Free online resources on the Art of Improvisation : www.musilosophy.

com

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FREE online resources on the Art of Improvisation

(Piano) Improvisation Technique
by Musilosophy

www.musilosophy.com

Improvisation means real time composing.....

Copyright © 2006 Paolo Parrella.All rights reserved.

Free online resources on the Art of Improvisation : www.musilosophy.com

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“I know of knowing nothing” ( Socrates )

Music is based on harmony Harmony is based on chords and scales Melody and improvisation are based on chords and scales Accompaniment is based on chords and scales Chords are based on scales Scales are based on physics,mathematical principles and musical tradictions Musical tradictions are based on human perception,technology,economy,history,religion…

Copyright © 2006 Paolo Parrella.All rights reserved.

Free online resources on the Art of Improvisation : www.musilosophy.com

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SUMMARY

1. Keys
Key awareness Major Minor Scale harmonization

2.Chords
Major 7th Minor 7th Dominant 7th Half diminished 7th Diminished 7th Inversions Chord degrees

3.Other scales
Blues Whole tone Diminished Diminished/whole tone Pentatonic

Copyright © 2006 Paolo Parrella.All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. .com 4 4.Free online resources on the Art of Improvisation : www.Phrasing Beginning of phrase Ending of phrase Imitation 6.Melody Melody building Chordal notes Turning note Passing note Leaning note Delaying note Anticipated note Chromatic note Double leaning note Mixed note “Wrong” notes 5.Rhythm Emphasizing offbeats and upbeats Syncopation Swing Polyrhythmics 7.Practice… Practice… Practice… Generale practice Progressive drills Fondamental drills Greatest piano improvise Copyright © 2006 Paolo Parrella.musilosophy.

musilosophy. .All rights reserved.com 77 About improvisation Intervals Improvisation with perfect fourths Analysis of solos Lydian chromatic concept Main chordal progressions Main used forms Improvisation tips Inside. outside “Free” improvisation What you have to avoid… Improvisation goals Copyright © 2006 Paolo Parrella.Free online resources on the Art of Improvisation : www.

Free online resources on the Art of Improvisation : www.musilosophy.com 78 About other music subjects COMPOSING EAR TRAINING ARRANGING ANALYSIS Copyright © 2006 Paolo Parrella.All rights reserved. .

Music traditions base on human perception. q q q q q q Jazz improvisation and music harmony : summary Music harmony concepts Scales. history. Music bases on harmony. economy.com/jazz-improvisation. mathematical principles and music traditions. Scales base on physic.. piano improvising. Improvisation and music harmony : MIOP q Chords base on scales. Improvisation means composing new ideas. Site menu Blues singer songwriter jazz pianist q Pop music videos q Jazz piano..FAQ | Introduction on the Art of Improvisation Jazz improvisation and music harmony : Summary q Piano improvisation technique : introduction q Jazz improvisation. Melody and improvisation base on chords and scales.htm (1 of 7)3/2/2007 9:11:31 PM .jazz improvisation : music improvisation : jazz theory Home: jazz improvisation : pop blues | Pop music videos | Pop blues jazz albums | Jazz improvisation .. religion. modes to improvise Blues improvisation Jazz melody and improvisation Swing jazz rhythm Jazz techniques : practice Other resources about jazz improvisation http://www.". Accompaniment base on chords and scales too.musilosophy.harmony | Lingua italiana | HELP .. tutorial videos q Pop blues jazz albums q Jazz pianist music stores q Improvisation : MIOP donation q "Improvisation means real time composing. technology. music harmony and theory MIOP means Musilosophy Improvisation Open Project.

Phrasing is the following step.jazz improvisation : music improvisation : jazz theory q q . transcribing. Learning jazz improvisation is not simple. harmonization are other important and fundamental techniques to learn jazz improvisation and composing.musilosophy. keys. rules. The theory and harmonic concepts you have to learn are few and easy to http://www. Ear training.. These techniques can give you the skill for express the music you have inside. voicing. music harmony.htm (2 of 7)3/2/2007 9:11:31 PM . You have to practice so much so you can play right melodic lines with swing and without thinking about scales. You must learn to begin and finish melodic phrases from every point of measure..com/jazz-improvisation. Then you must play all chord inversions and the building melody techniques.A jazz improvisation primer You need to know the following items to improvise and compose in a right and nice way: first you have to know all major and minor scales and relative keys and all chords in every keys. transposing.The world of jazz improvisation .

com/jazz-improvisation.htm (3 of 7)3/2/2007 9:11:31 PM . Improvisation is a language. you can express ideas. I have published also another site to learn music theory and harmony q Music harmony : keys Key awareness and chord chart Major key chords Minor scales chords Scale harmonizations q Chord charts Major 7th Minor seventh Dominant 7th Half diminished seventh Diminished 7th Inversions Chord degrees "Improvisation exists in almost all music . concepts and emotions and sometimes much deeper than language. You do not need to understand difficult concepts but without doubts you must be patient.whilst the term is most http://www.musilosophy. Here in this site I offer free resources to learn this art but be patient if my English is not perfect. as well as you have to study and practice a lot to learn English or French or Italian so you have to do the same with music improvisation.jazz improvisation : music improvisation : jazz theory understand but the fundamental concept is just one: to learn improvisation you have to play much and practice for a longtime! I used to compare improvisation with language. So.

To use a linguistic analogy. Most improvisation is structured. such as the form of a song." (from Wikipedia) q Music scales Blues scales Modes to improvise Diminished scales Diminished whole tone scales Pentatonic scales q Blues improvisation Blues scales Major blues Minor blues Blues chord charts http://www.com/jazz-improvisation. spontaneous real time variation in performance of tempo and dynamics within a classical performance may also be considered as improvisation. improvisation is like speaking or having a conversation as opposed to reciting a written text. with certain predetermined structures shaping the improvisation. Musical improvisation is the spontaneous creative process of making music while it is being performed.musilosophy.htm (4 of 7)3/2/2007 9:11:31 PM .jazz improvisation : music improvisation : jazz theory frequently associated with melodic improvisation as found in jazz.

com/jazz-improvisation.jazz improvisation : music improvisation : jazz theory ^ TOP More resources about music harmony and piano jazz improvisation q Musical phrase and melody Melody building Music phrase Jazz improvisation phrase Wrong notes in music theory Beginning of phrase Ending of phrase Imitation q Music rhythm and jazz swing Emphasizing off beats and upbeats Syncopation Swing rhythm http://www.musilosophy.htm (5 of 7)3/2/2007 9:11:31 PM .

htm (6 of 7)3/2/2007 9:11:31 PM . Now I am recording other live videos. Piano videos for learning jazz improvisation Blues jazz video Pop piano improvisation video ^ TOP Learning jazz improvisation and piano improvising You can learn to improvise. or any concepts I try to explain. Remember to listen the greatest improvisers : Keith Jarrett. Pat Metheny.musilosophy. ^ TOP Jazz piano tutorial videos In this section there are some live piano videos dedicated to jazz improvisation and music harmony.com/jazz-improvisation. Charlie Parker.jazz improvisation : music improvisation : jazz theory Polyrhythmic q Practice and improvisation techniques General music practice Progressive drills Improvisation tips Greatest piano improvisors If you have troubles to understand what I write.. important Art. I suggest also to visit this site on piano jazz improvisation. http://www. I think is one of the greatest. If you know music harmony and you practice on your instrument one hour per day learning improvisation is easy. Bill Evans. Sonny Rollins.. and soon I will publish them. send me an email. Miles Davis and many. many others.

. All rights reserved http://www.htm (7 of 7)3/2/2007 9:11:31 PM .musilosophy.and do not forget that Music must be pleasant.com/jazz-improvisation. ©2005-2007 Paolo Parrella.jazz improvisation : music improvisation : jazz theory ..

jazz melody composing : improvisation : compose melody Home : jazz improvisation : pop blues | Pop music videos | Pop blues jazz albums | Jazz improvisation and harmony | Lingua italiana | HELP and FAQ | How to compose a melody Jazz melody and improvisation Jazz phrasing : imitation technique q Music phrasing q Music theory and mistakes q q Jazz melody composing : chordal.com/jazz-melody.musilosophy. besides playing in a right harmonic way. I suggest you to learn every item to build melodic lines. 5th and seventh ( of a chord ) by "Chordal note" When you improvise or compose. Musician has to express emotions. tutorial videos q Pop blues jazz albums q Jazz pianist music stores q or vocal pieces. I want to specify that knowing and mastering harmonic techniques are not enough to create high artistic value music. So an improviser needs: Improvisation and music harmony : MIOP Jazz improvisation and music harmony : summary q Music harmony concepts q Scales. you can use to build a melody these notes: generally they are chordal notes or notes that return on them. This icon means streaming video Melody is the most powerful and beautiful item of music. So the fundamental melodic concept is: http://www. 3th. compositions and your music become magic and have a great emotional power. geometric and harmonic rules: Pay Attention: I mean 1th . It has symmetric. turning. they base on classic and jazz harmony and you can improvise or compose easily and correctly by knowing them. ideas and messages to himself and to the public. modes to improvise q Blues improvisation q Jazz melody and improvisation q Swing jazz rhythm q Jazz techniques : practice q q Well trained hands Learned mind Open hearth q q When these three faculties are synchronized and in harmony. your improvisations.htm (1 of 6)3/2/2007 9:12:00 PM . passing notes This is the most important chapter! In this page I explain how you can build a melody : these 'rules'are not only for improvisation but for composing songs and other instrumental Site menu Blues singer songwriter jazz pianist q Pop music videos q Jazz piano.

Notes of the chord .htm (2 of 6)3/2/2007 9:12:00 PM . q Chordal notes Turning note Passing Leaning Delaying Anticipated Chromatic Mixed Double leaning tones q q q q q q q q Test every item with your ears! Let me know what you think about! 1.musilosophy. Turning note : does not belong to chord but comes from a note of the chord and turn on it. Here are the most used and important e rules or suggestions to build a melody.com/jazz-melody. ( T = Turning note) http://www.jazz melody composing : improvisation : compose melody Melody is based on the Chord and on the Key in which it is.(Chordal notes) ( = chordal note) In this video I improvise on a minor seventh chord using only chordal notes Also in this other video I use only chord's notes q You can use the notes of a chord freely 2.

musilosophy.com/jazz-melody. anticipated notes 4. ( P = Passing note) Sample piano video on passing notes for the melody building ^ TOP How to build a jazz melody in improvisation : leaning.htm (3 of 6)3/2/2007 9:12:00 PM . Passing note : it is between two chordal notes. delaying.jazz melody composing : improvisation : compose melody Watch the sample video on turning notes turning notes in jazz melody q You have to turn on the note of the chord 3. Leaning note (Appoggiatura) : it leans on a chordal note ( L = Leaning note) Here is a piano video about leaning and chromatic notes q After a leaning note you have to play the chordal note close to it http://www.

com/jazz-melody. turning note ( Ct ) http://www. mixed.musilosophy.htm (4 of 6)3/2/2007 9:12:00 PM .2 Chrom. Chromatic note : it belongs neither chord nor key ( C = Chromatic note) jazz improvisation and melody : chromatic notes I distinguish these cases: 7. Delaying note (Ritardo) : it delays a chordal note ( D = Delaying note) jazz melody in improvisation : delaying note After a delaying note you have to play the straight away below chordal note The difference between leaning and delaying note is: the first one can go up or down to a chordal note while the second must go down to the straight away below chordal note! 6. Anticipated note (Anticipo) : it belongs to the next chord ( A = Anticipated note) anticipated note in jazz melodies ^ TOP Jazz melody composing : chromatic.1 Chromatic passing note ( Cp) 7.jazz melody composing : improvisation : compose melody 5. double leaning notes 7.

musilosophy.jazz melody composing : improvisation : compose melody 7. note of a turning note (also ch.htm (5 of 6)3/2/2007 9:12:00 PM . ) =Tt · Passing note of a delaying note (also chr.3 Chromatic leaning note (Cl ) 8.com/jazz-melody. ) =Ptu · Turning note of a turning n. This is a beautiful melodic embellishment and you can play it both in downbeat both upbeat Live piano video to understand what is a double leaning tone jazz melody : double leaning notes This is a good melodic ornament ^ TOP Melodic concepts and how to compose a melody Finally... (also chrom... 9..) =Pd · And so on. melodic concepts are very simple: http://www. Mixed notes : they are a mix or a combination of previous cases: mixed notes in jazz melody improvisation For example: · Passing note of a passing note (also chromatic ) =Pp · Pass. Double leaning tone ( =Ld ).

com/jazz-melody.jazz melody composing : improvisation : compose melody q every dissonance or tension must be solved q melody must have an harmonic.musilosophy. All rights reserved http://www. regular development q You have to vary phrasing q Melody is an harmonic balance between tension and rest E-mail Contact me ©2005-2007 Paolo Parrella.htm (6 of 6)3/2/2007 9:12:00 PM .

FAQ | How to compose a melody q q q q Jazz melody and improvisation Jazz phrasing : imitation technique Music phrasing Music theory and mistakes Site menu q q q q q q Blues singer songwriter jazz pianist Pop music videos Jazz piano.com/music-theory.musilosophy.htm3/2/2007 9:12:07 PM . tutorial videos Pop blues jazz albums Jazz pianist music stores Improvisation : MIOP donation Improvisation and music harmony : MIOP q q q q q q q Jazz improvisation and music harmony : summary Music harmony concepts Scales.online music theory : improvisation : mistakes in melody Home: jazz improvisation : pop blues | Pop music videos | Pop blues jazz albums | Jazz improvisation harmony | Lingua italiana | HELP . modes to improvise Blues improvisation Jazz melody and improvisation Swing jazz rhythm Jazz techniques : practice http://www.

harmony | Lingua italiana | HELP .com/music-harmony. modes to improvise q Blues improvisation q Jazz melody and improvisation q Swing jazz rhythm q Jazz techniques : practice Each scale or key has its own chords. Site menu Blues singer songwriter jazz pianist q Pop music videos q Jazz piano. They are build on each degree of the scale with harmonization by thirds. that is a harmonic combination of tones based on that scale. I consider the Blues like a key: for example Bb Blues or Bb minor Blues are like a Major and Minor key type. Improvisation and music harmony : MIOP q Jazz improvisation and music harmony : summary q Music harmony concepts q Scales. Modulation is a change of key. It is a base to make music.htm (1 of 4)3/2/2007 9:12:24 PM .. tutorial videos q Pop blues jazz albums q Jazz pianist music stores q Improvisation : MIOP donation q Every scale determines a key. You can recognize key by Clef.. F Major key uses the tones of F Major scale. melody. The chords of every key are: Major Key : D Maj Example music harmony concepts : major key Harmonic Minor Key : D minor example http://www. chords. You always have to know in which key you are playing in each moment. So.FAQ | Chords and music harmony q q q q q q q q Music harmony and chord families Chord charts and keys Learn chord charts Major seventh Dominant chord chart Minor seventh chords Half diminished chords Diminished chord Music harmony concepts : major and minor scales Key Awareness A scale is a sequence of tones.musilosophy.music harmony concepts : theory : chords and scales Home: jazz improvisation : pop blues | Pop music videos | Pop blues jazz albums | Jazz improvisation . The main scales of western music are major and minor scales. E minor key uses the tones of E minor scales.

pop songs.htm (2 of 4)3/2/2007 9:12:24 PM . ^ TOP Music theory and harmony : chords in major and minor scales Remember: q Each chord has NOT its own scale. they play the D Dorian scale also on a Dmin7 that belongs to Bb key! In this way they do two terrible mistakes: E instead of Eb and B instead of Bb! http://www.music harmony concepts : theory : chords and scales harmonic minor key : music harmony Natural Minor Key : D minor example concepts on music harmony : natural minor keys Melodic Minor Key : D minor example melodic minor key chords Transpose and play in all keys! Practice the analysis and recognition of chords. Recognize the chords and then the key they belong to.com/music-harmony. For example... modulations and keys in classic music. jazz.musilosophy. The scale of each chord depends by the key in which it is! q This concept is important but I have realized that not many musicians have understood its importance.

com/music-harmony.htm (3 of 4)3/2/2007 9:12:24 PM . http://www. But a melody and so an improvisation base above all on chord besides on key. In this page I explain how to build a melody during your improvisation and your composing.music harmony concepts : theory : chords and scales Let us analyze this song: music theory and harmony : analysis When you improvise on this song you have to use basically the C minor scale (when you are in C minor key) and Eb scale when you are in Eb key.musilosophy. This is the key concept.

many others. Thanks to the harmony. the pleasure of the music comes out. I suggest you to listen great jazz musicians like Miles Davis.com/music-harmony. So. knowing and playing well the major and minor scales (but not only!) is fundamental to improvise and compose music. Bill Evans and many. All the chords are built by harmonic superimposition of notes by third intervals above each scale's degree.musilosophy.htm (4 of 4)3/2/2007 9:12:24 PM . © 2005-2007 Paolo Parrella All rights reserved http://www. Ear training is very important to develop your art of improvisation. However you need to practice and play on your instrument for a long time before you can easily express and play the music you want. finally the accompaniments also use chord's notes.music harmony concepts : theory : chords and scales ^ TOP How to improvise music and main harmonic concepts In this site I try to explain the rules and techniques to improvise music. The melody uses the notes of the scale but above all the chordal notes that is the first four chord's notes. The key concept is the most important base of musical harmony. You do not need perfect pitch but you have to develop your hearing with transcriptions and recognizing notes and chords. It means: every song is based on a scale or key and it uses major or minor scale's notes. Music harmony and theory is a fundamental basis to create and improvise music.

htm (1 of 10)3/2/2007 9:15:11 PM . Modes to improvise Blues improvisation Jazz melody and improvisation Swing jazz rhythm Jazz techniques : practice http://www.musilosophy.chord charts : scale harmonization : major : minor keys Home: jazz improvisation : pop blues | Pop music videos | Pop blues jazz albums | Jazz improvisation harmony | Lingua italiana | HELP . chord families Chord charts and keys Learn chord charts Major seventh Dominant chord chart Minor seventh chords Half diminished chords Diminished chord Site menu q q q q q q Blues singer songwriter jazz pianist Pop music videos Jazz piano.FAQ | Chords and music harmony q q q q q q q q Music harmony. tutorial videos Pop blues jazz albums Jazz pianist music stores Improvisation : MIOP donation Improvisation and music harmony : MIOP q q q q q q q Jazz improvisation and music harmony : summary Music harmony concepts Scales.com/chord-charts.

V or I .htm (2 of 10)3/2/2007 9:15:11 PM .IV . However.V. I. but western music bases above all on major and minor scales' harmonization.VI . II or IV. Every scale can be harmonized. Melodic ) key. Here are all chords of each Major and Minor (Natural. Harmonic.musilosophy. Music bases (above all) on these chords. Classical pop progressions are I .chord charts : scale harmonization : major : minor keys Chord charts in all major and minor scales Musical chords derive from the scale's harmonization: it means superimposing notes over a scale's degree by thirds.com/chord-charts. and V are the most used chords. in music you can find every combination of all these chords. there are minor seventh chords on II. III and VI degrees while dominant 7 chord is on V. Half diminished chord is on the VII degree of major key. Pay attention to IV degree (Major with augmented 4th ) q Here are the major and minor scales with their chords http://www. You must know and play them. ^ TOP Major key chord chart Major key has two major seventh chords on I and IV degrees.III II .

htm (3 of 10)3/2/2007 9:15:11 PM .com/chord-charts.chord charts : scale harmonization : major : minor keys chord charts : major key http://www.musilosophy.

there are major chords on III and VI.musilosophy.com/chord-charts.chord charts : scale harmonization : major : minor keys major key chord chart ^ TOP Harmonic minor key chord charts Harmonic minor key is the classical minor scale. I think it is the true minor scale because the natural minor ones is similar to the major scale while melodic minor scale is less used. Dominant seventh chord is on V and it has also minor ninth and minor sixth! q Here is the harmonic minor chord chart http://www.htm (4 of 10)3/2/2007 9:15:11 PM . diminished 7 on VII and minor seventh is on fourth one. half diminished chord is on the second degree. This scale has minor major seventh chord on the first degree.

musilosophy.com/chord-charts.chord charts : scale harmonization : major : minor keys harmonic minor key chords http://www.htm (5 of 10)3/2/2007 9:15:11 PM .

Pay attention to IV degree ( seventh chord with augmented 4th) and to II degree (min 7th ) q Melodic minor chord chart http://www.chord charts : scale harmonization : major : minor keys chord charts : harmonic minor key ^ TOP Melodic minor key chord chart Melodic minor scale is less used than natural and harmonic scales but it is important.htm (6 of 10)3/2/2007 9:15:11 PM .com/chord-charts.musilosophy.

musilosophy.htm (7 of 10)3/2/2007 9:15:11 PM .chord charts : scale harmonization : major : minor keys melodic minor key chords http://www.com/chord-charts.

C7 is on the VII degree while in F major key it is on V degree.musilosophy. Pay attention to V degree ( Minor 7th) and to VII degree (7th chord) q This is the natural minor chord chart http://www. dance.chord charts : scale harmonization : major : minor keys chord chart : melodi minor key Pay attention to II degree ( half diminished ) and to VII degree ( diminished seventh ) ^ TOP Natural minor key chord chart Natural minor scale is much used in pop. in D natural minor key. It has a catchy sound and many people love it! However. classical and jazz tunes.htm (8 of 10)3/2/2007 9:15:11 PM . For example.com/chord-charts. it has the same major scale's chords but they have different position.

htm (9 of 10)3/2/2007 9:15:11 PM .com/chord-charts.musilosophy.chord charts : scale harmonization : major : minor keys chord charts : natural minor keys http://www.

I use nearly only seventh chords that have a complex but non too dissonant sound. The fundamental. They derive.All rights reserved http://www. watching tutorial videos and listening solos published on the Web. S. Besides they may determine.musilosophy. in the sense that they have the main notes that determine the harmony of a chord.chord charts : scale harmonization : major : minor keys natural minor scale chords These chord charts are the harmonic base of classical. comparing with the neighboring chords to what key it belongs and then from what scale's degree is produced.com/chord-charts. from J. Bach but also other great classical composers.htm (10 of 10)3/2/2007 9:15:11 PM . In my pop blues music. the third. the fifth and the seventh (said "chordal notes") does understand the key and the type of a chord. You can learn everything about improvisation reading articles. ^ TOP Considerations on seventh chords and their key Seventh chords are complete chords. above all. Internet offers you a great resource to learn music harmony. jazz and pop music. theory and improvisation but the best resource is your passion for this art! ©2005-2007 Paolo Parrella .

1.com/music-phrasing. tutorial videos q Pop blues jazz albums q Jazz pianist music stores previous ones.music phrasing : jazz improvisation : music phrasing Home: jazz improvisation : pop blues | Pop music videos | Pop blues jazz albums | Jazz improvisation . modes to improvise q Blues improvisation q Jazz melody and improvisation q Swing jazz rhythm q Jazz techniques : practice Practice to begin and to end the phrase in every point of the measure B = Beginning tone E = Ending tone AVOID this bad habit : (Same beginning and ending points ) ^ TOP Ending of a phrase Practice to end a phrase on different tones of a chord: Tone 1 phrasing 2 Effect Rest .FAQ | How to compose a melody Jazz melody and improvisation Jazz phrasing : imitation technique q Music phrasing q Music theory and mistakes q q Music phrasing in jazz improvisation Practice to end the phrase on the different tones of a chord and to make the action I propose.musilosophy. Pop phrasing Action You have to begin a new You have begin the following phrase from that note Tension and unbalance http://www. Remember to vary the beginning and ending of a phrase: Improvisation and music harmony : MIOP q Jazz improvisation and music harmony : summary q Music harmony concepts q Scales.harmony | Lingua italiana | HELP . The fundamental element to build a good phrasing is that every phrase must be connected with the Site menu q Blues singer songwriter jazz pianist q Pop music videos q Jazz piano.Close the You Jazz Style Rock.htm (1 of 3)3/2/2007 9:16:10 PM .

unbalance and suspension Rest and neutral A bit of tension and coloured tone A bit of tension and determination Any style Jazz. music phrasing development Na = no particular action T = Tension Ba = Begin again S = Solving tone Another example containing a wrong ending tone ( Tension is not solved or begun again).com/music-phrasing. Pop Jazz. Blues Any style Jazz. Blues Pop No particular action Begin from that note and solve it to the tone below No particular action I suggest to begin the following phrase from that note No particular action 4 5 6 7 This aspect of improvisation is very important ^ TOP Music phrase : phrasing development Practise to end the phrase on the different tones of a chord and to make the action I propose.musilosophy.htm (2 of 3)3/2/2007 9:16:10 PM .music phrasing : jazz improvisation : music phrasing 3 Rest and strong determination Tension. E-mail Contact © 2005-2007 Paolo Parrella All rights reserved http://www.

music phrasing : jazz improvisation : music phrasing me http://www.com/music-phrasing.htm (3 of 3)3/2/2007 9:16:10 PM .musilosophy.

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