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Bricklayers Handbook

The Bricklayers handbook gives guidance to site managers and site staff on key issues faced during construction for traditional masonry construction. For other types of construction, please refer to alternative guidance, British Standards or specialist design information. Geographical location can vary the design significantly and although this guide gives examples of the most commonly occurring issues, Premier Guarantee recommend early contact with our surveyors to help give guidance on how to avoid particular circumstances on your site. Please refer to the Premier Guarantee Technical Manual for the Functional Requirements, Principal Performance Standards / Requirements for the design and construction of Housing units using Premier Guarantee. Please note there are Statutory variations to the information shown in this publication in respect to; England and Wales: The Building Regulations 2010 and Approved Documents. Scotland: The Building (Scotland) Regulations 2004 (as amended) and the relevant Technical Handbooks. Northern Ireland: The Building Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2000 (as amended) and the relevant Technical Booklets please refer to your Premier Guarantee Site Audit Surveyor for further advice.

Superstructure Construction of walls Mortar Masonry durability Masonry Wall junctions Cavity walls Cavity wall insulation Movement in masonry Preventing damp penetration at external openings Structural Lintels & bearings Parapets Lateral restraint of walls by floors and roofs Wall plates Chimney construction Horizontal damp proof courses

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Construction of walls
Set out walls using securely marked profiles with reference lines and datum levels. Wall lengths must be checked for squareness. Cross check against diagonal measurements from the Architect plans. The position of openings must be anticipated to ensure correct and even bonding occurs both horizontally and vertically. Care should be taken to avoid overstressing mortar by a building rises of no more than 1.5 m in a day. Both leaves of a cavity wall should be built at the same time to avoid incorrect coursing and potential weakening of an individual leaf (if left unsupported for any length of time). Where masonry is to be plastered or rendered; raked out joints approximately 15 mm deep should be provided as work proceeds, to give a good key.

Laying bricks and blocks Good building practice must be followed Lay bricks and blocks level, using a regular bond with a nominal 10 mm horizontal bed joint provided (unless otherwise specified by the designer). Fill cross joints. Perpend joints should not be less than 7mm wide and fully bed in mortar. The perpends should be kept vertically aligned as the work proceeds. Lay frog bricks with frog uppermost filled with mortar to ensure the wall is stronger and more resistant to sound transmission. Lay hollow blocks on shell bedding with the vertical joints filled. Ensure a consistent bond, especially at corners. Wall ties must have not less than 50 mm depth of bed onto the mortar joint after allowing for tolerances. Ensure the mortar joints are carefully struck as work proceeds to prevent the cavity and or insulation below being filled with mortar droppings.

Case study In the picture below the bonding is inconsistent resulting in vertical joints to coincide on consecutive courses. The wall ties are also not properly bedded into each leaf of masonry using the correct type and length.

Horizontal and vertical alignment of masonry walls

Chases in masonry leafs

Dimension Straightness in any 5 m length Verticality up to 2.5 m height Verticality up to 7 m height

Permissible Deviation + / - 10 mm + / - 10 mm + / - 20 mm

Do not; cut chases into any block masonry which is less than 75 mm in thickness. cut horizontal or raking chases in solid walls to a depth greater than one-sixth of the thickness of the leaf. cut vertical chases to a depth exceeding one-third the thickness of the single leaf in solid walls. cut chases in separating walls.

The above dimensions represent the level that can be reasonably achieved for general brick and block work masonry.

Case study The vertical alignment of the load bearing inner leaf of block work in this case was found to exceed the above recommendations.

Chases on either side of a wall (not a separating wall) must be offset by a distance at least equal to the wall thickness.

Case study A horizontal chase to accommodate piping was found more than 30 mm depth, approximately a 600 mm above the floor level. This exceeded the maximum allowed by nearly double. Cracking in the block work was observed above and below the chase.

Buttressing walls and returns Walls should have appropriate structural returns and piers to give adequate stability that meets the current Building Regulations. Wall that do not meet current Building Regulations guidance should be proven by structural calculations.

between batches which may affect the strength & durability of the mortar. It is recommended that site batched mortar mixing should only be produced using a carefully selected prescription mix and a suitable mechanical mixer. Additives Plasticisers and other additives may be added to the mortar mix to improve workability. Only products that have been specifically designed as a mortar additive should be used. Washing up liquid and similar products must not be used. Pre-mixed mortar The use of pre mixed or factory made mortar ensures consistency throughout the build element. It may be produced as complete or semi-finished mortar. The design teams approved specification must be followed ensuring that the mortar conforms to BS EN 998 2. Table of mortar mixes The mixes in the table below are recommended for clay bricks (unless otherwise recommended by the brick manufacturer or the Engineer / designer for the particular site)
Use Required Exposure Recommended Proportion by Volume Cement : Llme : sand
Work below or near ground level Internal and External wall areas above DPC level High Durability 1* : : 4 to 4

General requirements Masonry mortar should be selected according to exposure conditions of the masonry and the specification of the masonry units Calcium chloride, ethylene glycol, or admixtures containing these materials, should not be added to mortars to provide protection against freezing, or for any other purpose. Do not use air, entraining or other admixtures unless specified by the designer and following the manufacturers recommendations. Where mortar strength is required for structural reasons careful consideration should be given to the accommodation of movement. Mortar must not be knocked up when it has begun to set.

Mortar designation
to BS 5628 3 And BS EN 1999 2 :2006

Mixing in cold weather Do not mix mortar when the air temperature is at or below 2 C and falling. Do not use fine aggregate (sand) or semi-finished mortar (lime-sand mixtures) containing ice particles. Hot weather working Where prolonged periods of hot weather persist, certain clay bricks (which are highly absorbent), may be wetted to assist in reducing suction. Wetting should not be undertaken on any other type of brick, nor should saturating completed walls be attempted. Site batched mortar Caution must be taken when mixing material on site. Gauging volumes by the shovelful must not be relied on to give sufficiently consistent mix proportions, particularly with saturated materials (e.g. damp sand). This can result in variations

Cement : sand with air

1* : 3 to 4

Masonry cement : Sand ***

1* : 2 to 3

(ii ) **

General use

1:1:5 to 6

1 : 5 to 6

1 : 4 to 5


High Durability Severe or Very Severe exposure

1 : : 4 to 1 : 3 to 4 4

1 : 2 to 3


Copings, cappings and sills

Low 1 : 0 to permeability : 3 jointing Use a type S sand to BS 1200 High Durability


Parapets and Chimneys

1 : : 4 to 1 : 3 to 4 4

1 : 2 to 3


For Minimum Compressive strength of site mixed mortar at 28 days see Table 13 BS 5628 3 When referring to Tables 13 in BS 5628 - 3 see also BS EN 1996 2 :2006 Where Concrete or Calcium silicate bricks are used, the manufacturers recommendations must be followed and a designation (ii) or (iii) mortar may be required * Where soil or ground water sulphate levels are present, use Sulphate resisting Portland cement (to BS 4027) ** Where Potential High risk of saturation is likely, refer to Table 12 in BS 5628 - 3 *** For Masonry cement :sand with Lime filler - see Table 13 BS 5628 3

Do not: Build masonry when the air temperature is at or below 3 C and falling, or until it is no less than 1 C and rising. Lay mortar on frozen surfaces Use wet bricks or blocks when there is a danger of freezing


Ensure newly built work is protected from rain & frost with suitable waterproof sheeting

Masonry durability
Masonry can become saturated with water, the extent of which depends on the level of exposure. High areas of risk include Masonry around the external ground level (two courses above and below are the most vulnerable areas). Parapets; especially where it is not rendered and / or the parapet is not provided with an effective coping. Unrendered chimneys. Cappings, copings and sills in areas where freezing conditions may occur. Walls with minimal roof overhangs. Local climatic conditions or geographical locations where elevations are exposed to severe wind driven rain.

Recessed mortar joints Recessed mortar joints are not recommended for: External walls in clay brickwork or masonry cavity walls in areas of severe or very severe categories of exposure Or Cavity walls with full fill cavity insulation.

Masonry wall junctions

New dwellings next to existing dwellings When extending onto existing properties there is the risk of: differential movement occurring. water penetration through to the internal finishes at the junction of the new and existing walls, particularly where a cavity wall joins a solid masonry wall or another cavity wall (without continuation of the cavity).

Buildings within severe exposure areas are required to have frost resistant brickwork. The BS EN 771 series specifies the characteristics and performance requirements for masonry units. Where Concrete blocks are to be used either below DPC level or externally without a render finish, reference to the manufacturers specifications including third party accreditation is required to confirm adequacy. Cold weather working

Where a new dwelling is to be constructed abutting an existing dwelling, the new home should be an independent structure with a new wall constructed alongside the existing wall. The wall should be supported on a new foundation, independent of the existing building. Internal masonry wall junctions (new dwellings)

connections. (see recommended details overleaf) Where a movement joint is not required: alternative courses should be toothed or where the adjoining block wall (e.g. separating wall) is a different density; a butt joint is recommended with suitable ties (or suitable equivalent) at 225 mm max vertical centres. in the situation that the existing wall becomes a separating wall (e.g. apartments), the wall will require upgrading to achieve at least 1 hour fire resistance the separating wall must also meet sound insulation standards. Robust details do not exist for these constructions.

Case study A new cavity wall extension formed a junction with an existing solid walled building as part of a conversion project . A proprietary junction plate joined the structures without regard for the extent of movement likely to occur.

For sound insulation requirements follow the design teams proposal carefully. New build extensions onto existing buildings (i.e. as part of a refurbishment project with new extensions) It is not safe to assume a proprietary connector will be satisfactory for all cases. Older buildings tend to have shallow foundations which move seasonally in clay soils without damage. Damage is likely to occur at the junction of an older moving building and a new building with foundations meeting current standards. Prior to starting work on extensions an assessment of the ground conditions and the existing foundations are required to determine: the extent of foundation movement likely to occur and what remedial measures are required to strengthen the existing building and foundations. the type of connections required between the new and existing structures ( e.g. at walls, roofs beams etc.).

The existing solid brick wall forms a direct path for dampness to bypass the cavity wall and reach the internal finishes. This wall was rebuilt (due to poor workmanship) and an independent lining provided to the existing gable and new inner leaf to ensure no damp penetration or cold bridging occurred.

In all cases of extending onto existing buildings the existing wall (as well as its foundations) must be proven to be structurally stable and able to take any additional load imposed on it. the form of connection between the structures must be proven by a structural engineer to cater for movement. horizontal DPCs from the new build must link through to the existing structure DPC (if none, a chemical injection DPC will be required) the method of preventing water penetrating at the wall


New cavity wall to existing solid wall junction


(refurbishment projects) Construct the cavity wall with the correct cavity width. Ensure the correct type and length of wall tie is used. Ensure existing cavity walls have adequate wall ties. Clean off any surplus mortar from joints on the cavity faces as the work proceeds. Keep the cavity and wall ties free from mortar and debris. Draw battens should be used to keep the cavity clear of mortar and debris. Cavities at the base of the wall should be kept clear. A minimum 50 mm clear cavity is required between partial fill insulation and the external leaf.

Case study Debris build up on cavity wall ties can result in damp penetrating the inner face of the wall.

New cavity wall to existing cavity wall junction (refurbishment projects)

Cavity wall ties Only wall ties in accordance with BS EN 845 1, must be used. Other types must be independently third party accredited and submitted to the warranty provider for approval before use. Stainless steel wall ties should always be used. The correct type of tie depends on; the structural requirements of the wall, the insulation to be used and the resulting cavity width. The contractor must follow the Design teams approved plans.


Cavity walls


Wall tie specification Wall ties should conform to BS EN 845 1

Unfilled or fully filled cavities 50mm to 75mm wide Butterfly Double triangle Vertical twist Proprietary ties * Double triangle * Vertical twist Vertical twist

75mm to 100mm wide

100mm to 150mm wide

The wall ties must be laid to ensure: The correct spacing is achieved (see chart overleaf). not less than 50 mm embedment of the wall tie onto each leaf must be achieved. the drip is in the centre of any clear cavity. the two leaves of the wall must be coursed to ensure the wall tie slightly slopes down towards the outside leaf and the drip points downwards. if partial fill insulation is to be installed, the correct combination of wall tie and retaining disc must be used and a 50mm clear retained cavity provided.

Partial filled cavities 50mm to 75mm wide Double triangle with proprietary retaining disc Double triangle with integral retaining rod Proprietary ties * Vertical twist with proprietary retaining disc

75mm to 150mm wide

* Third party accreditation should be provided

Wall ties must be built in as work progresses. Wall ties must not be pushed into the mortar joint. Spacing of wall ties Ties should be spaced to the recommendations in BS EN 1996-2: or follow the structural engineers design if wall ties require more frequency. Be aware: Wall ties must not be allowed to fall backwards to the inner leaf.



Be aware The correct length of wall tie must be used appropriate for: the width of cavity. the type of insulation used. to ensure a minimum 50mm bed onto each leaf is achieved.

Insulation should wrap around corners and not be cut and joined. Do not leave gaps in the insulation. Butt the insulation slabs together at both horizontal and vertical joints and at closures, and install them with staggered vertical joints. Keep joints between insulation slabs clean and free from mortar droppings. Do not place any small offcuts with the cut edge against the wall surface (i.e. placed at right angles). Ensure horizontal joints of insulation correspond with horizontal rows of ties. Where additional wall ties are required, cut insulation slabs neatly to accommodate them.

Do not attempt to tie wall ties together to achieve the correct length.

Case study Insulation batts were found incorrectly pushed into the cavity with cut edges facing the outer leaf.

Cavity wall insulation

Full fill cavity insulation

May not be appropriate in area with high or severe weather exposure. Should not be used with random sandstone walling or other irregular facing. Recessed mortar joints to the outer leaf are not recommended with full fill insulation. Only third party accredited insulation products should be used. Insulation batts should be built into the cavity as work proceeds and not pushed in after. The insulation slabs are of a thickness appropriate to the cavity width so as to correctly fill the cavity. Blown or injected cavity fill Blown or injected insulation should be carried out by appropriately qualified personnel. The cavity must be inspected prior to the installation to ensure: mortar joints are flush within the cavity and the inner faces of the masonry are clean. the cavities are free from obstructions such as lumps of mortar and parts of bricks. Mortar droppings below the horizontal DPC must be minimised. all scaffold holes are filled with mortar on removal.

recessed mortar joints to the outer leaf are not recommended with full fill cavity insulation.

Movement in masonry
Movement joints The design of masonry walls should include provision for potential thermal movement after construction. A structural engineer must be consulted to provide a specification. Vertical movement joints should run the full height of the wall. The type of compressible filler and sealant to be used must be able to accommodate expansion and contraction movement whilst resisting water penetration. The sealant should conform to BS 6213. Wall ties must be provided at 300mm vertical spacings either side of the movement joint. The construction of movement joints should be robust to meet requirements of BS 5628-3: 2005 & BS EN 1996-2:2006.

Partial fill insulation Third party accredited Insulation slabs must be used. A minimum 50mm clear cavity between partial fill insulation and the external leaf is required. The correct combination of wall tie and retaining disc must be used and installed in accordance with third party accreditation recommendations. Keep the tops of the insulation batts clean and free from mortar droppings before the next batt is installed.

Case study Partial fill insulation batts were poorly installed against the inner leaf, the remaining cavity was less than 50mm and bridged by mortar droppings allowing a path for water to reach the inner leaf.

In external walls containing openings, movement joints may be needed at more frequent intervals, or the masonry above and below the opening may need to be reinforced in order to restrain movement.

A typical movement joint in an outer leaf of brickwork is shown below:



Masonry type Clay brickwork Dissimilar clay and concrete units e.g. feature panels where different movement characteristics possible Short returns in clay masonry

Maximum spacing of movement joints 12m centres The brick manufacturers should be consulted as more frequent spacing likely

Note: 3mm must be added to the above if the frame is supported off a suspended timber ground floor. Engineered timber members offer a slight reduction in shrinkage for further advice refer to a structural engineer for advice. In calculating the amount of movement allowance must also be made for any compressible sealant used. The material used for filling these gaps should be capable of easily compressing to 50% of its original thickness. Guidance on the type of sealants to use is given in BS 6213 Allowance for ventilation to the cavity will also be required.

If a return in the length of clay masonry is less than 675mm and either adjoining length of masonry exceeds 6m, the masonry should be interrupted at the return to prevent the development of a mechanical couple and the risk of cracking. A vertical, compressible joint or a slide-by detail should be incorporated.

Preventing damp penetration at external openings

Typical section through a window reveal (Lintel not shown for clarity)

Calcium silicate masonry

Should be designed as a series of panels separated by movement joints at 8m intervals. Vertical joints to accommodate horizontal movement should be provided at intervals of 6m In the absence of specific calculations, vertical joints not less than 10mm wide should be provided at intervals specified by a structural engineer and located no more than 8m from an external corner In rooms where any wall length exceeds 6.0m

Aggregate and autoclaved concrete masonry

Natural stone masonry

Internal leafs of cavity walls The masonry block manufacturer must be consulted



A Weep holes at 450mm centres must be provided with at least 2 (one at each end) of the cavity tray (excluding render finishes) B Full height insulated cavity closure incorporating a verticalDPC. C The cavity tray should project beyond the vertical DPC D Sill DPC (if provided) must turn up behind the vertical DPC by at least 100mm E Stop ends must be provided to the cavity tray weep holes Moisture penetrating through the outer leaf of cavity walls (fairfaced brickwork or rendered block work) will run down the inner face of the external leaf. Where the cavity is bridged by a barrier, e.g. lintels, floor slabs, concrete frame members or horizontal cavity fire barriers, a cavity tray and weep holes are necessary.

Window / door reveal vertical DPC sheltered to normal exposure

Severe to very severe exposure

Weep holes must not be blocked particularly where a render external finish is applied to the wall.

Bay window opening



Recessed balcony opening

Partial fill cavity insulation is shown in this example. The cavity tray must be fully supported within the cavity and lapped onto the full width of the inner leaf. The height of the cavity tray must be at least 150mm within the cavity. Stop ends must be formed at each end and weep holes provided in the outer leaf to drain moisture out of the cavity.

At pitched roof abutments

Cavity trays Cavity trays are required to span over openings in the cavity wall where door and window openings, meter boxes, ducts and cavity barriers are constructed. They are also required where roof structures abut external cavity walls. This is to avoid water penetrating through the outer leaf and reaching internal surfaces at lower levels e.g. bay window soffits. Over structural openings in external walls



Detail of flashing construction where external walls are rendered Detail36: Ireland tech Manual detail background will be removed keep text but see note ** below

The external render to the block outer leaf is not shown for clarity. Partial fill cavity insulation is shown in this example

Lean-to roof abutment cavity tray construction

Structural Lintels and Bearings

Lintel bearings Construct a full masonry unit immediately below lintel ends. Do not use off-cuts of bricks or blocks. Ensure the lintel is level and is bedded in mortar. The length of lintel bearings should be not less than 100 mm and not less than 150 mm for pressed steel lintels.

Certain lintels may require to be propped until the mortar has set under the bearings. Flat roof abutment cavity tray construction Where prestressed and reinforced concrete lintels are used: build in lintels with the correct side uppermost in relation to the position of reinforcement. prop prestressed composite lintels at centres not exceeding 1.2 m during the construction of masonry above. when using composite lintels of prestressed concrete with masonry the masonry should be carefully built with solidly filled joints. No holes for services or weep holes should be made nor should anything (e.g. cavity tray) be built into the masonry within the composite zone. exposed faces of lintels must be provided with fire protection.



Unless proven by a structural engineer point loads immediately above a lintel must be avoided.

The minimum thickness and maximum height of parapet walls should be as below:
Thickness (mm) t1 + t2 equal or less than 200 t1 + t2 greater than 200 equal or less than 250 Parapet height not to be more than (mm) 600

Case study Where the underside of lintels are exposed above openings such as garage doors, the lintel must be adequately protected.


Pad stones Pad stones must be built into the wall to receive the ends of the structural member. The size and material to be used for the padstone must not be less than the structural engineers specification. Pad stones must not bridge the cavity of an external wall.


A DPC under the coping and a cavity tray at the roof junction must be provided to prevent dampness reaching the inner leaf in the accommodation below. Cavity insulation not shown for clarity. 30

Lateral restraint of walls by floors and roofs

Where floors and joists are built in or supported by hangers off the wall: shrinkage of joists should be taken into account. members must be secure to prevent twisting. where appropriate joists should be protected against moisture. gaps formed in the wall construction should be sealed with a compressible filler to ensure air tightness.

Timber floor / wall detail

The bearings of all floors, joists and roof members must not be less than 90mm onto a load bearing wall. Where walls require lateral restraint by tension straps at floors and roof constructions the provisions in BS EN 1996-2:2006 should be met as well as the requirements found in current Building Regulations. It should be noted that lateral restraint straps are not only required at floor and rafter / flat roof member levels but may also be required to be fitted at ceiling joist level in a pitched roof situation. Provision is necessary when the height of the wall exceeds recommended values found in BS EN 1995-1-1:2004 and current Building Regulations. Ensure all restraint straps fit tightly against the masonry face within the cavity. Provision should be made for blocking to be used in the gap between the joist / rafter and the parallel wall at all lateral restraint strap positions as well as in between joist / rafters for the length of strap required. Lateral restraint straps at floor or roof level must not be retro fitted by plug and screwing the strap to the masonry.

Suspended concrete beam and block floor / wall detail

Timber roof / gable wall detail Where roofs are required to give lateral restraint to walls, reference to BS 5268 1 2005 & BS EN 1990:2002 should be made. (See previous note about provision at ceiling tie level). Restraint straps must turn down the cavity by at least 100mm and be tight against the face of the wall.



Rafter / gable wall detail

Case study Where infilling is required between truss members as shown below a wall plate should not be used and the joists should be built in or on suitable hangers. Block work has been incorrectly built off the timber wall plate instead of the trusses being supported off the masonry by correctly specified truss / joist hangers.

Case study The lateral restraint straps were found to be securely built into the gable wall but were not mechanically fixed to the roof members.

Chimney constructions

Wall plates
Wall plates must be laid level on a bed of mortar and fixed down onto the wall to restrain the roof against displacement with galvanised straps at no greater than 2m centres.

Chimneys must be constructed so that its height (measured from the level of the highest point in line with the roof) should not be greater than four and a half times its least width. The correct provision of flashings are provided (see details).

Flues and linings General Fill all joints with jointing and caulking materials in accordance with the manufacturers sitework instructions. Build socketed flue liners with the inner surface of the lining smooth at the joints and socket ends uppermost, if necessary. Fill the void between brick chimneys and clay or concrete flue liners with lightweight concrete or weak mortar. Do not use cracked or broken liner sections. Form bends with purpose made fittings.

Horizontal Damp Proof Courses

Extend lead or proprietary horizontal DPC trays through the liner into the flue and turn upwards (see following detail)

Installation of the DPC must follow normal good practice for the detailing of DPCs, as set out in BS EN 1996 2 : 2006, BS 8000-3: 2001 & BS 8215.

The construction of flashings is dictated by the type of roof tile /cladding to be installed. Please refer to the roof tile /cladding manufacturers details for specific flashing detailing.

Ensure the DPM is turned up at slab edge and lapped under the DPC for the full thickness of the inner leaf to form a continuous barrier (including under door sills). The DPC should be laid on a smooth bed of fresh mortar in a continuous length for the full width of the leaf including any finishes e.g. external render. Ensure at least a 100mm overlap is provided at any joint or angle. The DPC must not obstruct the cavity. Ensure the external edge of the DPC is visible and not bridged by mortar when completing pointing of the mortar joint. External render must not bridge the DPC. Ensure the lean mix cavity fill material is at least 225mm below the DPC level.

DPCs must not be pierced by services or fixings.

Case study Blue bricks should not be used as the sole means of preventing damp. A proprietary DPC must always be provided. (Note; Poor detailing of the floor slab construction at the door threshold position has also resulted in a cold bridging issue)



Case study Not only has the horizontal DPC been bridged by the render it has also been damaged by the insertion of waste pipes. All service penetrations should be neat and above DPC level.

Insert Photo 1 Stepped DPC

Where a sloping site condition exists the DPC may have to be stepped.

Insert photo 2 Note: Surrounding access paths must not be constructed at the same level as the DPC. Disabled Access ramps and landings should be kept 150mm away from the wall. DPC / Radon / Gas membrane cavity trays Where a gas membrane is installed a cavity tray will be required to be formed across the external walls. Typically the gas membrane will also form a cavity tray detail as follows:

The DPC must be stepped in the masonry coursing so that at any point it is never less than 150mm above the finished ground level.

Render / Horizontal DPC junctions Render must not be taken below and bridge the horizontal DPC. A proprietary render stop must be installed to terminate the render above the DPC.
37 38

Case study The cavity tray must be at least 225mm in vertical height and lap fully across each leaf of masonry unlike the example below. The correct type of membrane must be used and correctly lapped with the DPC.

Avoidance of mortar build in cavity trays applies at all levels; horizontal DPC / DPM junctions and at upper levels where lintels, fire stopping and roof abutments occur.

Case study Care must be taken to avoid excessive debris building up in the tray or allow the insulation to become dislodged and bridge the cavity. Water penetration and cold bridging to the inner leaf is likely to occur.