This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is characterized by atherosclerosis in the epicardial coronary arteries. Atherosclerotic plaques, the hallmark of atherosclerosis, progressively narrow the coronary artery lumen and impair antegrade myocardial blood flow. The reduction in coronary artery flow may be symptomatic or asymptomatic, occur with exertion or at rest, and culminate in a myocardial infarction, depending on obstruction severity and the rapidity of development. Prevalence Coronary artery disease (CAD) is characterized by atherosclerosis in the epicardial coronary arteries. Atherosclerotic plaques, the hallmark of atherosclerosis, progressively narrow the coronary artery lumen and impair antegrade myocardial blood flow. The reduction in coronary artery flow may be symptomatic or asymptomatic, occur with exertion or at rest, and culminate in a myocardial infarction, depending on obstruction severity and the rapidity of development. Signs and Symptoms The most common symptom of coronary artery disease is angina (also called angina pectoris). Angina is often referred to as chest pain. It is also described as chest discomfort, heaviness, tightness, pressure, aching, burning, numbness, fullness, or squeezing. It can be mistaken for indigestion or heartburn. Angina is usually felt in the chest, but may also be felt in the left shoulder, arms, neck, back or jaw. Other symptoms that may occur with coronary artery disease include:
Shortness of breath Palpitations (irregular heartbeats, skipped beats or a “flip-flop” feeling in your chest) A faster heartbeat Dizziness Nausea Extreme weakness Sweating
Causes Coronary artery disease is caused by the buildup of plaque on the inside of your coronary arteries. Plaque buildup can begin early in life and happens over a lifetime. Plaque, which is made up of excess cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in your blood, builds up on the damaged inner walls of your coronary arteries. This process usually occurs throughout the body and is called atherosclerosis, or "hardening of the arteries." See pictures of atherosclerosis and how high blood pressure damages arteries.
as well. Both conditions share similar risk factors. High blood pressure. Ischemia can weaken the heart muscle. This can happen if plaque breaks apart and makes a clot that blocks an artery. A low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). known as the "good" cholesterol. Nicotine constricts your blood vessels. the risk for women increases after menopause. Obesity. Simply getting older increases your risk of damaged and narrowed arteries. the incidence is triple that of nonsmokers. but it usually does not cause heart muscle cells to die. or your mother or a sister developed it before age 65. Physical inactivity. A family history of heart disease is associated with a higher risk of coronary artery disease. The incidence of heart attack in women who smoke at least 20 cigarettes a day is six times that of women who've never smoked. and carbon monoxide can damage their inner lining.Over time. such as obesity and high blood pressure. Smoking. But heart muscle cells can die if blood flow is severely reduced or completely blocked for a period of time. Sex. High stress. also can promote atherosclerosis. making them more susceptible to atherosclerosis. High blood cholesterol levels. Excess weight typically worsens other risk factors. High cholesterol can be caused by a high level of lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL). This can cause myocardial infarction. especially if a close relative developed heart disease at an early age.an invasive test that evaluates the heart arteries under x-ray Echocardiogram stress test Electrocardiogram (ECG) Blood Tests X-rays . Lack of exercise also is associated with coronary artery disease and some of its risk factors. Men are generally at greater risk of coronary artery disease. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can result in hardening and thickening of your arteries. Your risk is highest if your father or a brother was diagnosed with heart disease before age 55. or heart attack. Unrelieved stress in your life may damage your arteries as well as worsen other risk factors for coronary artery disease. Diagnostic Examinations Coronary angiography -. Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease. narrowing the channel through which blood can flow. Risk factors: Age. Diabetes. For men who smoke. However. Family history. known as the "bad" cholesterol. High levels of cholesterol in your blood can increase the risk of formation of plaques and atherosclerosis. plaque buildup narrows the coronary arteries and can lead to ischemia(insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle).
Your doctor can choose from a range of medications. If some areas of your heart are chronically deprived of oxygen and nutrients because of reduced blood flow. Reduce stress. Heart failure. fibrates and bile acid sequestrants. Electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) to look for calcium in the lining of the arteries -. By decreasing the amount of cholesterol in the blood. niacin. if necessary. or the "bad") cholesterol. drugs and certain medical procedures.the more calcium. Lifestyle changes Making a commitment to the following healthy lifestyle changes can go a long way toward promoting healthier arteries: Quit smoking. Lose excess weight. these drugs decrease the primary material that deposits on the coronary arteries. Boosting your high-density lipoprotein (HDL. The amount of damage depends in part on how quickly you receive treatment. complete blockage of your heart artery may trigger a heart attack. Treatment Treatment for coronary artery disease usually involves lifestyle changes and. including statins. or the "good") cholesterol may help. especially lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL. Abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia). The lack of blood flow to your heart may damage to your heart muscle. or if your heart has been damaged by a heart attack. your heart may not receive enough blood when demand is greatest — particularly during physical activity. the higher your chance for CHD Exercise stress test Heart CT scan / MRI Nuclear stress test Complications: Coronary artery disease can lead to: Chest pain (angina). including: Cholesterol-modifying medications. Heart attack. causing abnormal heart rhythms. This condition is known as heart failure. Drugs Various drugs can be used to treat coronary artery disease. This can cause chest pain (angina) or shortness of breath. too. . When your coronary arteries narrow. your heart may become too weak to pump enough blood to meet your body's needs. Exercise regularly. Inadequate blood supply to the heart or damage to heart tissue can interfere with your heart's electrical impulses. If a cholesterol plaque ruptures and a blood clot forms. Eat healthy foods.
which decreases your heart's demand for oxygen. If you've had a heart attack. Some stents slowly release medication to help keep the artery open. Your doctor may recommend taking a daily aspirin or other blood thinner. In this procedure. sprays and patches can control chest pain by opening up your coronary arteries and reducing your heart's demand for blood. A surgeon creates a graft to bypass blocked coronary arteries using a vessel from another part of your body. increasing blood flow to your heart. They also control high blood pressure. . These similar drugs decrease blood pressure and may help prevent progression of coronary artery disease. These medications relax the muscles that surround your coronary arteries and cause the vessels to open. beta blockers reduce the risk of future attacks. There are some cases where aspirin isn't appropriate. Calcium channel blockers. Nitroglycerin. Procedures to restore and improve blood flow Sometimes more aggressive treatment is needed. such as if you have a bleeding disorder or you're already taking another blood thinner. Beta blockers. ACE inhibitors reduce the risk of future attacks. A wire with a deflated balloon is passed through the catheter to the narrowed area. If you've had a heart attack. it's most often reserved for cases of multiple narrowed coronary arteries. Coronary artery bypass surgery. This allows blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed coronary artery. thin tube (catheter) into the narrowed part of your artery. Nitroglycerin tablets. If you've had a heart attack. Here are a few options: Angioplasty and stent placement (percutaneous coronary revascularization). A stent is often left in the artery to help keep the artery open. Aspirin. The balloon is then inflated. so ask your doctor before starting to take aspirin. which may help prevent obstruction of your coronary arteries. Because this requires open-heart surgery. compressing the deposits against your artery walls. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). These drugs slow your heart rate and decrease your blood pressure. your doctor inserts a long. This can reduce the tendency of your blood to clot. aspirin can help prevent future attacks.
The heart is divided into a left and right side by a muscular wall called the septum and has four chambers. In the average lifetime the heart beats 250 million times and pumps 340 million litres of blood. The chambers of the heart are separated by valves: tricuspid valve is located between the right atrium and right ventricle bicuspid (mitral) valve is located between the left atrium and left ventricle pulmonary valve is between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery aortic valve is between the left ventricle and the aorta The major vessels that carry blood to and from the heart are: . Heart The heart is a hollow organ about the size of a fist and is composed of special muscle tissue (cardiac muscle). It transports oxygen. The cardiovascular system is made up of the heart.ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY The cardiovascular system is one of the major body systems. carbon dioxide. Heart chambers and valves The chambers of the heart include the: right atrium which receives deoxygenated blood (low in oxygen) from all over the body right ventricle receives blood from the right atrium and sends it to the lungs via the pulmonary artery to become oxygenated and get rid of carbon dioxide left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and sends it to the left ventricle left ventricle receives blood from the left atrium and sends it out to the body via the aorta. It lies under the breast bone in the centre of the cardiothoracic cavity. the myocardium is the muscle layer and the pericardium is the outer covering. The heart has major vessels that supply it with deoxygenated blood (travels back to the heart from the body). The heart is a sophisticated pump that is controlled by an electrical current that is initiated in the brain. The heart wall consists of three layers . The major vessels that carry blood to and from the heart are: inferior vena cava conveys deoxygenated blood (blood low in oxygen) from the lower extremities of the body to the heart superior vena cava coveys deoxygenated blood from the upper extremities of the body to the heart aorta conveys oxygenated blood (blood high in oxygen) away from the heart This information is important so that you can gain an understanding of how the heart works and some of the conditions that may affect the functioning of the heart. and major vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to all the parts of the body.the endocardium is the inner lining. waste products. nutrients and hormones to and from various parts of the body. the blood vessels (arteries and veins and capillaries) and blood.
a waste product. Arteries carry oxygenated blood to the cells of the body.8 seconds and during this time the following events occur. First. Blood that comes from a wound to an artery is bright red and spurts. veins carry deoxygenated blood away from the cells. The aorta is the largest artery and as it leaves the heart it branches into smaller arteries. One systole and diastole form the cardiac cycle. The veins have one-way valves that help move the blood toward the heart. or atria. forcing out blood through the aorta and pulmonary arteries. of the heart relax and fill with blood as the lower ventricles contract. inferior vena cava conveys deoxygenated blood (blood low in oxygen) from the lower extremities of the body to the heart superior vena cava coveys deoxygenated blood from the upper extremities of the body to the heart aorta conveys oxygenated blood (blood high in oxygen) away from the heart Blood vessels The cardiovascular system consists of arteries and veins and capillaries. They branch off forming arterioles with thinner walls that then become capillaries. . Veins Veins are tubes that carry deoxygenated blood (low in oxygen) from the cells back to the heart where it is pumped to the lungs so that the blood can pick up more oxygen. The flow of blood through the heart The correct term for contraction of the heart is systole. eventually they become capillaries. the upper chambers. elastic walls. Arteries Arteries are tubes that carry oxygenated blood (high in oxygen) away from the heart. muscular. Arteries have thick. A cardiac cycle takes only 0. allowing blood to flow into them from the contracting upper chambers. They carry blood back to the heart that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide. Veins have thinner muscular walls. Arteries carry blood rich in oxygen and nutrients. Next the ventricles relax. This is followed by relaxation of the heart called diastole.
The atrioventricular node in turn sends an impulse through the nerve network to the ventricles. or ECG. this happens approximately 70 to 80 times per minute. These nerve fibers send impulses that cause the cardiac muscle tissue to contract. Messages from the A-V node then travel down the Bundle of His in the septum and continue through the Purkinje fibres to the walls of the ventricles. The electrical network serving the ventricles leaves the atrioventricular node through the Right and Left Bundle Branches. Electrical Conduction System The heart is composed primarily of muscle tissue. The impulses begin at the Sino-Atrial (SA) node in the right atrium and spread across the two atria. it sends the electrical impulse that triggers each heartbeat. is a diagnostic test that records the electrical impulses of the heart. The Sinoatrial Node (often called the SA node or sinus node) serves as the natural pacemaker for the heart. prompting the cardiac muscle tissue to contract in a coordinated wave-like manner. wave-like pumping action of the heart. The rate and rhythm of the heart is regulated by the conduction system that is made up of specialised neuromuscular tissue that sends out impulses. An electrocardiogram. Nestled in the upper area of the right atrium. A network of nerve fibers coordinates the contraction and relaxation of the cardiac muscle tissue to obtain an efficient. The atria then contract and the impulses from the S-A node reach the Atrio-Ventricular (AV) node in the right atrium. The impulse spreads through the atria. The impulse that originates from the sinoatrial node strikes the Atrioventricular node (or AV node) which is situated in the lower portion of the right atrium. initiating the same wave-like contraction of the ventricles. .Then the cycle is repeated.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.