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Precipitating Factors: Bacteria Predisposing Factors: Age (>65) Smoking Exposure to some chemical s or pollutants (toxic fumes): farmer

Transmission >People with pneumonia expel infected droplets of mucus into the air when they cough. >Pneumonia is spread when others breathe the infected droplets.

Acute Pain-chest

S. pneumoniae enters the air way

Frequent nonproductive cough Risk for aspiration Impaired oral mucosa

Bacteria attachment and colonization to the mucus and cells of the nasopharynx Spread of organism in the nasopharynx Invasion of organism in the bronchial tree Impaired host defense mechanism Upon auscultation crackling sounds, coarse breathing

Breath trough the mouth

Ineffective airway clearance Damage to the surface cells Increased mucus production Activity intolerance Ineffective breathing pattern

Adherence of organism in the alveolar wall

Fluid enters the alveoli and inflammation

Chest x-ray may show a blotchywhite area, where fluid and pus has accumulated in the lung's air sacs

Impaired gas exchange

Parenchymal and Alveolar sacs tend to consolidate

Consolidation of red cells and leukocytes in the lungs

Fatigue A

A Cytokine stimulate Bradykinin Histamine Narrowing of blood vessels Air pass trough narrowed airways DOB

Stimulate goblets cells

Increase in temperature Fever Hyperthermia r/t infectious process

Cough medicines/ antitussives

-cough -rales -colds


Bronchodilator/ Oxygen Therapy

Signs and symptoms References:

Nursing Diagnosis
Diagnostic tests Drugs