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M3.11 PAUL KEELER M0907190 JANUARY 2010

Number Behaviours that develop and maintain trust 3 Why Confidentiality is important Groups and Teams Team Formation Model Experience of using a formation model Roles within a Team Benefits to a Leader Appendix References Bibliography


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Paul Keeler M0907190 M3.11

Behaviours that Develop and Maintain Trust in the Workplace

Trust in the work team is; the believe that another person can be reliable, honest, responsible, caring, consistent, committed, confide in or have confidence in. If an atmosphere of trust can be established and developed in a team and between themselves and the team leader, team members will be prepared to offer ideas or try new skills knowing that they will be given a positive response. People tend to work better when they feel safe and trusted. But trust is an elusive thing. A great deal of effort is needed to establish it in the first place and it can be destroyed in an instance. (Pardy 2007 p96). Behaviours that can develop and maintain trust could include: Good 2-way communications- sharing information either good or bad and listening with interest. Showing good body language and eye contact. Make clear and agree the roles and responsibilities of team members and the teams aims or objectives Relationship- good rapport, having sense of humour, making members feel relaxed, get to know them, showing interest in private life( hobbies, interests, family) as well as work life, be on first name terms. Understanding- to their feelings, beliefs and fears. Create a sense of belonging- treat everyone with diversity and equality. Respect- non discrimination due to age, religion, intelligence. Integrity-be firm but fair, honest, create boundaries and sticking to your values. Treat all equally and be consistent.

Paul Keeler M0907190 M3.11

Support/inspire- new ideas, encourage development or fault finding, create a no blame culture causing crisis or stress instead try to learn from faults or failures.

Openness- be truthful and honest so theres no crossed wires Show loyalty/ confidentiality- to both team and individuals, keeping secret any information either business or private entrusted to you. Defending them against other teams or management when things go wrong. Dont be critical or sarcastic but give constructive feedback. Praise loudly.

Reliability- set yourself high standards and do what you say and do it when you say youre going to.

Show Commitment to the team and individuals including aims and development.

Why Confidentiality is important in building and maintaining trust

Confidentiality means keeping secret any private or personal information and only allowing it to be seen by authorised people who have the permission to do so by the source or subject of that information. Confidentiality is important in building and maintaining trust because it helps form a good relationship, helps gain respect and will increase team performance. It will enhance a better working atmosphere where people can depend or rely on each other. Anyone having problems or difficulties will feel safe knowing that information is being kept secret and private and on a need to know basis. If confidentiality is kept rumours and Chinese whispers will not surface allowing the individual not to become discriminated or ridiculed.

Paul Keeler M0907190 M3.11

Once confidentiality is broken, team spirit, cohesion and moral will be lost. Resulting in loss of performance, improvement and solving of problems. The team could stagnate or go backwards. An individual who was once committed and enthusiastic could become withdrawn and not bothered. It could cause bad feeling, conflict, stress, illness and increase absenteeism. In some cases breaking confidentiality could lead to disciplinary or legal action. repaired at all. Once trust and confidentiality is broken it will take a long time to repair if it can be

Group or Team
The definition of a group is a collection of people or things located close together. The definition of a team is a collection of people dependant on each other and working towards the same objective or goal. `A work team is a group with common objectives, who are willing to work together, are picked and trained to carry out defined tasks, and whose members are dependent on anothers efforts. (Pardy. 2007. P24)

Teesside Cast Products is part of the Corus Group. A group of four steelmaking plants, whose aims are different and are not dependant on each other. Within Teesside Cast Products is Redcar Coke Ovens a group of people located in the same place, again who are not dependent on each other to reach objectives or aims. These groups are selected into different working teams, management, crafts, production, projects and contractors. Whenever necessary specialist teams are employed. The team I am part of is the shift production team where the members rely and depend on each other to perform our tasks and achieve our goals.

Paul Keeler M0907190 M3.11

Team Formation Model

Teams will be set up according to the organisation culture and structure. What technology and techniques are required? The task, its aims and its objectives. The team will be selected and members sort via a selection process possibly including skills, aptitude test and interview. The formation and development of a team can be seen as set out in stages like The Bruce Tuckman Formation Model (Pardy. 2007). `Tuchmans model explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and the leader changes style, Beginning with directing style, moving through coaching, then participating, finishing delegating and almost detached.( 22/01/2010). These stages are identified as: Forming. Storming. Norming. Performing. Mourning.

The forming Stage is where the group depends on the leader to direct, answer what the purpose and objectives of the team will be. There will be little agreement, unclear roles and responsibilities. Tolerances will be tested and finding out what behaviours are acceptable. Little consideration shown to others feelings, views or values

Paul Keeler M0907190 M3.11

The Storming Stage is where the leader is required to coach. Personal issues or conflict could arise, Members start vying for position, and factions could form. Resistance to the task, the demands, the rules and set boundaries. Even challenge position of the leader. The Norming Stage is when the leader facilitates and enables the team which starts to act and work as a team, cohesion, trust, confidence and co-operation evolve. Rules and boundaries begin to be accepted. The task objectives, roles and responsibilities become clear and accepted and a working style discussed and decided by a team decision. Diversity and equality become norm. The team acquires a sense of identity and belonging. The Performing Stage is when the Leader delegates, oversees and monitors the team, its task and objectives. Team members issues have been resolved, roles are flexible and functional. Improvement, solutions and constructive work forges ahead. Individual progress and development established and successive promotion incorporated. The Mourning Stage is the final stage in team development, the disbandment of the team, hopefully after achieving its tasks successfully. This stage should be planned as early as possible. It should take into account peoples emotions. A social event could be planned to mark the occasion. Team members may wish to stay in touch with each other. See diagram 1 in appendix. Bruce Tuckmans formation Model. Other formation models include: Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum .The diagonal line loosely equates to the stages in Tuckmans model. As the team matures and becomes more self-sufficient and self directed, so the leader style should react accordingly, ideally becoming more detached, more delegating, encouraging and enabling the team to run itself, and for a successor to emerge. ( 22-01-2010. See diagram 2 in appendix.

Paul Keeler M0907190 M3.11

Hersey and Blanchard Model. ` Illustrates the ideal development of a team from immaturity(stage 1 ) to maturity(stage 4 ) during which leadership style progressively develops from relatively detached taskdirecting(1) through the more leader-involved stages of explanation(3) to the final stage of detached delegation(4) at which time the team is largely self leading and hopefully contains at least one potential successor. The aim of the leader is to develop the team through the stages and move on to another role. ( 22-01-2010. See diagram 3 in appendix

Experience of using a formation model

In 2001 Corus began introducing team working throughout their sites in the UK as part of a restructuring program. At Redcar Coke Ovens this was done using the existing employees, everyone had an aspiration interview and teams were selected (with trade union participation) on a basis of size, skills, knowledge and intelligence. Production and craftsmen were placed into separate teams. Each team had a week long training program and a 3 day bonding course away from the work environment which included fun and competitive games and activities and some social events. During this training and bonding period the stages of forming, storming and eventually norming took place. The performing stage began on the bonding course and progressed further when the team was placed back in the working environment. Teams that pass these stages successfully become effective and display: Clear objectives and agreed performance goals Openness and confrontation Support and trust Co-operation and conflict Good decision making Appropriate leadership Review of the team process Sound inter-group relationships Individual development opportunities (


Paul Keeler M0907190 M3.11

The teams progress and development is still apparent today through innovation, continuous improvements and individuals progress. ` A team that is not developing is stagnating (Pardy. 2007p24). The final stage has not materialised in our shift teams but is imminent in other teams throughout Teesside Cast Products after the announcement to partial mothballing of the site.

Roles within a Team

According to the study by Dr Meredith Belbin ` a UK academic and consultant developed the team roles model in 1981 (Lines 2000 p181) in every team there are 9 roles to be played based on personalities, skills, characteristics and situations. The size of the team does not matter, if there are not 9 members then some members will assume more roles. Belbins study identified the following roles in a well balanced team as seen in the following table.

Paul Keeler M0907190 M3.11

Role Name coordinator

Strengths and styles Able to get others working to a shared aim; confident, mature.


Motivated, energetic, achievement driven, assertive and competitive.


Innovative, imaginative, solving.


creative, and

original, problem


MonitorEvaluator Implementer

Serious, prudent, critical thinker, analytical.

Systematic, structured,

common reliable,




practicable, efficient. Resource investigator Quick, good communicator, networker,

outgoing, affable, seeks and finds options, negotiator.

Team Worker

Supportive, sociable, flexible, adaptable, perceptive, mediator. listener, calming influence,







standards, quality orientated, delivers to schedule and specifications.


Technical expert, highly focused capability and knowledge, and driven by professional to personal standards dedication

subject area.

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10 22-01-2010.

Benefits to a Leader

Paul Keeler M0907190 M3.11


A leader would benefit from knowing team members preferred roles so that all roles are covered and only one person covers each role for example if your team has more shapers conflict could develop. Also it is easier to identify what the team is lacking. The team would be well balanced. The team will settle quicker, perform better, and continuously improve and develop and fulfil its tasks and objectives. A team leader would not want his team to be dysfunctional or to fail. Team members could become unhappy or stress caused due to having a role forced upon them thats above their ability and experience or where roles conflict each other. Anyone could suffer from Role overload where one person has too many roles. Roles may stagnate a team member due to not fulfilling their potential; they will become bored if things are too easy


Paul Keeler M0907190 M3.11


Diagram 1 Bruce Tuckmans Formation Model ( 22-01-2010)

Diagram 2 Tannenbaun and Schmidt Continuum.( www.businessballs. Com.) 22-01-2010

Paul Keeler M0907190 M3.11


Diagram 3 Hersey and Blanchards Model (

Paul Keeler M0907190 M3.11



Lines, David. Marcouse, I. Martin, B. (2000). A-Z Business Studies. Kent. Hodder and Stoughton. Pardy, David. (2007) ILM Building the Team. Great Britain. Elsevier http:\\www. Date accessed 22-01-2010

Paul Keeler M0907190 M3.11


http:\\ Date accessed 23-01-2010

Armstrong, Michael. (1999). Managing Activities. Wiltshire, UK. CIPD. Donnellon, Anne. (2006). Leading Teams. USA. Harvard Business School Press. Handy, Charles. (1976). Understanding Organisations. England. Penguin. Hayes Nicky. (2002). Managing Teams. Cornwall. South-Western Cengace learning. Leigh, Andrew. (2009). The Secrets of Success in Management. Great

Britain. Pearson Education Ltd. Lines, David. (2000). A-Z Business Studies. Kent. Hodder and Stoughton Pardy, David. (2007). Building the Team. Great Britain. Elsevier. Stannack, Peter. (1993). Managing People for the First Time. Great Britain. Pitman.

Paul Keeler M0907190 M3.11