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Topic: LINKING HOUSING FORM TO HOUSING POLICY
Submitted to: Dr. Amita Bhide
Submitted by: RANGA NARESH GURRAM M2013UPP014 Urban policy& Governance School of habitat studies
Tata Institution of Social Sciences Mumbai-88
As time progress human started moving from one place to other in search of food and establishing temporary shelters. In other hand it is people who are having surplus income and savings.e. Many of the countries are experiencing shortfall in housing on the one hand. At present the housing is emerging with new forms. attacks of wild animals etc”. poverty. The typology of housing also changes with time progress. as an economic good. technology applications are making it comfortable and better living environment. but housing policies should provide opportunities to public and their families” (Carolyn McCarthy). economically. (i. unemployment. But source is limited but demand is high. In modern period it is considering as an asset. Douglas 1991 and Understanding home: a critical review of literature by Shelley Mallett).) the place of residence and work places are establishing closure. (Census of India-2011) House is a structure built by human beings on a piece of land for their shelter (Webster’s Dictionary). rain etc. The national governments and the United Nations are started preparing and implementing different housing policies from past decades to provide shelter for the poor people. unhygienic conditions and so on. safety and security of humans. they built their permanent houses and works in surrounding of that area. aesthetically and morally’ and where domestic ‘communitarian practices’ are realised (Rapport & Dawson 1998. Concept of a house “House is a building or part of a building which access through road or courtyard whether it is vacant or occupied for residential or non-residential purpose”. meanwhile protecting him from wild animals. In late 17th century the scenario of housing is drastically transformed due to Industrial revolution. Increase in population leads to creates many problems like slums. As time passes the civilizations changes life of human beings. rain. It also enhances the social status. House is a place where space and time are ‘controlled & structured functionally.Introduction “House is a place where do we live. In this assignment I would like to develop linkage between housing form and housing policies by doing a case study of one of the housing form. . they are investing in housing industry. Evolution of housing In ancient period human beings are usually takes rest in caves. Population of the world is growing rapidly. I argue that “house is a place where a family lives together and share facilities & services along with social activities in a constructed part of a small piece of land protects themselves from temperature. innovations.
house is constructing with different rooms. eating & sleeping in the same room. brick masonries etc. comfort. cement bricks. After that people wants more privacy in homes. now it is generating 2.4% share in GDP (Gross Domestic Product) (According to Central Statistical Office. iron. In ancient days house is meant for living and cooking. and then he made holes on trees. Role of Housing Besides of providing shelter.1% of employment (NSSO 66th round). Basic structure of a house is a single room which is used for cooking. It is also encouraging finance companies to provide loans for building a house. Along with all these things it works as a social marker. Humans started using of tools and weapons. digs holes in earth and lived there. straw etc for making huts. steel etc •Eg: Apartments Modren days Source: History of Housing Changes in Housing form & materials Human beings lived in open air which is accessible for food and water in the earliest phase. Medieval period it is using with temporary materials like grass. but typology and structure of housing is changes periodically. 10. it also acts as economic good for the society. The development in technology brings new type of houses like RCC structures. hence.000 years ago according to archaeologists. Caves Period (Early Days) Neolithic Period (6000 BC) •Built with temporary materials •Eg: tatched roof huts •Houses with mud bricks Medievial •Eg: Courtyard houses in Egypt Period (3000 BC) •RCC roof. . They used to live in caves after some period of time. Its construction industry has been growing gradually. India).Nomadic •Holes in trees & Earth's surface. protection for the people. In modern period perception of a house is remains same. each person wants their individual space. by its location. The form of house is changing from holes to caves in ancient days. The huts and tents are using 90.
Due to this many people doesn’t own house and it increases the prices of house. Present era it is using as a commodity and public are using to increase their profit or property i. Housing in India Housing Stock is the total number of houses is available in an area.e.Need •Human beings Commodity •Investments Basic element in community Built form •Socio-cultural •Social status •Characteristics of culture/tradition •Traditional materials •Economy •Labour •Capital investment •Environment Source: Class Notes Role of Housing in society Assest •Property House Housing industry is now emerging as one of the rapid growing industry. So many people cannot afford to buy a house. It helps to middle income people to buy their own house and some govt. of houses are occupied and vacant. of holds more area of property. This helps to emergence of housing finance in the country. It gives an idea about the no. schemes also helping those people to get their own house. Stock of House in India 8% Vacant Occupied 92% Source: Census 2011 Housing Stock in India .5% of houses are vacant. The reason for this may be it is in dilapidated condition or societal issues. many less no. In our country 7.
93 4.28 0. roof. bricks.Typology of housing The housing typology in India is Pucca: Walls. bamboo. shingle.35% are in dilapidated condition. zinc. flooring and door & windows are built with permanent materials.21 10 0 Good Livable 21. Grass. etc. mud. corrugated iron. sheets. Kutcha bamboo. reeds. slate. asbestos.42 Dilapidated Source: Census-2011 Condition of Census House .98 9. Glass Tiles. woods. or Pucca sheets or other metal other metal sheets. roof. un-burnt un-burnt bricks. Condition of House Urban 60 Rural Percentage to total houses 50 40 30 20 31. leaves.18 32. walls and flooring is made of permanent materials then it is semi-pucca Kutcha: If temporary material is used for construction of house then it is treated as kutcha house. woods. stone. Source: -Census of India 1991. leaves. National Building Organization (NBO) described housing typology according to materials used for construction of a house. cement bricks. No Wall 1 Materials Roof Typology Burnt bricks. reeds. lime stone and RBC/RCC Concrete concrete Grass. thatch. etc. Criteria for typology of housing 2 Housing Condition According to census of India 2011 the condition of housing is about 5. Semi-pucca: If any one of doors & windows. cement sheets. mud.
It is a form of pucca house emerged in 1970’s as a “Cooperative Housing Society”. need and designer/planner/architect.1 64. it should be rebuild according to “Adverse conditions such as ground contamination. Housing form is transformation of type of house. high temperature. the short life span of building creates lot of problems to the owners & residents of that building. fluctuating temperature and relative humidity can reduce the life span of the structure. It changes according to time.To improve the condition of the house is more than 30-50years old.” (Article in Economic Times. how long it will last?) Ownership plays a major role in housing industry because of the people having more than one house earns money from that house. It can be designed as apartment. individual house etc.06 Owned 2. It is generating income to owners of house.29 Rented 1.Santhakumar Determinant: A major factor influencing the service life of concrete structures is the nature of exposure conditions”. At present I am studying about private apartments and cooperative housing societies. The society organises meetings and take care of the building maintenance. villa. Builder came into field.: If we take pucca house. So it creates competition in market and hike in prices also.g. The enforcement of rent control act for housing gives freedom and security to tenants. Ownership Status Urban Rural 100 90 Percentage to total houses 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 22.8 1. (Article in HINDU) “According to experts the life span of a building in India is 30-50years. (Housing Typologies CRIT May 2007) . the owners and tenants of this building/s forms as a cooperative housing society.Apartment or Independent house. it is type of house. Agent became centre of attraction in this form of housing.R. he takes care of everything what a house required to build and even he sale house also. says A.3 Others Source: Census 2011 Ownership status of households in India Housing form in India There are different forms of housing in India. These houses are built by the builder. E.45 8. After completion of building construction and sales. So he expects more profits for that he reduces the public space and increases the private spaces to maximise his profits. humidity.
finance etc. Source: Class notes . Policies. The formation of slums creates a lot of problems in those areas. The housing sector in India is focused immediately after independence by first P. Jawaharlal Nehru (1947-50) and in the first two five year plan 1951-60.Housing Policies Policy is a series of actions to solve a problem. are o National Housing Policy 1988. The main focus in this period is management of housing situation in India by establishing HUDCO. They are introducing housing construction and planning byelaws to construct a new house. institutions. It started improve those conditions of those slum areas by enacting the Slum Improvement Act. but simultaneously he creates problems to the tenants). the Govt.M. Slum improvement act Policies like National Housing Policy. are evolving to solve these public issues. shifts its view from programs to policy making. In the period of 1980-87 the reassessment of housing is done by the Govt. acts. It is focused on assessment of housing need and providing shelter for the shelter less in the build houses. So govt. o National Housing Policy 1994 o National Housing & Habitat Policy 2005 o National Urban Housing & Habitat Policy 2007 etc. E. of India has changed its view on provision of shelter. of India. But income levels of Indian’s have not increased as Planning Commission expected. they are not accessible basic services. institutions like HUDCO. Rent control act has been passed in this period to control the authority of owners and ensure the safety of tenant’s. The Govt. Govt. of India has realised later after the formation more slums in the period of 1960-70’s. decided to link housing with other sectors like infrastructure. There are different policies are framed by Indian Govt. tenant – ownership (is also a type of problem because if may of houses are owned by a person he can give for rent. etc. schemes. In the period of 1970-80’s the Govt.: Act like rent control act.g. State Housing Boards etc Schemes like BSUP In India phases housing policies are emerged after independence. and govt. In housing there are lot of problems like shelter less. In the period of 1960-70.
Name: Shilpa Shree Cooperative Housing Society Location: Govandi (E) I did a case study on cooperative housing society. . He is a dealer of tobacco products in this area. parking & commercial strip facing to road. He is migrant from Gujarat. I collect information from C Mahindra Patel a resident of this society. The Shilpa Shree cooperative housing society is located is located on the NG Road in Govandi (E). I selected Shilpa Shree Cooperative Housing Society for this study. This society consists of residential apartment with G+3 floors. He is residing since 25years. He migrated here in search of job.Case-study on housing form I did case-study on housing form is a cooperative housing society. This committee of this society is decided to redevelop in end of 2014. He buys this flat in 1988 through finance.
He said that we accept this bar because it existing here from long time and society people are also don't have any objection. stairs etc.According to him this society is built by builders. The process of development is benefit to both present owners and developer. of owners living in society No. photo studio. There is a half yearly meeting to discuss on issues and preparing guidelines time to time to maintain their society safer & clean. security purposes. They are going to start this work in 2014. They are not investing money for redevelopment. The houses are in this society are 2bhk. They are collecting almost 12000 per month from all flat owners / tenants. of commercial shops : 1. of flats vacant No. cleaning of common areas in this society like parking. of flats given for rent No. Because they are getting 50% more area than they own now. coaching / tuition centre.00 : 1900SqM (1000SqM Commercial) GC +900 SqM : 13 (3floors x 4 flats + 1 terrace flat) : 9 : 2 : 2 : 41 Persons : 9 Source: Data given by C M Patel (resident) of that society The society is having a row of shops which a given rent / lease for different commercial activities like saloon. of persons living in this society No. interior design and some safety measures had done. The maintenance of this society is monitoring by the committee & its residents. laundry. The building is getting older so they are going to redevelop this area of 4000SqM. . small grocery shop & bar also. The committee decided to redevelop this plot with 16 floor building. clinic. He brought this house and made some repairs to this house after buying like flooring. The remaining flats are giving to developer for sale. Profile of Study Area Form of study Name of the society Location Built by Year of construction Total plot area : Cooperative Housing Society : Shilpa Shree Cooperative Housing Society : Govandi : Local Builders : 1974 (39years) : 4000SqM : 1000SqM for flats Area of classification : 875SqM for parking : 900SqM for commercial rooms : 1125SqM is Open Space FSI Total ground coverage Total no. They are using this for repairs. They are going to give this redevelopment contract to the developer. of flats No.
in India the expected life span of building is 30-50years for concrete structure and it also depends on the climatic conditions as I discussed earlier in literature review. otherwise it is vulnerable to collapse during rainy season. So the life span Mumbai may decreases compare to the other parts of India. This building was built in 1974.00 20. Age of Building: This cooperative housing society was built in 1974. secretary.00 60. Mumbai climate is very different from other climatic conditions in India.00 30. Growth Rate 70. issues are also taking care by society committee. but rapid growth rate of Mumbai city creates lots of slums and rapid increase in population. Mumbai climate has lot humid and moisture it causes early damage to the building and heavy rains breaks the building in short period because the stagnation of water allows growing fungus and fungus. They are taking care of the society problems and maintenance. Collection of rents from commercial shops and maintenance of those shops.00 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 Growth Rate Source: Census 2001 Population Growth Rate of Mumbai from 1911-2001 This society is maintaining as per the guidelines of cooperative housing.00 0. 7.00 40. As a resident of this society he said that the walls are always with moisture and it affects the other things which are placing near to the walls. According to experts life span is 30-50years.00 10. as the information furnished by C M Patel. In Mumbai the cooperative housing societies is started in 1970’s. The society is planning to rebuild in next year (2014). agents came into field and they are turning out as a builders in the housing industry. Cooperative Housing Society: The govt. According to conditions of Mumbai. these are emerged due to the individuals doesn’t meet to afford to build a house. . had initiated construction of buildings in the period of 1960-70. So they are late in rebuilding their society. committee members. resident of flat No. But as I mentioned earlier in this section.00 50. The organisational structure of this society is Chairman. so it is good time to start rebuild society. they have to rebuild their society as early as possible.These are some observations I did from this study. it is 39years old building. This damages the walls in quick time.
densities and quality of life Conclusion: I came to conclusion from the above study is that we need a policies and regulations which doesn’t have chance to misuse like FSI. From this people are suffering. To get extra benefit builder built small strip of commercial to benefit for them. I calculated FSI as follows FSI is a ratio of the total ground cover area of all floors to the plot area. So the forms of housing are also changing from time to time. They used 1.66 actually. of floors) ÷ Plot Area FSI is using as a tool to control density & vertical or horizontal growth of an area.FSI: FSI of Mumbai suburb area was changing from 1. “Change is essential to enlighten lives and provide better environment”.00 – 1. FSI = (Plinth area X No. they are technically escaping from the lesser FSI to higher value. . These policies are emerging in the modern period because of the population is increasing and resources are less.33 according to the Shirish Patel’s at the time of construction. So the value of the flat is also increasing. Source: Sirish Patel Urban layouts.
inflibnet.indiaenvironmentportal.com/housing 13. http://nbo. http://seminarprojects.thefreedictionary. http://indiabudget.about. http://www.htm 2.historyforkids.ac. http://censusindia.References: 1.pdf 4.in/news/life-apartment-buildings 9.chsguru. 2.nic.nic. Housing Finance Mechanisms in India by UN Habitat 2008.gov/nceh/publications/books/housing/housing_ref_manual_2012.in/Images/PDF/housing_data_table. http://encyclopedia.pdf 12.com/gi/o.gov.htm 14.org.pdf 6.in/policies/index2.gov.org/wiki/Ancient_History/Human_Evolution/Paleolithic_Age 11. http://www. http://archaeology.pdf 15.org.in/bitstream/10603/159/4/13_chapter4.in/es2012-13/echap-10.net/t-housing-cp-lecture-1-2?pid=71927#pid71927 7.in/2011census/hlo/Data_sheet/India/Housing_Stocks.org/lea rn/architecture/houses.wikibooks.thefreedictionary. http://www.com/housing 8. Shirish Patel’s Urban Layouts. . Design and Quality of Life article published in Economic and Political Weekly 30th June 2007.com/p/mcs-rules-1961.indiaenvironmentportal.cdc. http://www.in/news/life-apartment-buildings 10.html Bibliography: 1.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=archaeology&cdn=educ ation&tm=37&f=00&tt=14&bt=4&bts=70&zu=http%3A//www. http://en.pdf 3. http://encyclopedia. http://dget. http://shodhganga.pdf 5.in/publications/annualreportemployment2011. http://mhupa.gov.