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Hemoglobin in your blood plays a crucial role in your body. Your level of hemoglobin decides how well oxygen and carbon travels in your body. Both oxygen and carbon is very important for your survival. Your cells needs and craves oxygen to survive. Carbon is a waste material that your body needs to get rid of. Hemoglobin in your bloodstream helps to transport oxygen to your cells. In addition hemoglobin helps to get rid of potentially dangerous carbon.
( और रर र र . 1.36 और 1.37 , र र . O2 र और ( . 97% और ( ) 35% ) ) र र र र ,
For normal ranges for hemoglobin you should have: Age Newborn Children If you are a grown-up male If you are a grown-up women After middle age (men) After middle age (women) Level of hemoglobin Between 17 and 22 gm/dL Between 11 and 15 gm/dL Between 14 and 18 gm/dL Between 12 and 16 gm/dL Approximately between 12 and 15 gm/dL Approximately between 12 and 14 gm/dL
White blood cells, or leukocytes (also spelled "leucocytes") are cells of the immune system involved
in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. Five different and diverse types of leukocytes exist, but they are all produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. They live for about three to four days in the average human body. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system
. is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period of one hour. known as a Westergren tube. र ( ) The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). र र र रर औ (periphery) र और १२०  र र और र == र . It is a common hematology test. and the rate at which the red blood cells fall is measured and reported in mm/h.1×10 10 ( र और रर . White blood cells help fight infections. र र 1. र र और . They are also called leukocytes. also called a sedimentation rate or Westergren ESR. . र : ए और  ). (red blood cells).WBC count A WBC count is a blood test to measure the number of white blood cells (WBCs). र र . र र रर . . anticoagulated blood is placed in an upright tube.  और ए र र 1% (leukocytosis) र र 4×10 9 र र  (leucopenia) . H== . To perform the test. There are five major types of white blood cells: Basophils Eosinophils Lymphocytes (T cells and B cells) Monocytes Neutrophils (WBC). ए रर और र . and is a non-specific measure of inflammation. और .
and other blood cells help to form clots. cytes = cells) have the important responsibility of carrying the oxygen throughout the body. It is  normally about 45% for men and 40% for women. anemia often causes people to feel fatigued. Because hemoglobin carries oxygen. The resulting number is then multiplied by 10. is the volume percentage (%) of red blood cells in blood. but it also helps to transport carbon dioxide from the capillaries back to the lungs to be exhaled. and platelet count. many of the processes that occur to help your body adjust to changes could not happen without the blood transporting certain hormones. The mean corpuscular volume. British spelling haematocrit). and plasma. which keep your body from losing too much blood. also known as packed cell volume (PCV) or erythrocyte volume fraction (EVF). he or she is diagnosed with anemia. white blood cells. or electrolytes. Hemoglobin not only binds oxygen and transports it to capillaries. blood is an extremely important part of homeostasis — a conglomerate of processes that allows your body to adjust to changes in external temperatures and hormone levels. It is considered an integral part of a person's complete blood count results.The hematocrit (Ht or HCT. platelets. If a person has too few red blood cells. What Are the Components of Human Blood? Blood is the fluid that sustains life. Red blood cells The red blood cells. Hemoglobin exists in the red blood cells. is a measure of the average red blood cell volume that is reported as part of a standard complete blood count. Anemia can be caused by any of the following: . By transporting oxygen and hemoglobin. The red blood cells get packed together when they are spun around at high speeds in a centrifuge. along with hemoglobin concentration. which are also called erythrocytes (erythro means red. white blood cell count. or "mean cell volume" (MCV). The components of blood include red blood cells. or if there is not enough hemoglobin in the red blood cell. The MCV is calculated by dividing the total volume of packed red blood cells (also known as hematocrit) by the total number of red blood cells. as determined by a red blood cell count. The fluid portion of the blood carries nutrients needed to fuel each cell in the body. But. some blood cells fight off invading substances that could destroy your cells. nutrients. oxygen. It also shuttles wastes that need to be transported to the excretory system to be passed out of the body and carbon dioxide that needs to be transported to the lungs to be exhaled. Some blood cells carry oxygen (necessary for metabolic reactions).
Dietary deficiencies Metabolic disorders Hereditary conditions Damaged bone marrow Red blood cells are created in the red bone marrow. If the T-cell count decreases. Histamines are those annoying little chemical molecules that cause you to swell up with hives. There are five important types of white blood cells: Basophils release histamines. which are also called leukocytes ( leuko = white). are involved in functions controlled by the immune system. the iron they contain is recycled back to the red bone marrow to be used in new cells. T cells are the type of virus hunters measured in a person with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). it indicates that the person has some type of infection. Lymphocytes scan the body looking for viruses. If a white blood cell count is too high. itch like crazy. it means that the immune system is not functioning properly. The technical term for the eating of a cell is phagocytosis. Monocytes are precursors to macrophages. All of those reactions cause inflammation. meaning “big eater. where much of it ends up in fecal matter. . sneeze. The rest of the material in the old red blood cells is degraded and transported to the digestive system. wheeze.” Macrophages digest bacteria and viruses. Eosinophils “eat” other cells. so eosinophils are said to phagocytize complexes formed between antigens (the invading offender) and antibodies (a “home team” defender). There are two types of lymphocytes: B cells and T cells. Platelets Platelets are pieces of cells that work to form blood clots. and get teary-eyed when you are around something to which you are allergic. These cells phagocytize bacteria. Lymphocytes kill cells that contain viruses. which enlists the help of stronger white blood cells. it indicates that the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS is winning the fight in that infected person’s body. The immune system is responsible for fighting infections. White blood cells The white blood cells. Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cells in the body. They live about 120 days shuttling oxygen and carbon dioxide. If a person has a low white blood cell count. As the red blood cells are destroyed. and then certain white blood cells destroy them in the liver and spleen. Sneezing and getting watery eyes are physiologic reactions to help flush the offending allergen from your mucous membranes. They work to keep your body from losing too much blood when you sustain an injury and help in wound healing. and in doing so keep your system from being overrun by every germ with which it comes into contact.
Abnormal hematocrit levels also might be a sign of a blood or bone marrow disorder. The BMP can give doctors information about your muscles (including the heart). These tests usually are done on the fluid (plasma) part of blood. bones. Two major proteins contained in plasma are: Gamma globulin (also called immunoglobulin): Gamma globulin is a broad term for a class of proteins that make up the different types of antibodies. Abnormal platelet levels might be a sign of a bleeding disorder (not enough clotting) or a thrombotic disorder (too much clotting). Blood Chemistry Tests/Basic Metabolic Panel The basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a group of tests that measures different chemicals in the blood. . excess glucose (sugar) in your blood can attach to hemoglobin and raise the level of hemoglobin A1c. sickle cell anemia. A low hematocrit level might mean you have anemia. The production of antibodies. They stick together to seal cuts or breaks on blood vessel walls and stop bleeding.Plasma When blood is put into a test tube and spun in a centrifuge. imagine plasma as a river and the blood cells and platelets as leaves floating in it. is controlled by the immune system. Platelets Platelets (PLATE-lets) are blood cell fragments that help your blood clot. Plasma is the “stream” in bloodstream. and the plasma is a clear layer on top. Think of the action inside blood vessels. Mean Corpuscular Volume Mean corpuscular (kor-PUS-kyu-lar) volume (MCV) is a measure of the average size of your red blood cells. The plasma contains many important proteins. Hematocrit Hematocrit (hee-MAT-oh-crit) is a measure of how much space red blood cells take up in your blood. the blood cells and platelets gravitate to the bottom of the tube. which help to fight infections. Fibrinogen: Fibrinogen is a protein involved in blood clotting. Abnormal hemoglobin levels might be a sign of anemia. and organs (such as the kidneys and liver). or other blood disorders. A high hematocrit level might mean you're dehydrated. Abnormal MCV levels might be a sign of anemia or thalassemia. without which you would die. thalassemia (thal-a-SE-meah). Hemoglobin Hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow-bin) is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. If you have diabetes.
and chloride. potassium. calcium. and others don't. For example. . you have to fast before your blood is drawn. Both of these are waste products that the kidneys filter out of the body. thyroid disease. heart failure. For this reason. malnutrition. doctors often order troponin tests when patients have chest pain or otherheart attack signs and symptoms. and kidney function tests. Your doctor will tell you how to prepare for the test(s) you're having. high blood pressure. For some blood glucose tests. bone disease. cancer.The BMP includes blood glucose. Blood Enzyme Tests Enzymes help control chemical reactions in your body. They include sodium. Abnormal glucose levels in your blood might be a sign of diabetes. Some of these tests require you to fast (not eat any food) before the test. These tests include troponin and creatine (KRE-ah-teen) kinase (CK) tests. and its levels in your blood rise. blood levels of troponin rise when you have a heart attack. When muscle or heart cells are injured. High levels of CK-MB in the blood can mean that you've had a heart attack. or another disorder. Abnormal electrolyte levels might be a sign of dehydration. Troponin Troponin is a protein that helps your muscles contract. kidney disease. troponin leaks out. or other disorders. liver disease. Creatine Kinase A blood product called CK-MB is released when the heart muscle is damaged. Abnormal calcium levels in the blood might suggest kidney problems. bicarbonate. Other blood glucose tests are done after a meal or at any time with no preparation. There are many blood enzyme tests. This section focuses on blood enzyme tests used to help diagnose a heart attack. Blood Glucose Glucose is a type of sugar that the body uses for energy. Calcium Calcium is an important mineral in the body. Abnormal BUN and creatinine levels might suggest a kidney disease or disorder. electrolyte. Kidney Function Blood tests for kidney function measure levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (kre-AT-ihneen). Electrolytes Electrolytes are minerals that help maintain fluid levels and acid-base balance in the body.
A lipoprotein panel measures the levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood. LDL ("bad") cholesterol. A lipoprotein panel gives information about your: Total cholesterol. Most people will need to fast for 9 to 12 hours before a lipoprotein panel.Blood Tests To Assess Heart Disease Risk A lipoprotein panel is a blood test that can help show whether you're at risk forcoronary heart disease (CHD). This is the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockages in the arteries.) HDL ("good") cholesterol. . Abnormal test results might suggest that you're at risk of bleeding or developing clots in your blood vessels. Triglycerides are a type of fat in your blood. Blood Clotting Tests Blood clotting tests sometimes are called a coagulation (KO-ag-yu-LA-shun) panel. This type of cholesterol helps decrease blockages in the arteries. Warfarin and heparin are two examples of such medicines. Triglycerides. Abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels might be signs of increased risk of CHD. This test looks at substances in your blood that carry cholesterol. Your doctor may recommend these tests if he or she thinks you have a disorder or disease related to blood clotting. (For more information about blockages in the arteries. go to the Health Topics Atherosclerosis article. These tests check proteins in your blood that affect the blood clotting process. Blood clotting tests also are used to monitor people who are taking medicines to lower the risk of blood clots.
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