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An Agent Formal Model for Autonomous Decision-making

Linjin Wu, Dongying Wu, Jiayong Chen,Wenxiong Li


Zhengzhou Institute of Information Science and Technology
Zhengzhou, China
e-mail: wulinjin01@163.com
AbstractWith the development of artificial intelligence, agent
is widely applied to the intelligent system. As the intelligent
decision at a higher sense, autonomous decision-making
directly affects the intelligent level of intelligent system. In
order to improve autonomous decision-making ability of
intelligent system, the paper aims to use formal method to
research on the process of autonomous decision-making.
Combining the feature of autonomous decision-making and
agent formal method, the paper puts forward an agent model
for autonomous decision-making, namely
ADAM(Autonomous Decision-making Agent Model). The
model mainly includes five parts: data pretreatment, decision-
making response, decision-making execution, decision-making
evaluation and learning feedback. Then the paper gives the
formal description of ADAM, which realizes formal analysis
for the process of autonomous decision-making. Finally, the
paper points out the realized critical point of the model and
preliminary demonstrates validity of the model.
Keywords-agents; autonomous decision-making; intelligent
systems; formal methods
I. INTRODUCTION
Agent, appearing in the 1970s, develops with the
development of artificial intelligence. At present, agent has
become one of the most active research content in the field
of the computer and artificial intelligence. The main research
content of agent is Agent Formal Theory, Agent Structure
and Multi-Agent System [1]. Agent has been widely used in
intelligent systems, such as: UAV intelligent control system,
complex industrial process control, air traffic control,
intelligent transportation systems and robots, etc.
Autonomous decision-making can have intelligent
decision-making autonomously according to the current
environmental information [2]. The characteristics of
autonomous decision-making have:
a) Intelligence: it can simulate human thinking when
faced with different environment, making decision
intelligently.
b) Autonomy: it can independently make decision, which
is not rely on the man-machine interface to interact.
c) Flexibility: in face of complex and ever-changing
external environment, autonomous decision-making needs
have higher flexibility so that have stronger adaptability.
d) Reliability: It can ensure the reliability and
effectiveness of autonomous decision-making.
f) Scalability: the scalability of autonomous decision-
making makes the autonomous decision-making deal with
the changes in complex environment in real-time.
Therefore, Autonomous decision-making, as the
intelligent decision-making at a higher sense, directly
affects the intelligent level of intelligent system.
At present, the design and development of intelligent
systems generally use formal methods and informal methods
[3]. The informal method is simple and intuitive, which
image is rather good, but lacking in precise semantics and
having ambiguity. The understanding for the informal
method depends on the knowledge and experience of
developer. While formal method, on the basis of
mathematical theory, can describe the system accurately and
unambiguously, meanwhile providing the tools for
systematic model simulation and validation [4].
Currently, the design and development of autonomous
decision-making system mainly use informal methods.
According to the specific applied background, the informal
method can design correspondent model. While owing to be
lack of precise semantics and hard to understand the fact that
the model is depended on the knowledge and experience of
developer, the formal method is little adopted.
Therefore, to improve autonomous decision-making
ability of intelligent system is regarded as background, this
paper aims to use formal method to study the process of
autonomous decision-making and puts forward an agent
model for autonomous decision-making, ADAM. With
reference to the formal method of Agent [5, 6, 7], this paper
has a formal description for ADAM model. Finally, the
ADAM model realized formal description for the process of
autonomous decision-making. Moreover, this paper points
out the realized critical point of the model and preliminary
demonstrates validity of the model.
II. ADAMFORMAL MODEL
A. The Establishment of ADAM Model
According to the features of autonomous decision-
making, combing with Agent theory, this paper comes up
with agent model for autonomous decision-making. The
framework of the model is given below.
2012 Fourth International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security
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2012 Fourth International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security
978-0-7695-4852-4/12 $26.00 2012 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/MINES.2012.59
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2012 Fourth International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security
978-0-7695-4852-4/12 $26.00 2012 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/MINES.2012.59
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2012 Fourth International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security
978-0-7695-4852-4/12 $26.00 2012 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/MINES.2012.59
940
2012 Fourth International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security
978-0-7695-4852-4/12 $26.00 2012 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/MINES.2012.59
940
2012 Fourth International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security
978-0-7695-4852-4/12 $26.00 2012 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/MINES.2012.59
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2012 Fourth International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security
978-0-7695-4852-4/12 $26.00 2012 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/MINES.2012.59
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2012 Fourth International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security
978-0-7695-4852-4/12 $26.00 2012 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/MINES.2012.59
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Decision-making
Control Module
Micro-Intelligent
Decision Module
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Data Pretreatment
Date
Evaluation
Perception Evaluation
Learning Feedback
Application of Decision
Decision-making Response
Decision-making Execution
Decision-making
Coordination Module
Learning Feedback
Figure1. ADAM Model
As is shown in the figure, the ADAM consists of five
parts: data pretreatment, autonomous decision-making
response, decision-making execution, autonomous decision-
making evaluation and learning feedback.
1) Data Pretreatment
The data pretreatment is responsible for the information
integration of the collected data, and fully perceives the
trend of the current environment, providing a decision-
making basis for autonomous decision-making response.
The structure of data pretreatment model is given below.
Date Level
Feature Level
Decision Level
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F
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Figure2. The Structure of Data Pretreatment
As shown, the process of data pretreatment conducts
information integration on three levels: the data level,
feature level and decision level [8]. Making the data
continues to abstract levels of depth, and thus as a basis for
autonomous decision-making response. Decision-making
evaluation and learning feedback constantly proceed to
assess and learn feedback for data pretreatment, so that the
data pretreatment can efficiently perceive the trend of
environment.
2) Decision-Making Response
Autonomous decision-making response is responsible
for responding to the decision-making data that has been
dealt with, which is the core of whole autonomous decision-
making model. It includes three parts: the decision-making
control module, the decision-making coordination module
and micro-intelligent decision module. Among the three
parts, decision-making control and coordination module is
responsible for the operation, regulation and management of
the autonomous decision-making; while micro-intelligent
decision module is the core of decision-making response,
responsible for conducting autonomous decision-making
efficiently and intelligently. Decision-making evaluation
and learning feedback constantly have efficiency assessment
and learning feedback for autonomous decision-making in
real-time, thus maximizing the efficiency of autonomous
decision-making.
3) Decision-making Execution
Decision-making execution is to effectively implement
the decision-making produced by the autonomous decision-
making response, therefore conducting the decision-making
application according to the correspondent decision-making
objects. Decision-making evaluation and learning feedback
conduct the decision-making effect assessment and learning
feedback in real-time for decision-making execution, thus
giving full play to the efficiency of decision-making
execution.
4) Decision-making Evaluation
Assessment of autonomous decision-making is the real-
time assessment and feedback on the autonomous decision-
making, including the assessment on the ability of
perceiving the trend in the data pretreatment; the assessment
on the efficiency of micro-intelligent decision module in
autonomous decision-making response; the assessment on
decision-making execution. By assessing, optimize the
performance of the autonomous decision-making, and
maximize decision-making as much as possible.
5) Decision-making Learning Feedback
Autonomous decision-making learning feedback is to
have the real-time learning and feedback for autonomous
decision-making, including learning feedback on the
perception of the trend in the data pretreatment; learning
feedback on the micro-intelligent decision module in
autonomous decision-making response; learning feedback on
the operational decision-making execution. Through learning
feedback, constantly improve and optimize the efficiency of
autonomous decision-making system, and continuously
promote the ability of autonomous decision-making.
B. The Formalization of ADAM Model
1) Definition1: ADAM.
= {, , , , , }.
Among them, PA represents data pretreatment; RA
represents autonomous decision-making response; EXA
represents decision-making execution; EVA represents
autonomous decision-making evaluation; LFA represents
autonomous decision-making learning feedback; Relation
represents the interface between them.
2) Definition2: Relation.
Let = {, , , , };
=

, 0 < , ();
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= 1 means a
i
connects with a
j
,

= 0 means not
connect, then
= =

0 1 0 1 1
0 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 0 0

.
3) Definition3: PA.
= , ,

, , , , ,

,
,

, ,
: ();

: () ();

: () ();

: () ;
: (

) () ;
: (

) ()

.
Among them, PIn is the set of input data state; POut is
the set of output data state; R
io
is the set of possible data
pretreatment program, DL is the collection of data state in
data level; CL is the collection of data state in feature level;
DeL is the collection of data state in decision level; See
shows the process of perception of Agent in initial state; F
cl
shows the collection of program transforming from the
collection of DL to the collection of CL; F
del
shows the
collection of program transforming from the collection of
CL to the collection of DeL; F
do
shows the collection of
program transforming from the collection of DeL to the
collection of POut; Est shows the process of determining
the output data results, through evaluation and learning
feedback for the program of data pretreatment; Act means
the process of focusing on selecting a specific output data
from specific POut, according to the corresponding set of a
program set; () shows the power set of DL, and the
other is also similar.
4) Definition4: RA.
= , , ,

, , , , ,

= {(,

)| ,

()};

= {(

, )|

(), ()};
: () ;
: () () ;
: () () ;
: () () .
Among them, PRn is the input decision-making data ;
RIn is the set consisting of all possible action program of
Agent; ROut is the set of all possible corresponding results
state to the all possible action program; S
pn
shows the
correspondence between sets of decision-making data and
action program; S
io
shows the correspondence between set
of program and set of result state; AIRule expresses the
intelligent selection strategy of micro-intelligent decision
module; See shows the process of determining the current
program set of the corresponding pair, according to the
input decision-making data and AIRule; Est shows the
process of determining possible result state, after ensuring
the corresponding program set through evaluation and
learning feedback; Adjust shows the process of determining
final result state, after ensuring the corresponding program
set through control and coordination according to AIRule;
Act shows the process of focusing on selecting a specific
program from selected programs, according to AIRule and
the corresponding result state set of a program set.
5) Definition5: EXA.
= {, , ,

, , , }

= {(,

)| ,

()};

= {(

, )|

(), ()};
: () ;
: () () ;
: () () .
Among them, ERIn is the input set of decision-making
program; ExIn is the set of all possible control command of
Agent; Exout is the set of all possible corresponding results
state to the all possible control command; S
re
shows the
correspondence between sets of decision-making program
and control command; S
eo
shows the correspondence
between set of control command and set of result state; See
shows the process of determining the current control
command set of the corresponding pair, according to the
input decision-making program; Est shows the process of
determining possible result state, after ensuring the
corresponding control command set through evaluation and
learning feedback; Act shows the process of focusing on
selecting a specific control command from selected control
commands, according to the corresponding result state set of
a control command set.
6) Definition6: EVA.
= {, , ,

, , , }

= {(,

)| ,

()};

= {(

, )|

(), ()};
: () ;
: () () ;
: () () .
Among them, In is the input set of evaluation data; EvIn
is the set of all evaluation program of Agent; EvOut is the
set of all possible corresponding results state to the all
evaluation program; S
ie
shows the correspondence between
sets of evaluation input and possible evaluation program; S
ev
shows the correspondence between set of evaluation
program and set of evaluation result state; See shows the
process of determining the current corresponding set of
evaluation program, according to the input set of evaluation
data; Est shows the process of determining possible result
state, after ensuring the corresponding set of evaluation
program through repeated evaluation and adjustment; Act
shows the process of focusing on selecting a evaluation
program from specific evaluation programs, according to
the corresponding result state set of a evaluation program.
7) Definition7: LFA.
= , , ,

, , ,

= {(,

)| ,

()};

= {(

, )|

(), ()};
: () ;
: () () ;
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: () () .
Among them, In is the input set of learning feedback data;
LFIn is the set of all learning feedback of Agent; LFOut is
the set of all possible corresponding results state to the all
learning feedback program; S
il
shows the correspondence
between sets of learning feedback input and possible learning
feedback program; S
lf
shows the correspondence between set
of learning feedback program and set of result state; See
shows the process of determining the current corresponding
set of learning feedback program, according to the input set
of learning feedback data; Est shows the process of
determining possible result state, after ensuring the
corresponding set of learning feedback program through
repeated adjustment and optimization; Act shows the process
of focusing on selecting a learning feedback program from
specific learning feedback programs, according to the
corresponding result state set of a learning feedback program.
III. THE APPLICATION OF FORMAL MODEL
According to the above proposed model, ADAM
conducts the formal analysis for the process of an
autonomous decision-making. Assuming the process of the
simplification of general autonomous decision-making is as
shown below.
ScnsorN Scnsor1 Scnsor2
Decision1 Decision2 DecisionN
Auiononous
Dccision-naling
...
...
Figure3. Simplified Process of Autonomous Decision-making
Supposing P
i
are the obtained datas from Sensor1,
Sensor2...SensorN, C
i
are the received control commands
from Decision1, Decision2...DecisionN. So the process of
autonomous decision-making can be formalized as:
= {
0,

1
};
: ();

: () ();

: () ();

: () ;
: (

) () ;
= {

, } , ;
: () ;
: () () ;
: () () ;
= {

, } , ;
: () ;
: () () ;
= {
0,

1
} ,

.
As is shown above, the data gets the final set of control
command of autonomous decision-making, that is Con, after
through the data pretreatment of PA, the autonomous
decision-making response of RA and the decision-making
execution of EXA. The process of autonomous decision-
making also gets the constant learning feedback and
evaluation and adjustment from EVA and LFA. Among them,
the key of PA lies in determining appropriate program set
R
io
, optimizing the result setPOut; the key of RA lies in
determining proper decision-making programRIn,
optimizing the set of decision-making resultROut through
control and coordination. While the key of EXA lies in
determining appropriate set of control commandExIn,
optimizing the result set of execution ExOut.
IV. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
Autonomous decision-making, as the intelligent
decision-making at a higher sense, directly affects the
intelligent level of intelligent system. This paper proposes
an agent formal model for autonomous decision-making,
aiming at the autonomous decision-making process of the
current design and development of autonomous decision-
making system, analyzing the feature of autonomous
decision-making and combining the formal method of Agent.
The ADAM model includes five parts: data pretreatment,
decision-making response, decision-making execution,
decision-making evaluation and learning feedback, this
paper gives their own formal expression, aiming at the
features of each part. Finally, this paper uses ADAM model
to conduct formal analysis for the process of an autonomous
decision-making, and points out the realized critical point of
the model and preliminary demonstrates validity of the
model, providing certain theoretical basis for the design and
development of the system of autonomous decision-making.
The future work includes: further perfect the ADAM model;
theoretically demonstrate the consistency and completeness
of the model; study Multi-Agent model for autonomous
decision-making under the distributed situation.
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