The Body of Quality Knowledge

According to Dr. Juran every profession needs a body of knowledge as one of the foundations that defines the profession and provides the basis for regulation of the profession. The Body of Quality Knowledge is the framework that defines the current boundaries of knowledge of the quality profession within the UK. It is set out as simple statements of knowledge that can be used and developed by user groups such as the educational establishment, training establishments, membership and those organisations that need to define guidance or competencies for their quality professionals. It is not intended to be the repository of quality knowledge, which can be said to be the collection of papers, treatise, books, educational and training programmes that have been developed over the years by leading members of the profession. The CQI’s Body of Quality Knowledge is revised and administered by the Professional Policy Board which accepts requests for revision as and when they arise from user groups and other interested parties. Level 1 of the Body of Quality Knowledge provides an overview of the current boundaries of the knowledge of the profession. Level 2 expands on Level 1 to the extent considered useful for the user groups, i.e. level 2 is not intended to be restrictive nor unduly prescriptive in limiting user groups that wish to extend the current boundaries of the profession’s knowledge. Note: The Body of Quality Knowledge is not a syllabus, nor a set of competencies, nor a programme of training. Such documents are the responsibility of the appropriate user groups, and will be a further development arising from levels 1 and 2.

Module 1: Concepts of Quality, its History and Development
Level 1: Summary Description 1.1 Level 2: Expansion The development of quality from craft and tradition up to the widespread development of quality systems. Historical perspective of the development and use of standards in regulating quality (Pre-Roman, European Guilds, Gold/Silver Marks etc).

The history and tradition of inspection, quality control and quality assurance up to c. 1970


The evolution of quality thinking, post c. 1970

The development of systems thinking; new approaches to quality management; quality management standards; definitions of quality and quality assurance; the introduction of third-party certification schemes. Deming, Juran, Feigenbaum, Ishikawa, Taguchi, Crosby, Shingo, Ohno; modern leading edge thinkers. Service element of product supply (specification, customisation, after sales, etc.); service typology; terminology and definition; public, private and voluntary sectors and professions. Benefits; systemic and corporate improvement; tools and methods.


The influence of “Quality Gurus”


Development of formal quality systems into the service sectors, professions and other (non-manufacturing) businesses Continual improvement



The quality infrastructure - roles of the different bodies

Government, accreditation bodies, certification bodies, standards bodies, regulatory bodies, professional bodies, customers, consultants; interfaces.


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Internal and external suppliers. Communication theory.3 2. Training specialists and non-specialists. self learning. Suppliers. data gathering and analysis. stakeholder needs and expectations (and conflicts).4 Communication 3. end-users and consumers. customer needs and expectations. authority and accountability. public. Page 2 of 5 3. methods of communication and their effectiveness.3 Roles and responsibilities of corporate management 3. managing customer relationships. private and voluntary sectors.4 2. Design. other Stakeholders and Markets Level 1: Summary Description 2. delegation of authority. training and mentoring CQI10010/July10/03 . coaching. leadership styles. The customer focused organisation.The Body of Quality Knowledge Module 2: Customers. mentoring. setting targets. Job design and specification. responsibility. empowerment. implementation and maintenance of an infrastructure appropriate to the organisation’s goals. Leading and managing teams. replacement and disaster management. 2.2 Corporate structure and culture The importance of corporate structure.1 Level 2: Expansion Need for organisational values and for codes of conduct. customer loyalty. continuing professional development (CPD).5 Management infrastructure 3. facilitation. Identifying stakeholders. Markets Customers Suppliers Stakeholders Satisfaction and loyalty Internal and external customers.8 Awareness raising – learning. managing supplier relationships.7 Leadership. measuring and/or monitoring satisfaction. professional bodies and institutions. complaints and complaint management. validation.1 2. methods of production and service delivery.6 Role of the individual 3. managing stakeholder relationships. professional principles and business ethics. supplier needs and expectations.5 Module 3: Interactions of Organisations and People Level 1: Summary Description 3.2 Level 2: Expansion Internal and external markets. product recall. purchasers. Standards and ethics 3. team building. Global cultural differences. team selection. company and personal suppliers. knowledge theories. motivation and teamworking 3. motivational theory. market analysis. competence levels. training effectiveness. Roles and responsibilities of corporate management in relation to managing the business or organisation. values and culture in an organisation.

The influence of culture. life cycle. reliability. Change management. service or other specifications.The Body of Quality Knowledge Module 3: Interactions of Organisations and People . statutory. managing stress. promotion.10 Impact of technology on people Specifying and selecting appropriate technologies.1 Level 2: Expansion Input requirements. quantitative & qualitative techniques. products and services 4. technical. Assessment and development of new quality techniques. production. CQI10010/July10/03 Page 3 of 5 . process analysis. selection of the most appropriate consultant. process capability. Data collection and analysis. processes and defined systems using appropriate quality tools and methodologies. product/service failure techniques and other quality control tools. introduction of technology to improve the product/process/service. monitoring and control 4. process and system outputs.9 Level 2: Expansion Staff supervision.4 Measurement. personal development plans. competence.11 Quality consultancy . benchmarking and competitor analysis using the appropriate improvement tools and methodologies.continued Level 1: Summary Description 3. use of statistics.3 4. 3. for example design of experiments. maintainability.6 Managing continual improvement Recognising the evolutionary nature of continual improvement techniques.2 Process analysis and improvement Problem diagnosis and improvement tools Mapping. Evolutionary versus breakthrough improvement. Performance management 3. Verification and validation of the specification. Selection of appropriate continual improvement tools and techniques to improve the business. Specifying. design. Transforming input requirements into specification. the conditions and the working environment. effects of technology on people and the environment. 4. for example customer. statistical process control (SPC). inspection methods and techniques. prototyping. reviews. designing and developing processes. management of or involvement in consultancy activities. regulatory.5 New materials. Internal/external consultancy role. technologies and techniques 4. Selection of appropriate tools including risk assessment. setting objectives. failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA).its variety and roles Module 4: Technologies and Techniques Level 1: Summary Description 4. financial and motivational reward. products and services. Use of existing quality tools in new technology. assessment. attributes & variables. advantages/disadvantages to organisations. piloting and other tools. Taguchi.

consumer protection.7 Industry associations Specialist professional bodies 5.6 Audit. self assessment and appraisal 5. specifications and guidelines into an organisation (e. IQA. ISO 9001 derivatives) Regulated industries and professions. National. for example EFQM. use to encourage improvement or benchmarking. Their role and purpose. ISO 9000 series.4 Compliance management and enforcement 5. EU directives. Internal/external audit. Associations and Professional Bodies Level 1: Summary Description 5. EU and international self regulation.3 Management system standards 5.The Body of Quality Knowledge Module 5: Laws. product liability. EU and international Process of development. ISO 14000 series & OHSAS 18001. ISO 19011. for example Charter Mark. certification processes. kite marking.g. Auditor certification schemes. self assessment to the various excellence models. CE. IIP. The development. Application of management and other relevant standards. Standards. sector standards. accreditation & certification. government legislation.5 Excellence models and awards 5.8 CQI10010/July10/03 Page 4 of 5 . employment directives. enforcement agencies. development bodies and committees. legal requirements. licensing. 5. International.1 Level 2: Expansion Legal framework. Legislation 5. Methods of enforcement.2 Standards development Sources and use of standards: national. national. capability assessment. use and role of corporate standards. Models. Baldrige. Their role and purpose. Deming Prize.

installing and maintaining management systems to meet organisational needs. AGMs. objectives and principles. finance. learning from success and failure. process management. business process change. suppliers and customers 6. working relationships with (global) stakeholders. application of management system models. management reviews. managing corporate business change. Strategic management 6. goals. performance management. knowledge management. IT. corporate vs. stakeholder involvement. reporting. contribution from supporting functions. business environment. its stakeholders. involvement of the whole workforce. managing introduction of new technology. operational processes and systems.6 Managing quality across the (global) organisation. quality of working life. customer focus strategy. values and mission. ethics. departmental management. different corporate cultures. ethical supply chains.2 Corporate governance Governance structures and accountability. sustainability. stakeholder concerns. data protection. suppliers and customers. future quality developments. Accountability. business plans. initiative fatigue. environment. impact of different cultures. decision making. Global considerations. quality planning within the corporate strategy. assessment and management of risk.7 Quality in its total business concept 6.The Body of Quality Knowledge Module 6: Corporate Strategy Level 1: Summary Description 6.1 Level 2: Expansion Vision. departmental vs. corporate citizenship. Models and value chains. integrated management systems (holistic approach): quality. 6. health & safety. audits. fitness for purpose. committees and reporting structures. global communication. human resources.4 Management systems 6. benchmarking. system integration. international partnerships.8 Corporate social responsibility CQI10010/July10/03 Page 5 of 5 . Designing. Different management styles. sustaining the quality drive. Corporate structure.3 Elements of corporate strategy 6. environmental and social impact.5 Impact of corporate strategy on people 6.

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