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Original Title: Investigating Waste Water Treatment in a Closed Environment

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T. S. Nurudeen

1

, R. A. Kareem

2

, S. O. Salawu

3

1, 2

Department of Mathematics, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Nigeria

3

Department of Mathematics, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Abstract: This paper focuses on the investigation of the claim of The Sound and Environmental Water and Effluent Re-

cycling company that water can be completely purified if a population of at least 10 organisms per cubic centimeter can be

maintained in its cleaning tank for a period of at least 8 days. We investigated the growth patterns of each of these

organisms and make recommendations about which one will provide the most efficient water treatment and how many

organisms should be introduced initially.

Keyword: Environment, Waste, Micro-organisms and Water Treatment,

I. INTRODUCTION

The importance of these kinds of investigations as well as the complimentary experimental works, say in large-scale

water treatment and redistribution networks, thus makes them of great relevance [1-6]. It should however be remarked that to

date, the literature on the waste water treatment is still quite sparse. This then forms the crux of the current investigation [8].

Untreated water supply causes a serious socio-ecological hazard. If the problem is not carefully controlled and monitored,

large communities can be exposed to extensive health risks. It then requires taking immediate corrective measure to redress

and mitigate against its impact in the society [9].

The use of micro organisms to clean waste water and make it safe for re-use is good idea for water treatment. The

micro-organisms feed on harmful bacteria, thus removing them from the water. The efficiency of this method depends upon

choosing the correct species of micro-organism and ensuring that it is able to thrive in the tank of waste water successfully

for long enough to consume all the bacteria [7]. However, it is important that the population declines after completing its

function, since the ecological balance could be upset by discharge number of micro-organism into the environment.

II. MODEL EQUATION

The growth of micro-organism in a closed environment (such as the cleaning tank) is determined by three principle factors.

- The reproduction rate

- The effect of increased crowding

- The build-up of toxins produced as waste products by the organisms.

This can be modeled by the equation [9]

( )

}

=

t

d u cu bu au

dt

du

0

2

t t ( ) 1

Where ( ) t u the number of organisms per cubic centimeter of water is, a is the reproduction ratio, b is the crowding

coefficient, and c is a measure of the sensitivity of the organisms to toxins. The integral term is necessary since the toxins in

the environment are built up gradually over a period of time at a rate proportional to the number of organisms present.

The model equation in ( ) 1 which is in Integra-differential equation is reduced to differential equations of the form

Let ( ) ( )

}

=

t

d u t x

0

t t

( ) ( )

}

+ =

t

t u d u

dt

d

dt

dx

0

t t

( ) t u

dt

dx

=

u x = ' ( ) 2

Then ( ) 1 becomes

cux bu au

dt

du

=

2

cux bu au u = '

2

( ) 3

Investigating Waste Water Treatment in a Closed Environment

International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)

www.ijmer.com Vol. 3, Issue. 4, Jul - Aug. 2013 pp-2451-2455 ISSN: 2249-6645

www.ijmer.com 2452 | Page

III. NUMERICAL SOLUTION

The claim of SEWER scientists that water can be completely purified if a population of at least 10 organisms per

cubic centimeter can be maintained in its cleaning tank for a period of at least 8 days. We investigated by a MATLAB code

for equations ( ) 2 and ( ) 3 that give the plots below on which the investigation is made.

The maximum permissible population within water discharged into the environment is 0.05 per cubic centimeter.

We considered the micro-organism (multiplicanda numerosa, solo anti-socials and reproductio sensitova) whose growth is

determined by the three principle factors a, b and c defined above. Alternatively, they could use the combination of these

three. These can be categorized into 7 cases for the organism coefficients.

Case 1

Multiplicanda numerosa

003 . 0 , 01 . 0 , 20 = = = c b a

Case 2

Solo anti-socialis

01 . 0 , 5 . 0 , 5 = = = c b a

Case 3

Reproductio sensitova

08 . 0 , 001 . 0 , 5 . 0 = = = c b a

Case 4

Multiplicanda numerosa and Solo anti-socialis

013 . 0 , 51 . 0 , 25 = = = c b a

Case 5

Multiplicanda numerosa and Reproductio sensitova

083 . 0 , 011 . 0 , 5 . 20 = = = c b a

Case 6

Solo anti-socialis and Reproductio sensitova

09 . 0 , 501 . 0 , 5 . 5 = = = c b a

Case 7

Multiplicanda numerosa, Solo anti-socialis and Reproductio sensitova

093 . 0 , 511 . 0 , 5 . 25 = = = c b a

In summary the following table shows the different cases.

Case Organism Reproduction rate Crowding effect Toxin Build-up

1 mn 20 0.01 0.03

2 sa 5.0 0.5 0.01

3 rs 0.5 0.001 0.08

4 mn + sa 25 0.51 0.013

5 mn + rs 20.5 0.011 0.083

6 sa+ rs 5.5 0.501 0.09

7 mn + sa+ rs 25.5 0.511 0.093

Where

mn = Multiplicanda numerosa

sa= Solo anti-socialis

rs = Reproductio sensitova

Plot for cases 1 -7 are given in figures 1 7 below for 50 days in which the analysis of the results are based. The

number of organisms per cubic centimetre chosen by experiments as initial values is 10, 20 and 30. The plots are given

together for comparison from which the following inferences are drawn.

International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)

www.ijmer.com Vol. 3, Issue. 4, Jul - Aug. 2013 pp-2451-2455 ISSN: 2249-6645

www.ijmer.com 2453 | Page

Case 1

Figure 1: a = 20; b = 0:01; c = 0:03

Case 2

Figure 2: a = 5; b = 0:5; c = 0:01

Case 3

Figure 3: a = 0:5; b = 0:001; c = 0:08

Case 4

Figure 4: a = 25; b = 0:51; c = 0:013

International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)

www.ijmer.com Vol. 3, Issue. 4, Jul - Aug. 2013 pp-2451-2455 ISSN: 2249-6645

www.ijmer.com 2454 | Page

Case 5

Figure 5: a = 20:5; b = 0:011; c = 0:083

Case 6

Figure 6: a = 5:5; b = 0:501; c = 0:09

Case 7

Figure 7: a = 25:5; b = 0:511; c = 0:093

IV. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

It is observed from figures 1, 4, and 7 that number of organisms is more than 10 so growth of organisms is limited

due to crowding effects. Toxin build-up only dominating in the long run, hence the population is insensitive to toxins. They

are all good methods of treatment.

Also for figures 2, 3, 5 and 6, it is observed that the number of organisms is less than 10. Growth is immediate due

to lack of crowding effects and checked by accumulation of toxins. The populations are sensitive to toxins. They are not

good methods of waste water treatment.

International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)

www.ijmer.com Vol. 3, Issue. 4, Jul - Aug. 2013 pp-2451-2455 ISSN: 2249-6645

www.ijmer.com 2455 | Page

Figure 8a

Figure 8b

V. CONCLUSION

Cases 1, 4 and 7 provide more efficient water treatment as evident in the observation compared to cases 2, 3, 5 and

6. From the figures, it is obvious that case 1 (i.e. Multiplicanda numerosa) with the largest amplitude curves brings the

logistic curve with slow decay will provide the most efficient water treatment because it can successfully thrive in the tank of

waste water to consume all the bacteria in fewer days and has the maximum permissible population below 0.05 per cubic

centimeter (see figure 8b) within water discharge into the environment. This is evident in figure 8a which shows the

comparison between 1, 4 and 7. So from figure 8b, 10 organisms should be introduced initially and this confirms the claim of

the SEWER scientists.

REFERENCE

[1] C. Zheng and G. D. Bennett Applied Contaminant Transport Modeling: Theory and Practices, Van Nostrand Rienhold, 1995.

[2] P. Dulal and S. Khan, A time dependence mathematical model for dispersion of air pollutant from point sources, International

Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 35, pp. 197208, 1990.

[3] M. Summerfield and W. Krebs, Particle dispersion in a swirling confined jet flow source, Particle Characterization, vol. 7, pp.

1624, 1990.

[4] J. F. Sini, S. Anquetin, and P. G. Mestayer, Pollutant dispersion and thermal effects in urban street canyon, Atmospheric

Environment, Urban Atmospheric, vol. 30, pp. 26592677, 1996.

[5] O. D. Makinde, R. J.Moitsheki, and B. A. Tau, Similarity reductions of equations for river pollution, Applied Mathematics and

Computation, vol. 188, no. 2, pp. 12671273, 2007.

[6] R. J. Moitsheki and O. D. Makinde, Symmetry reductions and solutions for pollutant diffusion in a cylindrical system, Nonlinear

Analysis: Real World Applications, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 34203427, 2009.

[7] SEWER, The uses of Micro-organisms to clean waste water and make it safe for re-use 2009

[8] T. chinyoka and O.D. Makinde, Analysis of Nonlinear Dispersion of a poolutant ejected by an External Source into a Channel

Flow: Hindaawi Publication Corporation Mathematical Problems in Engineering. p17. 2010

[9] M. S. Kalamkin, Mathematical Modelling: Classroom notes in Applied Mathematics. 2010.

[10] T. I eldho, Management of Waste Water: Department of Civil Enginering, IIT Bombay, 2011.

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