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WillPeasantsMap?Hyperlinks,MapMashups,andtheFutureofInformation JeremyW.Crampton [Chapterfrom:TheHyperlinkedSociety:QuestioningConnectionsintheDigitalAge JosephTurowandLokmanTsui,Editors] Inthisessay,Iexaminethechangingdynamicsofhowmapsandinformationare interlinked.Iarguethatformostofitshistory,mappinghasbeenthepracticeof powerfulelitesthesovereignmap.[1]Nationstates,governments,thewealthy, andthepowerfulalldominatedtheproductionofmaps,andknowledgeoftheworld emanatedfromtheelitesforthebenefitoftheelites.[2]Thishistoryisnowbeing challengedbytheemergenceofanew,populistcartography,inwhich,throughnew formsoflinking,thepublicisgainingaccesstothemeansofproducingmaps. Thisiscertainlynotanisolateddevelopment.Itispartofalargermovementof counterknowledgesthatareoccurringinthefaceofeverincreasingcorporatization ofinformation,suchastheconsolidationofthenewsmediaintothehandsofafew globalmultinationalsandtheirdominancebyfairlynarrowinterests.

s.TheInternet andWeb,blogs,andthenetroots(onlinepoliticalactivism)areallreasonsforthis peoplepoweredcontrolofinformation.[3]3Inthisessay,Ifocusonsomeofthe excitingnewdevelopmentsthatcanhelpcreate,visualize,anddisseminate geographicalinformation.Ialsonoteanumberofobstaclesthatimpedewidespread disseminationofthesetools. PopularversusPopulistCartography Mapsareapowerfulwayofknowingabouttheworldandhavealwaysinvolved linkingcertaintypesofinformationtospatialrepresentationsofthatinformation. Evidenceofmapusedatesbacktoearliesthistoricaltimes(Greece,Rome,and Mesopotamia).Mappopularityhasfluctuated:atcertaintimes,thepublichas embracedmaps;atothertimes,mapswereonlymadeduetonewgeographical discoveriesandtechnologies,withoutexplicitdemandbythepublic.However,ifwe lookattheseoccasions,theyallsharesomethingincommon;theywerepopularbut notpopulist Page207 events.Inpopularmapping,thecontrolofgeographicalinformationremainsinthe handsofanelite.Inpopulistmapping,bycontrast,thepublicnotonlyhasaccessto mapsasanendproductbutcancontrolthemeansofproductionofmaps.This populistprojectisatrulyradicalhistoricaldeparturethathasthepotentialto

changethefutureofinformation.Itfacessomedifficultchallengesandobstacles, whichIshalldiscuss. HistoricalExamplesofPopularMapping Duringthesixteenthcentury,asnewterritorieswerebeingexplored,anexplosion ofnewmapsbecameavailablefromthebigEuropeancartographicpublishing houses,suchasOrtelius.ThemapoftheworldproducedbyPtolemyinthefirst centuryADwasrediscoveredandrepublishedinthemidfifteenthcenturywith verylittlemodification.TheBehaimGlobeof1492(theoldestsurvivingglobe)was indicativeofknowledgeatthetimeinthatitobviouslyomittedtheAmericasbut alsopushedAsiaeastwardby1500miles,makingitfarmorereachablefrom Europe.ItisthoughtthatthismistakeconfirmedColumbusinhisenterpriseofthe Indies.IfColumbusdidnotseethatglobe,hewouldbefamiliarwithitsgeneral contentasanavigatorhimself(andonewhohadabrotherinthemapmakingtrade), fromworldmapsandmapsofportsalongthecoast(knownasportolancharts). SubsequenttotheColumbianencounter,[4]however,informationaboutfarflung territoriesandcontinentscameinthickandfast,andpublishersviedwitheach othertoproducethemostuptodatemaps.JuandeLaCosa,whosailedwith Columbus,wasthefirstEuropeantomaptheAmericancontinent(1500),while MartinWaldseemllersmapof1507(recentlypurchasedbytheLibraryof Congressfortenmilliondollars)wasthefirsttonameit.TheFlemishcartographer Mercatorinventedhiseponymousprojectionin1569,stillinuseinclassrooms today.ThesixteenthcenturyalsosawAbrahamOrteliusissuethefirstmodernatlas, theTheatrumOrbisTerrarum(TheateroftheWorld)bycombiningmapsintobook formin1570.ItwasMercator,however,whocoinedthewordatlas(forhis collectionin1595).JohnSmithsmapofVirginiaof1608isalsowellknownand includesadrawingofChiefPowhatan,fatherofPocahontas.Astheseselected examplestestify,theimportanceandnumberofmapsandcartographicpublications duringthisperiodcannotbeunderestimated,andtheywereembracedbythe public.Everyeducatedpersonconsideredtheirlibraryincompletewithoutatlases andmaps. Page208 Adifferentkindofpopularmappingemergedduringthenineteenthcentury.Inthis case,thenewknowledgeswerenotofterritoriesbutofscience.Manytypesof thematicmapsthatthendevelopedsuchasproportionalsymbol,dot distribution,choropleth,andisolinemapsformthebasisoftodaysmappingand GISsoftware.[5]JohnSnow,forexample,consideredtodaytobethefatherof epidemiologyandakeenexponentofthegeographicalnatureofdisease,isfamous inbothgeographyandpublichealthforhisworkthatusedmappingtoanalyzethe choleraepidemic.[6]Snowsmapidentifiedtheverywaterpumpthatwasthe sourceofthecholerainfectedwater.Thiswasafullthreedecadesbeforethegerm theoryofdiseasewasacceptedinthe1880s.

Withtheriseofindustrializationandurbanization,themodernstatemappedouta hostofproblematicsubjects:crime,education,divorce,birthrates,education, poverty,disease,thedistributionoflanguages,andnewimmigrants.Allthesetopics receivedtreatmentatthehandsofthecenturyspoliticalscientists, protodemographers,geographers,andgovernments.EvenFlorenceNightingale useddatagraphicstoconvinceskepticalBritishofficialsthatdirtanddiseasekilled morementhanfightingdid. Manyofthesemapswerepublishedinanewkindofatlas,thestatisticalatlas.It mappednotterritorybut,rather,thenationshumanresources.Basedonthe census,itwasaimednotjustatofficialsbutattheeducatedpublic.Thefirst Americanstatisticalatlaswasprintedinsufficientnumbersforboththepublicand librariestopurchaseit.[7]Neweditionswereissuedeverytenyearsintimewith thecensus. Butinterestinknowledgeofplaceshadnotdisappeared;inlinewiththenew scientificknowledges,itwasorientedinward,atthehometerritory.AsSchulten describesinherfineaccountoftheRandMcNallymappingcompany,[8]inAmerica, atleast,thecontinentwasstillrelativelyunexplored.Bythetimetheclosingofthe Americanfrontiertookplacein1893,[9]mapswererequiredfortheemerging automobileindustry.[10]TheAmericanGeographicalSociety(AGS),foundedin 1851,andtheNationalGeographicSociety(NGS)alsoprovidedthepublicwith prodigiousquantitiesofnewmapsandexplorersaccounts.Thesewerepopular withthepublic,ifnotamongmoreseriousmindedacademics.[11] Theworldwarsofthetwentiethcenturyalsostimulatedarenewedpublicappetite formaps.DuringWorldWarII,manyAmericansfollowedtheprogressofthewaron wallmaps,anactivityencouragedbyPresidentRoosevelthimself.Suchpopular outletsasFortuneandtheLosAngelesTimespublishedincrediblenewmapsby RichardEdesHarrison Page209 andCharlesOwenssuitedtotheairage,featuringviewsoverthepolaricecaps andperspectivesofEuropeasseenfromMoscow.[12]Thewaritselfwasnotshort onpropagandamaps,oftendroppedinthethousandsfromtheairoverenemy territory. Countermapping Theprecedingexamplesdemonstratethatthepopularityofmappinghaswaxedand wanedhistoricallyinconjunctionwithnewdemandsformapsornewopportunities formaps.Noticeably,mappopularityisassociatedwiththeproductionand disseminationofnewknowledgebyelites(thestate,thewealthy).Asmapsare deeplyculturalphenomena,thisgeographicalknowledgedoesnotexistina socioculturalvacuum.Mapmakersshareatopdownapproach;informationis disseminatedfromacadreofcartographicexpertstoalargelyignorantpublic.This publichasnocontroloverwhatinformationisprovided,whenitisprovidedorin

whatform,howmuchitcoststoaccessit,whocanaccessit,thepossibilityof challengingthisinformationandgettingotherinformation,andsoon;thatis,the systemwasprofoundlyundemocratic. Thefactthatthedistributionandcirculationofgeographicinformationwas constrainedinthiswayshouldnotsurpriseus.Thecontrolofinformationand knowledgeforthebenefitofapoliticalelitehasbeenahallmarkofinformationfor aslongastherehasbeeninformation,aswritersonpublicopinionhavelong pointedout.[13]Nevertheless,paralleltothiscontrolhasbeenacurrentof oppositionandcritique,whichincartographytakestheformofcountermapping. Theideaofcountermappingistoreversepowerasymmetries.Mapscanbecreated bysmallgroups,communities,andevenindividualstoachievegoalsnototherwise possible.Theycanbeusedbythoseindevelopingcountriestoworkagainst dominantWesterninformation.Theyarecountertotheprevailingstructuresof power,especiallythosedeployedbythestate.Forexample,countermappinghas beenusedinconservationtoshowthatthewaysomeareasaremappedaffectstheir statusasprotectedareas.[14]Somespacesthatincludeindigenouspeoplewith nonWesternculturesmightbeconstruedasuninhabitedandacandidatefor environmentalprotectioninwaysthatwoulddisrupttheirlivesorignorelocal knowledges.Whilebiodiversityandspecieslossarecriticalecologicalfactors,the simpleprotectionofareascanalsobemerelyanextensionofstatecontroltothe exclusionoflocalactors.Countermapping Page210 canbeemployedtogivevoicetotheseactors,whethertheyareinEastAfricaor impoverishedAmericanurbanneighborhoods. Indeed,oneoftheearliestexamplesofcountermapping(althoughnotermyet describedit)wasperformedduringthe1960sbytheradicalgeographerBillBunge inurbanareas,suchasDetroit.[15]Bungesmapswereproducedwithgroupsinthe innercitystrugglingforcivilrightsandsafeneighborhoods.Onefamousexample mappedoutratbitesonneighborhoodchildren;anothershowedclusterswhere childrenhadbeenhitbycars. Countermappingoftenemploystheverytoolsthathavepreviouslybeenusedto assertdominantpowerrelations.Forexample,incommunityGIS(sometimes knownasparticipatoryGIS,orPGIS),localcommunitiesmayusecheaporWeb basedGIStoolstomapoutneighborhoodresources(e.g.,communitycenters,parks, andopenspaces)toresistdevelopment.PGISisagrassrootsphenomenonwiththe goalofempoweringtraditionallydisempoweredgroups.Maporbemappedmight beitsmotto. Countermappingisanattempttocreatemapsbasedondifferentkindsofknowledge thatexplicitlyembraceapolitical,partisanpointofview.Countermappersclaim thatallmapshavesuchpointsofview.Mapsarenotmirrorsofnaturethatreflect

knowledgebutsitesofknowledgeproduction.Knowledgeiscreatednotinisolation butinconditionsthatprivilegesomeknowledgeoverothers. Theseideashaveproventobeveryinfluentialinunderstandingspatial representations,andtheyparallelresearchinotherareas,suchasspatialcognition. Forexample,childrenappeartogothroughaprocessofunderstandingspatial relationsasacreativeprocess.Astwoleadinginvestigatorssuccinctlyputit,maps arecreativestatementsabouttheworld,notmerelydegradedversionsofit.[16] SarahElwood,aleadingresearcherofPGIS,hasarguedthattheconditionsofspatial knowledgeproductionarepolitical.[17]ThisdoesnotmeanthatmapsandGISare biased;itmeansthatknowledgeisproducedunderconditionsofpower.Herewe areclosetoawellknownideaintheworkofMichelFoucault,thatofpower knowledge.Foucaultsaidthatknowledgesareusuallyproducedundercertain conditionsofpowerandthatsomeknowledgesareprivilegedwhileothersare subjugated.Forexample,hespeaksofawholeseriesofknowledgesthathave beendisqualifiedasnonconceptualknowledges,asinsufficientlyelaborated knowledges,knowledgesthatarebelowtherequiredleveloferuditionor scientificity.[18] Relevantforourpurposeshereisthatsometimescounterknowledges Page211 canemergeandprovidethebasisforacritiqueoftheprevailingwayofdoingthings, likenedbyFoucaulttoaninsurrectionfrombelow.[19]Themostobviousparallel tothisinsurrectionarethenetroots,atermcoinedin2002byJeromeArmstrong todescribetheonlinegrassrootspoliticalcommunity.Armstronghasstatedthathe wasattractedtothewholenetrootstograssrootstypeofpoliticalactivismthatthe Internetenabled.[20]ArmstrongandMarkosZnigawrotethattheywere crashingthegateofestablishmentpolitics.[21] Thenetrootshassomeinterestingparallelstocountermapping.Itisorganizedfrom thebottomupanddistributesmessagesthroughblogsandothersocialnetworks. Theprincipalvalueoftheblogosphereisthatitdemocratizesourpoliticaldiscourse almostcompletely.Anyonecanbecomeapundit,findanaudience,reportfacts, createacommunityoflikemindedcitizensandactivists,andinfluencethepublic discourseallwithouthavingtomoldoneselfintowhatisdemandedbythe WashingtonPostandwithouthavingtocareaboutpleasingtheeditorsofTime magazine.[22] Todemocratizediscoursemeaningfullyinthecaseofmappingrequirestoolsthat areaccessibletoasmanypeopleaspossible,theknowledgetousethosetools, accesstorelevantdata,andtheabilitytoanalyzeanddisplaythatdataonmaps.In thenextsection,Idiscussthedevelopmentofthesetoolsandwhattheymeanfor thefutureofgeographicalinformation. TheDemocratizationofCartography

Itturnsoutthatwhenwetalkabouttheworldsinformation,wemeangeography too. Google Upuntilthe1980s,ithadalwaysbeenassumedthatmapswereessentiallydevices thatcommunicatedinformationthathadbeengatheredandprocessedbytheexpert cartographer.Asthehistoricalexamplespreviouslycitedtestify,thishadbeenthe caseforhundredsofyears.Thecraftofcartographyhadaguildlikestatus,requiring yearsoftrainingandthemasteryofspecializedtechniques.Theseideasabouthow mapsworkedwereformalizedinthepostwaryearsbyArthurRobinson,aprofessor of Page212 geographyattheUniversityofWisconsinMadison.Robinsonprovidedthe conceptualapparatusofwhatlaterbecameknownastheMapCommunication Model(MCM),whichexplainsmappingasaprocessofcommunicatinginformation fromthemapexpertorcartographertothemapreader.Theinformationis acquired,marshaled,andselectedbythemapexpertandsetdownonthemap. Itisaverytopdownmodel.Forexample,thecartographerexpertmightacquire informationonthedistributionofcropsacrosstheMidwest,selectandarrangethe information(e.g.,intocategoriesofdifferentcroptypes),andthensymbolizeit cartographically(e.g.,asadotdistributionmap).Themapreadernovicethen absorbstheinformation. However,therewereproblemswiththismodel.Cartographershadnowaytodecide howtopresenttheinformationoreveniftheirmapswerebeingunderstood. Robinsonsinsightcameinpayingattentionnotonlytothewaytheinformationwas laidout(symbolized)onthemapbuttotheabilitiesofthemapreadertoabsorbit. Hiskeystoneworkissuedacallforresearchintothephysiologicaland psychologicaleffectsofmapdesign.[23] Thisideawasbasedonthatofoneofthemostinfluentialscientistsofthetwentieth century,ClaudeShannon.Shannonistheprogenitorofcommunication(or information)theory.[24]Thistheoryisattheheartofourdigitaldevices,suchas computers.Shannonrecognizedthatinformationwascountable.Usinghis methods,itbecamepossibletocountthemaximumamountofinformationthatit waspossibletotransmitthroughaparticularchannel,[25]suchasamap.Shannon showedthatcommunicationcouldbeimprovedifthesignal(theinformation)was maximizedandthenoise(theunwarranteddistortionsorerrors)couldbe minimized.Thissignaltonoiseratio(SNR)isstillusedtodayininformationtheory tomeasurethequalityofacommunication.Usingcommunicationtheory,Robinson clearedthewayforthedevelopmentofthemapcommunicationmodelinthelate 1960s.By1972,thismodelwasfirmlyestablishedinthediscipline,withthe InternationalCartographyAssociation(ICA)establishingthetheoryofcartographic communicationasoneofitstermsofreference.[26]

Bythe1980s,however,therewereanumberofpressuresonthisaccountof mapping.Foronething,publiccontrolofinformationbecamemorepossiblewith thearrivalofinexpensivedesktopcomputersandthefirstmappingsoftware. Mappingprogramshadbeenaroundsincethe1960sandwerelatertoprovevery influential.TheHarvardLaboratoryforComputerGraphics,forexample,nurtured earlydevelopmentsin Page213 GIS.[27]Buttheywerecumbersome,limitedtoexpensiveequipment,andrequired sophisticatedprogrammingskills.Theywerealsoverycrudeinappearance.Bythe 1980sandtheadventoftheAppleMacintosh(aplatformquicklyembracedinthe graphicdesign,publishing,architecture,andcartographiccommunities),anewform ofmappingdesktopcartographywaspossible. Asagraduatestudent,IcanstillrememberthethrillofthosefirstMacs.The departmenttaughtcartographytheoldway(darkroom,camera,andphotographic chemicals)untilthelate1980s.Studentswereexpectedtobuyinkpensandmaster freeformdrawingonmylarastheyhaddonefordecadesinhis1948cartography guide,Raiszhadincludedachapteronhowtoavoidsmudgingyourink.[28]Now onecouldguaranteeastraightlineofconstantwidthwithaflashofthemouse. Cartographersquicklyrealizedthatthesenewtoolsaffordednewmapping possibilities.Atthetime,scientistswereworkingonscientificvisualization,aset ofapproachesforvisualizingscientificdata.Ingeography,thisbecameknownas geovisualization.[29]Typically,visualsareofsecondaryimportanceinscienceor areonlyusedtocommunicatefindingstheknowns.Bythelate1980s,scientists andcartographersrealizedthatvisualizationcouldbearesearchtooltoexplore datatofindhiddenpatterns.Theseexploratorytoolsfocusedondiscoveringthe unknownsinadataset.Today,theGISbusinessisbelievedtogenerateanywhere fromfourtotenbilliondollarsayear,[30]andthegeospatialglobalbusinessis possiblyaslargeasfiftybilliondollarsayear. Verylargedatasets,suchassatelliteimageryofdeforestation,couldnowbe interactivelydataminedforsignificantpatternswithoutrequiringprior knowledgeofthesituation.Thepowerofthevisualgraphicswasthattheycould displayhugeamountsofdataatonce.TodaysGoogleEarth(GE)isanoffshootof thisworkitprovidesavisualizationoftheearthwithwhichtheusercaninteract inanynumberofways(zoomingscale,addingorsubtractingdatalayers,measuring distances,calculatingdirections,etc.).Bothdesktopmappingandvisualization movedtheproductionofmappingfromthehandsoftheeliteintothoseofthe public.MarkHarrower,aleadingproponentofpopulistcartography,hasobserved: Oneofthethemesofmyprofessionrightnowisthedemocratizationof cartography.Mappingusedtobeajoboftheelite,theRandMcNallysand NationalGeographicsoftheworld.Nowpeoplearetakingituponthemselvesto maptheirpassions.[31]

Page214 Inotherwords,desktopmappingandgeovisualizationprovidedthebeginningsof newformsofpeoplesmapping.Butthetruedemocratizationofcartographywould onlyarrivewiththeadventofnewadvancesinWebtechnology,oftenreferredtoas Web2.0functionality,suchasmassivelydistributedandhyperlinkeddatasets, mashups,andcustomizableopensourcetools.Thesetoolsareprofoundlydifferent fromtheirprecursorsbecausetheyallowcollaborativelylinkedmappings. PopulistMappingApplications:Web2.0andWebBasedMapping GoogleEarth WiththereleaseofGoogleEarthinthesummerof2005,itbecameapparentthat therewasatremendouspublicappetiteforvisualizinggeographicinformation.GE liketoolshadexistedinscientificGISforsomeyears(andVicePresidentAlGore hadoutlinedanearlyvisionofdigitalearthin1998),[32]butGooglespopularity wasfargreater.ThekeytoGooglessuccesslayinprovidingopenaccesstoGoogle Maps,knownasanapplicationprogramminginterface(API).UsingthisAPI, membersofthepubliccouldhack(i.e.,modify)thesemapsandlinkthemupwith theirowndata.[33]Theresultsareknownasmapmashups. GoogleEarthisadatavisualizationtoolitdoesnotperformanalysis,runmodels, ormanipulatedata(createbuffers,mergeonelayerwithanother,etc.).Itprovides realisticimageryand3Dpicturesratherthantheabstractcartographic symbolizationoftraditionalmapping.Despitetheseaspectsor,rather,becauseof themGoogleEarthiseasytounderstandandisnaturallooking(althoughno viewfromspacewouldeverlooklikeGE). GoogleEarthandothermapopenaccessAPIsarehighlycollaborativeandprovide fertilegroundforotherdatatobelinkedandgeographicallyvisualized.For example,GoogleEarthnowsweepsthroughWikipediaandautomaticallymakes mapsofplacesmentionedinthearticles(throughPlaceopedia).Googlehascreated afeaturethatmapsalltheplacesmentionedinbooksandputsthemintoaGoogle mapmashup.Thesemapsgiveyouachancetoseenotonlyhowplatial(howrich ingeographicalreference)butalsohowconcentratedordistributedthebookis. Wheredoesthebookfocus?IsitWesternized?IsitorientedtoEuropeandNorth America?Onecouldalsocomparethemapsfromtwo Page215 differentbooksonthesametopic(e.g.,thespreadofadisease,likeHIVorSARS)to seeiftheytelldifferentstories. GooglehasalsoimplementedalayerofinformationcalledtheGeographicWeb,in whichpeoplecanannotatetheearthwiththeirphotographsorplacedescriptions. AswiththeWikipediaproject,Googleseemstohaverealizedaprojectthatworks

becauseofusercollaborationandcontributionsdatanowcomefromthebottom upratherthanfromthetopdown. CensusBureauData Everytenyears,theUnitedStatescollectsreamsofdataaboutitspopulationand theplacespeoplelive.Additionaldataiscollectedonanannualbasis.Allsortsof topicscanbemapped,includingincome,race,age,gender,ethnicity,andoccupation. Thecensusisprobablythemostimportantsinglesourceofsociodemographicdata aboutAmericatoday,anditsfindingsinformpolicyanalysisanddecisionmakingof allkinds.AllthisdatacanbemappedifyouknowhowtonavigatetheCensus Bureauslabyrinthinedatabases. ThebureauoffersanonlinemappingtoolcalledtheAmericanFactFinder,whichis usefulforaninitialvisualizationofthedata.Thedisplayisquitesmallhowever. MostserioususersdownloadtherawdatasetsandprocessthemwithGIS.Bothof theseapproachesrestrictusageofthedata.Recently,adifferentapproachwas developedthatallowsuserstointeractivelydisplaycensusdatawithouthavingto haveGISexpertise.Thetoolstodothisaredistributedacrossthenetwork,thus providingaccessformanymorepeoplethanifitweredesktopbased.Thisisthe SocialExplorerproject,basedatQueensCollegeattheCityUniversityofNewYork, inassociationwiththeNewYorkTimes.SocialExplorerprovidesaneasytouse interfacetohugequantitiesofcomplexcensusdatadatingbackasfaras1940. PoliticalApplications Republicansstillcontrolthemaps. ChrisBowers,MyDD.com Thereisnowsomeintriguingmappingevidencethatsuggeststhataccessto,control of,anddisseminationofgeospatialinformationischanging Page216 politicalparticipation.[34]Whilemuchpoliticaldiscussionoccursinthetraditional, ormainstream,media,muchisnowalsoheldintheemergingarenaofblogs.Blogs nowconstituteasignificantandnoteworthycomponentintodayspolitical landscape.Blogsandonlinepoliticalactivism(thenetroots)nowplayimportant rolesincampaignsforgettingoutthevote(GOTV)andgettingoutthedollar (especiallyinonlinefundraising).Sincethe2004electionsandthesuccessof HowardDeanandsuchorganizationsasMoveOn.org,theintersectionofnetroots andpoliticshasonlybecomestronger. Workingalongsideandofteninconjunctionwiththenetrootsarearangeof mappingandGIStoolsnowavailableforthepublic.Thesetoolsoftenrelyonmaking linkagesbetweendifferentkindsofthings:forexample,betweendifferentsources ofdata(e.g.,betweenGoogleMapsandtheU.S.CensusBureauortheFederal

ElectionCommission)andbetweendifferentsoftwareprograms(e.g.,betweenGIS andGoogleEarth).Theselinkages,effectedthroughopensourcesoftwareandAPIs, markapotentiallynewphaseofpoliticalactivismandcollaborationcharacterized bymoredemocraticaccess,control,andproductionofinformationandknowledge; amorelocalmicropolitics;andpotentiallyawaytobreaktheholdof establishmentbigmoneyincumbents. Forexample,theFairDataWebsiteprovidescommunitybasedinteractivemapsfor thewholenationdowntolevelofprecinctsandcensusblockgroups.[35]These dataarelinkedtoopensourcemappingAPIs,suchasGoogleMaps,forvisual display.Userscanpanandzoomacrossthemapsanddisplaydifferentlayersof information(thesiteusesasophisticatedonlineGISasabackendtotheWeb pages).ForaGOTVeffort,communityorganizerscancreatemapsofthenumberof nonvotersbyprecinct.InthemapofPhiladelphiainfigure1,thevotingturnoutis shownforeachprecinct,allowingtheGOTVteamtotargetnonvoting neighborhoods. Themapshowsthatturnoutvariedquiteconsiderablyacrossthecityandwas below40percentinmanyareas.TheseareascanthenbetargetedbytheGOTV effort.Themapscanalsoshowindividualhouseholdsthatdidnotvoteforeven moretargetedefforts.AsfarasIamaware,thesearethefirsttoolsavailabletothe publicthatwerepreviouslyonlycompiledbypoliticalpartiesinsecretpolitical precinctmaps. Dothesetoolsbythemselvesmeanthatthepoliticallandscapeisnowmore democratic?Notnecessarily.Foucaultsreminder(mentionedearlier)aboutpower andknowledgeisnowheremoresalientthanintherelationship Page217 Fig.1. PercentageturnoutinaPhiladelphianeighborhoodbyvotingprecinct,compared withraceandethnicity.(Fromwww.fairdata2000.com.) betweenthemilitaryanddigitalmappingandgeovisualization.Thesizeofthe militaryinvestmentinGIS,suchasthegeospatialintelligence(GEOINT)community, isnotknownbutwasformallyrecognizedinthecreationofthefederalNational GeospatialIntelligenceAgency(NGA)in2004,andthemilitarysdoctrineon GEOINThasbeendescribedinrecentreports.[36]BecauseGIShashistoricallybeen largelyassociatedwithgovernmentandindustry(e.g.,theGEOINT2006symposium waskeynotedbythedirectorofnationalintelligence,JohnNegroponte),thereare manywhoviewGISasbeingjustanothermechanismofgovernmentcontroland surveillance.[37]

Picklesarguesthatmanyofthenewmappingcapabilitiesarewonderful. Theyprovidemorepowerfultoolsforlocalplanningagencies,excitingpossibilities fordatacoordination,accessandexchange,andpermitmoreefficientallocationof resources,andamoreopenrationaldecisionmakingprocess.[38] Page218 Yetheconcedesthatthesesystemsaretakingplaceinalargercontextofeconomic productionandacultureofmilitaryandsecuritypractices.[39]TrevorPaglen,a geographeratBerkeley,hasinvestigatedmanyofthesehiddengeographiesand evenprovidedamapmashupoftheCIAsextraordinaryrenditionflights.[40] OpenSourceAccesstoGeospatialData Thedevelopmentofopensourcedataandtoolsisveryattractivetothosewhoseek toavoidpoliticalandculturalassociationsandretaincontroloverthemaps.For example,MicrosoftoffersMapCruncher,atechnologythatallowsanyonetomake theirownmapmashupinabouttenminutes.NASAoffersaglobalmapprojector youcantakeanymapandprojectitautomatically.Onelistinggivesover230 ongoingopensourceGISprojects(http://opensourcegis.org/). Oneobstaclefacedbytheopensourcemappingcommunityisthatmanymapdata layersareprotectedbycopyright,especiallyintheUnitedKingdom(theUnited Statesdoesnotcopyrightfederaldata).Thenationalmappingorganizationofthe UnitedKingdom,theOrdnanceSurvey,canregulatethesedatathroughlicenses.In response,theOpenStreetMapisawikibasedcollaborativemappingprojectto createmappingcoveragesthatarecopyrightfree(undertheCreativeCommons license). ParticipantsintheOpenStreetMapprojecttakeGPSsystemswiththemwherever theygoandthenuploadtherecordedroutesintothesystem.Inthebeginning,parts oftheprojectwerebasedonoldcopyrightexpiredmaps.Otheruserswhodonot haveGPScaneditorannotatetheuploadedmaps.(AcouriercompanyinLondon hasalsoprovidedtracksofvirtuallyallLondonroads.)Formoreinaccessibleareas, suchasBaghdad,theprojecthasmadeanagreementwithYahootouseitsaerial imagery.Thiswillprovidedigitizedmaplayersofallfeatures(roads,rivers, railroads,parks,etc.),whichcanbeusedinmanydifferentapplicationsfor example,thedatacanbeexportedtoGoogleEarthforwideviewingand distribution. Aslippymap,intheGoogleMapsstyle,allowsuserstobrowseacrossthemapand zoominandouttospecificcities.Thelevelofdetailisatnearprofessionallevels, whichposestherealchallengeoftheseprojects:willtheyprovidecompetitionfor thetraditionaltopdownprovidersofgeospatialinformation?Itatleastseemslikely thatopensourcemappingwillprovideaparallelalternativesetofpubliclyavailable Page219

data,butitdoesnotseemlikelythattheywillreplacetraditionaldataproviders. Anotherobstacleisthatdataproviderssometimescurtailorsuppressdatathatthey have.ThemostwellknowninstanceofthisinvolvesGooglesimageryofIndia, China,andKorea.Inthesecountries,Googlehasagreedtodegradethequalityof imageryforcertainmilitarysites.(Othercountries,suchasIndonesia,havedeclined tomakethisrequest,statingthatthereducedqualitywouldsimplyindicatewhere suchsitesarelocated.)Thesensitivityofthispracticewasillustratedwhen questionswereaskedintheU.S.CongressaboutGooglesprovisionofimagery ratherclosertotheUnitedStates.[41]GooglerevealedthatinSeptember2006,they hadreplacednewerimageryofthedevastatedcityofNewOrleanswithpreKatrina imagery.Googlerespondedthattheycontinuedtoprovidethenewerimagery (whichisactuallylowerquality)onaspecialWebsite.However,Googles alterationstoimagery,sometimesattherequestofforeigngovernments,raises questionsaboutthefutureofinformationsupply. CommunityandParticipatoryMapping Whengroupsofpeoplecometogethertoaddressaproblem,theycanleverage economiesofscale.Thinkoftheonlinesocialnetworkingcommunities,suchas del.icio.us,Diggit,andSlashdot.Inmapping,thisleveraginghasoftentakentheform ofcommunityorparticipatorymapping,whichIalreadydiscussedinthecontextof countermapping.[42] ScientificApplicationsofMapMashups Scientistsarenowusingcollaborativemappingtoolstovisualizeandbringtolight spatialpatternsofthingsasdiverseasbirdmigrationpatternsorthespreadofthe SARSvirusandtodemonstratehowloggingwillaffectdownstream communities.[43]Aswehaveseen,opensourcegeospatialAPIs,suchasGoogle EarthandYahooMaps,arepopularandpowerfultools.Thispointhasnotbeenlost onscientists,whoareincreasinglyturningtothesetoolsinordertovisualizeand communicatedata.Forexample,DeclanButler,aseniorreporteratNature, regularlypostsKMZ(GoogleEarth)filesinarticlesshowingtheoccurrenceofavian influenzaA(H5N1)andotherpublichealthissues. Page220 AnotherfascinatingapplicationhasbeenproducedbytheAmericanAssociationfor theAdvancementofScience(AAAS)aspartofitsScienceandHumanRights Program.TheGeospatialTechnologiesandHumanRights(GaTHR)Projectuses highresolutionglobalsatelliteimagerytoexamineareasoftheworldthatare otherwiseimpossibletoaccess,suchasDarfurinSudan.In2004,thisimagery confirmedtheextentofethniccleansinginthisarea,anditisnowavailableasGE layers.TheAAASsays: TheQuickBirdimageryusedbytheDepartmentofStateandUSAID,togetherwith otherhighresolutionimagery,hasprovenespeciallyvaluableasitcanshow

damagetosmallhouses,orchards,fields,andotherfeatures.Giventheunequivocal timeofimageacquisitionitcanauthoritativelydocumentchangestothesefeatures, andinprintedformtheimageryhelpscompileandsynthesizewitnessreports duringinterviews.[44] Suchaprojectcan,ofcourse,benefitfromtraditionalGIS,butitspublicoutreach anddisseminationcomponentissignificantlyimprovedbyusingpubliclyassessable outletsofdatavisualization.TheGaTHRprojectalsoworkswithmembersofthe humanrightscommunity(e.g.,AmnestyInternational)whomaynothaveaccessor expertiseincostlytechnology. Geospatialtechnologiespotentiallyofferhumanrightsresearchersandadvocatesa significantnewtoolforassessinghumanrightsviolationsandmonitoring developingcrisesingeographicareaswhereitisdifficulttosendobservers.These toolsmayalsoprovidecompellingdocumentationtoencourageinterventionandto determineresponsibility.TheinitialphaseofthisprojectwillenableAAASto evaluatethepotentialusesandtodeterminethemostfeasiblewaytodevelopand disseminatethesetechnologieswithinthehumanrightscommunity.[45] GEandsimilarapplications,suchasNASAsWorldWindandMicrosoftsVirtual Earth(VE)3D,donotproviderealtimedataasmanypeoplebelieve(exceptin specialcircumstances).Buttheyarevitallyimportantforlookingatchange detection(comparingimagerybetweendifferenttimeperiods).Changedetection canshowwhethervillagesorbuildingshavebeenrazedtotheground,for exampleastheAAASfoundinZimbabwe,despitegovernmentalsilence. BarriersforLinkingGeospatialData Interoperability Page221 Therearestillmanybarrierstotheuseofopensourcegeospatialtools,map mashups,andmaphacking.Someofthesearetechnologicalforexample,ensuring thatdifferentsoftwarecanoperatewitheachother,orinteroperability.The developmentofwidelyacceptedstandardsandmetadataisthemostworkable solutiontothisproblem.Wearecurrentlyinasituationanalogoustothemany standardsforhighdefinitionDVDs.Theyallwork,butnotnecessarilytogether. EffortssuchastheOpenGeospatialConsortium(OGC),aninternationalconsortium ofgovernments,universities,andcorporations,canpromotestandardsand interoperabilitytoacertainextentinatopdownmodel.Thebiggestproblemhere isnotgettingsoftwaretoconnectbutgettingthedataandmetadataintostandard forms. InstitutionalBarriers Aswehaveseen,therearepresentlytwodifferentrealmsofmappingandGISdata: GISandWebbasedmapping.TheGISindustryishavingtocatchuptothepopular

applications,suchasGEandVE.Inthelastyearorso,programsthatlinkbetween populartraditionalGISapplicationshaveappeared:anexampleistheArc2Earth program,whichlinksESRIsArcGISandGE.GIScompanies,afterlargelyignoring programsfordigitalearthvisualizationbecausetheydidnotprovideanalysis,are nowstrugglingtoquicklycatchupandleveragethetremendouspopularityofWeb basedmapping.AmajorbreakthroughinthinkingcamewhenESRIrealizedthat theyneedednotjustanexporterfromArcGIStoGEbutonefromGEtoArcGISthat is,thatyoucouldbringprettypicturesintoindustrialgradeGIStodoserious work. Anotherinstitutionalbarrierarisesfromthecorporatizationofinformation.The Internethasundergonetremendouscorporatizationoverthelasttenyears,not solelyintermsofcontent,butalsointermsofownershipofthemechanismsof distribution(thecablesandphonewires).Inparticular,thereismountingconcern overtheerosionofnetneutrality.TheconcernisthatInternetprovidersmightno longertreatallInternettrafficequally.Endusers,forexample,mayexperience differentialaccesstoWebsitesinaccordancewithfeesthatthesitesandendusers mayhavepaid(ornotpaid).Thistieredaccesswouldresemblethecurrentmodel Page222 oftenadoptedbycableproviders,wherebyconsumersreceivedifferentTVchannels accordingtothepackagetheyhavepurchased.Thefearisthataccesstocontentper seorevendifferentialspeedsofaccesstocontent(fasterorslower)maybecomethe normontheInternet.OnemodeltocircumventthisistoswitchtoopenaccessWiFi broadband,buteventheprovisionofthataccessisultimatelycablebound. Advocatesoftieredinformationaccessarguethatitisatypicalfinancialmodel foundinmanybusinesses.Proponentsofnetneutralityarguethattheconceptof businessmodelsshouldnotapplytotheprovisionofsuchanimportantsourceof information.Thedebateovernetneutralityiscurrentlybeingfoughtoutin competinglegislationatstateandfederallevelsandisundoubtedlygoingtoremain animportantissueinthenextfewyears. TheDigitalDivide Thedigitaldivideisameasureofaccesstothedigitalinformationeconomy.It includesaccesstotechnology(hardwareandsoftware)butalsotoknowledgeitself (education).RecentresearchhasdemonstratedthattheInternetisnotfreeofthe geographicalrestraintsofthephysicalworld.[46]Thesedividesoccurataplethora ofscales:withinacity,withinaregion,withinacountry,andbetweenonecountry andanother.Forexample,accordingtofiguresfromtheUnitedNations,Internet accessratesare19per1,000peopleinsubSaharanAfrica;inhighincomeOECD countries,theyaremorethan30timeshigher,onaverage563per1,000.[47]But evenwithintheUnitedStates,broadbandaccess(requiredformanyoftodays Internetapplications)iscurrentlyinstalledinabout45percentofhomesahigh proportion,butcertainlynotatsaturationlevel.[48]

Thedigitaldivideisenduringinthesensethatnewtechnologiesareconstantly beingproducedandconstantlybeingspreadunevenly.Eachtimeweinventagreat technology,weironicallyalsoproduceinequalities.AsShirkyhasargued,diversity plusfreedomofchoicecreatesinequality,andthegreaterthediversity,themore extremetheinequality.[49]AstheInternetincreasesinsizeanddiversity, inequalitieswillalsoincreaseandreplicatethedigitaldividepatternsalreadyfound inthephysicalworld. Researchalsoshowsthattherearesomeremarkablegeographiesofhyperlinks betweenblogclustersontherightandtheleftofthepoliticalspectrum.Lookingnot atthecrosssectionofallblogsbut,rather,at Page223 thosethatcarrythemostreadership(theAlistbloggers),AdamicandGlancefound thatinthemonthsprecedingthe2004U.S.presidentialelection,thedegreeof interactionbetweenliberalandconservativeblogswasverylow.Bothblogospheres linkedmostlywithintheirowncommunitiesandnotacrossthepoliticaldivide.[50] Conclusion:CanPeasantsMap? Manyobstaclestodigitalaccess,suchasthedigitaldivideandnetneutrality,arenot, atbase,technologicalissuesthatcanbeaddressedthroughmarketincentives; rather,theyarecomplexsociopoliticalproblems.Lackofaccesstoonline informationparallelstheveryunderservedpopulationsitcouldbenefit.Community andparticipatoryGIS,thenetroots,andWebbasedmappingarethereforenotlikely toprovidesolutionsforunderservedpopulationstobootstrapthemselvesoutof poverty.Butifunderservedandwellservedcommunitiesworktogether,then problemscanbemoreablyaddressed.Thisisabigif,andasthisessayshows,there areenduringdividesandconnectivities.Afterall,welivenotinisolated communitiesbutinaworldofnetworks. InhisworkonpoliticalNetbasedactivism,DavidPerlmutterexploresthequestion ofwhethertheonlineactivismandthenetrootsarearepresentativeconstituency specifically,whetherbloggersarethepeople.Hepointsoutthatatthemoment, thenetrootsareoverwhelminglyyoung,white,male,welleducated,and technologicallysavvyandarethusnotrepresentativeofthepopulationasawhole. Asheputit,peasantsdonotblog.[51] Inthisessay,Ihaveintroducedanumberofdevelopmentsthatbothassistand createobstaclesforaccessandusageofgeospatialinformation.Thesetoolsare providedoutofagenuinerealizationthatthewayswevisualizeandunderstandthe worldaroundusitsplaces,geographies,andrelationshipsareundergoinga radicaltransformation.Ifthemedia(TV,newspapers,andnewsradio)hashadto adaptandincorporatenewmodelsofinformationdisseminationandparticipation, andifpublishingisundergoingasimilartransformation,thentherewouldseemto beanequivalenttransformationworkingonourmappings.Theremaining questions,however,aretowhatdegree,howmuch,andwithwhateffectsthese

toolswillconfronttheobstaclesandbarriers.Theanswerstothosequestionswill provevitalindecidingthefutureofinformation. Page224 Notes 1.C.Jacob,TheSovereignMap:TheoreticalApproachesinCartographythroughout History(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,2006). 2.D.Buisseret,Monarchs,Ministers,andMaps:TheEmergenceofCartographyasa ToolofGovernmentinEarlyModernEurope(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress, 1992). 3.J.ArmstrongandM.M.Zuniga,CrashingtheGate:Netroots,Grassrootsandthe RiseofPeoplePoweredPolitics(WhiteRiverJunction,VT:ChelseaGreen,2006). 4.J.B.Harley,M.Warhus,andE.Hanlon,MapsandtheColumbianEncounter:An InterpretiveGuidetotheTravellingExhibition;AmericanGeographicalSociety Collection(Milwaukee:GoldaMeirLibrary,UniversityofWisconsin,1990). 5.Mapsthatshowgeographicaldistributions(asopposedtoroadmapsandgeneral referencemaps)canbecategorizedintoseveraltypes.Thesemapsareknown generallyasthematicmapsandtendtoshowquantitativedata.Isolinemapsare basicallycontourmaps(withlinesofequalelevation)butcanalsorepresent abstractinformation(asinthefamiliartemperaturemap).Dotdistributionmaps showdistributionsofeventsorfeatureswithscatteringsofdots(themoredots,the morefeatures).Proportionalsymbolmapsusesizetoindicatequantity(e.g.,line widthfortrafficflows).Choroplethmapsareoneofthemostfamiliarthematic maps.Theytakepredefinedareas(e.g.,countries)andshowquantityforeacharea (e.g.,percapitaincomebycountryonaworldmap). 6.S.Johnson,TheGhostMap:TheStoryofLondonsMostTerrifyingEpidemicand HowItChangedScience,Cities,andtheModernWorld(NewYork:Riverhead, 2006);T.Koch,TheMapasIntent:VariationsontheThemeofJohnSnow, Cartographica39,no.4(2004):114. 7.F.A.Walker,StatisticalAtlasoftheUnitedStates(NewYork:J.Bien,1874). 8.S.Schulten,TheGeographicalImaginationinAmerica,18801950(Chicago: UniversityofChicagoPress,2001). 9.F.J.Turner,TheFrontierinAmericanHistory(NewYork:HenryHoltand Company,1921). 10.J.R.Akerman,AmericanPromotionalRoadMappingintheTwentiethCentury, CartographyandGeographicInformationScience29,no.3(2002):17591.

11.H.Clout,GeographersinTheirIvoryTower:AcademicGeographyandPopular GeographyinParis1931,GeografiskaAnnalerSeriesBHumanGeography87,no.1 (2005):1529. 12.D.E.CosgroveandV.dellaDora,MappingGlobalWar:LosAngeles,thePacific, andCharlesOwenssPictorialCartography,AnnalsoftheAssociationofAmerican Geographers95,no.2(2005):373;R.E.Harrison,LookattheWorld:TheFortune AtlasforWorldStrategy(NewYork:Knopf,1944). 13.E.S.HermanandN.Chomsky,ManufacturingConsent:ThePoliticalEconomyof theMassMedia(NewYork:Pantheon,2002);W.Lippmann,PublicOpinion(New York:FreePress,1922). 14.L.M.HarrisandH.D.Hazen,PowerofMaps:(Counter)Mappingfor Conservation,ACME4,no.1(2006):99130. 15.W.Bunge,Fitzgerald:GeographyofaRevolution(Morristown,NJ:Schenkman, 1971);W.Bunge,TheFirstYearsoftheDetroitGeographicalExpedition: Page225 APersonalReport,inRadicalGeography,ed.R.Peet(Chicago:Maroufa,1969),31 39. 16.R.M.DownsandL.S.Liben,ThroughaMapDarkly:UnderstandingMapsas Representations,GeneticEpistemologist16(1988):16. 17.S.Elwood,BeyondCooptationorResistance:UrbanSpatialPolitics,Community Organizations,andGISBasedSpatialNarratives,AnnalsoftheAssociationof AmericanGeographers96,no.2(2006):32341;S.Elwood,NegotiatingKnowledge Production:TheEverydayInclusions,Exclusions,andContradictionsof ParticipatoryGISResearch,ProfessionalGeographer58,no.2(2006):197208. 18.M.Foucault,SocietyMustBeDefended:LecturesattheCollegeDeFrance,1975 1976(NewYork:Picador,2003),7. 19.Ibid.,9. 20.W.Safire,Netroots,NewYorkTimesMagazine,November19,2006. 21.ArmstrongandZuniga,CrashingtheGate. 22.G.Greenwald,Blogs,AlternativePoliticalSystems,Funding, http://glenngreenwald.blogspot.com/2007/02/blogsalternativepolitical systems.html. 23.A.H.Robinson,TheLookofMaps:AnExaminationofCartographicDesign (Madison:UniversityofWisconsinPress,1952),13.

24.C.E.Shannon,AMathematicalTheoryofCommunication,BellSystem TechnicalJournal27,no.3(1948):379423,62356. 25.D.Mindell,J.Segal,andS.Gerovitch,FromCommunicationsEngineeringto CommunicationsScience,inScienceandIdeology:AComparativeHistory,ed.M. Walker(London:Routledge,2003),6696. 26.L.Ratajski,CommissionVoftheICA:TheTasksItFaces,International YearbookofCartography14(1974):140. 27.N.Chrisman,ChartingtheUnknown:HowComputerMappingatHarvard BecameGIS(Redlands,CA:ESRIPress,2006). 28.E.Raisz,GeneralCartography(NewYork:McGrawHill,1948). 29.J.Dykes,A.M.MacEachren,andM.J.Kraak,ExploringGeovisualization (Amsterdam:Elsevier,2005). 30.Daratech,GIS/GeospatialMarketGrew17%in2005toTop$3.3Billion, http://www.directionsmag.com/press.releases/index.php?duty=Show&id=14697& trv=1. 31.NewTechnologyHelpingFostertheDemocratizationofCartography, ScienceDaily, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/09/060920192549.htm. 32.A.Gore,TheDigitalEarth:UnderstandingOurPlanetinthe21stCentury, http://www.isde5.org/al_gore_speech.htm. 33.S.Erle,R.Gibson,andJ.Walsh,MappingHacks(Sebastopol,CA:OReilly,2005). 34.E.Talen,BottomupGIS:ANewToolforIndividualandGroupExpressionin ParticipatoryPlanning,JournaloftheAmericanPlanningAssociation66,no.3 (2000):27994. 35.TheFairData/FairPlansiteissovastthatnodescriptioncanreallyencompassit. Itprovidesinteractivemaps,censusdata,precinctmapsofregisterednonvotersby race,racialprofilingdata,GOTVdata,andmuchmore. 36.UnitedStatesJointForcesCommand,GeospatialIntelligenceSupporttoJoint Operations(Washington,DC,2007). Page226 37.J.Pickles,AHistoryofSpaces:CartographicReason,Mapping,andtheGeo CodedWorld(London:Routledge,2004);N.Smith,RealWars,TheoryWars, ProgressinHumanGeography16,no.2(1992):25771. 38.Pickles,HistoryofSpaces,148.

39.Ibid.,152. 40.T.Paglen,UnmarkedPlanesandHiddenGeographies, http://vectors.usc.edu/index.php?page=7&projectId=59;T.PaglenandA.C. Thompson,TortureTaxi:OntheTrailoftheCIAsRenditionFlights(Hoboken,NJ: MelvilleHouse,2006). 41.AssociatedPress,HousePanel:WhyDidGoogleAirbrushHistory? http://edition.cnn.com/2007/TECH/03/31/katrina.google.maps.ap/index.html. 42.Elwood,NegotiatingKnowledgeProduction. 43.S.Herhold,TechnologyBuildsBiggerSoapbox,MercuryNews,December3, 2006. 44.AmericanAssociationfortheAdvancementofScience(AAAS)2007.Geospatial TechnologiesandHumanRights.http://shr.aaas.org/geotech/whatcanGISdo.shtml (assessedDecember28,2007). 45.E.W.Lempinen,NewAAASProjectWillExploreGeospatialTechnologyand HumanRights,http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2006/0127geospatial.shtml. 46.J.ChakrabortyandM.M.Bosman,MeasuringtheDigitalDivideintheUnited States:Race,Income,andPersonalComputerOwnership,ProfessionalGeographer 57,no.3(2005):395410;M.Crang,T.Crosbie,andS.Graham,Variable GeometriesofConnection:UrbanDigitalDividesandtheUsesofInformation Technology,UrbanStudies43,no.13(2006):255170. 47.UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgram,HumanDevelopmentReport2006: BeyondScarcity;Power,Poverty,andtheGlobalWaterCrisis(Basingstoke HampshireandNewYork:PalgraveMacmillan,2006). 48.L.RainieandJ.Horrigan,Election2006Online, http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Politics_2006.pdf. 49.C.Shirky,PowerLaws,Weblogs,andInequality, http://shirky.com/writings/powerlaw_weblog.html. 50.L.A.AdamicandN.Glance,ThePoliticalBlogosphereandthe2004U.S. Election:DividedTheyBlog,Proceedingsofthe3rdInternationalWorkshopon LinkDiscovery(NewYork:ACM,2005),3643;seealsoAdamicsessayinthe presentvolume. 51.D.D.Perlmutter,AreBloggersthePeople? http://policybyblog.squarespace.com/arebloggersthepeople.

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