Suta said 109. your names will be Akhandala. and also 1. 0 beautiful. entire power ofpenance.e. of a strong power due to penance will there be in the worlds. the lustrous lord of gods.(you) who have the two magnanimous and very mighty and valorous sons like king Hiranyaka§ipu and the very mighty Hiranyaksa. Biclaujas. 0 friend. Diti said 3. who can be compared with this one". 106-108. She was weeping. The other miserable wife of Kasyapa. you will also be known as Maghavan. Seeing the great. and (6) Jyotisa (Astronomy). Tell me fully the reason for which you . they gave that magnanimous one propitious and divine ornaments. you are also (named) Vasuda. Visnu. gave these names to that magnanimous one only. as well as Kasyapa and Brhaspati. when he of great prowess was born. Visnu) he obtained the position of Indra. you are the mother of even a hundred magnanimous sons like Sumbha. None else. and had held weapons like the thunderbolt. By the favour of the disc-holder (i. When he of great prowess was born. endowed with sons) (even though) they have (only) one son. great magnanimous one has obtained this divine grandeur by Visnu's favour. was full of) great grief. auspicious one. (5) Chandas (Metrics). the magnanimous gods consecrated him with auspicious rites and established him as Indra. (They said:) "You will be known as Vasudatta. Having called Visvakarman. there will be none else as much handsome as this one. This other. being tormented by the grief due to the son (of Aditi) came to Diti's house. of great prowess and full of joy and worshipping him. practised penance. All the deities. 4-7a. pleased and delighted in mind. what is the cause of your weeping? Women are (said to be) 'Putrini (i. All the gods of great prowess were thus glad when that glorious. That Vasudatta. 0 glorious one.e. The three gods led by Brahma. On an auspicious day. Marutvan. Rudra and all the Vedas together with the Vedangas and the Upangasl came there. and the goads. The great gods took bath and performed the purificatory rites.e. With auspicious great festivals all of them performed sacred rites. magnanimous king of gods was born. Brahma. named Danu." 102b-105.Vedas praised the magnanimous son of Kasyapa with Vedic hymns. The six Vedangas are: (1) $ikga (Phonetics) . He was endowed with brilliant lustre. (3) Vyakarana (Grammar) . Tell me the reason why you are unhappy. All the beings in the world that were endowed with religious merit came there only." (They said to Aditi:) "This your son will also be known as Sakra and Indra. and pakasasani. (4) Nirukta (Etymology). 111. The Upangas are said to be: Purana-nyaya-mimamsa-dharma-sastrapi. she who was reached by (i. saluted the two lotus-like feet of Diti. 110. (2) Kalpa (Rituals) . the noose. Diti advised her. Sadgopangaih-With Aingas and Upangas. CHAPTER SIX Diti's Wailing Suta said 1-2.

16b-20. I bring you together. coming in contact with) fire. fought). tell me of which position my very intelligent son is deprived. See. so Ke§ava (i. and protector. Diti. even now he has granted a great boon to her son." 23b-32a. being enraged. As all the moths perish after reaching (i. to Aditi's son). your sons are destitute of truthfulness. Snatching the position of Indra from your son.e. Many of my sons. perished. to Danu).e. Therefore do not entertain grief which destroys real . see. the disc-holder (i. Saying so. the highminded (Diti) ceased speaking. As Visnu had formerly granted a boon to Aditi. (since) her younger son. As.e.e. 0 friend. I am your guardian. (tell me) also how other demons and goblins are deprived of lustre. Visnu). He destroyed. in the same way your sons and my sons were killed by him having the conch in his hand (i. the greatest sage said (these) auspicious words: "Well-being to you. viz. 0 auspicious one. Due to that fault (of them) and due to your morbid affection (for them). Gods and demons. who is full of desires (i.e. 0 you illustrious one. went to fight (i. i. Seeing her. 0 honorable lady. 14a. he has given it to him (i. also. not controlling themselves. crushed. the desire of my co-wife (i. A great war. that respectable lady fell down in a swoon. Visnu) and were thrown down by the gods. said : "Alas ! a misery has come about. I am your husband. who was extremely unhappy. to whom do the sons belong? To whom do the good relatives belong? One has nothing to do with anyone (else). 0 auspicious one. and many of your sons also died (in the war). 0 dear one.e.e. took place. Having thus spoken to the queen (i.e. You are the daughters of Daksa and are my beautiful wives. entertain enmity (with the gods)? 0 you magnanimous one. is enjoying Indra's position which is very difficult to be obtained. made to flee. who fulfils your desires. Danu said 14b-16a.e. (Now) Aditi.e. 11-12a. Diti said 21b.e. 0 you of a beautiful face. and unnerved the army (of the demons) led by Kalanemi and unconquerable even for the gods and demons (together). by Visnu). 7b.e. Visnu). As a lion would frighten with his own lustre (beings) that have gone to the forest.e. causing the destruction of the demons. how do you tell me this. do not grieve like this. Visnu). The gods and Visnu struck down my sons in the war. 10. coming in contact with) Hari (i. 21a. in the forest fire would burn grass with its flames. This son is known to be born from Kasyapa. so also your sons (were struck down) by the god of gods. Saying (these) words to her (i. along with the gods. persons like you. 0 magnanimous one. Krsna. which is like the fall of the thunderbolt? 22-23a. listen to it all.e. Diti thus listened to this fearful account. 0 respectable lady. 0 you good one. Danu). whose desires are fulfilled) is exalting with happiness. they were killed by Vasudeva (i. 0 you glorious one. and is the guardian of the three worlds. Diti said 12b-13. similarly all the demons reaching (i. stopped speaking. Danu said 8-9. She. Visnu) completely consumed all the hosts of demons. who was very much oppressed by the grief due to her son.e. Vasudatta. Why did the cruel demons. who are energetic and free from greed and infatuation. Aditi) has been fulfilled by the god of gods-the disc-holder (i. Tell me in detail the cause of this. do not weep. in this mundane existence. it is very troublesome and tormenting.are weeping now.

Realising this. Here and there (i. humiliation and great grief. The body is constituted of the five elements. the friend of the former (four). Having thus spoken to his dear wife who was unhappy. give up my life. and one perishes by the loss of religious merit. be happy". the soul) is greatly meritorious. when the seed is concealed (underground) and is well-placed. I shall tell (i. auspicious and beautiful lady. there is no doubt about this. (Now) being tormented by pride. Abandoning love for my husband. 0 respectable lady. moves all alone. 0 you honourable lady. 0 respectable lady. seeing them. 6-8. be tranquil. (as it were) great power embodied. None has kinsmen and friends. or mother or father. is born in) a wicked species. 0 auspicious one. there is no doubt about it. and give up pain or pleasure.e. you have spoken all the truth. 12-13a. always remains as an enemy of (other) beings. nobody is anybody's son. To whom do the friends belong? To whom do relatives and friends belong? Beings live happily in accordance with their own deeds.e.e. While (thus) moving.e. affected by illusion and infatuation. 0 you dear. Due to their knowledge of the reality. 9. he has friends everywhere. great contemplative saint. Due to the power of their own faults the demons died. they are consulting one another. and is just infirm because of the joints. 14b-15a. Go to them and talk to them. he saw. the wise and the glorious do not think about another's interest. agony. 0 best one. destroys) religious merit. 0 illustrious one. Similarly your sons have vied with the good. due to that sin they have fallen from a great position. there is no doubt about this. 32b-33. One is oneself the eternal moral virtue. I entertained rivalry (with my co-wife). the very intelligent. Atman (i. explain) you in such a way that there will be (i. 0 you of a beautiful face. there is no doubt about this. I shall.salvation. you will have) peace (of mind). the demons) were destroyed by their own deeds. your sons are destitute of penance and peace. CHAPTER SEVEN Account of the Body Diti said 1-2. one's own relatives and kinsmen. (Please) listen. 0 respectable lady. Kajyapa said 3-5. Enjoy the fruit of that deed that has come to you. Thus occupying everything. Grief would destroy (i. with a hope for happiness. 10-11. He surely perishes due to bad conduct and sin. (To do so) is futile. and grants all (kinds of) prosperity. a man becomes happy due to (good) conduct. withdrew through dejection and stopped (speaking). 0 respectable lady. said to Jnana (Knowledge) : "0 Jnana. they (i. 15b-21a. and being untinged. he. in a secluded place. A man. deluded by an untruthful act and a great sin.e. everywhere) he has enemies. when a man lives in a friendly way. one is one's own mother. The gods were (just) an apparent cause. and sees everything. 0 Lord. 13b-14a. The fifth one was Wind. Due to this he even goes to (i.e. see these five. Therefore. the farmer gets the fruit exactly in accordance with it. Then the soul sought the help of Knowledge. 0 you glorious one. give up the grief being of the nature of an obstacle. The illustrious one. he is virtuous. Nobody has a brother or a relative. it has befriended everything. In the mundane existence such is the relation.e. four meritorious best brahmanas. Ask them: `Who are you?'" . 0 brahmana. Realising this. omnipresent.

great grief will befall you).' the magnanimous ones. Listen to their words (i. said to him: "What have you to do with them? Tell me the truth (since) you are always pure. Speed (i. handsome and high-minded. O Jfiana (Knowledge). should never have the company of these five. I am Buddhi. 0 mighty one. of) the great (elements). Why do you. be (my) messenger.e. Then all the five saw that Atman. you. (Please) go from here. propitiating him. 0 Buddhi. message). 0 you very intelligent one.e. there is no other go. I am telling you the truth. The five elements are: Earth. (thus) speaking to Jnana. they will make you live in the womb. avoid the company of these? 0 wise one. I shall do as you tell me. meet them. "0 blessed one. These five are glorious. Hearing those very significant words of that glorious one. you should not at all associate yourself with them. 0 soul. listen to my words. 28." Atman (soul) said: 23-24. Fire. keep) Dhyana far away. That Atman. and said to him: 1. 37. the supporters of the world and the auspicious ones desire your friendship. 0 you highly intelligent one. Wind). These five are the root of grief and cause affliction and tormentation. and shall speak to them. tell me the real reason of this.e. 0 you auspicious one. this Moha (i. Form friendship (with them). 0 dear one. Jfiana (Knowledge) said: 25-26. I shall go. Without Jnana and . desiring for the good. Jnana (Knowledge). I shall carry out this best mission of you. 0 you of pure heart. you should not have their company.e. The five-natured (elements) desire your eternal friendship.e. 0 Knowledge. How would you do your duty. 0 Atman. Water. act as the messenger between Atman and us. 0 Jnana. 31-32. Atman (the soul) said 27. Atman said: Jnana (Knowledge) said: 29.21 b-22. Kafyapa said: 30. Merely by their contact there will be great grief (i. There will be great grief just due to their company. you are skilled in the act of a messenger. Let it be so. 34-35. who have come to the fifth one viz. having gone to him say to him : `The five elements." Having thus spoken to them. and abandon (i. Having called Buddhi (Intellect) they said to her: "Be united with Atman only.e. she went to that Atman. associated himself with Dhyana (Meditation). 0 glorious ones. and the truth (only). Wind and Ether. Infatuation) is longing for your company. 38.' You have to do this mission of ours. listen : I shall speak to these worthy ones. I have approached you as a messenger from (i." (Buddhi said:) 33." Dhyana (Meditation said) 36. "Let it be so. when you are forsaken by Jnana and me? So.

I remain in the body. Bhrlmi (the Earth) said: 45. of the nature of the highest Brahman. and with nails and the hair on the body. 0 Buddhi. our) operation when the intellect . and displayed by her existence. who was determined (to form friendship with the five elements). pleasant and unpleasant words uttered by people. So." Atman said: 44. remaining on the habitation of the skin. Knows the tongue to be my minister who very much enjoys the tastes. and also blood remaining in the skin and joints. Listen. since you are pure. resorts to the quality of touch. we) employ my (i. All you five have come. Always remaining in the body. we hear words telling about what ought or ought not to be done.' and in this way I perform auspicious and inauspicious things. 1.e. I manifest (good) odour over the body. spoke to Buddhi. Dhyana ceased to I remain in five forms. Samana. Tell before (i. I remain steady in this body for the mission of my master. It is not proper to go to them. the glorious Buddhi told in the vicinity of (i. Remaining in our body (i. I digest (articles of food). my strength is in the body. Before this verse some such words as `Apah ucuh' are missing. Such is my operation in the dear city of the body. space is without and within. saliva. to) you I have narrated my function. My firmness rooted in the bones is the basis of all operations. My ministers are the two ears. 0 you illustrious one. Casting off bad odour. they are set up for hearing. I give great nourishment to the body with fragrance. Ignorance). Then. Hearing thus (i. Nasikd (Nose) said The two Ears said 57-58.e.e. The five forms of Vayu are: Prana. Udana. our) quality is sound.e. the body to which we belong). without and within.e. the five elements) the full narration of Jnana and Dhyana (i. 2. who had come to him 40. united with Buddhi. and also auspicious and inauspicious words. Then all the five (elements) went to Atman (and said to him) :) "We constantly desire your friendship only.e. AkaSa (Ether) said: 47-48. 46. have come. Vyana. and there is no doubt that I (i.e. Apana. 0 you very wise one. I. Everyday I well nourish the body with nectar. true and false words. marrow. I manifest all matter and nonmatter. we have approached you. to) them (i. these words). Thinking for yourself only (i.e. My minister. Thus before (i. Tejas (Fire) said: 50-54a. Know odour to be my quality which proceeds in two ways. Vayu (Wind) said: 49. told everything that Jnana and Dhyana had said).e. 39. 0 you lord of the worlds. to) me your merit and power. is connected with skin and flesh. I live in a vacant place. you will certainly go to Ajnana (i. Ether. (and) you seek my friendship. "The illustrious Jnana and Dhyana are my virtuous ministers. I send forth semen.e. please give us a reply. My (i. independently of Jnana and Dhyana). what shall I do (now)?" 41.e. 54b-56.e. 42-43. Atman. Thus speaking to that highly intelligent Atman. That magnanimous odour passing through the nose is my servant. The two eyes are my ministers that cause the perception of matter. I shall tell you about the lustre.

all of you listen to my words. body). is conceived). 0 illustrious ones. united with Buddhi.e. Always associated with this function.would intensify me (i. sun. us). when the Intellect urges. My quality is touch alone. Then Intellect approached the very intelligent one and said to him: "When the body is without me. I am telling the truth. 0 best one. I find out every (taste) like saline. Thus is the propriety of our function in the body. of men. after having resorted to flesh (i. be so. We remain in the body. and associated with the five elements. Atman said to them: "You are united with the five-natured ones and are indeed common to all. became embodied. sour. rain. these words) to Atman: "0 you very wise one. not otherwise. hot. insipid or sweet. we observe all proper and improper forms that exist in the world. though warded off by the noble Jnana and also by Dhyana. Due to our contact the body is produced. it perishes. 67b-68. For this reason we always desire your friendship. "0 you five-natured ones. you who follow a good vow. I remain (in the body). Atman) goes to the womb (i. 0 dear one. Why do you seek the friendship of the five-natured one? You may (please) tell before (i. When he (i. 0 you highly intelligent one. Due to your contact. let that.e. This Intellect is the leader of all the sense-organs. to) me the entire reason. Then the lord. with his body distressed. being deluded by attachment and hatred. Having heard all that.e. Atman said: The five-natured ones said: . 66b-67a. 76b-77a. Atman). I feel cold. I send you along the path by which you go here (i. The Tongue spoke: 64b-66a." 70b-72a. carry on. The five-formed wind is well-settled without and within the body. and form is our quality.e. and they again and again narrated their respective functions. The Skin said 59-62a. in the world). There is no doubt that I shall befriend you through affe ction. Due to your favour all of us (also) stay there. 77b-80a. and throbbing of the wind. 74b-75a. The two Eyes said 62b-64a.e. which is dear to you. full of excrement and urine. I feel the movement of these (five forms). said to the five-natured ones. he. and not otherwise. 0 you highly intelligent one (i. along with them. Therefore.e. I feel every touch. 75b-76a." 72b-74a.e. I. Thus I have told you about my function. I am Karma. stay in that body. sought their company. Then Karma (Fate) came there and said this (i. 0 dear one. and have approached you. thus these five sense-organs have come together. listen.e. The glorious and high-minded one. 0 you of a high intelligence. being deluded by great grief. fallen into the lubricious eddy. 69-70a. every contact (with) phlegm etc. I spread the kinds of taste.

"As soon as I go out of this (womb) I shall give up the body formed by the five-natured ones." 12-19. very terrible and fearful (eddy). settled in the region of the body. You are our lord. uttered by) them." The five-natured ones said 80b-82a. with Jnana and Dhyana. on the ground. there is no doubt that. CHAPTER EIGHT Account of the Soul Kasyapa said 1. Atman then approached Dhyana. 10-11. Merely by the touch of the ground. you will obtain pleasure from him (in it). and also by the strong breath of life. he falls. He. There is no doubt that you will be free from the residence in the womb. living in the womb. 2. being afflicted day by day. (Please) protect me always. 0 Atman. he was lamented over. remains there through love (for it). was overcome with grief. 6-8a. but you did not do what I told (you). he. remain there till the foetus is full (i. spoken by) Jnana. mature). The lord. Atman. Now go to Dhyana. 3a. Therefore. harassed by all kinds of suffering. became intent on running (away). Atman). The rightenous one. became bewildered in the womb." Thus Dhyana spoke to that highly intelligent one (i. you were prevented by me . Atman. He is separated from it by the divine wind related to Prajapati. 0 you of a beautiful face.e. I have sought your refuge. The vulva expands (only) twentyfour fingers. Thus you should rule. In spite of being prevented by Dhyana. at that time I did not do what you told me (to do). confounded in the bondage of the worldly existence. said (to him) : "Please listen to my words. You were put in this calamity of (remaining in) the womb by the very cruel five-natured ones.e. the foetus is (of the size of) twentyfive fingers. Atman thus being nourished with the five-natured ones is covered over with the sense-organs and all sinful objects .have fallen into this lubricious. Hearing those words of (i. 82b-83. Being (thus) tormented. and desiring to go (away).e. 0 Dhyana. 0 lord. oppressed by grief. He was overcome with mental agonies and physical diseases. you will come out of it. he everyday desires everything like eatables and drinks. The Atman accompanied by the two (i. When Atman went to Dhyana. Hearing these words.e. he lived in the womb. With Dhyana. Filled with virtues and vices. and connected with great delusion. 9. thus being troubled by swoon. Understanding (i. 0 you very wise one. therefore he is troubled. 0 dear one. always thought like this. Jn"dna said 5. He was full of great grief. Then. ." 8b. 0 you very wise one. 0 you highly intelligent one. protect me from this very fearful stay in the womb.e. I fell into the danger caused by delusion. at the time of the delivery of the one related to Prajapati the foetus is shaken by wind. he forgot the fear caused by (remaining in) the womb. he said to Jnana: Atman said : 3b-4. you will be enjoying pleasures. having called Dhyana. he was senseless.e. and free from delusion. Jnana and Dhyana) and dissociated from delusion (remained) thinking about his own happiness only. With his face turned down he remained in the womb. "Let it be so. hearing) those words-the factfrom (i. Jnana and Dhyana are forgotten.

detachment).e." Vitaraga said 33-34. are not ashamed). similarly. do not care for) any bounds of morality appear to be naked. if you know them definitely. women. I am never naked. Suta said: 24-25. he was bound by the delusion of the form of the worldly existence like : `This is (my) wife. Of whom should one be ashamed? There is never a second. 0 you of a good vow. 37b-38. are not afraid (i. Deprived of Jnana and Vijnana. and is also consumed by old age. I am naked. This lord. you. He is then distressed by griefs like bereavement of the son etc. day by day. is unable to move. very intelligent Vitaraga said to him: "The mind resorts to great firmness in (times of) happiness and unhappiness. that was free from desire and anger : "Who are you (remaining) with a naked form? How is it that you are not ashamed of your friends? Moving in the place where there are groups (of the elements). Thus Atman is tormented by very fearful misery and delusion. the natural disposition) by means of his deeds. and would. 0 respectable lady. which fully enters the mind. 31-32. in the same way. I am removed from my position. The very wise. confounded by great delusion. as a fish is bound in a net by a fisherman. Being tormented by desire.. day by day he becomes afflicted and agitated. The divine Purusa (Person) is just one. 27. I have nothing to do today. old persons. and by day he is without vitality. troubled by old age in various ways. thus deluded and was occupied with all the wicked ones like greed. and then would cause it to revolve with a string. I shall now explain to you the sense of shame. (and thus) caught in the net of delusion. and being bound.e. enticed by his relatives like his wife and others. When Atman was. and struck by attachment and hatred. . and is frustrated by pride. Now I shall explain to you the groups which you mentioned. He is bound with strong bonds of the nets of infatuation.e. young women and mothers. he became (i. he is full of the imperfections of the limbs.' 26.of senses. it should be given up to them. Then Atman spoke to him. 2l b-23. friendless. Constantly lamented over and senseless he thinks of misery (only). What would he destroy and of whom? 40-42. And (when) it is troubled by respective objects. 0 respectable lady. humiliation and many miseries. 28. who are uncovered. Atman. At night he sees dreams. 36-37a. becomes) greatly confounded. and also by anger and bound by Prakrti (i. physical diseases and mental agonies also. You who live under the sway of the objects of senses and are without (i. with a firm mind. attachment. As a potter would put a lump of clay on the wheel. 0 respectable lady. Atman said: 35.(when thus) one is absorbed in remorse. he is. that is said to be the sense of shame. When he was wandering in the mundane existence. tell me in detail what the bounds of morality are. 39. Who would be seen naked here? I am never naked. 20-21a. this is (my) friend. he is thus pervaded by the pervading universe. this is (my) son. he saw Vairagya (i.e. 30. you are very much bound. this is (my) house. O divine one. 29. Even though you are well-dressed. that was fearless.e. very tranquil and contented.

you shine. Who are you. Man is called Purusa (i. 44. and who. in the same way-and in no other way-the creator fashions various forms.e. that are present everywhere. Through the door (i. is reflected). These five well-settled in the regions of the bodies of beings. due to whose fear anger. the pots) as he desires.e. 57-58a. consciousness) always living in the bodies of beings. whom you mentioned. 0 beautiful lady. Prajna is called mother as she lives in all the worlds for the protection. She is full of white and grey Hair. greed and infatuation have perished. from sexual desire) are always liberated. united with Prakrti. The woman is always settled in purusas (i. and are removing my tormentation? (Please) explain to me in detail your own nature. I shall explain to you the mother.e. from whom all desires. She is Cetana (i.e. 58b-62a. opening) of the vulva. For the fall of the people the form of delusion is manifested. nature. 0 dear one. Vitardga said 65-67a. I have explained to you the nature of the mother. She is feeble. I shall explain to you the old woman who is always old. What else should I tell you?" Atman said 64.e. They cause great misery. Now I shall tell (the characteristics of) a young woman. which is sinful and full of illusion and delusion. good intention). always grows richer in knowledge. All the forms always leading to the gates of the mundane existence are these mothers.e.e. Fire. The creator ever fashions the creation for his diversion.e. Atman said 67b-68a. turn away. One should be ashamed of the eternal groups (of the elements) that always remain. are present everywhere. is called mats (i. whom these vile deeds do not see due to their wickedness-this has no alternative. and Viveka (i. are seen among Purusas (i. That one who is described as Sumati. Well-being to you. remain in thousands of beings. I shall also tell (you something) else. 45. 43. They are : Ether. they perish. You. 0 lady of a beautiful face. and is both old and young. (Then) of whom should one be ashamed? 46-47a. You. These groups. and also through the breasts and buttocks and age. I am Vitaraga. There is no woman that is mentioned by you.manifest (i. Vitaraga said . mother). She gives the highest knowledge. Earth and Water as the fifth. The soul of the man like that of a woman remains everywhere. I shall now explain to you the nature of women. nourishment and well-fare of beings. She sports with him and is never free. As in thousands of pots with (i.e. but she is called old. discernment).e. discrimination) is my brother. Who causes shame (and) to whom? Knowing thus go happily. who are very magnanimous.e. Wind.e. and in the mobile and the immobile. that have come here. shine. 47b-54a. She is called Sumati (i. for they do not rest (i.e. miserable and is covered over with folds. One should be ashamed of her. men). containing) water the one (and only) moon shines (i. depend) on the earth. The skin on her body. Such a woman would not be old. Later. Of what nature is this your brother named Viveka? Tell me his-your brother's characteristics and also of your own. similarly you shine everywhere. 54b-56. are deluded. I have narrated her characteristics.e. the soul) and woman is said to be Prakrti (i. living near the soul.e. 62b-63. and (therefore) she is called Prajna (i. is worn out. souls). Those that are free from breasts (i. for one reason or another. original source of the material world). She. being frustrated. fashion) them (i. whom hope never approaches. Here also is seen the increase in (the shape of) the heart and flesh.e.

(Please) make me free from this great bond-this heap of the noose of the mundane existence. to) me the full reason resorting to (i. and enjoyed my wife in many ways. I have sought your refuge. my brother. You who know facts should ask this Atman. ego-less. I was burnt day and night. and spoke to the glorious. This man.e." "0 very intelligent one. He.e. 0 you lord of the world. Viveka said 87-93. unbearable and terrible grief of the residence in the womb. you have told me a pleasant news. 0 glorious one. 0 Viveka. accompanied by Ksama and Santi. Protect me from the frightful worldly existence.e. I am not at all having any pleasure by day or at night. The melancholy one. I shall do as you tell me. He said to Vitraraga: "Invited (by you) I have come. who is spotless. Yoga (Abstract meditation) in his eldest son. Again go to Viveka. I did undeserving deeds. went (to Viveka). the bereavement of my) son etc. 0 brother. very much tormented by agonies.e. to) you his characteristics and form. who gives happiness. When I was in childhood. and are free from sins. show me (the way to) happi ness. to Vitaraga) : "(Please) listen to my words. having no possession. What pleasure did you yourself enjoy after coming to the worldly existence? Atman said 81-86. free from the pairs of opposites (like pleasure and pain) and hihgly intelligent one. pervading. Viveka spoke these words: Viveka said 80. and also by the bonds of the worldly existence. I shall (just) call that brother (himself).e. As a youth I sported. Everyday I was tormented by miseries of many kinds.e. He is seized by the five elements. the enemy of all errors. I was born in many ways. O lord. and is the master of all. sighing deeply. and also of me. Show me that way by (i. these words). He shows (the way to) happiness and destroys all distress. Viveka) only will tell you the way to happiness. I shall not narrate before (i." Viveka said . (please) come out of affection for me.e. who is before (us) is restrained by great nooses. So. and Moksa (salvation) is his great preceptor.68b-70a. said to him (i. He (i. and is bereft of Jiiana and Dhyana. void of knowledge. listen to our speech (i. 0 you very intelligent one. whom you have undoubtedly seen naked and without any formality. do (now)? Just tell me the means by which I shall get happiness. you are pure. devoted entirely to truth. (thus) sent by virtuous Vitaraga. That Viveka.e. pure and best Viveka : " (Please). He pervades everything. Go to this glorious Vitaraga.e. Sent by Vitaraga. is deluded by Moha's arrows. Hearing the words of Vitaraga. words). what do (i. Being deprived of knowledge while in the body. O you very glorious one. always experienced the great. Hearing thus (i. tell before (i. 0 lord of the universe. 0 you highly intelligent one." Vitardga said 77-79. following) which I shall get happiness. 0 you very intelligent one. you are free from the pairs (like pleasure and pain). you are carrying on happily. omniscient. and lover of knowledge came (there) with his two wives.e. whose ministers were the very glorious and highly intelligent Dharma (Piety) and Satya (Truth) came (there). Due to the separation from my wife etc. the pure soul again went to Vitaraga. with his mind pleased at all times. Katyapa said 70b-76. That Viveka." The lord. for) which you have invited me. Dharana (Retentive memory) and Dhi (understanding) are the two daughters of the same magnanimous one (Viveka). Santi (Tranquility) and Ksama (Forbearance). When I reached old age I was tormented by the grief of (i. desire-less. 0 you highly intelligent one. I. omnipresent. came (there) adorned with all jewels. let it be so. should) I.

This Atman lives in demons and gods in his own nature. as well as the sons of Danu and Simhika. preserved by all gods. free from fear and doubt. there is no doubt about it. be calm.e. show me the happiness that is perfectly accomplished. Formerly Dhyana and I had repeatedly warded you off. He. 0 you highly intelligent one. (which is also) my place. He creates all things. one (i. This virtue is Visnu's body. Visnu's devotees. you have not recognised) me. he has created gods and demons. and finding out motives. and killed the demons.94a. by you and by Vitaraga and Viveka. The intelligent Atman.e. This proper conduct is the body of Visnu and truth is his heart. desiring to give up the product of the five-natured ones. in this world).e.e. This (Atman) Janardana (i." Jfiidna said 96-97. That Atman whom I formerly described before (i. There is no connection between life and body that were brought up together. by being self-possessed. go to Jnana. who were wicked-hearted. He is meritorious and is the guardian of all. he will grant you happiness. Sent by Jnana. Gods always lived with piety. resorted to sin only. The very powerful Visnu would be angry with him and would destroy him. he protects the beings. to) you only." Dhyana having heard these words spoken to him by Atman. without words. on your self only you will reach that highest place of Visnu. He who lived comfortably in the bodies of the demons. thus addressed by Dhyana and others. have practised virtue here (i.e. 13b-14. Always remain in a secluded place. Atman remained after having resorted to Dhyana. He alone is the highest Brahman. the pious one and of the nature of virtue withdraws (all). Reflecting. You will go to (i. He is Brahma.e.e. was delighted. 0 . Visnu is pleased with him who always practises them. Gods are liberated due to their piety (while) your sons are wanting in piety. Be endowed with Dhyana. went to the place where Jnana stayed. the elements). went to them. 0 you very dear one. Due to your contact with the five-natured ones (i. 0 respectable lady. Visnu). and observe yourself. He. Those. well-determined in (doing) all deeds.e. truth and penances. remain without food (or) with limited food. Being within and without he struck down your sons. he is Rudra. became angry. and again said to that Atman: "0 dear one. 15-17. Thus protect me who have sought your shelter. 0 you very wise one. destroying) your blemishes. sons or wife? 4-13a. 0 you of a good vow. having the disc in his hand. realising thus. 3. firm. committed) impiety and sins. you do not know (i. with a firm mind. thus told. abandoning his aimless body. (He said to Dhyana): "0 Dhyana. he alone is eternal. and firmly remaining on your seat. who would defile truth and piety would always have sin. I am never to be forsaken. I have sought your refuge. and who lived by (i. 94b-95." CHAPTER NINE Instructions to Diti ICafyapa said 1-2. which he did not notice when it fell down. do not be weak-minded. Your sons. 0 lord of the worlds. For what reason is there a relation with wealth. with whom Visnu is pleased. abiding by truth and penance practised piety. 0 you very dear one. a man) should think about proper conduct and follow proper conduct only. show me the way to happiness. The virtuous one is pleased with them and protects them thus. is Visnu (himself). he will explain everything to you. the highly intelligent one. (He said to Jnana) : "0 Jnana of great lustre and illumining all objects. The meritorious Visnu always favours him. were killed in battle by Visnu. you have met with a calamity.e. obtain) salvation by burning (i. as a lamp in a place sheltered from wind is firm and emits soot. Atman. he is the eternal Visnu. I am your servant. 98-105. go to Dhyana. Be without the pairs of opposites (like pleasure and pain). 0 respectable lady.

(but) by the force of the wind they fall down along with their roots. There is no doubt about this that (even) with power.respectable lady. and with penance. 19-24. after having said these words. and the mother is always the soil. He who lives sinfully. perishes). we all now desire to hear it from you. who had become powerless. we demons are born from your semen. What would a father do in the case of a son whose intentions are fearful? 12b-18. have fled from the great battle? What is the reason for that. and (i. The gods do not have (strength) like that. have a . so also are gods. do? Tell us in detail their excellent account. Let it be so. Having devoutly saluted (their father) Ka§yapa. She conceives. 0 (my) sons. have resorted to impiety. and yet in the great war victory is had by the gods. we also are knowers of expedients. You should not have any infatuation for them. 0 glorious one. and the gods are few. 0 (my) good sons. Please remove (our) doubt. piety and penance. they were struck down by him who had created them. 0 you very intelligent one. The father is the giver of the semen (i. All we demons are strong. they then said to him: The demons said 0 best brahmana. Suta said 3. tranquility and restraint.) of him who is without religious merit is impaired. She. Here (the son's) fate is (i. This is what I think. on the other hand) the gods who are endowed with truth and virtue. CHAPTER TEN The Practice of Penance by Demons The sages said 1-2. who was afflicted.e. powerful and brave. Therefore.e. listen to the reason for the victory (of the gods)-due to which the gods became victorious in the battle. I shall do as you have told me. 0 (my) good sons. Listen (to my words). 0 all my sons. 0 brahmana. responsible). 5b-9. 0 (my) sons. you. We are many. 18-19a. went to their father. we are very courageous and full of exertion. Proper conduct can be practised by resorting to truth only. who were destitute of truth. who were accompanied by Hiranyakasipu and had fled from the battle. and who was addressed by the sage. Similarly those who are without truth and piety go to Yama's abode. All that power (etc.e. and always practise piety. So (please) tell (the reason for) all this. due to which a being is emancipated here (i. Truth endowed with penance and meditation leads to emancipation. Diti said 19b-20. You have abandoned the truth associated with piety. this is a common rule (applicable) to (all) beings. in this) and the next world. 4-5a. protects and nourishes (her son). Association with Karma is due to two things : sin and merit.e. 0 (my) sons. endowed with power and lustre. his deeds are) impor tant (i. Fallen from truth.e. gave up her sorrow. there are tall and dense trees on the mountains and inaccessible places. (good) attendants and nobility of birth.e. you have fallen into the ocean of grief. what effort did all the demons. the seed) . All the demons who had fled from the battle. 0 father? Each one of the demons has the strength of a thousand intoxicated elephants. sin always leads to a fall. give up infatuation. How is it that they are victorious and we. KaJyapa said 10-12a. prideless and distressed with grief. dies (i.

opportunity) for victory. the very vigorous demons. Victory is seen there where there are truth. 27-28. 25. Knowing oneself to be inferior. You are without piety and also deprived of penance and truth. we shall forcibly (regain) our position. Visnu). those getting Indra's position (without penance. All of us will just practise excellent penance. 0 (my) very intelligent sons. you should form friendship with gods following piety. 44. Darkness knowing the oiliness of the wick of the lamp and the very powerful light. 0 demons. 39-43. 0 (my) sons. know that that man who has Visnu as his helper. uttered by) him.e.e. That enmity which you have with Visnu. is the cause of destruction. Therefore. Darkness always stays by resorting to the shadow of a lamp. 0 prudent king of kings. there is no doubt about this. piety etc.tipu said 37-38. 0 sons. Other kinsmen also said to him who was proficient in statesmanship : "What Bali said is meritorious and dear to the gods. penance. 0 (my) sons. and showing love actually." Bali said 35. formerly sage Ka§yapa has given goad advice. 30-31. Having vanquished in battle that wicked-hearted Govinda (i. Those who are conversant with (laws of) morality. Hiranyaka. religious merit and Visnu Hrsikesa. Having heard those words of (i.great religious merit and are sinless.e. piety and glory (and merely) with qualities of power and pride. Like this (i. gathered together and held thorough consultation among themselves. Visnu). Similarly remaining screened. 36. Visnu) and having killed all gods. 0 lords-the sons of Diti-it is not proper for you to act like this. 0 (my) sons. what he said would increase Indra's pride and is fearful to the demons. serves one's enemy.e. I shall not humiliate myself like this. Visnu) with charity." ." At that time Hiranyaksa said : "I shall practise terrible penance.e. when you will be blessed like this. you (should) together practise penance without quarrel and endowed with knowledge and meditation. 32-34. 29. and you had also formerly secured Indra's position by force. the powerful demon said : "0 grandson. Having vanquished the gods with penance. Visnu helps them (only). 26.e. Then with (my) power I shall seize (all) the three worlds. do your deeds in accordance with it. by giving up one's nature. and performance of sacrifices. There is no doubt about this.) fall from it. and who has penance and power is alone seen to get victory. Thus told by the noble Kasyapa. The wise ones take it to be excelling death if one. Then Bali again said to that magnanimous grandfather (of him) : "This is what is observed in the codes of laws by sages knowing truth-an advice full of statesmanshipespecially regarding an enemy. devoutly saluted Ka§yapa and rising hastily. religious merit. I shall reach Indra's position.e. having listened to the words of their father." 45. and the enemy to be powerful one should go near the enemy and wait for the time (i. gods endowed with truth and piety become victorious with (Visnu as their) helper and also due to power and valour." 46-48a.e. piety. You should never entertain enmity with Ke§ava (i. penance. you are destitute of penance and truth. Therefore. Then king Hiranyakasipu said to the demons: "We shall (now) practise penance difficult to practise (but) giving everything. goes to it and increases. as advised by Bali) I shall never propitiate Hari (i. Eternal Vasudeva i. Neither I nor other demons will serve Visnu. Men obtain happiness by propitiating that Hrsikesa (i. then (only) you will obtain highest success. Indra's position cannot be obtained without penance.

What I say will remove all doubts. I shall tell you all that. Thus the demons had abandoned attachment. Visnu)? Suta said 3-4.e. who everyday eats its very ripe fruits. the advice (should be such as) shows the correct knowledge. practised penance in mountaneous inaccessible places and (mountain-) peaks. 0 you very intelligent one. Greed is the seed of sin. The sinful cruel birds like dishonesty. on the bank of Reva. I shall tell you the account of the noble Suvrata as I had heard it due to the power of my intelligence. impiety is (felt to be) superior and becomes sweet. 8-12. were welldetermined. 2. The good juice of it viz. 0 dear one.e. Of whom was he-the very intelligent one-the son? In whose family was he born? What (kind of) penance did the brahmana have (i. The devout (woman). with Visnu's favour. You are confounded by infatuation." Hearing the words of his beloved (wife) Somasarman said to her Somajarman said 13. have narrated (to us the account of) the war between (the gods and) the demons. remained without food and had overcome fatigue. You. 0 Brahmana. understand it accurately. the best brahmana. give up your worry (i. That man who is happy after resorting to its shadow. and the tree of greed has fruits of such a type only. desire) faithlessness is its exudation. and of a good vow. 0 illustrious ones. practise)? How did he propitiate Hari (i.e. Once his dear wife. 0 you of a good vow. 0 good lady. theft. 14.48b-50. and the juice of the fruit is unrighteousness. tell me the cause of your worry. and delusion is its root. and thinking is the cause of grief. he was always oppressed by painful poverty. the great demons entertaining great enmity with Visnu in their heart. This is the cause of my grief. 5-7. Having thus conversed and having repudiated Bali at that time. Nourished by the water of thirst (i. Deception is its fragrance. Tell me (about) your worry. named Vamana. seeing her husband (like that) said to him : "Your mind is overpowered by innumerable worries. He who lives by giving up his worries. Sumana said 15-16. There is no (other) distress like worry which parches up the body. it is always flowered with wicked intellect. purifying account bringing the Vi snuite merit (to the narrator and the listener). Religious hypocrisy and crookedness are its leaves. and who is nourished by the juice of . 17-22. enjoys happily. and ignorance is its fruit. named Somasarman was born in Kausika's fancily at an excellent sacred place which removed sins and which was very meritorious. Falsehood is its trunk. Having heard it. and deceit is its well-expanded branch. envy have resorted to the branch of deceit of the tree of delusion. Being sonless and full of great grief. heresy. Now we desire to hear (the account) of the noble Suvrata. Its good fruit is ignorance. I shall tell you. I do not know due to which sin I am poor and sonless.e. were free from desire and anger. stop worrying). saw her husband full of worry and with his face hung down. 0 brahmanas. in the former Kalpa. Thoughts (are) due to desire. the omniscient one. the divine. Sumana by name. Be composed and happy. Day and night he thought about the means (to have) a son and wealth also. Listen. CHAPTER ELEVEN The Story of Suvrata The sages said 1.

handsome. whose deposit was taken away by another person becomes the latter's virtuous and handsome son on the earth.fruits i. is attractive and healthy. sons.(is born) in the house of him who has taken away his deposit. 0 good lady. because he had left after giving him terrible grief by taking away his deposit. When he (i. sons and other relatives become related. father. O brahmana. thus (persons) become the sons of them who had taken away their deposits. Everyday a fool thinks: `How can I get wealth? How can I get a good wife? How can I have sons?' Being deluded. So also being short-lived. and wives come to have a (chance) relation with a man. unbearable grief. he everyday shows devotion to him. . becomes pleased and proceeds towards a fall. and is endowed with all good characteristics. (fathers) full of great grief are seen. producing excellent love in him by being born as his son and by means of his great qualities. 0 you highly intelligent one.e. nobody has (any) connection with anyone (else) in the worldly existence. and shows great love for him. He speaks sweetly. he repeatedly laughs. Some are relations through debt. he dies (a premature death). Everywhere in the mundane existence. Therefore. the owner of the deposit becomes the good son of him who had taken away his deposit. Sumana said 30. Therefore giving up worrying a man should not have greed. the father) laments. some are those who had taken away (other's) wealth. and dies. gives grief. `Oh my son !' he (i. In the same way. servants.e. So who is whose son and who is the father? 40b-42. giving him grief and taking away excellent wealth I shall today go. he is virtuous. He should not at all worry about wealth. Even by taking away the wealth my life did not formerly depart. So also wife. (Just) for a moment he (is deluded and) finds great pleasure while worrying. even due to great. Friends. there is no doubt about this. who am like this? 43. Sons. 28. Even if he is a learned person he goes along the path of fools. others are indifferent. 39-40a. 36-38. The person. I shall later explain to you the son connected (with the father) through debt. relatives and friends are born on the earth in accordance with their connection with a person. give up worry and delusion and act. the son) just laughs. by which wealth. tell (me) in detail what kind of relation is there. (The son says:) "The deposit that was helpful to me was taken away by him. 46. To this wicked one only I have given the state of a goblin. sons and wife. again he comes to his senses and is oppressed by great grief. and goes." 44-45. 23-27. mother. Giving him very terrible grief.e. 31-35. Whose son am I. Speaking like this. he thinks like this day and night. some are helpful. 0 glorious one. Being (born) as his son. 0 dear one. nor was he the son of anyone. he gives him the same terrible fatal grief by taking away his wealth as he had given him by taking away his deposit in a former existence. impiety. he goes along this way. fathers and mothers with servants.farrnan said 29. He is not my father. Thus again and again he is born. relatives. friends or wives are born (and are) of (these) four kinds. Soma. O dear one (if he worries).

nor pleased. the wicked one departs as a result of the former enmity. Being very cruel he makes money by means of birth-rites in childhood. There is no doubt about it. we have not given up anything. is born as) the son or the brother or the father. from whom a man takes a loan diesi. 0 my dear husband. and again and again abuses (them). All these are connected through debt. are mine. He also offers them maintenance. He always eats sweets and desired articles (of food) and enjoys pleasures. and also his mother. 22-24a. 24b-35a. Thus wealth is obtained by him and he gives it in this way also. 4-7. He is always angry. Sons of this type are born on the earth. we are not indebted to anyone. and immediately after he attains youth he does things liked by his mother and father. and after repeatedly beating them he laughs and departs. The cruel one of a rough form. 11. We have no hostility with anyone which is entertained in a previous existence.e. the father. There is no doubt about it. Thus he is always engaged in hostile acts.e. and always utters harsh words among his relatives. As soon as he is born he does dear things to (i. Realising this. 0 dear husband.e.CHAPTER TWELVE Dialogue between Somalarman and Sumana Sumana said 1-3. 16b-21. this mode of existence (of various types) of sons. 8-10. 12-16a. buffaloes and attendants. Whose are the sons. now I shall describe to you (the son called) indifferent. being (i. We have for that reason not taken a debt from anyone. he always behaves like an enemy (with his parents). he comes to his father and mother. I shall explain to you a hostile son. 0 you very intelligent one. 0 dear one. Again being fearful. and in many ways through various kinds of marriages. He is ever engaged in gambling and has a desire to steal. Now hereafter I shall describe the son from whom desired things can be obtained. Conforming to (the repayment of) the three debts. He. (Now) hereafter I shall describe to you the son who is related through debt.e. wealth of the family) and gets angry if prevented (from doing so). so also are said to be the others (like) the servants. he is neither angry. With devotion he pleases and delights them by means of affe ctionate words and conversation dear to them. beasts and horses.e. causes fear and talks too much and harshly. so also in the former existence we have not made any deposit with anyone. an indifferent (son) does not give by making a sacrifice. is) obtained from them. so also elephants. he comes to his father and mother. he weeps through affection (for the parent). does not notice the virtue (in others). Like the son are the wife. Thus enjoying that wealth (of the family etc. being their son he returns in this manner whatever would be (i. and after repeatedly beating them he laughs and departs. and (delights them) by indulgence and sports in childhood.e. When his father or mother is dead. Even while playing he would beat his father and mother. 0 best of brahmanas. Everyday he abuses his father and mother. or might be (born as) a friend (and) is always very cruel. He forcibly enjoys the wealth which is in the house (i. be calm and give up (your) worry causing unhappiness. 0 best of brahmanas. I have told you everything-i. He is a thief. He never performs the Sraddha-rites and never gives gifts. or whose is the dear wife? Whose are the relatives and friends? You . When he reaches childhood. he always feeds them. the mother and the kinsmen. he who is very cruel becomes affectionless and rough. Having again beaten his father. he performs all rites like Sraddha and offering pindas. the creditor. When he comes to know about the demise of his parent. Extremely grieved. 0 dear one. (He thinks:) `The house. 0 my husband. field etc. Again being fearful. 0 best brahmana.' Everyday he hits his father and mother with pestles by giving them many very fearful strokes. He does not give and now receives. pleases) his parents.) lie lives happily. (Please) listen.

is sure to die) . since there is no connection (between the two). 49-50a. 0 you beautiful lady. Thus advised by his dear wife. but the departing one (i. Whose are the sons? Whose is the dear wife? Whose are the relatives and friends? 0 best brahmana.' charity. 0 best brahmana. What are the characteristics of the man of meritorious deeds?) 0 good lady. dear sons and wealth. A good embryo is obtained by religious merit. One should practise virtue which has these ten components viz. Soma. a son emancipates the family. Of what nature is a man of meritorious deeds? (i. I shall produce (i.e. give up your worry which is useless and be calm. in this mundane existence. Due to a good son alone the father and the mother are (i. the good) one emancipates the family. Still good men. good prowess and non-stealing. really wise men become fascinated (with all these). and how by means of meritorious deeds he or she obtains fame. he again spoke to his dear wife Sumana. do not have any doubt.e. . teaching. offering oblations to the manes. performing sacrificial rites. A man conquers the worlds with a son._ Realising this. honouring guests. 0 dear husband. Dharma. nobody belongs to none (else). Then how can wealth come to us? 0 my husband. who expounded. Somalarman said 36b-38a. Due to religious merit (only) a son is obtained. truthfulness.e. and also (I shall explain to you) how a man or a woman behaves everyday. have) a son by this or that means.' 0 dear husband.e.e. an offering to all created beings.e. as I am anxious to have a son. purity. (similarly) due to religious merit (birth in a good) family is obtained. and 0 dear husband. it easily comes to the hand (of a person). celibacy. the respectable lady. kindly tell (it) to me. tell (me) the characteristics of religious merit. whatever wealth is to be obtained. tell me about the practice of good deeds. A righteous person creates Dharma by means of three kinds of acts. forbearance. the one that dies) departs (all alone).e. A man preserves wealth with great care. so also is obtained (peaceful) death. you have spoken the truth. 0 dear one. (4) Bhutayajna i.e. One learned son is most precious. (3) Devayajna i. SomaSarman said 43b-44a. and also about the (various) existences. knowledge.have never snatched (anything) from anyone and have given nothing to anyone. Due to meritorious acts a good birth (i. therefore practise religious merit. 46b-48. I shall first explain to you (what) merit (is). performance of five sacrifices.e. Men of wicked hearts and deluded with great infatuation (say:) `Thus is my house. 0 dear one. (while) the others cause tormentation. I have previously only told (you) that others are (just) relations. but the wealth remains just there. Sumana said 38b-43a. (2) Pitryajna i. birth in a good family) is obtained. Complete merit is produced as satisfaction (is produced) in the belly by mouthfuls (of food after they are swallowed). and one that dies gets birth. Sumana said 44b-45.e. and (5) Nryajna i. 1.e. arman said 50b.e. strong desire (to hear it) is produced (in me). the women are mine only. this is my son. what kind of form does Dharma have? What are the parts of his (body)? 0 my dear wife. Paficamakha-The five daily sacrifices or acts of piety to be performed by a householder: (1) Brahmayajna i. One that is born gets death (i. harmlessness. proved to be) living beings. this bond of the mundane existence is seen to be unreal. with his heart pleased leads him to religious merit only. he obtains happiness and wealth due to meritorious deeds. I shall tell you all the characteristics of merit. 0 dear one. 46a. The wise one gets whatever he desires (even though it is) difficult to obtain. 0 good lady. I am also anxious to have wealth. restraint. which has removed all (my) doubt. as I have heard about it. 35b-36a. What is the use of having many worthless sons? The first (i.

the holy Vedas with their limbs (i. Self-restraint). so also Control. Tranquility. The brahmana Dattatreya. Dharma said 69-70. having a staff in his hand and holding a water-pot. of a great merit. Faith. endowed with good forms and handsomeness. lustrous like all gods.e. endowed with crowns and earrings and adorned with divine ornaments.e. adorned with all (kinds of) ornaments. all these having female forms. 77-78. filled with lustrous flames (came there).e.e. For ten thousand years they practised penance. Control) has come to you. the holy Horse-sacrifices and others. is not seen (even) by gods and demons.Sumana said 51-60.e. the brahmana. Dattatreya and Durvasas) practising excellent penances. is rough. He is wearing matted hair. 61-68. 0 you highly intelligent one. The best sage Durvasass was tormented by penance. very sharp. He is tranquil. in the form of a brahmana.e.e. So also Intellect. it has come into your vicinity. 0 brahmana. Tranquility. tawny. the two of a charming appearance ate (i. Harmlessness. when the best sage was (thus) angry. he is the destroyer of sins. the fruit of penance is excellent. See. therefore one should avoid anger. in this world none has seen the form of Dharma. besmeared with divine sandal. Good Act. Similarly. tawny (in complexion) and having reddishbrown eyes. similarly Penance in the form of an excellent brahmana. viz. very bright. endowed with all lustre. resembling crystal. 0 best brahmana. Niyama (i.. He. With a sword in his hand. 74-76. Forbearance. and always endowed with rites. all the five Sacrifices.e. Shame. shining with a more praiseworthy form than that of (even) Indra due to penance and prowess. Satya (i. well-pleased. Durvasas said 71-72a. why are you angry? You are endowed with penance. accompanied by his retinue came there where the angry Durvasas remained like death. Merit was observed in them who practised penance. Thus Dharma. Dattatreya and the sage (Durvasas) remained in water during that period. 0 best brahmana. behaving righteously. Similarly Dama (i. has come. in front of you has come this Brahmacarya (i. and Imagination. and Restraint as an intelligent excellent brahmana. The two noble ones (i. to you) has come 8auca.). and that always nourishes.e. of a true nature and with his course seen by none. Truth in the form of a brahmana. 0 best brahmana. who is free. Dharrna said 72b-73. O noble one. tell me in detail (as to who you are etc. 0 you pious one. Anasuya's son and born in Atri's family has always seen that great Dharma. the Vedangas). came to (Durvasas). 0 best brahmana. Penance). They practised it for all the three times and (during that period) did not eat food. Retentive Faculty. Who are you that have come with these best brahmanas? Seven beautiful and welladorned women are standing (by you). see this Tapas (i. The Consecration of Fire. during) that period (of ten thousand years). they both performed the (vow of) five fires till (i. wearing divine flowers and garments. holding a . were ready. Wisdom. bright and handsome. the one that you practised and resorting to all gods. see this other bright one viz. Celibacy). arrived there. The best sage got angry with Dharma. 79-80. remained for ten thousand years in a forest. There is no doubt that anger would destroy virtue and penance. 0 best brahmana. and a great master. Anger destroys everything. 0 best brahmana. also Celibacy.e. and Charity in the form of a brahmana maintaining the sacred fire and offering oblations to it. the son of Atri. lived on) wind or went without food. Truth). that is lustrous and intent on being kind to all beings. Here in your vicinity (i. the intelligent Dharma came there in his own form along with Celibacy etcand Austerities. be at ease.

e. If now Dharma has approached me. bright) gold. 0 you very wise one. Harmlessness) has come to you. adorned with all ornaments. she has a good counsel. extremely chaste and very noble. has come to you. This noble Ahirimsa (i. Having heard thus (i. Tranquility) extremely peaceful. . beautiful. engaged in obliging others. 0 you highly intelligent one. pious one is the wife of Thought. extremely beautiful. successful and noble. 0 best brahmana. full of knowledge. always incomparable. I am your Dharma (i. Realising this. adorned with earrings has come near you. the victorious mother of the worlds. This $usrusa (i. be calm and preserve me. 0 you highly intelligent one. whose character is always glorified has come. has come. the very intelligent (Dharma) said to him. of a fair complexion. well-pleased. devout.e. she is well-pleased. and today only I shall give you a curse. Her complexion is like heated (i. Merit). I have practised penance for a period of a lakh of years. with her form strongly attached to good pleasures. this Sraddha. Service). adorned with the ornaments of truth. always shining as she is seated on a lotus. has come to a fortunate person (i. She.e. adorned with flowers and garments. having ornaments like necklaces and armlets. endowed with many auspicious things. Durvasas said 100b-101a.e. looking charming due to many divine jewels. purity and sufferings. I have purified my body with restraint. 0 god. covered with a white garment. fair (in complexion). 100a. see. this Prajna (i. high-minded. Durvasas said 102b-104. and with Ksama. having a lotus as her seat. listen to the reason for which I am angry. 105a. full of much intelligence and much knowledge. if you (so) desire. See. (This) Santi (i. always wellpleased. You see me like this. pleased. why are you angry? What wrong have they done? Tell me the reason. and she is not looking here and there. of a limited speech. 89b-94.e. full of many truths. extremely wise. of a smiling face. then tell me the reason for this (i. I am angry with you. having a lotus as her couch. to you). spotless. Pity) with her complexion like lac juice. 81. 0 noble one. The respectable lady always shines with a yellow garment. O you noble one. this Ksama (i. famous. (and yet) compassion is not produced in you. she is my mother. having put on a pearl-necklace. This old. having plump buttocks and breasts. with a lotus in her hand. 95-98. and smiling charmingly. 87-89a. of a dark complexion. uttered by) him.e. 0 best brahmana. endowed with all desirable meditation.e.e. 0 best brahmana. Intellect) resembling a swan and the moon. 0 Durvasas. and endowed with divine ornaments has arrived.e. endowed with beauty due to pearls. 0 best brahmana. is standing by you only.e. these words) from (i. adorned with divine ornaments. 0 you of a good vow. Forbearance). endowed with rings and bracelets. she is looking graceful with red garments. endowed with beauty on account of all ornaments.e. wellsettled. adorned with all ornaments. She is (simply) matchless in helping and nourishing the three worlds. your arrival).pitcher of water and a twig used as a toothbrush. having books in her hands. wearing a garland made of yellow flowers. of pious hands. Therefore. with her body charming with every ornament. 82-86. lotuseyed. charming and auspicious. can) I do for you? Dharma said 10l b-102a. this Daya (i. 0 Dharma. a foster-mother. what do (i. has come. of a pleasing body. 99.e.e.

for that is the fruit of a sin. and a Candala also. 111-113. It is said that formerly Dharma was seen in this connection also. go to (i. They suffer unhappiness with the same body with which they perform (bad acts). a maid's son. One who depends upon (i. Therefore by this (behaviour) they do not enjoy in the next world also. be born in) the family of a Candala. injustice or righteousness? One suffers. 0 Dharma. You yourself (should) understand it in its essential characteristics according to these rules. 124. The wise have observed in the law-books that Danda (i. Then the angry Durvasas cursed Dharma. 0 dear brahmana. Durvasas said 123. while someone else gets happiness. whose characteristics are narrated in scriptures. How is it that happiness is not enjoyed (by a man) as the very sinful thieves suffer poignant grief with great difficulty with their bodies? Dharma said 11 7b-l 18. the best brahmana left. (conforms to justice) : I. this cannot. The sinful ones suffer pain with that body only with which they commit sins. make me the son of a maid.e. (please) forgive me. when I perish. 0 you very intelligent one. Dharma said 120b-122. So who knows happiness. (then) tell me (about) his form. and somebody else enjoys it. The body which does (certain things) does not enjoy that happiness. if you know. Suffering is had by one body (while) happiness is enjoyed by another body. I (shall) also tell you something else. By it alone he gets religious merit.e.e. 0 lord of virtue. be favourably disposed to me. but one mortal gives it up. I am not seeing (any) felicity. Thus giving three curses. go as you desire. is a sinner. Great grief is reached by him (in the next world) by whom pleasure is obtained (here) . Sumana said 126-128. since you are angry. then. 0 you highly intelligent one. the world will perish. you who are righteous. Somafarman said 125. 0 brahmana. I very much remove the root of grief. should properly observe. whatever a man enjoys is accompanied with felicity. listen. Merit is gained with pain. Realising this. who am always bowing to you. is after) happiness. 0 Dharma. Then afterwards I give pleasure (to the man) if he does not give up truthfulness. Then who knows (what) happiness (is)? Nobody sees (i. Being Yudhisthira. punishment) is superior. also a king. being angry. 119a. 114-117a. not otherwise. All that is called happiness. When King Hari§candra was . Durvasas said 108b-110. Dharma was born in the family of the Bharatas. I give him great happiness in the next world. He was also born as Vidura. (then) the son of a maid. what. If you are not (prepared) to forgive me. How (i. you today become a king. will give you three curses. and also (good) fruit. and it is not otherwise. Durvasas said 119b-120a. be otherwise. in what form) was Dharma born when cursed by that noble (Durvasas)? 0 you beautiful lady. there is no doubt about it. (When) a being thus practising merit casts his life. you have done an unjust thing. I think.e. The (fruit of) pious rites done by one is enjoyed by another. O best brahmana. 0 Dharma.Dharma said 105b-108a.e. 0 great sage. knows) it definitely.

tell me in detail the characteristics of Celibacy if you know them. Similarly at least a morsel should be given to one who is oppressed by hunger. Now I shall explain to you the celibacy of (i. He has no attachment. thus give gifts. He is pure. He is always endowed with restraint and truthfulness. words. Now I shall tell you about non-violence. so also he should give land. daily does this.e. I have told the truth to you. ) of eternal happiness. Hearing the loud cry of someone being beaten by someone else. there is no doubt about this. study and (other) rites. 18b-20. He never gives up the good practices of his family.e. who is pure externally and internally. He lives with such practices as bath and sipping water.e. food. The pious one should be patient. CHAPTER THIRTEEN Sumana Explains Ten Basic Virtues Somafarman said 1. and is always afraid of sin. cohabit with) his own wife when she menstruates. grass. There is no misgiving about it. is always full of restraint and is engaged in vows like giving gifts and other meritorious obligations.e. Now I shall explain purity. Of what nature is Celibacy? Sumana said 2. would make (every) day fruitful by means of giving gifts. and is free from attachment. I have told you this (i. on seeing other's wealth or wives. 3-4a. I shall explain to you restraint (niyama) -the excellent means of religious merit. for his own existence. and honouring deities and manes. Everyday a man should give. these characteristics) of a householder. even being born as a human being. water. 21-22a. He who desires his own happiness in this or in the next world. 22b-23. who. I have (thus) told you the celibacy of the ascetics. a seat. Free from carnal desires and anger he should behave according to the (proper)rules. does) not have longing for them. I have indeed explained to you the celibacy of (i. as is possible according to his wealth. 4b-6a. I have thus explained forgiveness. He. 16b-18a. a bed. the very intelligent one became a Candala. (He is a true celibate) who is always interested in truth. I have thus explained penance. should make the great gift of food or (i. is happy in this world and in the next world also.e. is (just) a god. 0 best of brahmana. and being free from faults would approach (i. Thus even the noble Dharma enjoyed the fruit of his actions due to Durvasas' curse. This is restraint that I have explained. in this world) and in the next world. 0 best brahmana. he should not get angry. I shall just explain charity by means of which human beings live. Listen to me who am explaining it. (Please) listen.e. He gets great happiness here (i. very cool shadow of (i. he the righteous one would (i. he avoids) union with his wife. 0 beautiful lady. 9b-16a. excellent pleasing words. I shall now explain the nature of forgiveness. as observed by) the ascetics. words free from crookedness. Listen tome who am explaining it. (He is a restrained person) who is engaged in worshipping deities and brahmanas. and he ever obtains immortality.e. as observed by) householders.e. He remains full of exertion for obliging beings. One who . and should not beat (back) even if he is beaten. He is called truthful. 6b-9a.e. would (i. When (food) is given (like this) it leads to great religious merit. Avoiding (i. shelter in his) house. is) always be satisfied. who. He. (Now) I shall speak about truthfulness in the same manner.e.tormented by Vi§vamitra. (Now) I shall just explain penance. I have thus explained purity. he is settled in meditation and knowledge. whose mind.

again spoke to his wife. he should destroy the insolence of his senses and his mind susceptible to emotions by curbing them. I shall explain to you service (su§rusa) as is told in religious texts. Sumana. I shall (now) explain tranquility. A man should not snatch away other's wealth or should not kidnap other's wife. 3-4. 0 you very wise one: "My very chaste wife. 33-34a. he should thus make up his mind." 8-10. wellversed in all (branches of) knowledge. who explained Dharma.e. . (and) the truth (only). told my father the cause of his entire grief. how do you do such an excellent and highly meritorious exposition of Dharma? From whom did you learn this? Sumana said 2. Always playing.e. 0 best brahmana. 34b-35. Thus I have explained tranquility. I used to go with him wherever he went-to sacred places. overcome by great grief and repeatedly brooding. Now I shall tell about non-stealing. assemblies of sages and temples of deities.knows should not (i. 0 my husband.farman said 1. He should observe tranquility. 27-28a. 0 you highly intelligent one. A man who always lives in (i. 5-6. I was his dear daughter.e. and should not at all give it up because of trouble. My father said to the noble one who had come (to him) "0 you of a good vow. A man gets happiness through tranquility. 0 good lady. I shall just explain to you sensecontrol (dama). a friend of my father. should not think or talk about or do these things). I shall tell you anything more that you desire to hear. born in the family of Kau§ika. Hearing these words of that magnanimous Cyavana. righteousness) in all its forms. I feel that you are tormented by grief. 0 dear one. Knowing thus. 24-25a. That is said to be service where (i. the very intelligent Somasarman. dearer to him than his own life. should look upon others as upon himself. mentally. CHAPTER FOURTEEN Sumana Describes the Death of the Virtuous Soma.e. (Please) do only what I tell you. 0 you very intelligent one. 32b. 7. and born in the family of the Bhargavas was my father. Very intelligent Vedasarman. Vedasarman. Giving up enmity with beings. By means of (practising) Dharma he goes to heaven. 0 you of a good vow. that is difficult to be accomplished on earth is obtained by the favour of Dharma. I have explained to you Dharma (i. 0 best brahmana. he i. and shall tell you about it as it is explained by former preceptors. I am telling you the truth. of a good vow. practise) Dharma.e. groves. 25b-26. Thus he should make up his mind. mind and body one should accomplish his preceptor's mission. one should not deliberately) pull off even (a blade of) grass. By means of words. while wandering by chance came (to my father). well-known Cyavana. Being sensible and controlling himself.e. Tell me the cause by which you are (thus) afflicted. by words or physically (i. go to (i. 28b-32a.e. everything. by which) favour is produced. practises) Dharma like this is never again born in this mundane existence. He should be devoted to harmlessness. Hearing the words of his wife.

I have thus narrated to you the messengers and the holy places. loving pious practices and of a pious conduct. and also wives are obtained. Endowed with sacred and worldly knowledge. and which would remove all (your) doubts. 17. his kinsmen and friends. and remembering god Janardana (i. for him. being praised by bards. nor is there any suffering in his body. and both of them asked the secret. he sees his brother endowed with virtue. the groups of his relatives would honour the pious and highly intelligent man. or if he remains by resorting to (i. there was great happiness. Then that Vedasarman fully practised Dharma.e. If a man remains in a fire-chamber. very much devoted to religious practices. From that (i. no languor. Srivrksa-bilva tree.e. perspiration. wealth. in) a stable of horses. . and conversant with the knowledge of singing. Reaching (i. 2. The cause for this (i. goes to) a battle-field and dies. under) an asoka three or a mango tree. along with a son. a son.e. come to his side (i. Amarakantaka-Name of that part of the Vindhya range. He. and he does not commit an error. in temples of deities. 16. Brahmavrksa-palasa or udumbara tree. or (even) if he has gone to the abode of old age (i." 15. since I was asked about it by you. he sees his mother and his meritorious father. or of elephants. these places where he dies are holy. also. or after he resorts to (i. Soma. brahmanas would honour him with the recitations of hymns and his mother would honour him with love. The pious one told both my father and his friend the means of Dharma. in a grove or a lake. 0 my dear wife. I shall tell you how death comes to him who has practised Dharma by means of truthfulness.e. 35-38. tell me what kind of death or birth (does one have?). tranquility and religious merit (and by visits to) sacred places etc. I have told you the cause.e. even if he has become old).tarman said 18. and by resorting to (i. He does not have to toil.e. purity. 23-30. In the same way. as were heard from the great Siddha. In consequence of that meeting (between the Siddha and the two friends) I am convinced as I told you about the very auspicious words. as I had told you before: "By (practising) Dharma (i. choosing) the sacred place called Gographa or Amarakantaka. and seated on a seat is indeed engaged in the worship of deities. or asvattha or the sacred fig-tree. in a cowpen. 1. which is near the source of the river Narmada.e." 11-12a.2 he. to him) and sing his matchless praise. he. forbearance. Both my father and that Vedasarman got up and honoured him with devout offerings. would not at all see his most sinful mother or father etc.e. not in a dream or through troublesome delusion. The Gandharvas sing songs and the panegyrists praise him with panegyrics.e. 0 noble one. under) a palasa or an undumbara tree or a bilva tree' also. there came a divine seer having supernatural faculties. as you had asked me before. When the best man resorts to death (i. not error. and brahmanas. Yama) would invite you. and a wise one. Gandharvas. 20-22. Sumana said 19. Always follow the practices laid down for a brahmana. by practising that) Dharma. I do not have any lineage. 31-34. He (i.e. his father. 0 my dear husband. 12b-14. or a place where there is the asvattha tree. There is no doubt that he remains with a pleased mind. no confusion of memory. also practices Dharma. food and sweet words. come (to that place) where that Dharma stands. He does not contract any disease. and also if he remains by resorting to (i. such a death) is Dharma alone.e. That king of Dharma (i.e. corn.e.e. He is composed. obtains a sacred place for bath. religious precepts). he has no fatigue. when he dies). also in the vicinity of brahmanas. In the meantime. 0 lord. taking up divine forms and ready with Vedic texts. He actually sees the messengers full of love (for him). Tell me all about the nature of both.solely devoted to me-her husband-is sonless. who practises Dharma) has no delusion.

0 you very intelligent one. is born in) the family of a pious brahmana or a ksatriya. having faces like those of lions and having serpents in their hands. reaches the land of a candala. goes with them. 0 good and beautiful lady. if you know it. and dies in a painful condition. and endowed with all pleasures. Yama). with his mind thus pleased. or very white and large-bellied. Sumand said 2-4a. 0 you very intelligent one.e. 0 my dear husband. very tall. very dark and of large bellies. or an aeroplane or an excellent horse or elephant comes (to carry him). resembling dry flesh and marrow. with an umbrella held over his head. Gods with Dharma go forward to (greet) him (and say:) "0 magnanimous one. 39-41. (or) having reached some other place with evil practices. A palanquin or a beautiful vehicle with swans yoked to it. Mixed (i. There he rejoices with (i. terrible. and full of evils and blemishes. 43b-47. surrounded) with celestial nymphs and endowed with auspicious things.Visnu). or a land roamed over by donkeys or resorts to a prostitute's house. (or) he dies after having gone to the house of a seller of spirituous liquors which is full of bones. skins and nails. he sees the lord of Dharma (i. he dies. The pious one. Happily he goes to the gardens and orchards. A very wicked man reaches a region which is inauspicious due to its being impure on account of excretion and urine. That (wicked man) being afflicted. being fanned with chowries and fans. I shall tell you what I learnt from the Siddha about the death of the sinners and what its marks are. or of a rich man.e. fearful. Dasamadvara=Brahma-randhra. and eulogised by learned brahmanas-masters of the Vedas. and frightful. In his case. 1. yellow and dark-blue. come (and) enjoy pleasures as you like. and has a painful death. and praised by the good. being praised with songs by singers and bards. fearful. Now I shall tell you the movements of (Yama's) messengers. of fearful fangs. and being praised by gods. listen. tell me. unity (with the Supreme Spirit) takes place. I (shall) also tell you about the place and actions of great sinners. 7b-12a. seeing them he trembles and is repeatedly afflicted. and due to the efficacy of his own religious merit he enjoys heaven itself. Due to his own religious merit he goes to (i. is reborn. very dreadful. what characteristics apper at the death of sinners. Having reached that (place) the wicked one surely dies. obtains the fruit in accordance with the efficacy of his charity. 42-43a. of tawny eyes. Resorting to the tenth aperture' his soul goes (out of his body). or of a very pious vaisya.e.e. due to) his pious acts and he again performs (deeds leading to) religious merit. in detail. he. 4b-7a. come." In this way he sees the very intelligent Dharma of a pleasing form. desiring (to take) him (to Yama's abode). when he casts his body. . Then the pious and meritorious man. after the exhaustion of his pleasures. CHAPTER FIFTEEN The Death of Sinners Somalarman said 1.

who has adorned himself with red flowers. In this way a being. 21 b-22. Yama observes him who is outcast from all religions. most sinful and an enemy of the customary law. Due to that (severe) cold he becomes afflicted. while he is very much tormented by hunger and thirst. Being deluded by great sin he again forgets them. swords and hatchets. the sinner. Being dragged by (Yama's) messengers he is taken to many inaccessible places. He repeatedly remembers his mother. I shall now tell you about the suffering. Now I shall tell the actions of the dying sinners who have taken away another's wealth.e. Seeing him approaching. Till the end of the period of a thousand yugas he is parched with heat. 16b-21a. does not depart. Due to servere pains his throat snorts. 'Ah'. who reviles gods and brahmanas. listen. All the (messengers) seize the neck of the dying man who commits the great sin of accepting a gift from a bad person. He would punish (i. on mountains. who is besmeared with red sandal. who has a mace in his hand. 0 my dear husband. The wicked-hearted man sees Yama. Having tied him with nooses round his neck. l l b-12. who is fierce. and whose body is huge. who is wicked. The wicked-minded one is taken along the path. who is very fierce due to his large teeth and is very fearful. He falls. . Being tormented by the sun's rays. who is accompanied by Citragupta. he punishes) him with tortures and with wooden mallets.e. and who commits all sins. he is then taken along a cold path and is again served (tormented) by wind. Again and again he is roasted in hells of various kinds. 13b-14. The wicked-minded man sees Yama.e. who is full of (i. not returned debt or wealth of others taken through greed.All the messengers make loud cries like those of jackals into his ears. the wickedminded man. who has worn a yellow garment. 0 best brahmana. thus full of suffering. His face resembles death. 13a. 12b-15a. is taken by Yama's servants. Whatever sins were formerly committed by that great sinner come to his throat. ruthless. There is no doubt about it. he is taken along that path on which the sun's heat is intense and which is heated by twelve suns. enjoyment and infatuation. 4-5. 3. is carried by Yama's messengers. He weeps and trembles very much. waist and belly. CHAPTER SIXTEEN The Death & Post-mortem State of Sinners Sumand said 1. trembles and swoons again and again. who is mounted upon a buffalo. and overcoming him knock him down. Due to obstruction caused by excessive phlegm they produce affliction. That wicked man being burnt and struggling again and again is taken along a path full of a heap of charcoals. (this) does not (happen) in any other manner. 6-11 a. 15b-16a. and being beaten with whips and being censured by them. fearful and with (i. molested another's wife. inaccessible and shadowless places. who has with him) all diseases. father. resorts to his anus and pass out (through it). His life. who resembles a heap of black collyrium. The deluded one. He sees Yama like this. who is greatly deluded and who is full of greed and infatuation. The sinner goes to (i. In this way. is born in) a hellish species among crores of insects. experiences grief. Being hit by the messengers (of Yama) with maces. full of many afflictions. He repeatedly cries-'Ah'. His life going (out) with great grief and pain. brother and wife.e. Being miserable and senseless he is parched with heat in an impure (place). king of Dharma. 2. surrounded by) fearful messengers.

saluted the shining. sinless son of Brahma (i. the best of the yogins again said to him. wife. 0 respectable lady. I shall (now) explain (to you) rebirth and the species to which he goes. of the sinners) at the time of their death. When that best.e. Speaking thus.farman said 1-2. listen to the very fearful struggle of them (i. 0 you of a good vow. 8. 0 you noble one. Somasarman. in the manner of a staff (i. The sinner goes to the species of (i. is born as) a cat. Having obtained a hundred births as dogs he again experiences (the fruit of) sin.e. Saying so. 19b. Suta said 4. and do you always practise virtue?" 11. The wicked-hearted one becomes (i. Request that great sage. There is no doubt that good acts like charity (are fruitful) in this and the next world. Go to Vasistha who knows (what) virtue (is)." 9-10. (please) sit comfortably on the auspicious seat. is born as) a tiger.e. tell me if you know how I would get a son endowed with all virtues. He repeatedly. servants.e. bhilla or (as a member of the barbarous tribe called) pulinda. noble sage Vasistha spoke (like that). who was rich in penance: "0 noble one. quickly went to the omniscient. who was the best among the brahmanas.e. I have told before (i. Sumand said 3. divine Vasistha. said to him: "0 you highly intelligent one. Somasarman). Speaking thus.e. the best brahmana. Vasistha ceased (to speak). 12b-13. Soma§arman. He is repeatedly born in all the species of various kinds and in (those of) lower animals. Vasistha) . 16-19a. to) you (i. devoutly.e.e. 0 my dear husband. 0 you who show respect to others. spoke to noble Vasistha. the best among those who practise penance: "0 revered sir. well-versed in the Vedas. who was full of the flames of lustre and was as it were another sun. is there all well in your house. and fires used for sacred rites? Are you alright. Somasarman) : "0 best brahmana.e. advice).e. is born as) candala. CHAPTER SEVENTEEN The Story of Somafarman's Previous Birth Soma. I shall follow your words (i. When she had said these words. Speaking thus to the brahmana. Thus the wicked-minded man experiences the fruit of his association with sin.e. 20-21. 0 dear one.e. who lived on the bank of the Ganges in a hermitage. Then he goes to the species of (i. by prostrating himself before Vasistha). with your sons. is born among) the sinful birds and in other great species. the best brahmana (said to her:) "0 auspicious lady. pig or a serpent. what work dear to you should I do for you ?" 12a. he (i.15. (please) listen to my .e. like this I shall tell you something else. From him you will (learn how to) obtain a son knowing piety and loving it. explained to you) the practice of sin and merit. The very lustrous. who was the best among those who practised penance. 7. the very wise one (i.e. Vasistha) again said to Sugarman (i. I have (thus) told you everything about the birth of sinners. He goes to (i. noble. and goes to the species of (i. There is no doubt about it. if you ask. is born as) a donkey. best brahmana." 5-6. Thus certainly does the wicked-hearted man die. you have told (me) the excellent form of Dharma.

who were cruel. Again listen to all the wonderful account which I shall tell you about the religious merit which you did and (the practices) you maintained in the previous birth. connected on account of debt. milk and curd. was sent to you by her. if you want to do what I like. 15-17. 0 best brahmana. and none else. You had never given a gift." . you practised agriculture repeatedly. I was advised by my dear wife. Thus. taking advantage of) bad times. I shall (now) tell you the auspicious characteristics of a son. It is time for offering Sraddha to (my) father-in-law. is tranquil. brother. who honours gods and brahmanas. you had never listened to sacred texts. You also collected beasts like cows and buffaloes. You never gave any present to a worthy person.e. you again and again guarded animals. 0 best among the sages. you had never undertaken a pilgrimage to a sacred place. I. through greed you collected much wealth. and having sold them you hoarded ample wealth. 35. all those are bad sons. 0 best of brahmanas. who was eager. you had never heard (what) truth (is). but you never spent it in a good way. and kinsmen and relatives are the five kinds of men. who is devoted to Vedic studies. you had great greed. 33. and to (my) mother-in-law also. Similarly. When the parvan-days arrived. such deed(s) you did formerly (i. When the time for b`raddha came. all cows. Sons. Being deluded by Visnu's Maya. Then tell me all that which would remove all my doubts. Vasistha continued 28-31. you never gave away (anything in charity). 39-40a. 0 you highly intelligent one. (And also you hoarded ample wealth) by selling butter-milk. 0 brahmana. 0 best brahmana. made food more costly here (only). O best brahmana. 19. or seeing a weak person you never showed him any compassion and never gave him money. who is always engaged in religious conduct. Tell me due to what sin (this happens). ghee. who is learned. who is a donor. You. 0 brahmana. the day has come. who performs all (kinds of) sacrifices. according to the difference (depending upon the relation). you were ignorant. who is always devoted to his father and mother and affectionate to his kinsmen. You were a farmer.e. in the former birth you were a 8udra. buffaloes and also horses. thinking of (i. who is very steady in all his acts. never made any present (to anyone). in your previous birth). (About) all of them Sumana has already told you. 27.e. 0 you very intelligent one. who gives away (in charity without expecting any reward in return). you. 0 dear one.words with a very much pleased mind. friends. 0 brahmana. has studied) all sacred books." Vasistha said 18. who practises penance. 0 best brahmana. Your virtuous wife (used to) say: "0 you very intelligent one. you had one wife. 14. 0 brahmana. you never performed it with faith. I am confused with great delusion. you did not know religious conduct at all. who is best among speakers. What is the use of such a useless son? All such (sons) come into the worldly existence as sons and go out of it after causing great tormentation. you never worshipped deities. restrained and friendly. you never gave money to the brahmanas. due to what sin (does) poverty (come to one) and how is it that one does not get happiness? This is my doubt. (Please) relieve me from the bondage of the worldly existence. who knows (i. 36a. 36b-38. who supports his family-a son endowed with such virtues gives happiness. who is endowed with purity and knowledge. 32. 25-26. That son whose mind is attached to merit. 0 you best brahmana. (then) remove the doubt expressed by my question. 20-24. You had many sons. who speaks agreeable words. you always hated (others). Others connected by relation (as a son) cause grief and tormentation. who is a saviour of his family. who is always intent upon meditation on Visnu. 34.

come happily (i. He. Vasislha said 3. 42b. Thus I have told you all your former account. Always thinking about entering into fissures you asked (people about them).e.e. a thousand crores. religious-minded. the devotee of Visnu: "0 you of a good vow. grains. this is your house. a hundred millions. you never offered oblations to fire. from your) body. and had been subdued by destiny. 0 brahmana. 0 best brahmana.e. you became unhappy. endowed with knowledge and always interested in truthfulness and in good conduct. 4-6. for accommodation). live here comfortably. always) saying `Alas. You never saw (i. Therefore. 1. you cherished greed alone. you told me about my sin in the former birth. uttered by) her. Everyday great greed increased in your mind. Asking (people) about spades. the sons are of good character.e. You never gave (in charity) . without Visnu's favour he cannot obtain a wife.40b-42a. you were always pervaded by great delusions : `When will there be a thousand. you were thus infatuated. you are welcome) to my house. 54b-57. Greed (was) your kinsmen and relatives. due to this deed (i. being extremely oppressed by poverty. When your wife and sons asked you about that wealth. When the day dawned. you were (reduced to a pitiable plight." . these deeds) you became indigent and poor. 0 brahmana. in his worldly existence. you never enjoyed (wealth) . the very intelligent one. Hearing those words of (i. and about procedures giving superhuman powers. you never told them (any) account of it. explanation (of secret formulae) and minerology. Today I am blessed. you also always adopted other means to get wealth. 0 best brahmana. today I have visited a sacred place. a crore. That is the highest position of Visnu. You with your wife and sons gave it to him (saying:) 7-9a. but (your) greed never went away leaving (i. Being intelligent you also asked people about other means of getting wealth. A certain innocent. 43-48. Vadaseems to be a reference to the exposition of certain secret spells helping to obtain wealth. came to your house. 0 brahmana. You always thought of sexual union. Today I have obtained the fruit of a visit to a sacred place by seeing your two feet. sons and grandsons. 0 best of brahmanas. a lakh. colly riuml. endlessly enjoys in the world of mortals wealth. he requested you for a place to stay (i. Being burnt by the fire of anxiety. sons or a good birth or a good family. you definitely used to think of wealth even when you used to sleep at night. Visnu is pleased with him in whose house. 52-54a. Due to the blazing of fire of greed. you went to Yama. a lakh. If you think (like listening to them) listen. and always solely devoted to Visnu wandered over the earth for pilgrimages to sacred places. what religious deeds you did in the former birth. well-learned brahmana of a good conduct." You repeatedly said these words to that brahmana. 49-51. 0 brahmana. tell me all about it. you wandered all alone. and abandoning life. (On the contrary) it always increased. you (used to) abandon and run away from your house. cared for) the path of righteousness nor did you ever hear about it. while (thus) wandering. Anjana-seems to refer to the practice of putting a particular kind of collyrium into the eyes and then to see where wealth may be found. you dug the earth and deposited (the coins in it) without the knowledge of your sons. in what way was I forsaken by sudrahood and did I obtain brahmanahood? 0 you well-versed in spiritual and worldly knowledge. Greed (was) your father. Alas'. Always forsaking religious conduct.e. I shall explain to you. He with whom Visnu is pleased. CHAPTER EIGHTEEN The Account of Somalarman's Birth in a Brdhmana Family Somatarman said 1-2. and had become senseless. "0 brahmana.e. your brother. 0 sage. and being fully deluded by greed. come. wife. whenever in your house wealth increased. a crore or one hundred millions or one thousand crores or a billion (coins) in my house?' Thus a thousand. a billion (coins) were (collected by you) .

You also washed them with water. The noble one. and your mind was pervaded with desire. you gave well-cooked food with faith and truthfulness. The best brahmana of great prowess was (thus) advised by Brahma's son (i. You kept awake by dancing and singing songs during that night. with a pleased mind you worshipped Visnu with all (kinds of) auspicious presents and with sandal. with your sons. which was) the Ekada§i (eleventh day) of the bright fortnight of Asadha (called) Papanasini (the destroyer of sins). 0 brahmana. on which fell (i. all wise men having given up all domestic duties.e. Visnu) goes to sleep (called) Yoga-nidra. Anamaya. 36-38. became engrossed in meditating upon Visnu. 34-35. and similarly gave a present to that noble brahmana. and having taken his leave of that brahmana (i. Vasistha). wife etc. when that day came." Then going to the river with your wife and sons. He (also) fasted properly. Joyfully approaching his wife Sumana. (Then) you showed him the cowpen for his lodging. You sent him (away) with devotion and good feelings. 0 brahmana. (he said to her:) "0 . you bathed in the river. 39-41. and very auspicious hymns of praise. To that noble brahmana. Hearing those great (i. excellent enjoyments and happi- ness. 0 brahmana. (So) you collected money only. you will obtain that highest position i. Then you broke the fast. 13-16. 0 blessed one. The brahmana recited the hymn to Ekadasi. you gave him ample presents. poverty. as you died through desire for a son (not being satisfied). grains. having devoutly saluted that brahmana. non-fulfilment of your desire. heaven and salvation. incense etc. Saluting Visnu with devotion and bathing him again and again. 17. by worshipping that Govinda. and on which day god Hrsikesa (i. good birth or death. Due to the efficacy of that vow you obtained (i. you were determined (to observe it and so said:) "I shall observe this vow.e. 18.e. Thus with your wife and sons you pleased that very learned. You. When that very auspicious (account) was heard by your wife and sons they urged you: "Observe this vow in the company of this brahmana. curd. a family with good sons. very important) words.e. It is just the result of that sin that you were born sonless. or to your wife. excellent wife." 20-26a. All the brahmanas praised (Visnu) with (hymns from) the Vedas. I have fully told you about having good sons. 26b-30a. you worshipped the lord of gods with auspicious (objects like) flowers. was born as) a brahmana. Having massaged his body you also shampooed his feet. You did not give it to brahmanas or to helpless persons.e. and due to the favour of Visnu. endowed with a truthful conduct became (i. kingdom.9b-l2. 0 best brahmana. devoted to Visnu. the highest position of Visnu. giving all merit. were born in) a great family of brahmanas.e. You thus forthwith gave ghee. in your previous birth you were deluded through folly. and loss of affection came to you. You also bathed with the water with which his feet were washed. 0 brahmana. wise and of truthful conduct. 19. incense etc. Due to the efficacy of that food sweet food comes to you. (So) due to the effect of that sin. being full of joy.e. due to the company of that brahmana. and all the deeds that you did in your former birth. With songs and (playing upon) musical instruments they celebrated a great festival. Visnu's devotee. 0 brahmana. Narayana. 0 brahmana. Vasistha) went home. wealth.e. and all that is difficult to obtain (are obtained) through the favour of that magnanimous Visnu. In the company of that brahmana you again bathed in the river. excellent enjoyments and happiness. 30b-33. wealth. having saluted Vasistha there. With your wife and sons you also listened to the excellent (account of) religious virtue. Therefore. noble brahmana. When the great festival had come. milk. When it was the dawn of the auspicious and blissful day. you yourself observed the vow like this. the best brahmana stayed there on that day. grains. 0 brahmana. knowing thus be solely devoted to Visnu. food and buttermilk to that noble brahmna. which destroyed all sins.

Always being steady and without desire and anger he saw Visnu (only) (while sitting) on a seat. or (lying) on a bed or (going) in a vehicle or in a dream. Kaustubha-Name of a celebrated gem obtained with 13 other jewels at the churning of the ocean and worn by Vigµu on his chest. who had put on a yellow garment. and who is the protector of Visnu's (i. I shall just propitiate Visnu and shall reach that highest position. A very fearful lion roaring (terribly) came there. full of joy. from whom all very powerful fears like Krtya etc. 1. the destroyer of all fears. very auspicious words bringing about happiness. who was shining with a necklace of big pearls resembling the moon in beauty and also with jewel (called) Kaustubhal. (capable of) destroying life. who resembled a sapphire. the devotees of Krsna (i. what will fear do to me? I have sought the refuge of him. proceed. who was having a great prowess. I have sought the refuge of him who is the refuge of all the eminent. the brahmana (Somasarman) remembered god Visnu. who is a great fear to all sins and demons. who being fearless destroys fears. his devotees). my salutation (to you) the god of gods.l on the bank of Reva. whose eyes resembled lotuses. The very intelligent. They simply frightened him. whose chest shines with the divine mark (called) grivatsa. Seeing him. causing great merit.81. I have sought the refuge of him. magnanimous demons. practised penance there. whose face had a charming smile on it. He verily meditated upon (Visnu:) "0 Krsna.e. spirits of dead persons and also jackals showed him terrible fear. virtuous sage. and of a good vow. with a very calm mind and with meditation. I have sought the refuge of him. and was very much pleased. Vampires. and being frightened. served only her husband endowed with penance. said to her husband: "You are lucky (that) you are advised by that brahmana. she.e. with fearful fangs and cruel came there and roared very fiercely. due to your favour that brahmana. muttering with the hymn of twelve syllables (the name) of auspicious Visnu-that Vasudeva. Very terrible lions of various kinds. The best. 10-26. demons. the best (brahmana) Soma§arman. having gratified (with oblations) gods and manes. devoted to her husband. Kapilasabgama or Kapila-tirtha-Anyone bathing there and performing worship obtains a thousand brown cow. in whose belly remain the three worlds and the seven magnanimous ones." CHAPTER NINETEEN SomaSarman's Eulogy of Visnu Suta said 1-3. That virtuous. glorious Sumana. Great black serpents of strong poison came near that Soma§arman. salvation. he. . 6-9. great. imps.auspicious lady. the intelligent (Soma§arman). cold. who held a conch and a disc and a mace and a lotus. viz. 4.38. Hearing those excellent. or heavy showers. disturbed by the growing great obstacles was not distracted from his meditation on Visnu. Poona) 3. who looked charming and shone with a jewelled necklace. (Though) the best brahmana Somasarman was very much harassed by very high winds in the rainy season. Where then is fear for me? I have sought the refuge of him. whose body looked charming due to all ornaments. and also were seen lions and tigers. told me all my former account and behaviour. his) devotees." 42. the magnanimous god of gods. affectionate to those who seek your shelter. and who 1. Various obstacles frightened him who was meditating. Today only my delusion is destroyed. Vasistha. having bathed. with (his wife) Sumana. he did not move away from meditation. 5. the intelligent one. See Mahabharata (critical edition published by the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. at the auspicious (sacred place called) Kapilasatigama.

of very cold. With Sumana. 0 giver of wisdom. 0 best among those who possess knowledge. would move the worlds. 0 giver of life. who was the lord of the worlds.e. saltuation to you.e. in a war. of the form of death have come here. dwarfish. I have taken shelter with the immortal. I have sought the refuge of (that Visnu who in his) Boars (form) killed Hiranyaksa. being of the form of herbs. 0 lord of all. the universal soul. he is always my refuge. 48-5 7. gesa). What will fear do to me? Visnu is of Brahma. and are disturbing me. the . I have taken shelter with him. I have sought the refuge of him who." 40. was shining. (In the form of) an intoxicated. who is the emancipator of all worlds and the destroyer of all sinners. All the short. and is of the form of fear-I have taken shelter with him. (Thus) addressed by him. in the form of a lion.possessing knowledge. exclusively alone.e. Visnu) is the guardian of all good people. 0 Prajfiainga (i. I shall seek his refuge who takes up a wonderful form. listen with your wife. destroys sins. what (then) will fear do to me? He who is fearless. Visnu.e. I have sought his refuge. frighten me.e. who has the face of an elephant. having wisdom as one of his parts) . who removes pride. saw that god. 0 destroyer of sins. Victory to you. 0 giver of everything. 39. full of knowledge and brilliant. I have sought the refuge of him. Victory to you. who. manifested himself before him and said: 42. "0 very intelligent Somasarman. and cause of all. hump-backed spirits of dead persons and imps etc. he joined the palms of his hands (i. 0 you of a good vow. holding the form of death. who was the great saviour of Brahma and others. who was endowed with all weapons. I have sought the refuge of that god who torments in these forms viz. 41. Victory to you. and who alone remains in the form of Indra. and being sinless is knowledge (itself).e. the first Siddha and the lord of Siddhas. Seeing the exertion and courage of that Somasarman. A terrible storm afflicts my body very much. foreign to gods. O great soul. Thus everyday meditating upon and praising Visnu. prostrated himself before him who was accompanied by Sri (Laksmi or grandeur). 27-28. saluted him) and said: "Victory to you. The very glorious brahmana. whose eyes resembled lotuses. I have always taken the shelter of these forms of Visnu. Varaha-the Boar-form of Visnu. 0 lord of sacrifices. who had held a conch. O best brahmana. I am Visnu. he is Brahma. ask for a boon. Victory to you. 0 eternal one. 1. the destroyer of afflictions. protects the universe. I have taken shelter with that Vamana. he brought Hari (i. who was very glorious. victory to you. I take the shelter with that Visnu. a disc and a mace (in his hands). himself being fixed. being delighted. the lord of the universe. 0 eternal and omnipresent one. who was clad in) a yellow garment. the best brahmana (i. and had the lustre like that of a crore of suns.. 30. full of great joy. who removes the fear of the world and himself causes fear. Anamaya (i. and also of this world. Victory to you. 0 lord of the original forms of souls. 0 you of the form of sacrifice. shows great fear to me (standing) in front (of me). victory to you. Visnu) of the form of Dharma. Victory to you. who was dark like a cloud. affectionate to those who seek his shelter. who has a black face like that of an elephant. Visnu) into his heart through devotion. the highest lord. Somasarman) having opened both his eyes. whom they call allgood. who was always beyond this universe. who was with (i. I have well sought the refuge of him. Victory to you. he. and is full of the knowledge of Brahman. What will fear do to me? I have sought the shelter of that Janardana (i. he is the giver of Brahman (i. I salute that (Visnu) in the form of Narasimha.e. whose body was charming due to all ornaments. who was shining.e. my salutation to you. I have sought the refuge of him." 43-47. victory to you. Victory to you. These. who was endowed with divine characteristics. 0 Yajnanga. who sleep on the body of the serpent (viz. who is endowed with knowledge. who. and who (himself) is pure and entirely full of bliss. takes one to the supreme spirit). who was above (all) forms. the lord of gods. He is always my shelter. who. I have taken shelter with him. Victory to you. 29. who holds a noose and a goad. 0 omniscient one. heavy showers and heat. removes diseases. 31-38. who was mounted upon Garucla. (then) what will fear do to me? He. huge elephant (he) has come. Madhava.

and the sustainer of everything. victory to you. Salutations (to you). are pure. 0 you who give diligence. Salutation to you. 0 you whose body is charming due to your valour. Salutation to you. who undertake exertion and who are Dharma. 0 Govinda. to Hari (i. Buddha and the destroyer of Mlecchas. Victory to you. Victory to you. 0 you. full of the Vedas. noble Nrsirnha. whose lotus-like feet are saluted by the lords of gods and demons.e. Salutation to you. Salutation to you who are lustre. 0 Visnu. Salutation to you. whose abode is the milky ocean. Padmanabha (from whose navel sprang the lotus). Salutation to you. Salutation to you. Salutation to you who (work) for the well-being of cows and brahmanas.e. and also by your truthfulness. Victory to you. 0 you illustrious one. Salutation to you. 0 you. who killed all the ksatriyas. to you. O you of the form of knowledge. to you to whom Laksmi is dear. 60-71. Victory to you. the destroyer of suffering. Victory to you. 0 holder of the disc. who are Matsya and Rama. Salutation to you. to (you) the highest Kesava. Visnu) the remover of sins. who are omniscient. Victory to you who are capable of elevation. victory to you. Who can describe you? 0 lord.e. 0 brahmana. of the nature of Svaha." 72-75. victory to you. I have praised you. who are pure and who are perfect.e. Salutation to you who favours (all) and who are full of joy. Salutation to you. Salutation to you. having a golden seed. satisfy) . of the nature of Vyasa and to you who have every form. and who remove evil lustre. who have Laksmi as a part of your sport. Salutation to you of tawny hair. Salutation to you who direct the good and the bad. Having thus praised Hcsikesa. he then said to that Janardana : "0 you purifier. the leader of valour. and who are stable. of what kind (i. nor the thousand-eyed (Indra) is able to praise you. O Gopala. Repeated salutations to you who are the highest lord. who are the sacrifice and who are the purifier. who are of the form of great brilliance. 58-59. whose feet are saluted by Rudra and who are saluted by Brahma. and Hayagriva. Siva). 0 Visnu who are yourself) exertion. neither omniscient Rudra (i. and who shine with wisdom. and who are full of all lustre. 0 you lord of the words. the eternal. who are Omkara. victory to you. divine Parasurama. who are joy. victory to you who had the three elevations (i. Choose a boon. who are the highest soul. and you who destroy all calamities. I am your servant. Victory to you. who are qualityless and having qualities. and to you. who are Krsna. birth after birth. I am pleased by this meritorious penance of yours. Salutation to you. I shall fulfil (i.e. who are unconquered and whose heart is full of nectar. three steps). and the purifier. Salutation to you.e. and to you. and the remover of all afflictions. salutation to you. salutation to you whose forms are unmanifest and manifest. whose body is charming due to your valour. Repeated salutations to you of the form of Vamana. the brahmana (named) Kapila. Repeated salutations to you. pure one. My constant salutation to you. the controller of merit. cherish) in your mind. 0 you purifier. Repeated salutations to you who are comprehensive and who pervade (everything). Repeated salutations to you. victory to (you) who put an end to all exertion. and I am also pleased by the holy hymn of praise. Salutation to you who hold the Sarnga bow in your hand. victory to (you. the farthest limit of virtues. of the form of Vedas. Salutation to you.lord of merit. Brahma does not know you." CHAPTER TWENTY The Birth of Suvrata Hari said 1-2. the carrier of the oblations to the manes and to you of the form of Svadha. to you. Salutation to you. (please) forgive me for my words-bad words. My constant salutation to you. I shall grant you the boon that you have (i. who destroy the prowess of the demons. 0 you of a good vow. the enjoyer of the offerings and the carrier of the oblations to gods. who can be comprehended by knowledge. (please) forgive me. how limited) is my intellect? 0 Kesava. Salutation to you. 0 you having eyes like lotus-petals.

Give me such a son.(arman said: 3. Somasarman. after having mounted the elephant (i. You will enjoy divine and human boons here (i. Both his temples shone with red lead and saffron. (and) remove my poverty. You will meet with death at a sacred place (and) will obtain the highest position. in this world). continue) my family. if you have good (i. who will always protect and honour gods. may you have a good son. 0 best brahmana. he.e. Then that best brahmana Somasarman. By my favour. grant me a boon much desired by me. and going. thus amazed. Seeing this courtyard besmeared with auspicious. best brahmana. (accompanied)with(hiswife)Sumana. (he saw) the divine charming form entering (through) the door of his house. and endowed with an umbrella and chowries. who will be pious. Hari said: 8b-11. may it be so. virtuous happiness due to your son. and with durva grass and sacred rice grains. Somasarman came to his house. the religious-minded. fragrant sandal and saffron. May it be so certainly (lit. quickly went to his house. there is no doubt).e. 0 brahmana. who will be endowed with divine characteristics. Soma. which was very bright. first. (give me) a son.whatever desire you entertain. 12. In front of him the brahmana saw a white elephant. `Who is this. Perceiving great. divine. going after having reached (i. giving merit. with his mind full of amazement. giving (me) salvation. There is no doubt about this. on the auspicious bank of Revd. Visnu). gave auspicious gifts at the great and purifying sacred place Amarakantaka. who will be a donor and will be mature in intellect due to knowledge. you will. who would emancipate your family. being carried by the elephant). Samasarman) saw him to be very pleasing like the moon. this.e. and who was adorned with all ornaments. he bathed at the confluence of Kapila and Reva and set out. . (He saw the man) who was very auspiciously being praised by Siddhas. of a divine body and a good vow. When a very long time of that Somasarman passed (i.e. when he thus passed a long time). very bright man. of a profuse ichor. and reflecting repeatedly. 5-8a. brahmanas and (other) people. excellent elephant and the man with divine characteristics. I choose this boon. bards and Gandharvas. 13-21. who will sustain (i. the lord vanished. Getting birth after birth (i. who was endowed with divine marks. You will be a donor. Show me the highest. with a pleased mind. auspicious) marks. and endowed with great grace. but when he went upto the door of his house he did not see him. Thus having granted a boon to that brahmana dear tohim. (but instead) the very intelligent one (saw) charming divine. an enjoyer and will appreciate merits. Full of great joy.e. great) pity for me.e. experience) unhappiness as long as you live. On the elephant was seated a divine. Somasarman. (He saw the elephant) whose ears were having blue lotuses on them. fragrant flowers fallen in the courtyard (of his house). 4. beautiful.e. who will be endowed with the lustre of penance. with his body looking beautiful on account of many ornaments. along) the path?' When.e. saw Sumana with divine and auspicious excellence. in every existence) I shall be devoted to you. and of charming (i. stable place. who will emancipate his family. who had put on divine flowers and who was besmeared with divine sandal. 0 Ke§ava. thinking like. not see (i. Undoubtedly it will take place. reflected 22-27.e. who will be always intensely devoted to Visnu. 0 Krsna (i. who will know everything and grant everything. The best (brahmana. Seeing that beautiful.e. He was seen as (thoughseen) in a dream. and which was having a banner and a staff.

then. 0 you auspicious one. having come there with gods. 38b-45a. the best brahmana Somasarman performed rites like the birth-rite (of the boy).e. That respectable lady then looked more beautiful due to that embryo. The son's sons. When the gods had left. 0 best brahmana. again said : "We shall always dwell in your house. best brahmana. this much only is what) I saw. listen. and indeed all the celestial nymphs danced at that time. She was (so much) endowed with youth that she was as it were sixteen year old. with charm due to all ornaments. Gandharvas and bards. righteousness and penance. full of) wealth and grains. had come. about) them. With great joy he celebrated the marriage of the son. were born. and decoration (in the form) of garments and ornaments? 29. the best brahmana ceased (speaking). The intelligent one. (this) fortune in the form an excellent dress. Then the calm. having heard the account told by her. endowed with knowledge and merit. who was being praised by gods. ornaments and decorations.e." Speaking thus. Gandharvas sang charming songs. without any apprehension tell me the reason. Great gods blew conches. That noble. With auspicious vows like (being very loyal to) the husband. the large-eyed one shone excellently. She was endowed with the flame of lustre as she was having that bright son (in her womb). At that time divine drums resounded in the sky. with beauty and excellent dresses. She. With him were ladies who were endowed with auspicious forms. In front of them the illustrious man filled our quadrangle with gems and is (therefore) endowed with all charm. again reflected: `What is this brought about by the lord?' Thus thinking the very wise Somasarman engaged himself in the religious duties of a brahmana. all the gods of great prowess left. They were endowed with truthfulness. free from) old age and diseases. virtuous and endowed with good signs. Then I was placed on an auspicious seat by brahmanas. Someone best among the gods. and also (there were) elephants. and with vows and restraints. gave there auspicious gifts. 0 good one. When the illustrious son Suvrata. The brahmana. thus was their behaviour full of auspicious practices. always remain undefiled along with your husband. All of them gave me garments. the boy) Suvrata. 45b-57. they all left. Who gave (you) these divine ornaments. mounted upon a white elephant. adorned with divine ornaments. His body was as (if) he was twentyfive years old. 0 my husband. Thus only (i. I . endowed with divine wonders. very prosperous. 32-38a. righteous. They all consecrated me with auspicious Vedic hymns and meritorious songs from the sacred texts. had come. That illustrious Sumana observing a vow became pregnant from him. respectable lady Sumana also shone with pious and auspicious (things). with sons and grandsons. Having named him. all of them (being) around me. and the illustrious one was happy with their grandsons. Somasarman performed all auspicious rites of (i. I do not know which deity he was (who was) served by brahmanas and Gandharvas. named him (i. Brahma. The house of that Soma§arman shone as the house of Kubera shone with heaps of wealth. brought into existence by gods. buffaloes and cows. He. there was great prosperity in his house mixed with (i. Sumand said 30-31.e. due to (the efficacy of) her penance.Somafarmana said 28.e. The best brahmana performed rites like meditation (and other) auspicious deeds. and they again disappeared. charming and auspicious couple was delighted and full of joy. full of many merits went on a pilgrimage. The very intelligent one. with his body smeared with divine sandal. gave birth to a son resembling a god. 58-60.e. That very wise Somasarman was lustrous like the sun. He enjoyed all pleasures and was without (i. was born. and all with their desires satisfied. 0 best brahmanas. gold and jewels. Thus speaking to his wife. The magnanimous.

having beating times. 0 great lord. he always meditated upon Hari (i. singing or viewing (something). being extremely amazed. on dry land. me (who am devoted to) the pure and large pair of the feet of him who is the royal swan in the Manasa lake (i. I now desire to hear the life-account of Suvrata. excellent account. tala. come along. Visnu) only.e. Visnu ). He saw Janardana (i. Once that resplendent Vyasa. he talked to him only. come. the magnanimous one (i. I meditate upon the god.e. while playing. the lord of the world. I salute that highest lord free from all faults and I always salute his pair of feet. I seek his shelter in order to cross the entire ocean of the worldly existence which is endless. Govinda. on the ground. and in whom all the worlds abide. (since) he had seen (that) god Purusottama Narayana while (still) in the womb (of his mother).e.e. 3.' In this way the brahmana called (others) by the names of Hari. pious one. He meditated and reflected upon that god Padmanabha. in whose body (remains) the entire universe. Thus the best brahmana. Those whose minds are purified by the (study of) Vedanta everyday recite (the hymns about) Narayana. The intelligent. and who destroys all sins. Laya-Time in music. who is the moon (that has come) here only to destroy the darkness in the form of grief. in a stone or in beings. on a seat. 0 you in whom the worlds are deposited. in forests. Raga. `O Kesava. Murcchana-The rising of sounds.e. even from his childhood. who occupies all the worlds. 0 soul of the worlds.e. of the brahmapa Suvrata.shall now tell you the observance of the vows by Suvrata (and) how he (obtained bliss) by having propitiated Narayana Anamaya (i. 0 enemy of demons. conducting the air and the harmony through the keys in a pleasing manner.e. asked Brahma. He the very wise one. and sang about Krsna with songs with good musical modes. on mountains. O Cakradhrk (i. protect this poor one viz.' or lava (i. (about) the entire account of Savrata. The intelligent Suvrata reflected upon Narayana (i. while meditating.e. a duly regulated rise and fall of sounds. 0 Purusottama. Vyasa said 2. the minds) of the best reflecting sages. laya etc. and also in the sky. Visnu. that brahmana Suvrata.e. in (i. 0 you noble Parasarya (i. laughing. It is of three kinds: druta. named the sons of him. full of practice of penance. 0 Madhusudana. Kesava. and of unlimited power. with charming notes of the gamut and melodies. the ruler of the world viz.e. who is the enemy of demons. who has led . changing the key or passing from one key to another. play with me only.e. CHAPTER TWENTYONE Suvrata's Devotion to Visnu Suta said 1. 0 god of gods. Visnu) come. 0 Madhava come. after Hari. Those who know the Vedas always meditate upon him. 4-8. (Thus) Sumana's son. or comprehending or (doing) good acts. the lord of the entire world.e. Visnu) everywhere. meditated upon (i. 1. or in a vehicle. who is pure and whose entire prowess always (continues). Visnu) the lord of the world only. an intonation. holding a conch and a disc and giving great merit.e. his own sons). couched in sweet words. who is the lord of reflective meditation. loving merit. while he sang) songs. in a dry or wet (object). always played with children. in wood. Resorting to a child's sports he thus played everyday. saw) that great lord. Visnu). The very intelligent one called his friend by Hari's name 9-16. (did) study and recitations.e. in water. Due to his having performed (good) deeds (in the) former (birth). we shall go together only. I shall seek the shelter of (that) Madhusudana (i. listen to the meritorious. the excellent boy. lying. madhya and vilambita. times in music). are terms used in music. (reciting) sacred hymns. saw Nrsimha (i. that religious-minded one. Suvrata said Brahmd said 17-24a. reciting. fathomless and difficult to cross. the disc-holder i. in grass. always reflecting upon Hari (i. son of Para§ara). the treasure of virtues. Visnu). having lotus-like eyes.e.

With charming songs and measuring the beatings of time I constantly medidtate upon Sriraitga (i. destroyer of ignorance. 26. being a child. Suvrata) always sought the shelter of that Kesava. He (i. comparable to the sun only. Sumana's son. hunger might oppress you. the lord of the worlds. He always observes the mobile and immobile universe. 25. Thus. and full of all prowess. was engaged in sports. intent on meditating upon Visnu. Suvrata. is the chief of all the worlds. the root of joy. His mother said to Suvrata of fine characteristics. who is endowed with truth.Dharma (i. who is endowed with his senses of deep meditation and who has the true perspective. Beating the time with (the clappings of) the hands he sang songs (about) Krsna and rejoiced with (other) children. I sing with unique joy (the praise of) him who alone is full treasure of the portion of nectar. Visnu ). The very sinful people do not at all see him to be here. piousness) for the protection of the world. 27. the lord of the world. have your meal. (and) playing: "0 my boy." .e.e. 24b.e. who.

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